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Sample records for central european passerines

  1. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

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    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  2. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  3. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

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    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  4. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

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    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  5. The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut

    2002-01-01

    The Eurosystem comprises the European Central Bank at its center as well as the national central banks of the twelve countries currently participating in monetary union. The European Central Bank was established in July 1998, six months before the beginning of Stage Three of economic and monetary union. Although decisions regarding monetary policy are made centrally by the Governing Council of the Eurosystem, the operational aspects of monetary policy-including open market operations, adminis...

  6. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

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    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  7. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

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    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  8. Paleotopography of the Miocene European Central Alps

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    Campani, M.; Mulch, A.; Kempf, O.; Schlunegger, F.; Mancktelow, N.

    2011-12-01

    Reconstructing the surface elevation, surface uplift, and relief evolution histories is fundamental to understanding the growth of mountain ranges, to explore their topographic limits, and relate these to geodynamic and Earth surface processes. Recent geologic and geodynamic models for the Central European Alps propose that the bulk of topography was built through the Pliocene, mainly based on the observation of a strong increase in sedimentation and erosion rates during the last 5-6 Ma, suggesting that the Alps never attained elevations as high as today. Here, we aim to quantify the Miocene (20-14 Ma) paleoelevation of the Central Alps through stable isotope paleoaltimetry. The novelty of the approach presented here, which renders it rather insensitive to past climate change, is to analyze stable isotope proxies of identical age, both from high internal parts of the Alpine orogen and from the adjacent foreland basin that was at or near sea level. We first exploit the hydrogen isotopic ratio in phyllosilicates (mica and chlorite) that interacted with meteoric water during activity of the Simplon detachment, a major normal fault that developed during orogen-parallel extension in high elevation regions. We then contrast the resulting meteoric water compositions with those recorded in carbonate-bearing paleosols of the North-Alpine foreland basin to provide an estimate of relative elevation differences. In the North-Alpine foreland basin, we present oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of pedogenic mudstones and carbonate concretions. These terrestrial paleosols, dated with ca. 100 ka precision, serve as our point of reference for stable isotope paleoaltimetry, since they formed at or near sea level. Here, δ18O and δ13C values vary between +19 to +25% (SMOW) and -7 to +1% respectively and show close correspondence to global climate change during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum. In the Simplon fault zone, detachment-related muscovite (-126%) and chlorite (-135

  9. The monetary policy of the European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ježková, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to analyse and to evaluate the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB) since the establishment of the European monetary union until the financial crisis in 2008. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part introduces operating principles of monetary policy, which types of monetary policy exist and which instruments it uses. The second part deals with the process of its establishment and its formal requirements. In the third part, the analy...

  10. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE EUROZONE CRISIS MANAGEMENT

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    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Euro is the single currency shared by 17 of the European Union's Member States, which together make up the Euro area. Since its introduction, in January 2002, it became the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. With the launch of the Euro, the monetary policy became the responsibility of the independent European Central Bank, which was created for that purpose, and of the national central banks of the Member States, having adopted the Euro. However, the accumulation of massive and unsustainable deficits and public debt levels in a number of peripheral economies threatened the Eurozone's viability by the end of its first decade, triggering a Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. The institutional mechanisms surrounding the Euro have also been an integral part of the crisis. On this line, the European Monetary Union is supported on one side by treaties and multilateral agreements including the Maastricht Treaty, the Stability and Growth Pact and the Lisbon Strategy and, on the other side, by the European Central Bank. The combination of these institutions has produced a mix of monetary, fiscal and labour market policies with powerful social implications. And, what started as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a broader economic and political crisis in the Eurozone and European Union. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the roots of the Eurozone crisis, as the biggest challenge since the Euro adoption and the European Central Bank’s response to it. Therefore the objectives are: identification of the reasons that stand behind the crisis, then observing how the crisis has affected the functioning of the European Central Bank and the Euro, and how it was forced to respond and, finally, focusing on the future and the challenges that lie ahead.

  11. EXPLORING CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS’ COORDINATION OF EUROPEAN UNION AFFAIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within and betw......This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within...... are typically more reactive where coordination centres on the national capital and the Council negotiations....

  12. TEACHING ENGLISH IN SEVERAL CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Sim Monica Ariana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European countries find themselves at present, following a period of transition in all domains, education included. One of the greatest challenges is providing sufficient foreign language education so as to meet the growing demand especially after along period of time when foreign languages were seriously and damagingly neglected. This paper is an attempt to briefly present the way English language is taught in several Central and Eastern European Countries as well as to underline the importance of this educational process and maybe to offer some applicable solutions to teaching English in Romania

  13. THE EUROPEAN UNION IS READJUSTING ITS CENTRAL ASIAN STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2011-01-01

    As soon as the Soviet Union fell apart, Central Asia, together with the rest of the post-Soviet expanse, became part of so-called political Europe, that is, it was drawn into the EU’s sphere of interests on the strength of the OSCE membership of all the post-Soviet states. The European Union’s strategy and policy in Central Asia are not directly related to the region’s military-strategic security, although they can indirectly affect it through (1) European institutions such as the OSCE, the E...

  14. LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries

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    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche (LIBER is delighted to announce the LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries, which is generously supported by OCLC. The Fund will offer membership of LIBER to individual libraries in Central and Eastern Europe for a period of years in order to assist them to support their membership of LIBER from their own resources at the end of the period of support from the Fund.

  15. European integration, financial resources and the absorption of European funds in Central and Eastern European Countries

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    Valentin NECULITA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The regional integration has the purpose to enhance the income in the region, which may be achieved through getting higher economic results by using the production factors more efficiently, increasing their mobility and benefiting from the access to a comprehensive knowledge base. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration, financial resources and, absorption of European funds. The paper proposes an analysis of financial framework by means of data and statistics provided by European institution, national statistics institutions and international statistics institutions. The financial framework is a mechanism designed to ensure a strict budgetary discipline of the maximum spending cap for each major area of European Union budget. This mechanism is drawing on the basis of political and economic priorities. One of the main objectives should be the expenditure forecasting, annual budgets, so they be situated under overall cap, knowing that achieving long-term economic growth depends on the financial incentives that the European Union can sustain.

  16. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

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    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  17. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

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    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  18. Host use by Philornis sp. in a passerine community in central Argentina Uso de hospedadores por Philornis sp. en una comunidad de aves paseriformes de la parte central de Argentina

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    Martín A. Quiroga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied host use by parasitic botflies (Philornis sp. in a passerine community in central Argentina and analyzed characteristics of nests and hosts associated with botfly parasitism. We conducted a four-year field study as well as a bibliographical survey where we determined: presence of botfly parasitism, type of nest, presence of green material and small sticks in the nest, average height of the nest, date of last nesting attempt during the breeding season and egg volume (as a surrogate of species body mass. Our field study of 3 birds species showed that botflies parasitized Troglodytes aedon (25% of nests, but not Sicalis flaveola and Tachycineta leucorroha in spite of nesting in similar boxes, at the same place and during the same time of the year. However T. aedon built nests using dry material while S. flaveola and T. leucorroha used green material. The analysis of published data (35 species considered showed a negative association between botfly parasitism and presence of green material in the nest, and a positive association between botfly parasitism and presence of small sticks in the nest and date of the last nesting attempt during the breeding season. Our results indicate that the materials used to build the nest and the extent of the breeding season are factors that influence host use by botflies in central Argentina.Analizamos el uso de hospedadores de moscas parásitas del género Philornis en una comunidad de aves paseriformes en la región centro de Argentina, así como las características de nidos y hospedadores asociadas con el parasitismo de Philornis. Se realizó un estudio de campo de 4 años así como una revisión bibliográfica donde determinamos: presencia de parasitismo de Philornis, tipo de nido, presencia de material verde y pequeñas ramas en el nido, altura promedio del nido, fecha del último intento de nidificación y volumen del huevo (como un estimador de la masa corporal de las especies. Los datos de

  19. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...... countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15...

  20. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity, and European Central Bank Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relation between credit risk and liquidity in the Italian sovereign bond market during the eurozone crisis and the subsequent European Central Bank (ECB) interventions. Credit risk drives the liquidity of the market. A 10% change in the credit default swap (CDS) spread leads...... to a 13% change in the bid-ask spread, the relation being stronger when the CDS spread exceeds 500 basis points. The Long-Term Refinancing Operations of the ECB weakened the sensitivity of market makers’ liquidity provision to credit risk, highlighting the importance of funding liquidity measures...... as determinants of market liquidity....

  1. MACROECONOMIC STABILITY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Arnold WEISZENBACHER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the recent financial crisis, the macroeconomic stability of most countries has been cast to shadow. The damage to the economy caused by high inflation, volatile exchange rates, increasing amount of debts and the unstable financial markets has heavily left its toll on the global market and has led to massive unemployment and increasing poverty. This paper aims to follow the eight new Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004, as well as Romania and Bulgaria, who followed suit in 2007, in what concerns their economical performance, following adhesion to the EU while also comparing the periods before and after the economical crisis. They were chosen as a topic of research for the severity with which the crisis affected them and the high degree of reform implementation in the aftermath. It also plans to highlight the effect of the new reforms and the growth potential when compared to the rest of the European Union. The price inflation, real GDP growth, the levels of (unemployment, fiscal policy and stability of exchange rates will provide a clear image of how this cluster of developing countries fare nowadays against the rest of the EU countries.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the aim to highlight the impact of innovation on sustainable development in Eastern and Central European countries. In this wiew, a sinthetic measure of sustainability in these countries is calculated, taking into account ten statistical indicators (related to socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, primary energy consumption, share of renewable energy in final consumption energy, sustainable transport, official development assistance granted to these countries from EUROSTAT database. A comparative analysis of the level of sustainability during 2005-2014 in Eastern and Central Europe is followed by an analysis of the impact of innovation (measured by eco-innovation index on sustainable development, using panel data techniques. The findings show that eco-innovation had a positive impact on sustainability in these countries in the examined period.This result could be used as a rationale for policy makers from these countries in designing measures for eco-innovation stimulation, aiming in this way to move forward for achieving the planned national targets within the European Union Sustainable Development Strategy (EU-SDS.

  3. Salt movements within the Central European basin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy; Bayer, Ulf; Scheck-Wenderoth [GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Littke, Ralf [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    2010-04-15

    Evolution of salt structures in relation to tectonic events within central part of the Central European Basin System is described by summarizing results which have been obtained and published in frame of the research project DFG-SPP 1135. These results illustrate main phases of salt tectonics within the basin system from the Triassic to present day. During the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk, extension triggered raft tectonics and salt movements within the Ems Trough, the Glueckstadt and the Horn Grabens. The next phase of salt movements occurred in response to a Middle-Late Keuper regional extensional event which was strongest within the Triassic depocenters of the Central European Basin System, such as the Horn Graben, the Glueckstadt Graben, the Ems and the Rheinsberg Troughs. Regional erosion truncated the study area during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. The magnitude of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous erosion is declining towards southern margin of the basin system where a dextral transtensional regime was established in the Lower Saxony Basin and neighboring areas during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous is characterized by a relative tectonic quiescence without strong salt movements. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion provocated renewed salt movements, causing the thick-skinned salt tectonics along the Elbe Fault System and the thin-skinned character of salt movements towards the north from the area of strain localisation. Post-inversion Cenozoic subsidence was accompanied by salt movements, related either to diapiric rise due to regional shortening and/or to local almost E-W directed extension. (orig.)

  4. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

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    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  5. The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology": Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Atanasov, Atanas G; Sklenář, Vladimír; Nováček, Jiří; Papoušková, Veronika; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Žídek, Lukáš; Kozłowski, Henryk; Wątły, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Kołkowska, Paulina; Koča, Jaroslav; Svobodová-Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Sehnal, David; Horský, Vladimír; Geidl, Stanislav; Enriz, Ricardo D; Matějka, Pavel; Jeništová, Adéla; Dendisová, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Weissig, Volkmar; Olsen, Mark; Coffey, Aidan; Ajuebor, Jude; Keary, Ruth; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; van Raaij, Mark J; McAuliffe, Olivia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H; Diederich, Marc; Musioł, Robert; Košmrlj, Janez; Polański, Jarosław; Jampílek, Josef

    2016-10-17

    The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology" was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28-September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered "Chemistry towards Biology", meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting.

  6. Acute rheumatic fever outbreak in southern central European country.

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    Kočevar, Urška; Toplak, Nataša; Kosmač, Blaž; Kopač, Luka; Vesel, Samo; Krajnc, Natalija; Homan, Matjaž; Rus, Rina; Avčin, Tadej

    2017-01-01

    A decline in the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in developed countries over the past century can be attributed to the improved public hygiene and to widespread use of antibiotics. ARF seemed to be a rare disease in southern central European country, Slovenia, up to 2010 when we noticed an increase in the number of patients with ARF. In order to assess the current incidence of ARF, we performed a retrospective study of all patients with ARF treated at the University Children's Hospital Ljubljana from January 2008 until the end of December 2014. In a period of 7 years, 19 patients with ARF were identified. The estimated annual incidence of ARF during the study period was 1.25 cases per 100,000 children. Carditis was present in all patients, arthritis in 37 % and Sydenham chorea in 32 %.

  7. Disposable and Usable Pasts in Central European Cities

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    Agata Lisiak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Central European cities memories and material histories of socialist regimes remain particularly difficult to address and incorporate into the new democratic present. After 1989, city authorities in the region have chosen to emphasize some pasts and neglect others and, thus, (rewrite their own versions of (urban history and (reshape their (urban identities. In my paper I inquire into how post-1989 Central European urbanities are shaped by and communicated through various designations including signs and symbols on city streets, monuments, and build-ings. Predictably, many material remnants of the socialist regimes have been de-stroyed or hidden from the public eye - my interest lies not only in which various designations on buildings and which monuments had to go, but also in why and how they disappeared. I discuss the most popular methods of hiding and/or effac-ing the remnants of socialism that range from subtle (surrounding of communist landmarks with tall buildings through the obvious (renaming of streets, squares, metro stations; giving old communist buildings new names and functions to the irreversible and, thus, most controversial (the razing of socialist architecture and monuments. The disappearance of the material capital of the socialist past has been accompanied by intense commemoration practices verging on memorial ob-sessions. New monuments, plaques, street names, and museums appeared almost as quickly as the old "disposable" ones were forced out from the urban landscape. The complexity of an urban identity as communicated through city streets, mo-numents, and buildings not only invites, but necessitates an interdisciplinary ap-proach and, thus, my analysis includes elements from such diverse areas of know-ledge as aesthetics, architecture, communication studies, comparative cultural studies, economics, history, and political science.

  8. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

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    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  9. Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra

  10. Interspecific and interploidal gene flow in Central European Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marte H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Results Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Conclusions Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression.

  11. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  12. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    Although the origin of quantum optics can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the fundamental ideas about the quantum nature of the interaction between light and matter were put forward, the splendid blossoming of this part of physics began half a century later, after the invention of masers and lasers. It is remarkable that after another half a century the tree of quantum optics is not only very strong and spreading, but all its branches continue to grow, showing new beautiful blossoms and giving very useful fruits. A reflection of this progress has been the origin and development of the series of annual events called the Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). They started at the beginning of the 1990s as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe, but in less than two decades they have transformed into important events, gathering 100 to 200 participants from practically all European countries. Moreover, many specialists from other continents like to attend these meetings, since they provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. Regarding this, it seems worth mentioning at least some of the most interesting and important areas of quantum optics that have attracted the attention of researchers for the past two decades. One of these areas is quantum information, which over the course of time has become an almost independent area of quantum physics. But it still maintains very close ties with quantum optics. The specific parts of this area are, in particular, quantum computing, quantum communication and quantum cryptography, and the problem of quantitative description of such genuine quantum phenomena as entanglement is one of the central items in the current stream of publications. Theory and experiment related to quantum tomography have also become important to contemporary quantum optics. They are closely related to the subject of so

  13. Patchiness of forest landscape can predict species distribution better than abundance: the case of a forest-dwelling passerine, the short-toed treecreeper, in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Basile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental heterogeneity affects not only the distribution of a species but also its local abundance. High heterogeneity due to habitat alteration and fragmentation can influence the realized niche of a species, lowering habitat suitability as well as reducing local abundance. We investigate whether a relationship exists between habitat suitability and abundance and whether both are affected by fragmentation. Our aim was to assess the predictive power of such a relationship to derive advice for environmental management. As a model species we used a forest specialist, the short-toed treecreeper (Family: Certhiidae; Certhia brachydactyla Brehm, 1820, and sampled it in central Italy. Species distribution was modelled as a function of forest structure, productivity and fragmentation, while abundance was directly estimated in two central Italian forest stands. Different algorithms were implemented to model species distribution, employing 170 occurrence points provided mostly by the MITO2000 database: an artificial neural network, classification tree analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, generalized boosting models, generalized linear models, multivariate additive regression splines, maximum entropy and random forests. Abundance was estimated also considering detectability, through N-mixture models. Differences between forest stands in both abundance and habitat suitability were assessed as well as the existence of a relationship. Simpler algorithms resulted in higher goodness of fit than complex ones. Fragmentation was highly influential in determining potential distribution. Local abundance and habitat suitability differed significantly between the two forest stands, which were also significantly different in the degree of fragmentation. Regression showed that suitability has a weak significant effect in explaining increasing value of abundance. In particular, local abundances varied both at low and high suitability values. The study lends

  14. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  15. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

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    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  16. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface

  17. The Emergent European Educational Policies Under Scrutiny. The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European regional solutions), in the absence of references to global changes and huge globalization-related political and economic transformations underlyin...

  18. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate t

  19. Cooperation Agreement between the European Central Bank and Europol for Combating Euro Counterfeiting. Some Critical Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper there has been examined the Agreement between the European Police Office (Europol and the European Central Bank (ECB for preventing and combating euro counterfeiting, focusing on certain provisions which take into account the aim and the exchange of information between the two European institutions. The novelty of this paper relates to the achieved examination, where it is highlighted the importance of European legal instrument and the critical opinions and proposals for improving the agreement. The paper can be useful to academics and practitioners who conduct their activity within this area.

  20. Molt and aging criteria for four North American grassland passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Peter; Jones, Stephanie L.; Ruth, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Prairie and grassland habitats in central and western North America have declined substantially since settlement by Europeans (Knopf 1994) and many of the birds and other organisms that inhabit North American grasslands have experienced steep declines (Peterjohn and Sauer 1999; Johnson and Igl 1997; Sauer, Hines, and Fallon 2007). The species addressed here, Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii), Grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird’s (A. bairdii) sparrows, and Chestnut-collared Longspurs (Calcarius ornatus), are grassland birds that are of special conservation concern throughout their ranges due to declining populations and the loss of the specific grassland habitats required on both their breeding and wintering ranges (Knopf 1994, Davis and Sealy 1998, Davis 2003, Davis 2004, Jones and Dieni 2007). Population-trend data on grassland birds, while clearly showing declines, provides no information on the causes of population declines. Without demographic information (i.e., productivity and survivorship), there are no means to determine when in their life cycle the problems that are creating these declines are occurring, or to determine to what extent population trends are driven by factors that affect birth rates, death rates, or both (DeSante 1995). For migratory birds, population declines may be driven by factors on breeding grounds, during migration, and/or on wintering grounds. Lack of data on productivity and survivorship thus impedes the formulation of effective management and conservation strategies to reverse population declines (DeSante 1992). Furthermore, if deficiencies in survivorship are revealed, management strategies may need to address habitats on both breeding and non-breeding grounds, as well as along migratory pathways. One technique that helps inform management strategies is the biochemical analysis of isotopes and genetic markers, from the sampling of individual feathers from live birds (Smith et al. 2003, Pérez and Hobson 2006

  1. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  2. Psychoanalysis and the Emigration of Central and Eastern European Intellectuals().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erős, Ferenc

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important phenomena in the intellectual history of the 20th century was the exodus of the European mind, the emigration of persons, ideas, techniques, and institutions in the vast areas of social, human, and natural sciences, as well as in literature and the visual arts. Among these exiled intellectuals, psychoanalysts formed a special group. This paper examines the major lines of the emigration of psychoanalysts from the countries of issue to the countries of reception. It focuses, in particular on Hungarian analysts and analytic candidates who left their country of birth in two waves, first after the failure of revolutions in 1918/19 for Berlin, and then after 1938, to escape the Nazis. The paper comments on the existential situation of émigré psychoanalysts in light of Hannah Arendt's writings on refugees.

  3. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  4. European territorial cohesion policies: Parallels to socialist central planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malý Jiří

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary EU territorial cohesion policy presents some striking reminders of features of socialist central planning. The objective of socio-spatial solidarity aimed at balanced spatial development is a core principle of both spatial planning doctrines. Reviewing key planning documents, this article compares territorial cohesion discourses in terms of their normative and analytical natures in order to critically evaluate the uniqueness and novelty of the current modern concept. In spite of ideological contradictions, a commonly-shared realisation of the importance of urban agglomerations as specific integrated spatial units and the need to improve living conditions in disadvantaged areas, are crucial characteristics for both spatial planning policies. Moreover, analytical spatial planning procedures are based on similar methods and lead to nearly identical results concerning the spatial pattern for one specific case settlement system (the South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. In this respect, the currently-emphasised territorial cohesion discourse is familiar to that in former socialist areas in Central and Eastern Europe. Based on these findings, spatial planning authorities should learn from the past in reflecting on the limitations and advantages of spatial planning in the socialist era.

  5. Atmospheric processes triggering the central European floods in June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Grams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In June 2013, central Europe was hit by a century flood affecting the Danube and Elbe catchments after a 4 day period of heavy precipitation and causing severe human and economic loss. In this study model analysis and observational data are investigated to reveal the key atmospheric processes that caused the heavy precipitation event. The period preceding the flood was characterised by a weather regime associated with cool and unusual wet conditions resulting from repeated Rossby wave breaking (RWB. During the event a single RWB established a reversed baroclinicity in the low to mid-troposphere in central Europe with cool air trapped over the Alps and warmer air to the north. The upper-level cut-off resulting from the RWB instigated three consecutive cyclones in eastern Europe that unusually tracked westward during the days of heavy precipitation. Continuous large-scale slantwise ascent in so-called "equatorward ascending" warm conveyor belts (WCBs associated with these cyclones is found as the key process that caused the 4 day heavy precipitation period. Fed by moisture sources from continental evapotranspiration, these WCBs unusually ascended equatorward along the southward sloping moist isentropes. Although "equatorward ascending" WCBs are climatologically rare events, they have great potential for causing high impact weather.

  6. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  7. Monitoring nitrogen accumulation in mosses in central European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, Roland [Chair of Landscape Ecology, University of Vechta, PO 1553, D-49356 Vechta (Germany)], E-mail: rpesch@iuw.uni-vechta.de; Schroeder, Winfried [Chair of Landscape Ecology, University of Vechta, PO 1553, D-49356 Vechta (Germany)], E-mail: wschroeder@iuw.uni-vechta.de; Schmidt, Gunther [Chair of Landscape Ecology, University of Vechta, PO 1553, D-49356 Vechta (Germany)], E-mail: gschmidt@iuw.uni-vechta.de; Genssler, Lutz [North Rhine-Westphalia State Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection (Germany)], E-mail: lutz.genssler@lanuv.nrw.de

    2008-10-15

    In order to assess whether nitrogen (N) loads in mosses reflect different land uses, 143 sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, the Weser-Ems Region and the Euro Region Nissa were sampled between 2000 and 2005. The data were analysed statistically with available surface information on land use and forest conditions. N bioaccumulation in mosses in the Weser-Ems Region with high densities of agricultural land use and livestock exceeded the concentrations in the more industrialised Euro Region Nissa. In all three study areas agricultural and livestock spatial densities were found to be positively correlated with N bioaccumulation in mosses. In North Rhine-Westphalia, the N concentrations in mosses was also moderately correlated with N concentrations in leaves and needles of forest trees. The moss method proved useful to assess the spatial patterns of N bioaccumulation due to land use. - Nitrogen accumulation in mosses from forests in central Europe is spatially correlated with the density of agricultural land use.

  8. Herrscherschaft and herrschersuffix in Central-East European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper resumes a topic the author approached in severa[ instances beginning with 1987: some specific terms referring to the semantic sphere Herrscherschafi. In Romanian, ban, jupîn, stăpîn and probably also cioban reflect the indigenous Thracian substratum; these forms also reflect the archaic Indo-European Herrschersujfzx -n-. In Slavic, their equivalent forms ban, župan and stopan reflect either a Late Thracian or (Proto-Romanian influence. Equally Rom. vătaf reflects the substratum influence, whereas Slavic vatah, vatak, vataš reflects the same borrowing. On the other hand, Slavic gospodƄ, belongs to the archaic Proto-Slavic core elements, while cěsaŕƄ, reflect a Germanic influence. Finally, Rom. boier is an East-Romance innovation derived from bou 'ox' and initially meant 'owner of cattle = rich man', a traditional association between cattle-owners and richness. The word had a large distribution from the early Middle Ages until late in the 20th century. In a paper written some 15 years ago (Paliga 1987, in Linguistica, Ljubljana 1 dared suggest that a series of Romanian and Slavic terms referring to social and political organisation, specifically ban (1 'master, local leader' and (2 'coin, money' (2nd sense derived from the lst one,jupîn (formerly giupîn 'a master', 'a master, a lord', cioban 'a shepherd', rather reflect a compact etymological group of Pre-Romance and Pre-Slavic origin (including cioban, incorrectly considered a Turkish influence, seemingly starting from the erroneous, but largely spread hypothesis that intervocalic -b- in Romanian would rather suggest a newer origin 1 . To these, on another occasion, I added the form vătaf,vătah (also with parallels in some Slavic languages, Paliga 1996: 34-36 and on another occasion 1 analysed the form boier, also spread in many neighbouring languages, which has often been considered either of unknown origin or again of Turkic (not Turkish, i.e. Ottoman origin (Paliga 1990

  9. C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in ALS patients from the Central European Russia population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramycheva, Natalya Y; Lysogorskaia, Elena V; Stepanova, Maria S; Zakharova, Maria N; Kovrazhkina, Elena A; Razinskaya, Olga D; Smirnov, Andrey P; Maltsev, Andrey V; Ustyugov, Alexey A; Kukharsky, Michail S; Khritankova, Inna V; Bachurin, Sergey O; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Buchman, Vladimir L; Illarioshkin, Sergey N; Skvortsova, Veronika I; Ninkina, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    Cohorts of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and control individuals of Caucasian origin from the Central European Russia (Moscow city and region) were analyzed for the presence of hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC expansion within the first intron of the C9ORF72 gene. The presence of a large (>40) repeat expansion was found in 15% of familial ALS cases (3 of 20 unrelated familial cases) and 2.5% of sporadic ALS cases (6 of 238) but in none of control cases. These results suggest that the frequency of C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeats expansions in the Central European Russian ALS patients is significantly lower than in Western European or Northern American ALS patients of Caucasian origin but higher than in Asian ALS patients.

  10. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  11. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on liter

  12. Where Did Central- and Eastern-European Emigrants Go and Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    This paper analyses migration flows from 9 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries after the fall of the "Iron Curtain", 1990-2000. Contrary to most of the previous literature, I analyze migration determinants on actual migration flows from the CEE countries into a number of destination coun...

  13. Land Mobility in a Central and Eastern European Land Consolidation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    In most of the Central and Eastern European countries, land reforms after 1989 have resulted in extensive land fragmentation. The majority of the countries have during the two recent decades introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems with land fragmentation and s...

  14. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian. The

  15. Global Shared Service Trends in the Central and Eastern European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert MARCINIAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to disclose what kind of trends are present in the global business service markets and which appear in the Central and Eastern European (CEE business market. The research determines the most important business service trends that emerged in shared service organizations in the CEE region.

  16. Reasons for Discontinuing Hashish Use in a Group of Central European Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined self-reported reasons for discontinuing marijuana use among 61 former marijuana using students at central European sports training facility. Most common reasons given for discontinuing marijuana use were dislike of effects, athletic training regimen, health reasons, and mental/emotional problems. (Author/NB)

  17. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O(3)) and rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O(3) concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO(2)Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees.Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation.In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps.

  18. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  19. Actual versus perceived central bank transparency: the case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.; Eijffinger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this distinct

  20. COUNTRIES’ SUSTAINABILITY TO ECONOMIC SHOCKS: THE STUDY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturas Jurgelevicius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze economic “shock” impact on Central and Eastern European countries’ sustainable economic development. Design/methodology/approach – Statistical data has been analyzed and sustainability theory has been applied to Central and Eastern European countries during economic downturn 2008 – 2012. Findings – Findings suggest that commonly used macroeconomic indicators do not reflect stable social economic development. Moreover, usually high economic growth during economic cycle is determent by high level of recession in economic cycle. This finding suggests that investors and other financial decision makers should take into account the sustainability of economic performance before taking financial decisions so that during financial economic recession could mitigate risks and loses in Central and Eastern European markets. Also the impact of intangible capital on countries’ sustainability was identified. There is a relationship between social and economic sustainability and intangible capital. Research limitations/implications – Research is applied in the theory of sustainable economic development. The economic and social performance is being considered in the research. Although the concept of sustainable economic development is quite controversial in scientific literature, the aspects of economic and social indicators are taken into account not considering much of ecological aspects of sustainable development. The research logic is based on sustainability as constant and smooth social and economic development than the development through natural limitations and human being needs combinations. Practical implications – Practical implications might be broad enough. Identification of reaction of economies to natural economic “shock” during economic downturn might be applied for governments decision makers, investors, banks, exporters to evaluate future economic financial decisions in Eastern and Central European

  1. The Far Right in Europe: A summary of attempts to define the concept, analyze its identity, and compare the Western European and Central European far right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Kopeček

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the far right with emphasis on summing up some of its more widespread definitions, evaluating the reasons for classifying it as a distinctive family of parties, and comparing of the Western European and (post-Communist Central European far right. The text presents the theories of Piero Ignazi, Hans-Georg Betz, Cas Mudde, and other authors. The best working definition of the contemporary far right may be the four-element combination of nationalism, xenophobia, law and order, and welfare chauvinism proposed for the Western European environment by Cas Mudde. This concept allows for a basic ideological classification within a unified party family, despite the heterogeneity of the far right parties. Comparison of Central European far right parties with those of Western Europe shows that these four elements are present in Central Europe as well, though in a somewhat modified form, despite differing political, economic, and social influences.

  2. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC DEBT. THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to empirically assess, using panel data estimation techniques, the effects of public indebtedness on economic growth for a group of 11 Central and Eastern European countries and over the period 1994-2013. Our hypothesis is that, although public indebtedness may fuel economic growth, once public debt breaches a certain threshold the effects are reversed and public indebtedness negatively affects GDP growth rates. The results of our study confirm this kind of relationship, with a maximum debt threshold for all countries of about 45-55% of GDP, lower for the less developed (like Romania and Bulgaria and higher for the more developed ones. Also, the threshold for Central and Eastern European countries is found to be lower than the one identified in other empirical studies for developed EU countries, as the former enjoy lower credibility, higher vulnerability to shocks and depend more on external capital transfers.

  3. The monetary policy of the European Central Bank in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitskaya Irina, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monetary policy analysis of the European Central Bank (ECB under the present crisis conditions. The paper systematizes the ECB monetary policy in today's crisis and researches it at different stages of the crisis. A detailed analysis showed that the ECB's monetary policy is significantly different from the actions of other central banks during the current crisis (for example, the Federal Reserve. Thus, the ECB unconventional monetary policy combined with traditional measures, but does not replace them. Often ECB use credit easing instead of quantitative easing. The ECB's monetary policy used not only to combat the financial crisis, such as the Fed, but also to deal with the debt crisis. These features of the ECB’s monetary policy were due to both the institutional characteristics of the European Union, as well as special conditions of flow of the financial crisis in the euro zone.

  4. The politics of civil society building: European private aid agencies and democratic transitions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Biekart, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrengthening civil society may be all the rage in the international donor community, but what does it mean in practice? This seminal work critically examines the political aspects of civil society building and the role of non-governmental development aid agencies during recent democratic transitions in Central America. ‘The Politics of Civil Society Building’ is the first comparative study of the policies, practices and political impact of European NGO aid interventions. Drawing ...

  5. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult con...

  6. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  7. Fire and man - reconstructing Holocene biomass burning in the central European lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Słowiński, Michał; Feurdean, Angelica; Dräger, Nadine; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Pieńczewska, Anna; Theuerkauf, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Fire is an important earth surface process that interacts with climate and vegetation and influences global biogeochemical cycles and carbon budget. Moreover, fire is tightly connected to the evolution and distributions of human beings. Especially in the humid vegetation zones that naturally do not inflame easily, fire has been the major tool to convert forests to arable land. In the central European lowlands, naturally dominated by broad-leaved forests, palaeofires were strongly related to human impact during at least the last 6000 years. Hence, the detection of past biomass burning in the sedimentological record points to human activity. Charcoal (black carbon) is the classical and widely-used proxy to reconstruct past fire histories. Abundant sedimentary charcoal records exist around the globe, and many are included in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD, www.gpwg.org). Molecular fire markers, on the other hand, are now being developed as new proxies to detect past biomass burning. This study reviews classical and "new" fire-proxies in peat and lake sediments that allow to reconstruct the signals of human impact on a regional scale in the central European lowlands with high temporal resolution. Furthermore, the charcoal records from the GCD and other sources covering the central European lowlands and adjacent areas were integrated in a spatial synthesis to document the current state-of-knowledge on regional Holocene fire history. We show preliminary charcoal data from the annually-laminated sediments of lakes Tiefer See (northeastern Germany) and Czechowskie (northern Poland). Links to reconstructed local and European-wide vegetation successions will be provided, as in times with dry climate and the dominance of a certain fire-prone vegetation cover (e.g., Pinus spec.), wildfires might have played a further important role. However, the interpretation of charcoal records is not always straightforward. Hence, we also discuss the potentials of other palaeofire

  8. Ambient ozone in forests of the Central and Eastern European mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Godzik, B.; Grodzinska, K.; Fraczek, W.; Musselman, R.; Manning, W.; Badea, O.; Popescu, F.; Fleischer, P

    2004-07-01

    Ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in the forested areas of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) mountains measured on passive sampler networks and in several locations equipped with active monitors are reviewed. Some areas of the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Romania and parts of Poland, as well as the Sumava and Brdy Mountains in the Czech Republic are characterized by low European background concentrations of the pollutant (summer season means {approx}30 ppb). Other parts of the Carpathians, especially the western part of the range (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland), some of the Eastern (Ukraine) and Southern (Romania) Carpathians and the Jizerske Mountains have high O{sub 3} levels with peak values >100 ppb and seasonal means {approx}50 ppb. Large portions of the CEE mountain forests experience O{sub 3} exposures that are above levels recommended for protection of forest and natural vegetation. Continuation of monitoring efforts with a combination of active monitors and passive samplers is needed for developing risk assessment scenarios for forests and other natural areas of the CEE Region. - Ozone concentrations in Central and Eastern European mountain ranges are elevated and phytotoxic to sensitive vegetation.

  9. Evidence of ancient DNA reveals the first European lineage in Iron Age Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C Z; Li, C X; Cui, Y Q; Zhang, Q C; Fu, Y Q; Zhu, H; Zhou, H

    2007-07-01

    Various studies on ancient DNA have attempted to reconstruct population movement in Asia, with much interest focused on determining the arrival of European lineages in ancient East Asia. Here, we discuss our analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of human remains excavated from the Yu Hong tomb in Taiyuan, China, dated 1400 years ago. The burial style of this tomb is characteristic of Central Asia at that time. Our analysis shows that Yu Hong belonged to the haplogroup U5, one of the oldest western Eurasian-specific haplogroups, while his wife can be classified as haplogroup G, the type prevalent in East Asia. Our findings show that this man with European lineage arrived in Taiyuan approximately 1400 years ago, and most probably married a local woman. Haplogroup U5 was the first west Eurasian-specific lineage to be found in the central part of ancient China, and Taiyuan may be the easternmost location of the discovered remains of European lineage in ancient China.

  10. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  11. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.

  12. The European central bank and the us federal reserve as lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without a lender of last resort financial stability is not possible and systemic financial crises get out of control. During and after the Great Recession the US Federal Reserve System (Fed and the European Central Bank (ECB took on the role of lender of last resort in a comprehensive way. The Fed stabilised the financial system, including the shadow banking system. However, the chance to fundamentally restructure the financial system was not used. The ECB was confronted with sovereign debt crises and an incomplete integration of the European Monetary Union (EMU. It followed a kind of “muddling through” to keep the Euro area together. In the EMU not only a fundamental restructuring of the financial system is needed but also a deeper economic and political integration. The Fed and the ECB both were the most important institutions to avoid repetition of the 1930s.

  13. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  14. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng

    2016-07-06

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  15. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1 examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2 explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3 investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs, but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  16. Early regional LGM (MIS 3) reflected in Central European Loess-Paleosol Sequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuchs, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The age of the "Brandenburg Phase", representing the regional LGM in Northern Germany and Poland, has been under debate. Evidence was found recently by OSL dating that it occurred during late MIS 3. In a new loess profile in the famous quarry of Nußloch south of Heidelberg (Germany) an exceptionally thick (6 m) loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) starts with a boreal brown soil regionally known as "Lohne soil", which terminates the Middle Pleniglacial LPS, according to classical stratigraphies. This paleosol is overlain by loess beds interbedding with weakly developed tundra-gley soils of typically Upper Pleniglacial habitus. Mean OSL ages from quartz fine and middle grains range between ca. 29 ka and ca. 35 ka in this part of the section which is much thicker than in previously studied corresponding parts of the loess stratigraphy at the Nußloch site. Our surprising dating results are, however, supported by recently dated loess beds in the Central European corridor between the ice margin of the Brandenburg Phase and the Northern Alpine LGM terminal moraines. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions point to cold but rather humid climatic conditions favouring rapid ice advance. We, thus, hypothesize that the rapid advance of Scandinavian ice into northern Central Europe which may have occurred ca. 10 ka prior to the global LGM, is reflected in some well-preserved Central European loess sections covering the last glacial cycle.

  17. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  18. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  19. Mechanisms for Amplified Central European Summer Precipitation Extremes in a Warmer Mediterranean Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir; Tilinina, Natalia; Latif, Mojib

    2015-04-01

    Central European climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, where a strong increase in sea surface temperature (SST) has been observed during the last four decades. One example of extreme weather events are cyclones following the "Vb" pathway. These cyclones are generated over the Mediterranean Sea, travel northeastwards around the Alps and then hit central European countries. These cyclones carry large amounts of moisture and cause extreme precipitation, and subsequently flooding, particularly in summer. To investigate the mechanisms causing increased summer extreme precipitation due to increased Mediterranean SST in Europe, we analyze a series of simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5. In the control run, we forced the model with the 1970-1999 SST climatology. In an additional run, we replaced the Mediterranean and Black Sea SST forcing with the climatology of the warmer 2000-2012 period. ECHAM5 was run at high horizontal resolution (T159) and integrated for 40 years in each experiment. 20-season return levels were derived as a measure of extreme precipitation for daily precipitation in JJA (June - August). These return levels are estimated as quantiles of a stationary generalized Pareto distribution, based on exceedances of the 95th precipitation percentile. We have shown in a previous contribution that precipitation return levels in JJA increase along the Vb cyclone track although the number of Vb cyclones does not increase. Here we discuss the mechanisms responsible for this increase. Due to the warmer climate in the Mediterranean region, climatological mean evaporation and precipitable water in the atmosphere are increased. On extreme days, composites show an even further increase in precipitable water over the central European region. On these extreme days, a higher sea level pressure gradient between central Europe and the Atlantic causes enhanced cyclonic flow that transports more moisture from the Mediterranean region to

  20. Foreign direct investment of Central and Eastern European countries, and the investment development path revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GORYNIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates long-term developments in inward and outward FDI of 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries using Dunningĺs investment development path (IDP paradigm as a theoretical framework. Its main purpose is to determine how far the CEE countries have progressed along their IDPs since the beginning of transition. The results show that half of the analyzed countries have already reached Stage 3 of the IDP, while the other half are either firmly in Stage2 or are approaching Stage 3. With some notable exceptions, the study points to conformity of the analyzed IDP trajectories with Dunningĺs model.

  1. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  2. Bringing the environment in: early Central European contributions to an ecologically oriented psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, Jan

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the Central European philosophical roots of perceptual psychology from a historical perspective. It will be shown that Alexius Meinong's notion of a forum of perception is the point of departure for a beginning inclusion of external factors in explaining perception. This conclusion is mainly because of Fritz Heider's early contributions on perception and its influence on Egon Brunswik. In addition, the impact of Meinong and Edmund Husserl-both students of Franz Brentano-on Brunswik's teacher, Karl Bühler, is highlighted.

  3. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our results confirm the majority of literature and show a negative significant relation between the variables analyzed, but at a lower intensity than expected.

  4. Biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries and opportunities for the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faaij, A.; Hoogzaad, J.; Van Dam, J.; Smeets, E.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-12-15

    This paper discusses an approach to determine future biomass production potentials and cost supply curves based on a bottom-up approach. The approach uses detailed data on NUTS3 level (the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union). The NUTS is the territorial classification for the compilation of regional accounts for Central and Eastern European Countries and results in biomass supply curves for different scenario conditions that could occur in a European setting. A first assessment of the Ukraine reveals that even with modest assumptions, the Ukrainian agricultural sector could supply 2,000 to 3,000 PJ of primary biomass per year on medium term (i.e. 2010-2015). Cost levels of liquid fuels produced from biomass (such as methanol or Fischer-Tropsch diesel) could end up around 6 Euro/GJ, which is about competitive with production costs of diesel and gasoline from mineral oil. Given the growing demand for biofuels in particular in the EU, biofuels could prove an extremely valuable export commodity for the Ukraine on shorter term already.

  5. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere where the relationship between Britain and East-Central Europe is characterized in terms of capitalist worldview as opposed to a post-communist existence. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the most important intertext for Tremain’s novel. Hamlet is obsessed with the vulnerability of material in light of the spiritual value attached to it in the form of human soul. Stephen Greenblatt’s ideas on food, waste and the Christian belief in divine existence residing in material objects - ideas that originate in early modern times - shed light on the motif of material and food in The Road Home. Seen through the symbolism of food and the idea of differing values being attached to matter, the narrative identity of Lev, the protagonist of Tremain’s work, experiences drastic change due to his encounter with the capitalist, British ‘other’.

  6. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  7. The spread of Impatiens parviflora DC. in Central European oak forests – another stage of invasion?

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    Kamila Reczyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the pattern of occurrence of Impatiens parviflora in Central European oak forests over time and its ecological requirements within these types of communities. Research was based on phytosociological data collected in 3776 relevés. A modified TWINSPAN algorithm were used to distinguish the groups of oak forests. The ecological preferences of the I. parviflora and studied communities as well as differences between invaded and non-invaded vegetation plots were analyzed using mean weighted Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs. Finally, both the temporal pattern of I. parviflora participation and changes in its coverage in the studied communities were analyzed. Our study confirmed a high adaptability of this species with respect to temperature, moisture, soil reaction and nutrients and determined its broad ecological optimum in oak forests. However, it also revealed both a greater sensitivity of some communities within Central European oak forests to the invasion of I. parviflora and differences in habitat conditions between invaded and non-invaded vegetation plots. This suggests that the habitat niche of I. parviflora within oak forests is not accidental. The analysis of temporal changes in the frequency of I. parviflora confirmed a 20% increase in relevés over the last 50 years. However, we did not identify any statistically significant rise in the coverage of I. parviflora in oak forests specifically during the studied period.

  8. Ventral-clap modes of hovering passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Su, Jian-Yuan; Soong, Chyi-Yeou; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2013-02-01

    Some small birds typically clap their wings ventrally, particularly during hovering. To investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed the kinematic motion and wake flow field of two passerine species that hover with the same flapping frequency. For these two birds, the ventral clap is classified as direct and cupping. Japanese White-eyes undertake a direct clap via their hand wings, whereas Gouldian Finches undertake a cupping clap with one wing overlaying the other. As a result of their morphological limitation, birds of both greater size and wing span cup their wings to increase the wing speed during a ventral clap because of the larger wing loading. This morphological limitation leads also to a structural discrepancy of the wake flow fields between these two passerine species. At the instant of clapping, the direct clap induces a downward air velocity 1.68 times and generates a weight-normalized lift force 1.14 times that for the cupping clap. The direct clap produces a small upward jet and a pair of counter-rotating vortices, both of which abate the transient lift at the instant of clapping, but they are not engendered by the cupping clap. The aerodynamic mechanisms generated with a ventral clap help the small birds to avoid abrupt body swinging at the instant of clapping so as to maintain their visual stability during hovering.

  9. Central European triathletes dominate Double Iron ultratriathlon – analysis of participation and performance 1985–2011

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    Sigg K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Katrin Sigg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Romuald Lepers,3 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: A recent study showed that European triathletes performed faster in Double Iron ultratriathlons than North American athletes. The present study analyzed triathletes participating in Double Iron ultratriathlons to determine the origin of the fastest Double Iron ultratriathletes, focusing on European countries.Methods: Participation and performance trends of finishers in Double Iron ultratriathlons from 1985–2011 of the different countries were investigated. Additionally, the performance trends of the top three women and men overall from 2001–2011 were analyzed.Results: A total of 1490 finishers originated from 24 different European countries and the United States. The number of European triathletes increased for both women (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.01 and men (r2 = 0.63; P < 0.01. The number of the North American triathletes increased for women (r2 = 0.25; P < 0.01, but not for men (r2 = 0.02; P > 0.05. Hungarian triathletes showed a significant improvement in both overall race times and in cycling split times, Swiss triathletes improved both their swim and run times, and French triathletes improved their swim times.Conclusion: Men and women triathletes from Central European countries such as France, Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary improved Double Iron ultratriathlon overall race times and split times during the 26-year period. The reasons might be the social and economic factors required to be able to participate in such an expensive and lavish race. Also, a favorable climate may provide the ideal conditions for successful training. Future studies need to investigate the motivational aspects of European

  10. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

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    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a new record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, Western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. We attribute changes in the Mg/Ca ratio to variations in the meteoric precipitation. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 9 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 to 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in our stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the Thermohaline Circulation.

  11. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high-resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. Changes in the Mg/Ca ratio are attributed to past meteoric precipitation variability. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation, and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 8 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 and 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in the Bunker Cave stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker Cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the thermohaline circulation.

  12. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  13. The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology”: Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Perczel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology” was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28–September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered “Chemistry towards Biology”, meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting.

  14. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

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    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  15. Some stylised facts about the exchange rate behaviour of Central European currencies

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    Jan Vejmělek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates developments of exchange rate time series of Central European currencies and tries to find evidence of some stylised facts. Statistical methods and an econometric approach to the univariate time series modelling of high-frequency data, i.e., daily, are used. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 All the CE nominal exchange time series are not stationary: nevertheless, stationarity of all the return time series was confirmed. (2 Volatility clustering was proven and the GARCH modelling approach was successfully applied, including asymmetric modelling of volatility. (3 The more flexible an exchange rate regime is, the more volatile the respective currency. This is true for both nominal and real exchange rates. While nominal volatility is lower than real volatility in a system of fixed or less flexible exchange rates, the opposite is true for flexible systems: exchange rate volatility is higher in nominal terms than in real terms.

  16. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

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    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  17. The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology”: Snapshot†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Sklenář, Vladimír; Nováček, Jiří; Papoušková, Veronika; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Žídek, Lukáš; Kozłowski, Henryk; Watły, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Kołkowska, Paulina; Koča, Jaroslav; Svobodová-Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Sehnal, David; Horský, Vladimír; Geidl, Stanislav; Enriz, Ricardo D.; Matějka, Pavel; Jeništová, Adéla; Dendisová, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Weissig, Volkmar; Olsen, Mark; Coffey, Aidan; Ajuebor, Jude; Keary, Ruth; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; van Raaij, Mark J.; McAuliffe, Olivia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H.; Diederich, Marc; Musioł, Robert; Košmrlj, Janez; Polanński, Jarosław; Jampílek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology” was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on 28 August–1 September 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered “Chemistry towards Biology”, meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting. PMID:27763518

  18. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  19. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  20. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

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    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  1. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

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    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  2. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

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    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  3. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

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    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  4. Sources of growth: Evidence from ten central and Eastern European countries during 1993-2008

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    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a growth accounting exercise for the 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries that are part of the European Union over the period 1993-2008. We estimate the capital share (α from a Cobb-Douglas production function in an intensive form, by employing panel data techniques. The Hausman and Chi-Square tests indicate that a Cross- Section Random Effects with Period Fixed Effects model best suits our data. Based on this model, we find a capital share between 0.45 and 0.83, higher than the usual 0.3-0.4 used in growth accounting literature. When we take into consideration the quality of labour force the estimated capital share slightly decreases, but still remains high, in a range between 0.39 and 0.79. Our growth accounting results reveal that, on average, capital per worker accumulation is the main engine of growth in CEE, followed by the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP. However, when dividing by sub-periods, we found that the contribution of TFP cannot be neglected since during 1997-2004 it proved to be the main engine of growth in some CEE countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. Some policy implications are offered based on our results.

  5. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

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    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  6. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE Projec

  7. A Comparative Review Over the Pension Systems’ Performance in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Mladen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the late 90’s, together with overcoming the shock of transition, most countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a process of profound reform of the pension systems. The aim of these reforms was mainly ensuring the financial sustainability of the pension systems often without taking into account their primary goal: to provide adequate retirement incomes, to allow the elderly to maintain a decent living standard after retirement and to have economic independence. However, a successful pension system is not the one that involves little spending but the one achieving its primary goal while limiting the future pressures on public finances.The economic crisis has increased the vulnerability of the pension systems. The economic recessions or slow economic growth, budget deficits and debt burdens, low employment rates have led to rising the concern about the ability of pension systems to fulfill their purpose. In this context, most Central and Eastern European countries have recently been forced to take up new changes in pensions. In our study we accomplished a comparative analysis of the pension systems’ performance based on calculating a composite indicator that includesthree components: the indicator of adequacy, the financial sustainability indicator and the indicator of modernity. Each of these components is obtained by aggregating a selection of sub-indicators. The purpose of this analysis is to identify best practices for successful reform, but also to highlight potentialhazards or imbalances that might face various emerging countries.

  8. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

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    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.       JEL Codes: E58, F31Keywords: Devaluation, Exchange Rates, Monetary

  9. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexel H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heinz Drexel,1–4,* Alexander Vonbank,1–3,* Peter Fraunberger,3,5 Walter F Riesen,3 Christoph H Saely1–3 1Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment, 2Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch, Austria; 3Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Liechtenstein; 4Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Medical Central Laboratories, Feldkirch, Austria  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students’ practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor’s and 20 at the master’s level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master’s course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions. Keywords: Bologna

  10. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  11. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  12. DATA ISSUES IN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BENCHMARKING: A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

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    Machek Ondrej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity is a method of measuring overall productivity of businesses, industries or economies. It is an approach which is recently becoming popular among government regulatory agencies when applying the so-called performance-based regulation. This principle induces regulated companies (for instance, electricity or natural gas distributors to behave efficiently even if their industries are not exposed to competitive pressures, since they are rewarded for being more productive than other firms in the industry, and penalized in the opposite case. The aim of this article is to deal with the question what are the main data issues when comparing total factor productivity among firms or industries with focus on the Central European region, which is very heterogeneous in terms of geographic, social, economic and historic conditions. In the first part, we introduce total factor productivity and the most common methods of its measurement � Malmquist and T�rnqvist indexes. Consequently, we divide the data issues into separate categories and discuss them more in detail. The first category of issues is related to defining the set of comparable firms. Many factors, such as the degree of competition in the market, the extent of government regulation, economies of scale, firm size, geographical conditions and historic development have to be taken into consideration. The second category is associated with specifying the time period. TFP estimates should be based on long time series and the period should include the whole business cycle and be representative and exclude extraordinary events. The third group of issues is related to defining and measuring the inputs and outputs. Since a number of difficulties are associated with labor input measurement, it is often included into operating expenditures along with materials and services. The measurement of capital is even more contentious. The outputs should reflect performance

  13. "Professionalization" and "confessionalization": the place of physics, philosophy, and arts instruction at Central European academic institutions during the Reformation era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J S

    2001-01-01

    During the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, physics was regularly taught as part of instruction in philosophy and the arts at Central European schools and universities. However, physics did not have a special or privileged status within that instruction. Three general indicators of this lack of special status are suggested in this article. First, teachers of physics usually were paid less than teachers of most other university-level subject-matters. Second, very few Central European academics during this period appear to have made a career out of teaching physics. And third, Reformation Era schools and universities in Central Europe emphasized language instruction; such instruction not only was instrumental in promoting the confessional--i.e., Calvinist, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic--agendas of those same schools and universities, but also helped to prepare students for service in nascent but growing state governments.

  14. A 'slow pace of life' in Australian old-endemic passerine birds is not accompanied by low basal metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Claus; Chappell, Mark A; Astheimer, Lee B; Londoño, Gustavo A; Buttemer, William A

    2016-05-01

    Life history theory suggests that species experiencing high extrinsic mortality rates allocate more resources toward reproduction relative to self-maintenance and reach maturity earlier ('fast pace of life') than those having greater life expectancy and reproducing at a lower rate ('slow pace of life'). Among birds, many studies have shown that tropical species have a slower pace of life than temperate-breeding species. The pace of life has been hypothesized to affect metabolism and, as predicted, tropical birds have lower basal metabolic rates (BMR) than temperate-breeding birds. However, many temperate-breeding Australian passerines belong to lineages that evolved in Australia and share 'slow' life-history traits that are typical of tropical birds. We obtained BMR from 30 of these 'old-endemics' and ten sympatric species of more recently arrived passerine lineages (derived from Afro-Asian origins or introduced by Europeans) with 'faster' life histories. The BMR of 'slow' temperate-breeding old-endemics was indistinguishable from that of new-arrivals and was not lower than the BMR of 'fast' temperate-breeding non-Australian passerines. Old-endemics had substantially smaller clutches and longer maximal life spans in the wild than new arrivals, but neither clutch size nor maximum life span was correlated with BMR. Our results suggest that low BMR in tropical birds is not functionally linked to their 'slow pace of life' and instead may be a consequence of differences in annual thermal conditions experienced by tropical versus temperate species.

  15. INCA-CE: a Central European initiative in nowcasting severe weather and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, A.; Pistotnik, G.; Bica, B.

    2012-04-01

    The INCA-CE (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis - Central Europe) project aims at implementing a transnational weather information system as well as applications for different socio-economic sectors to reduce risks of major economic damage and loss of life caused by severe weather. Civil protection and also stakeholders from economic sectors are in a growing need of accurate and reliable short-term weather forecasts. Within INCA-CE, a state-of-the art nowcasting system (INCA) is implemented at weather services throughout the European Union's CE (Central Europe) Programme Area, providing analyses and short term forecasts to the aforementioned end-users. In a coherent approach, the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system will be adapted for implementation and use in a number of partner countries. Within transregional working groups, the gap between short-term weather information and its downstream activities in hydrological disaster management, civil protection and road management will be bridged and best practice management and measure plans will be produced. A web-based platform for outreach to related socio-economic sectors will initiate and foster a dialogue between weather services and further stakeholders like tourism or the insurance sector, flood authorities for disaster management, and the construction industry for cost-efficient scheduling and planning. Furthermore, the project will produce a compact guideline for policy makers on how to combine structural development aspects with these new features. In the present paper, an outline of the project implementation, a short overview about the INCA system and two case studies on precipitation nowcasts will be given. Moreover, directions for further developments both within the INCA system and the INCA-CE project will be pointed out.

  16. Central and Eastern European Spring Pollen Allergens and Their Expression Analysis—State of the Art

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    Jana Žiarovská

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spring pollinosis has become a part of life for many people throughout the world. A wide range of knowledge about the allergenic potential of individual pollen allergen types is documented well, but the starting point of the pollen allergens expression regulation in plants itself is still not fully answered. Expression analysis of pollen allergens does not yet have any specific protocols or methods developed, despite a very good sequence background available in public bioinformatics databases. However, research in this area of interest has a great application potential for breeding and biotechnology of allergenic plants that may benefit from the knowledge of the expression of allergen coding genes in individual varieties or genotypes. Here, a brief review of up-to-date knowledge about the coding sequences of central and eastern European spring pollen allergens is introduced together with real-time based analysis of the expression of two of the main pollen allergens–PR protein type and profilin type of birch and hazelnut.

  17. TRUST, CORRUPTION, BRIBES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Ana Iolanda Voda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Western world has drawn on theoretical structures of classical and neoclassical liberalism for its explanatory support and sources of inspiration for centuries. Against this ideological background, institutionalists aim at showing that growth is a process of transformation, a double change: an economic and an institutional one. In this analysis, our purpose is to highlight the importance of informal institutional arrangements and their quality in explaining the disparities of revenues and developments between countries. In our approach, we will consider several indicators meant to highlight various aspects of research. The approach proposed is a transversal-comparative one and static methods pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis. The results obtained suggest the existence of major differences within the Central and East European area as far as informal institutions are concerned; moreover, the analysis conducted confirms the existence of a significant relation between the level of development and the structure of informal arrangements such as: trust level, bribe culture and corruption control.

  18. The Impact of FDIs on Exports, and Export Competitiveness in Central and Eastern European Countries

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    Luminiţa ŞERBĂNESCU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available After 1990, the Central and Eastern European (CEE countries lowered the barriers to FDIs. Of course, many other developments were taking place at the same time: increasing openness to trade, privatization of previously government-owned production, and many other changes as these countries moved in various degrees from socialist to market economies and democratic governments. They privatized many state-owned enterprises, signed foreign trade agreements with other countries in the region, and have generally achieved a significant level of macroeconomic stability with improved growth rates. They also experienced a significant increase in FDI. As a consequence, the ratio of inward FDI to the CEE countries studied here in total world FDI inflows increased more than three-fold. Over the same period, these countries also achieved a substantial increase in their exports, especially towards Western Europe. We present in this paper the relation between the FDIs and exports in the CEE countries during 1990-2010 using statistic data analysis and literature review and underline the factors that determined an increase of exports in these countries. Despite other CEE countries that succeeded to attract many export-oriented FDIs, Romanian case is different because of many local specific factors such as an insufficient local production and a tight fiscal policy.

  19. Public debt and growth: evidence from Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries

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    Anita Čeh Časni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify the long run and short run relationship between debt and economic activity in Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries. In order to investigate the impact of public debt on economic growth, the paper uses pooled mean group estimator (PMG for the period between 2000 and 2011. A battery of panel unit root as well as panel cointegration tests is used prior to performing the dynamic panel analysis based on PMG estimator. According to the empirical results, in the long-run debt significantly influences the GDP growth having a negative sign as expected and pointing out that government gross debt lowers the GDP growth. In the short run, debt has statistically significant negative influence on the GDP growth as well, controlling for other determinants of growth (trade openness, total investment and industry value added. Designing policy frameworks that encourage export, promote industrial development and create better environment for long-term investment should foster sustainable growth. Therefore, we find that a credible fiscal consolidation strategy is needed combined with policies to promote lasting growth in order to reach debt-stabilizing levels.

  20. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

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    Stefan Mariana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD, 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA. Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries.

  1. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

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    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  2. The influence of management on GHG fluxes over Central European grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertnagl, Lukas; Bahn, Michael; Barthel, Matthias; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner; Klumpp, Katja; Ladreiter-Knauss, Thomas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Merbold, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural management practices and land use change at grassland sites can have a strong impact on annual carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) budgets. At the same time emissions of CH4 and N2O can contribute to an increase of the global warming potential (GWP) of an ecosystem by offsetting concurrent CO2 uptake in terms of CO2-equivalents. It is therefore necessary to quantify long-term fluxes of all three compounds in order to reliably assess the climatic impact of management activities and the effectiveness of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. In this presentation we give an overview of the GHG exchange of eight managed Central European grassland sites along an elevation and land use intensity gradient. Fluxes of the three major GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O were calculated using the eddy covariance or chamber technique. The investigated grasslands were different with regard to the amount of fertilizer input, frequency of cuts and grazing duration and intensity. In this presentation we focus on time periods when measurements of all three compounds were available and investigate common features among observed CH4 and N2O exchange patterns at the different grassland sites. We analyze these observations in relation to management activities and concurrently measured biotic / abiotic parameters. For field sites where long-term measurements are available we evaluate the impact of CH4 and N2O fluxes on the annual GWP.

  3. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPACT OF THE EU ENLARGEMENT TOWARDS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ON THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL

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    Constantin Viorel MIHAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the European Union keeps taking pride in putting forward the existence of a European Social Model, no study or project was carried out in order to foresee the enlargement effects on this model and mainly how the latter could be successfully implemented by the new Member States, having regard to their own characteristics. It is no coincidence that the references to the European Social Model multiplied during the period when the EU was facing its own enlargement. More and more questions were raised concerning the new Member States convergence capacity, as regards Central and Eastern Europe countries in particular, with all the European Union social rules. The trends in the new Member States, as well as their convictions or their lack of conviction, concerning the European Social Model, have major implications on the tomorrow’s social Europe. In which direction is it heading in an enlarged 25 or 27 nations European Union? This study is aimed at answering at this question having regard, in particular, to the economical and social characteristics of the new Member States and to the possible sources that might give rise to blockings in the social field.

  5. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  6. Live capture and handling of the European wildcat in central Italy

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    Lolita Bizzarri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Between 2003 and 2006, a live-trapping of European wildcats (Felis silvestris was carried out in the Apennines (central Italy. Double-door tunnel cage traps were set along trap-lines. A box containing live quails as bait was securely attached to the side of each cage. Trapping was carried out in 8 sessions at a total of 60 trap-sites, mainly inside woods (65%. The distance between the traps ranged from 146 m to 907 m and the length of each trap-line ranged from 541 m to 2632 m. There were 16 captures of 11 different wildcats, the capture success rate being 1 wildcat/209 trap-days. Nine males and 2 females were caught, suggesting sex-biased trapping selection. In addition to wildcats, 20 non-target species were captured during the 8 sessions. No animal was injured by the traps and no wildcat was endangered by narcosis or handling. The technique proved to be effective for future field studies that envisage the radio-tracking of wildcats.

    Riassunto
    Cattura e immobilizzazione del gatto selvatico in Italia centrale.
    Tra il 2003 e il 2006 è stato svolto un programma di ricerca sul gatto selvatico europeo (Felis silvestris in un'area dell'Appennino centrale. Trappole a tunnel a doppio ingresso sono state distribuite lungo delle line-trap; a ciascun dispositivo è stato associato un box che ospitava esche vive (quaglie. Sono state effettuate 8 sessioni di trappolamento per un totale di 60 siti trappola, perlopiù in aree boscate (65%. La distanza tra le trappole variava da 146 m a 907 m mentre la lunghezza delle line-trap variava tra 541 m a 2632 m. I 16 eventi di cattura hanno permesso di marcare 11 individui diversi, 9 maschi e 2 femmine. La differenza del numero di catture tra maschi e femmine è probabilmente da attribuire ad una diversa selettività delle trappole. Durante le 8 sessioni, oltre al gatto selvatico, sono state catturate altre

  7. ‘The Vienna school and Central European art history’: Jan Bakoš, Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013

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    Branko Mitrović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jan Bakoš’s recent book Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses presents a comprehensive picture of the Vienna School of art history from its inception in the mid-nineteenth century to the influence it exercised on Central European scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century. Although the book is a collection of essays that have been published or presented in the past it is very coherent in the perspective it provides. A particularly important merit of the book is the presentation of the works of Slavic- and Hungarian-speaking art historians that are often ignored in contemporary English-speaking scholarship.

  8. The Impact of a Warmer Mediterranean Sea on Central European Summer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Latif, Mojib; Tilinina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Central European climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, which experienced a strong increase in sea surface temperature (SST) during the last four decades. One example of extreme weather events are cyclones following the "Vb" pathway. These cyclones are generated over the Mediterranean Sea and travel northeastwards around the Alps and then hit countries like Poland and Germany. The cyclones carry large amounts of moisture and cause extreme precipitation, and subsequently flooding, particularly in summer. These floods, such as the Elbe flood in 2002, have devastating societal impacts and also influence ecosystems. To analyse the potential impact of increased Mediterranean SST on extreme precipitation in Europe, a series of simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ECHAM5 has been carried out. ECHAM5 was run at high horizontal resolution (T159) and integrated for 40 years in each experiment. The control run is forced by SST and sea ice concentration (SIC) climatology derived from 1970-1999. A warmer climate is simulated by using global climatological SST and SIC from 2000-2012. To disentangle the impact of the Mediterranean Sea, an additional simulation was performed with the same global SST and SIC as in the control run, but with the warmer 2000-2012 SST climatology restricted to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. 20-season return levels were derived as a measure of extreme precipitation for daily as well as five day precipitation in JJA (June, July, August). These return levels are estimated as quantiles of a stationary generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Although the increase in the number of Vb cyclones is only modest, precipitation return levels in JJA show an increase along the Vb cyclone track, for daily (up to approximately 63 %) as well as for five day (up to approximately 76 %) precipitation extremes. This increase can be attributed to the warmer Mediterranean Sea, as it is observed in both the globally warmer and

  9. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  10. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

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    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  11. Access to biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlewska, Ewa; Ancuta, Ioan; Anic, Branimir; Codrenau, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja; Djukic, Predrag; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Marinchev, Lubomir; Nasonov, Evgeny L.; Peets, Tonu; Praprotnik, Sonja; Rashkov, Rasho; Skoupa, Jana; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Tomsic, Matija; Veldi, Tiina; Vojinovic, Jelena; Wiland, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess and compare patients’ access to biologic anti-RA drugs in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and to analyze the determinants of differences between countries. Material/Methods This is a multi-country survey study, based on a combination of desk research and direct contact with national RA stakeholders. Data was collected using a pre-defined questionnaire. Affordability was measured using an affordability index, calculated comparing the index of health care expenditures to the price index, using Poland as an index of 1. Results The percentage of patients on biologic treatment in 2009 was highest in Hungary (5% RA patients on biologic treatment), followed by Slovenia (4.5%), Slovakia (3.5%), Czech Republic (2.92%), Romania (2.2%), Estonia (1.8%), and Croatia, Serbia, Poland (below 1.5%). Infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and rituximab were included in the reimbursement system in all countries, but abatacept and tocilizumab were included only in Slovakia. In Slovenia, public payer covered 75% of the price, and 25% is covered by supplementary health insurance; in Bulgaria public payer covered 50% of etanercept and adalimumab costs, and 75% of rituximab cost. In other countries, biologic drugs are reimbursed at 100%. Affordability index for biologic drugs was the lowest in Slovenia (0.4). In each country national guidelines define which patients are eligible for biologic treatment. Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of over 5.1 and failure of 2 or more disease-modifying anti-RA drugs, including methotrexate, are commonly used criteria. Conclusions The most important factors limiting access to biologic anti-RA treatment in the CEE region are macroeconomic conditions and restrictive treatment guidelines. PMID:21455121

  12. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  13. The influence of management on GHG fluxes over Central European grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertnagl, Lukas; Bahn, Michael; Buchmann, Nina; Dias-Pinez, Eugenio; Eugster, Werner; Kiese, Ralf; Klumpp, Katja; Thomas, Ladreiter-Knauss; Lu, Haiyan; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Zeeman, Matthias; Merbold, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Central European grasslands are characterized by a wide range of different agricultural practices along an altitudinal and management gradient, reaching from low pastures and meadows up to high alpine grasslands above the tree line. In the future, the intensification of already available agricultural land as a consequence of increased demand for feed and food will play an important role because of the scarcity of unused, productive land. The land use intensity strongly affects the exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and atmosphere. Therefore, the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different farming strategies needs to be quantified before effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategies can be introduced. Direct measurements of long-term grassland GHG exchange at ecosystem scale along altitudinal and management gradients can help in identifying key processes that lead to GHG emissions. In this synthesis we investigated GHG fluxes with a focus on N2O and CH4 from 15 grassland sites, quantified by means of the eddy covariance or chamber technique. Grasslands were a source of N2O, with the exception of one abandoned site, while they were a source or small sink for CH4. The predictive power of soil temperature and water-filled pore space for N2O and CH4 flux patterns during snow-free time periods in-between management events was generally low but varied considerably across the year. However, setting fluxes in relation to classes of the two soil parameters revealed favorable conditions ('sweet spots') for N2O and CH4 emissions for some sites. In addition, fertilization had a clear impact on N2O and CH4 fluxes, with emission peaks on the day of fertilization or one day later. N2O-N emission factors at fertilized sites were found to be slightly higher than the IPCC Tier 1 approach, ranging between 1.31 and 1.53 %, depending on the gap-filling method to calculate yearly cumulative N2O emissions.

  14. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zielhofer

    Full Text Available The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  15. Central European high-resolution gridded daily data sets (HYRAS: Mean temperature and relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Frick

    Full Text Available High-resolution (5×5km2$5\\times5\\,\\text{km}^2$ gridded daily data sets of surface air temperature (DWD/BfG-HYRAS-TAS and relative humidity (DWD/BfG-HYRAS-HURS are presented in this study. The data sets cover Germany and the bordering river catchments and last from 1951 to 2006. Their data bases consist of daily station observations from Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland. The interpolation of the measurement data to the regular grid is performed using a method based upon Optimal Interpolation. A first climatological analysis for Germany and Central European river catchments of first and second order is performed. For the Rhine river catchment a summer mean temperature of 16.1 °C and relative humidity of 74 % are found. In contrast, the mean temperature of heat summer 2003 amounts to 19.9 °C with a related relative humidity of 65 % in this river catchment. The extreme character of this summer is also remarkable in the presented climate indices, e.g., the increased amount of summer hot days. The first validations of both data sets reveal a bias within the range of the provided data precisions. In addition, an elevation dependency of error scores is identified for temperature. Error scores increase with an increasing station height because height differences between station and grid cell increases with height. A comparison of HYRAS-TAS to another gridded temperature data set reveals a good agreement with again fewer differences at lower altitudes. The presented DWD/BfG-HYRAS data sets have a high spatial and temporal resolution which is unique for Germany and the bordering river catchments so far. They have a high potential for detailed studies of smaller scale structures in Central Europe and are already used as input for hydrological impact modelling, as climatological reference and for bias correction of regional climate models within the German research project KLIWAS

  16. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fundagul Bilgic; Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health ...

  17. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  18. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  19. Multilingual Maps of the Terrestrial Planets and their Moons: the East and Central European Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.; Berczi, Sz.

    A series of Multilingual planetary maps has been published by the Cosmic Materials Space Research Group of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) with consultations by Russian and German colleagues. The maps are a result of a cooperation of MIIGAiK (which offered the base maps), ELTE, the Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, the Zagreb Astronomical Observatory, the Jagellonian University Observatory, the Tectonics and Geological Cartography Section of the Faculty of Geology at Warsaw University and the University of Architecture, Civil Engeneering and Geodesy in Sofia. The series has been initiated by the International Cartographic Association (ICA), Commission on Planetary Cartography (Shingareva et al. 2006). The now complete series has been published from 2001 to 2006: Mars (2001), Venus (2003), Moon (2003), Mercury (2004) and Phobos and Deimos (2006). (Hargitai et al 2001-2006) These maps are more than outreach posters but less than maps for scientific purposes. These give a good overview of the topography and geology of the planets in a global to regional scale. They contain multilingual information concerning planetary science results and specific characteristics of the planetary body relief, placed on the lower margins of the front sides of the maps and the whole back side (geography, geology, stratigraphy, history of discovery and full index of names). These texts appear in Czech, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Croatian, Polish and English. In some cases it was the first time that a particular term (and its definition) was translated into one of these Central European languages. After compiling the first four maps it can be concluded that such work can effectively draw the attention of earth scientists to the specific features - and the mere existence - of other planetary bodies by simply discussing the translation of their terminology. Apart from circulating the maps in classrooms, this might be the most important scientific result of this

  20. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  1. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  2. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  3. Nesting and acoustic ecology, but not phylogeny, influence passerine urban tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2014-03-01

    Urbanization is one of the most extensive and ecologically significant changes happening to terrestrial environments, as it strongly affects the distribution of biodiversity. It is well established that native species richness is reduced in urban and suburban areas, but the species traits that predict tolerance to urbanization are yet little understood. In birds, one of the most studied groups in this respect, evidence is appearing that acoustic traits influence urban living, but it remains unknown how this compares to the effects of more obvious ecological traits that facilitate urban living. Therefore, it remains unclear whether acoustic communication is an important predictor of urban tolerance among species. Here, with a comparative study across 140 European and North American passerines, I show that high song frequency, which is less masked by the low-frequency anthropogenic noise, is associated with urban tolerance, with an effect size over half that of the most important ecological trait studied: off-ground nesting. Other nesting and foraging traits accepted to facilitate urban living did not differ for species occurring in urban environments. Thus, the contribution of acoustic traits for passerine urban tolerance approximates that of more obvious ecological traits. Nonetheless, effect sizes of the biological predictors of urban tolerance were low and the phylogenetic signal for urban tolerance was null, both of which suggest that factors other than phenotypic traits have major effects on urban tolerance. A simple possibility is exposure to urbanization, as there was a higher proportion of urban-tolerant species in Europe, which is more urbanized than North America.

  4. Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between species richness and the occupation of niche space can provide insight into the processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. For example, if species interactions constrained coexistence, one might expect tendencies toward even spacing within niche space and positive relationships between diversity and total niche volume. I use morphological diversity of passerine birds as a proxy for diet, foraging maneuvers, and foraging substrates and examine the morphological space occupied by regional and local passerine avifaunas. Although independently diversified regional faunas exhibit convergent morphology, species are clustered rather than evenly distributed, the volume of the morphological space is weakly related to number of species per taxonomic family, and morphological volume is unrelated to number of species within both regional avifaunas and local assemblages. These results seemingly contradict patterns expected when species interactions constrain regional or local diversity, and they suggest a larger role for diversification, extinction, and dispersal limitation in shaping species richness.

  5. NATO Nuclear Reductions and the Assurance of Central and Eastern European Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Virginia -class attack submarines.79 Europe necessarily becomes a lower priority. The rebalance is enabled by the belief in Washington, even if not...eng.pdf. 117 Amy F. Woolf , Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons, RL32572 (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, December 19, 2012), p. 17...Eastern European Perspectives, op. cit., p. 8. 166 Woolf , Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons, op. cit., p. 17. 167 Durkalec, NATO’s Defence and Deterrence

  6. Drought Occurrence in Central European Mountainous Region (Tatra National Park, Slovakia within the Period 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Vido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought has recently become a significant topic in the Central European region. It has been observed that the drought phenomenon has severe impacts on the agriculture, hydrology, social, and economic sectors of lowland areas. This study focuses on how drought, defined as a precipitation shortage, occurs in higher altitudes of the Tatra National Park (Tatra Mts., Slovakia, which is a significant biological reserve of the Central European fauna and flora. The main goals of this research include identifying drought variability and its characteristics over the Tatra National Park in the West Carpathians (Slovakia, especially to characterizing drought variability and its spatial pattern across the Tatra National Park from 1961 to 2010 using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and standard Geographic Information System (GIS methods. The results showed that frequency of drought occurrence has cyclic pattern with approximately 30-year period. The spatial analyses showed that precipitation shadow of the mountains influences the risk of drought occurrence. The drought-prone areas over the mountains are also identified.

  7. Molecular and comparative morphological analysis of central European parasitic flatworms of the superfamily Brachylaimoidea Allison, 1943 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    The Brachylaimoidea are digenean parasites of vertebrates, including humans, domestic animals, poultry and wild game. Numerous Brachylaimoidea, particularly adults of Brachylaima and Leucochloridium, are difficult to identify to species. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Brachylaimoidea, namely Leucochloridium holostomum, Leucochloridium paradoxum, Leucochloridium perturbatum, Leucochloridium subtilis, Leucochloridium vogtianum, Urotocus rossitensis, Urogonimus macrostomus, Michajlovia migrata, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Brachylaima arcuatus, Brachylaima fuscata and Brachylaima mesostoma. We identified three clades in the genus Leucochloridium, which do not correspond to the previously suggested subgenera Neoleucochloridium, Papilloleucochloridium and Leucochloridium. We reject classification of Urotocus and Urogonimus in Leucochloridiinae, and, instead, re-establish the subfamilies Urotocinae and Urogoniminae. We synonymize the genus Renylaima with the genus Brachylaima. We reject M. migrata as a member of Leucochloridiinae sensu stricto or Brachylaimidae suggested by some previous authors. We found that the previously sequenced Glaphyrostomum sp. does not cluster with any hitherto sequenced Brachylaimidae. We also provide comparative measurements of the examined central European Brachylaimoidea, address the the specificity of their localization in the host and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections based on the extensive dataset of birds examined in 1962-2015.

  8. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  9. Integrative taxonomy of central European parasitic flatworms of the family Prosthogonimidae Lühe, 1909 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří

    2015-10-01

    Species of the family Prosthogonimidae are considered the most pathogenic poultry trematodes worldwide, affecting particularly low intensity farming in rural areas. Adults of Prosthogonimus occur mainly in the bursa of Fabricius, oviduct and cloaca of ducks, geese, fowl and other birds feeding at least occasionally on dragonflies or damselflies (Odonata). We analyzed the central European species of the Prosthogonimidae, namely Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Prosthogonimus ovatus, Prosthogonimus pellucidus and Prosthogonimus rarus. We sequenced three nuclear (ITS2) and mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of four species isolated from Anas clypeata, Anas strepera, Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Passer domesticus and Turdus merula. Intra- and inter-specific sequence variability revealed that all four species represent distinct well-defined entities. Our data, combined with previously published studies, suggest the return of the name Prosthogonimus rarus Braun, 1901 for Schistogonimus rarus (Braun, 1901). The genus name Schistogonimus Lühe, 1909 is considered a junior synonym of Prosthogonimus Lühe, 1899. We identified the existence of two clades, one represented by P. cuneatus and P. pellucidus, and another one formed by P. ovatus and P. rarus. We also provide comparative measurements of these four central European prosthogonimids, and address their tissue specificity, host-specific prevalence (based on the extensive bird cohort examined in years 1962-2014), and for some bird hosts we address also differences in the prevalence of Prosthogonimus spp. in natural and near-natural wetlands in comparison with fishponds utilized for intense carp production. We provide an updated key to European Prosthogonimus spp. based on their morphological characters.

  10. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  11. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  12. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  13. CENTRAL ASIA IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Omarov, Mels; Omarov, Noor

    2009-01-01

    The Soviet Union left behind a geopolitical vacuum in Central Asia which augmented the interest of outside powers in the region. Indeed, its advantageous geopolitical location, natural riches (oil and gas in particular), as well as transportation potential and the possibility of using it as a bridgehead in the counter-terrorist struggle have transformed Central Asia into one of the most attractive geopolitical areas. The great powers' highly divergent interests have led to their sharp rivalry...

  14. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  15. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  16. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research. PMID:26959221

  17. Tracking potential source areas of Central European loess: examples from Tokaj (HU), Nussloch (D) and Grub (AT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Ann-Kathrin; Qi, Yue; Siebel, Wolfgang; Wu, Jiade; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    There are several competing hypotheses for the origin of loess in Europe but quantitative evidence is still rare. Here, Sr-Nd isotopic and bulk elemental composition of loess from Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 from three study regions in Central Europe - Nussloch (Germany), Grub (Austria) and Tokaj (Hungary) - are analyzed. This study aims at examining differences and similarities of loess deposits throughout Europe, correlating loess with potential source rocks from major mountain ranges and comparing loess with floodplain sediments from main rivers as integrated samples of the drainage areas. The results show that European loess deposits are largely uniform and that sediment sources have been rather stable in the Southern and Eastern parts of Central Europe and more variable in West Central Europe. However, the methods used are not sufficient to unequivocally confirm and reject potential sediment sources but, in combination, help to identify the most likely sediment origins. While a direct correlation of loess and potential source rocks is dif- ficult, the comparison with floodplain sediments is most promising and confirms previous hypotheses. Loess from Tokaj and Grub is most likely a mix of material transported by the Danube River and sediments from the surrounding mountains. Rhine River sediments are probably the main source of loess at Nussloch.

  18. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary...

  19. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  1. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  2. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes...... 85% across all zones-differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  3. Estimation of source parameters according to microseismic monitoring of the central part of the East-European platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedina, Alina

    2016-04-01

    Microseismic monitoring of active fault allows one to quickly assess the seismicity of the study area. In platform conditions it requires more time to accumulate of representative data of occurrence of seismic endogenous events. The graphics repeatability, based on data from microseismic monitoring, correlate well with the dependence obtained during long-term regional observations. The focal parameters are assessed for sources of weak seismicity of the central part of East-European platform with the help of small-aperture array. Sensor bandwidth limitations can lead to underestimation of radiated seismic energy due to losses in high-frequency part of signal. Seismometers with enhance amplitude-frequency response in high-frequency part of the spectrum allow avoiding this instrumental problem. This provides records seismic oscillations from events with Mw ~ -2 - 1 and more correct estimation of seismic source parameters. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 16-35-00508).

  4. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  5. Central European plant species from more productive habitats are more invasive at a global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Dostal, Petr; Dawson, Wayne; van Kleunen, Mark; Keser, Lidewij H.; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Accumulating evidence indicates that species may be pre-adapted for invasionsuccess in new ranges. In the light of increasing global nutrient accumulation,an important candidate pre-adaptation for invasiveness is the ability to grow innutrient-rich habitats. Therefore we tested whether globally invasive species originating from Central Europe have come from more productive rather than lessproductive habitats. A further important candidate pre-adaptation for invasivenessis large niche wid...

  6. The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

  7. Global Dynamics of Dispersal and Diversification among Passerine Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Jonathan David

    , this variation must reflect evolutionary history, and how rates of speciation, extinction and dispersal have changed not only among lineages, but also through time and space. Elucidating the relative contribution of these processes can be aided from the study of groups that are not only variable....... To achieve these aims, I have collated phylogenetic, distributional and eco-morphological trait data across regional and global scales. Utilizing comparative methods, I focus my analyses on two study systems: (1) all passerine birds present within the New World (c. 2,300 species), and (2) the global...

  8. Appreciation of the Swiss Franc and its Impact on Romania and other Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the Swiss National Bank of giving up the fixed rate of 1,2 Euro/CHF on the 15th of January 2015, a rate established at its admission to the Monetary Economic Union, had consequences on Central and Eastern European countries because a great part of the credits granted were in Swiss francs. In all these countries, the national currencies depreciated and the financial market rates were reduced. Regional banks started to face difficulties regarding the management of the situation and were under the necessity of finding solutions to avoid the risk of not recovering the granted credits. The issue of the Swiss franc appreciation was treated differently by the analysed countries and took into consideration the particularities characteristic to the credits granted in this currency. The present paper aims at emphasising the impact of the Swiss franc appreciation on the Romanian banking system but also the approach of other countries in Central and Eastern Europe in this respect.

  9. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  10. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  11. Testing avian compass calibration: comparative experiments with diurnal and nocturnal passerine migrants in South Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Åkesson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cue-conflict experiments were performed to study the compass calibration of one predominantly diurnal migrant, the dunnock (Prunella modularis, and two species of nocturnal passerine migrants, the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and the European robin (Erithacus rubecula during autumn migration in South Sweden. The birds' orientation was recorded in circular cages under natural clear and simulated overcast skies in the local geomagnetic field, and thereafter the birds were exposed to a cue-conflict situation where the horizontal component of the magnetic field (mN was shifted +90° or −90° at two occasions, one session starting shortly after sunrise and the other ca. 90 min before sunset and lasting for 60 min. The patterns of the degree and angle of skylight polarization were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry during the cue-conflict exposures and orientation tests. All species showed orientation both under clear and overcast skies that correlated with the expected migratory orientation towards southwest to south. For the European robin the orientation under clear skies was significantly different from that recorded under overcast skies, showing a tendency that the orientation under clear skies was influenced by the position of the Sun at sunset resulting in more westerly orientation. This sun attraction was not observed for the sedge warbler and the dunnock, both orientating south. All species showed similar orientation after the cue-conflict as compared to the preferred orientation recorded before the cue-conflict, with the clearest results in the European robin and thus, the results did not support recalibration of the celestial nor the magnetic compasses as a result of the cue-conflict exposure.

  12. Inter- and intra-specific variability in isoprene production and photosynthesis of Central European oak species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, R; Contran, N; Gugerli, F; Schnitzler, J-P; Zimmer, I; Menard, T; Günthardt-Goerg, M S

    2013-01-01

    European deciduous oaks are closely related and are known for their strong emission of volatile isoprenoids. They are chemo-taxonomically diverse, but hybridise frequently. Four-year-old oak seedlings growing together in a model ecosystem facility under near-natural conditions were studied. The leaves were morphologically classified in the three oak species Quercus robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petraea (with four provenances each) and further investigated by a molecular-genetic approach. Q. robur was morphologically and genetically clearly different from Q. pubescens and Q. petraea, whereas Q. pubescens and Q. petraea individuals used in this study were morphologically and genetically more similar. There was a minor impact of among and within species variability on isoprene synthesis, isoprene emission and photosynthesis. Isoprene emission rates normalised to 25 °C leaf temperature ranged from 5.78 to 10.66 nmol m(-2)  s(-1) , whereas photosynthesis ranged from 12.8 to 17.6 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) . On cloudy days, among the provenances of each species, only net photosynthesis of the Q. robur provenance Hünenberg was reduced and isoprene synthase activity of the Q. pubescens provenance Promotogno increased. On sunny days, photosynthesis did not differ among the provenances. Over all provenances, gas exchange on cloudy days did not differ significantly from sunny days. In the combined data of cloudy and sunny days, no differences between the studied provenances and oak species were detected in isoprene emission and photosynthesis. Thus, isoprene emission and photosynthesis rates were remarkably stable among oak species and provenances. The results indicate that taxonomic differences in the studied oak species are not reflected in isoprene emission and photosynthesis, probably because of the high plasticity of gene expression resulting in high phenotypic flexibility.

  13. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Jamela Mostafa E; Elmabrouk Abdalla, Fathi B; Elfageih, Mohamed Ahmed; Abusaa, Abuagela; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Collan, Yrjö

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002-2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded.

  14. Psychosocial wellbeing in the Central and Eastern European transition: an overview and systematic bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroá Orosa, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the psychosocial wellbeing of populations in Central and Eastern Europe during the transition period subsequent to the fall of the SovietBloc. A revision of research addressing emotional wellbeing trends in this period and theoretical models was carried in order to verify their validity in the analysis of empirical studies. Hence, a systematic bibliographic review was conducted, aiming to find possible subjective mediators between social variables derived from change sand emotional wellbeing. The results of the review show that subjective mediators such as locus of control,perceived control, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived familial support, and the subjective evaluation of social change explain part of the relationship between macrosocial changes and emotional wellbeing. Results appear coherent with proposed multidimensional models of social change and mental health, although further research should be conducted to determine the specific weight of these phenomena in individual emotional wellbeing.

  15. International Gold Market, Stock Market and Business Cycles: the Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Chirila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During theeconomic recession periods, gold investments seem to become very importantbecause gold is considered a means to preserve the investment value. Gold has also maintained thisfeature during the financial and economic crisis that occurred at the end of theyear 2007. Althoughthe inflation rate has recorded significant increases, the investment in gold has kept its value becausethe price of gold has increased. After the beginning of the financial and economic crisis the price ofgold has also recorded a significant increase in volatility. The aims of this study focus on thecomparative analysis of the gold price cycles and the stock market cycles in the Central and EastEurope as well as the determination of the return of gold investment on the return and risk of stockmarkets in these countries. The results obtained confirm that both the return and the risk in some ofthe stock markets under analysis are influenced by the return of gold investment.

  16. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  17. Investigation of the role of large-scale circulation patterns on Central European streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirou, Eva; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Large scale oscillations-phenomena such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence the climate and hydrological variables (temperature, precipitation, streamflow) in many areas around the globe. Here we review previous studies examining links between such phenomena and streamflow in Central Europe. The selected area under examination is the region covered by 9 countries: Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia. The study takes into consideration only measured and not proxy data. Mean, low and high flows are examined separately in order to improve the understanding on the possible different influences of the climatic phenomena on different streamflow characteristics. Previous results form a consistent pattern that suggests causal relationships but only for certain indices and seasons. Most promising results concern the winter NAO index which seems to affect winter and spring streamflow in Central Europe and synoptic circulation patterns that have been linked to streamflow in the area throughout the year. Based on the findings of the review, we examine further the relations between NAO, synoptic circulation patterns and streamflow in the winter and spring season. In our analysis we examine 68 streamflow stations in Germany all covering the period 1932 to 2005. The investigation focuses on the interplay between NAO and synoptic patterns and on the effects of the climatic indices on the amplitude, spatial coherence and distributions of streamflow data. The preliminary results suggest that NAO weakly influences streamflow in both seasons and that a combined analysis with other climatic parameters may clarify possible existing links.

  18. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavy, Nathaniel E; Humple, Diana L; Cormier, Renée L; Gardali, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010). We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33%) was similar to that of control birds (39%), but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines.

  19. Genomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Wild Passerines in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Lawson, Becki; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wigley, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Page, Andrew J; Holmes, Mark A; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-11-15

    Passerine salmonellosis is a well-recognized disease of birds in the order Passeriformes, which includes common songbirds such as finches and sparrows, caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S Typhimurium-definitive phage types (DTs) 40, 56 variant, and 160-are host adapted to passerines and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. Here, we have used the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from British passerines, five isolates of similar DTs from humans and a domestic cat, and previously published S Typhimurium genomes that include similar DTs from other hosts to investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of passerine salmonellae to other S Typhimurium isolates and investigate possible genetic features of the distinct disease pathogenesis of S Typhimurium in passerines. Our results demonstrate that the 11 passerine isolates and 13 other isolates, including those from nonpasserine hosts, were genetically closely related, with a median pairwise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) difference of 130 SNPs. These 24 isolates did not carry antimicrobial resistance genetic determinants or the S Typhimurium virulence plasmid. Although our study does not provide evidence of Salmonella transmission from passerines to other hosts, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that wild birds represent a potential reservoir of these Salmonella subtypes, and thus, sensible personal hygiene precautions should be taken when feeding or handling garden birds.

  20. The Contribution of the University of Padova to Central European Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, A.

    2003-04-01

    The definition and maintenance of a geodetic reference system by modern techniques requires systematic temporal changes of the position of the defining stations to be taken into account. Most of these drifts are accommodated by present day plate tectonics. If the lithospheric plate to which a given station belongs were perfectly rigid, then a simple plate model based upon rigid rotations about Eulerian poles would suffice to predict the horizontal coordinates of each station at any epoch, once the coordinates of that station are known at a reference epoch. In Europe, there are stations well located inside old, stable areas which may be considered rigid, but other stations are at or near continental margins undergoing active deformation, or are within a relatively recent portion of a tectonic unit subject to intraplate stress or volcanism. Velocities of stations in the most recent ITRF solutions do, in fact, exhibit in some cases departures from the NUVEL1A NNR plate model in Europe and elsewhere, but the reasons for these discrepancies are not always well understood. For example, if a particular station of the network exhibits a velocity anomaly relative to a reference velocity model, then it is of interest to understand the reasons for the anomaly, and its spatial extent, that is if it is local to that station, or if nearby stations are also affected, and with which tapering as a function of distance. As part of the research activities in support of the CEI/CERGOP and EUREF, the time series of coordinates of European Permanent Network (EPN) stations in the Alpine Mediterranean Dinarides region are examined both in the time and space domains, and hypotheses are formulated on the reasons of systematic departures from linearity. The time domain analysis consists in the construction of the Power Spectral Density and autocorrelation function of the time series of each coordinate for each station, the assessment of the type(s) of noise and periodicities, and an estimate

  1. Passerine bird communities of Iberian dehesas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellería, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian dehesas are a man-made habitat composed of scattered oaks (Quercus spp. and extensive grass cover occupying three million ha in south-western Iberia. This paper compares the structure of the passerine bird communities in this region with other bird assemblages of Iberian woodlands. Although forest bird numbers in the southern half of the Iberian peninsula are decreasing, the dehesas show the highest richness in breeding birds, seemingly as the result of the increased presence of border and open-habitat birds. A low intra-habitat turnover of species was observed in the dehesas, with birds recorded at a sampling point accounting for a high percentage of the total richness of the community. This can be related to the low spatial patchiness of this habitat. In winter, the dehesas continued to maintain many bird species, but showed bird densities similar to other woodlands. This pattern, as well as the scarcity of some common forest passerines during the breeding period, could result from the removal of the shrub layer typical of Mediterranean woodlands.

  2. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  3. The peculiarities of trade specialization in creative industries in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika CHALA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of dynamic processes of creative economy development and resistance to the crisis of modern creative industries which occurs mainly in metropolitan areas, the interest in understanding these local processes as a factor of bringing international trade competitiveness and providing convergence among the countries where those metropolises are situated is of great value. The EU, and Central and East Europe (CEE in particular, is not an exception. This paper reveals the most productive creative industries in the EU; fins out the impact of metropolises’ creative activities development on countries’ international specialization. Perspective products’ and geographic patterns relating creative products’ international specialization for CEE countries, especially for those which have recently signed association agreements with the EU (Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia as an important East Neighbour for the EU are grounded. Using inter- and intra-trading estimations, the positioning of CEE countries in the EU 28(+3 international specialization pattern is indicated. The product specialization of metropolises in CEE countries which may (or may not contribute to further internationalization of creative industries in these countries has been revealed in the article.

  4. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

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    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  5. Coccidia in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juan P; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla P; Mejía-García, Cristian J; Janczur, Mariusz K; Gomes Lopes, Carlos W; Berto, Bruno P; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. We captured birds and took samples of their droppings during three field visits. We examined a total of 72 fecal samples and found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 10 samples from five passerine species: Atlapetes pileatus (3), Cardelina ruber (1), Mniotilta varia (1), Oreothlypis celata (2) and Regulus calendula (3). This appears to be the first recorded study of unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerine species from Mexico.

  6. The Competitiveness of Settlements with SPAS in Some Central European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Bakucz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers two topics which are, broadly, inseparable. The first has as its main target the competitiveness of Spa Tourism in two Regions of Hungary - in settlements with different characteristics; the second, recognising the need for a new way to measure competitiveness in the sector, deals with the creation of a new competitiveness index. The benefits of virtually all forms of Tourism - economic or social – are well enough known to need no repetition. This is especially true of such fields as Spa or Health Tourism, in which there is a natural trend towards longer stays and higher expenditure by visitors. For a relatively poor country such as Hungary – weak in natural resources apart from agricultural land – the basic presence of a generous supply of easily accessible thermal or medicinal water below a huge proportion of its surface area (70% is a remarkable gift. Nevertheless, many factors are to be studied if a rational, sustainable development policy is to be elaborated by public and private interests. There are many spas – settlements with thermal or medicinal waters (or both - spread across Hungary, and their variety is extraordinary. There are huge differences in terms of size, visitor numbers, accommodation facilities, overnights, leisure or treatment facilities and location – that is, their closeness to favourable population areas (domestic or foreign. The critical decisions on investment and development need comprehensive data on all factors of all locations. The essential issue is competitiveness: in Central Europe, where spas have a great tradition and history (e.g., Germany, Austria and today’s Czech Republic, does or can Hungary offer a product which will sell? There are numerous factors and as many bases on which to judge. In 2013 a team from the Faculty of Business and Economics at Pécs University - supported by Hungary’s National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA – embarked on a study of the

  7. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

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    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  8. Effects of the 2003 European heatwave on the Central Mediterranean Sea surface layer: a numerical simulation

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    A. Olita

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of anomalous weather conditions on the sea surface layer over the Central Mediterranean were studied with an eddy resolving regional ocean model by performing a 5-year long simulation from 2000 to 2004. The focus was on surface heat fluxes, temperature and dynamics. The analysis of the time series of the selected variables permitted us to identify and quantify the anomalies of the analysed parameters. In order to separate the part of variability not related to the annual cycle and to locate the anomalies in the time-frequency domain, we performed a wavelet analysis of anomalies time series. We found the strongest anomalous event was the overheating affecting the sea surface in the summer of 2003. This anomaly was strictly related to a strong increase of air temperature, a decrease of both wind stress and upward heat fluxes in all their components. The simulated monthly averages of the sea surface temperature were in a good agreement with the remotely-sensed data, although the ocean regional model tended to underestimate the extreme events. We also found, on the basis of the long-wave period of the observed anomaly, this event was not limited to the few summer months, but it was probably part of a longer signal, which also includes negative perturbations of the involved variables. The atmospheric parameters responsible for the overheating of the sea surface also influenced the regional surface and sub-surface dynamics, especially in the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the African Modified Atlantic Water current, in which flows seem to be deeply modified in that period.

  9. Impacts of climatic changes on carbon and water balance components of boreal forest ecosystems in central part of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A.; Novenko, E.; Desherevskaya, O.; Kurbatova, J.

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of the study the possible impacts of climatic changes on carbon and water balances of boreal forest ecosystems of the central part of European Russia for period up to 2100 was estimated using results of model simulations and field measurements. The boreal forests of the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR) were selected for the study. They are located at the southern boundary of south taiga zone in the European part of Russia (Tver region) and it can be expected that they will be very sensitive to modern climate warming. Expected future pattern of climatic parameters in the study area was derived using the global climatic model ECHAM5 (MPI Hamburg, Germany) and climatic scenarios B1, A1B and A2 (IPCC 2007). The possible scenarios of species composition changes of the boreal forests were developed using reconstructions of Holocene vegetation cover and climatic conditions on the base of pollen and plant macrofossil analysis of peat profiles in CFSNBR. The annual future pattern of CO2 and H2O fluxes of the forests were simulated using a process-based Mixfor-SVAT model (Olchev et al. 2002, 2008). The main advantage of Mixfor-SVAT is that it allows us to describe CO2 and H2O fluxes both in mono-specific and mixed forest stands. It is able to quantify both total ecosystem fluxes and flux partitioning among different tree species and canopy layers. It is obvious that it can be very helpful to describe accurately effects of species composition changes on structure of dynamics of carbon and water balance of forest ecosystems. Results of modeling experiments show that expected climatic and vegetation changes can have significant impact on evapotranspiration, transpiration, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross (GPP) and Net (NPP) Primary Productivities of boreal forest ecosystems. These changes have a clear seasonal trend and they are depended on species composition of a forest stand. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation

  10. Sulfur isotope dynamics in two central european watersheds affected by high atmospheric deposition of SO x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Kirchner, James W.; Groscheová, Hana; Havel, Miroslav; Černý, Jiří; Krejčí, Radovan; Buzek, František

    2000-02-01

    Sulfur fluxes and δ34S values were determined in two acidified small watersheds located near the Czech-German border, Central Europe. Sulfur of sulfate aerosol in the broader region (mean δ 34S of 7.5‰ CDT) was isotopically heavier than sulfur of airborne SO 2 (mean δ 34S of 4.7‰). The annual atmospheric S deposition to the Jezeřı´ watershed decreased markedly in 1993, 1994, and 1995 (40, 33, and 29 kg/ ha · yr), reflecting reductions in industrial S emissions. Sulfur export from Jezeří via surface discharge was twice atmospheric inputs, and increased from 52 to 58 to 85 kg/ha · yr over the same three-year period. The δ 34S value of Jezeřı´ streamflow was 4.5 ± 0.3‰, intermediate between the average atmospheric deposition (5.4 ± 0.2‰) and soil S (4.0 ± 0.5‰), suggesting that the excess sulfate in runoff comes from release of S from the soil. Bedrock is not a plausible source of the excess S, because its S concentration is very low (release of soil S accounted for 64 ± 33% of sulfate S in Jezeřı´ discharge. Approximately 30% of total sulfate S in the discharge were organically cycled. At Načetı´n, the same sequence of δ34S IN > δ34S OUT > δ34S SOIL was observed. The seasonality found in atmospheric input (higher δ 34S in summer, lower δ 34S in winter) was preserved in shallow (10 cm) soil water (4.8 ± 0.2‰) were intermediate between those of atmospheric input (5.9 ± 0.3‰) and Nac̆etín soils (2.4 ± 0.1‰), again suggesting that remobilization of soil S accounts for a significant fraction (roughly 40 ± 10%) of the S in soil water at Načetı´n. The inventories of soil S at both of these sites are legacies of more intense atmospheric pollution during previous decades, and are large enough (740 and 1500 kg S/ha at Jezeřı´ and Načetı´n, respectively) to supply significant sulfur fluxes to runoff for several more decades. The ongoing release of this stored soil S may significantly delay the recovery of water quality

  11. Properly pricing country risk: a model for pricing long-term fundamental risk applied to central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Revoltella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector has used proxies such as sovereign credit ratings, spreads on sovereign bonds and spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDS to gauge country risk, even though these measures are pricing the risk of default of government bonds, which is different from the risks facing private participants in cross-border financing. Under normal market conditions, the CDS spreads are a very useful source of information on country risk. However, the recent crisis has shown that the CDS spreads might lead to some underpricing or overpricing of fundamentals in the case of excessively low or excessively high risk aversion. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of country risk that extracts the volatile, short-term market sentiment component from the sover eign CDS spread in order to improve its reliability in periods of market distress. We show that adverse market sentiment was a key driver of the sharp increase in sovereign CDS spreads of central and eastern European (CEE countries during the most severe phase of the crisis. We also show that our measure of country risk sheds some light on the observed stability of cross-border bank flows to CEE banks during the crisis.

  12. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Bilgic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC and aesthetic components (AC of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9% and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%. Moreover, increased (18% and reduced bites (14.%, and increased (25.1% and reversed overjet (10.% were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5 was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10 of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

  13. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

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    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  14. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  15. Insights Into Central And Eastern European Countries Competitiveness: On The Exposure Of Capital Markets To Exchange Rate Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected fluctuations in exchange rates represent a matter of concern for all businesses nowadays as the volatility in exchange rates impacts businesses’ cash flows, revenues and expenses, and eventually is reflected in the company’s risk-return profile. Companies’ exposures to exchange rate risk have considerably increased in the past decades, given the boost in international operations and the continuous diversification of businesses’ activities at the global level. Despite the attention that businesses display to nominal exchange rates changes, it is the real exchange rate that should be of more concern to corporate managers, since they induce changes at the level of the competitiveness of the business. Our paper comparatively analyzes the exposure to changes in the nominal and real exchanges rates of the local currencies that companies from a number of four Central and Eastern European countries (Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland and investigates the nature of the relationship between stock market performance and exchange rates in the four countries under consideration. We find limited evidence for contemporaneous and asymmetric exposure to nominal and real exchange rate risk in all four countries, but consistent evidence for three to four months lagged exposure.

  16. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  17. The Study on Rescue Measures and Costs of European Central Bank during the European Debt Crisis%欧债危机中欧央行的救助措施与救助成本研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁佳

    2015-01-01

    欧债危机期间,欧央行为支持融资环境和信贷流动,并弥补利率政策的局限性,除下调主要政策利率外,还多管齐下地采取了大量创新性﹑非常规货币政策措施,短期内对稳定金融市场起到了一定效果。但同时,非常规货币政策导致欧央行资产负债表规模激增,风险敞口不断上升,不过欧央行的风险管理框架确保风险能得到有效控制与缓解。尽管欧央行在欧债危机救助中发挥了重要作用,但由于欧盟框架下的制度设计缺陷导致欧央行缺乏最后贷款人职能,严重影响了危机的救助时机和延缓了欧元区经济的复苏。欧央行危机救助的经验和教训对中国未来可能的危机救助提供了一些启示:一是政府救助要遵守一定的原则,二是中央银行要发挥好最后贷款人的作用,三是中央银行要采取相应风险防范措施,以规避资产风险上升的可能性。%During the European debt crisis, European central bank had taken a lot of innovative and unconventional monetary pol-icy measures besides cutting down main policy rates to support the financing environment and the credit flow and make up the limita-tions of the interest rate policy, which had a certain effect on stabilizing the financial markets in the short term. But at the same time, unconventional monetary policies caused the rise of the scale of the balance sheet of the European central bank and exposure to risks. However, the risk management framework of the European central bank ensured that the risk could be effectively controlled and allevi-ated with ease. Although the European central bank had played an important role in the crisis rescue, but the system design defects un-der the European Union framework lead to that the European central bank takes no responsibility of the lender of last resort, which se-riously affects the crisis rescue opportunity time and postpones the Euro zone’s economic

  18. Geophysical and petrological modeling of the lower crust and uppermost mantle in the Variscan and Proterozoic surroundings of the Trans-European Suture Zone in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2017-04-01

    High-quality seismic data on the lower crust and uppermost lithospheric mantle in the Central European part of the Trans European Suture Zone, together with thermal and gravimetric data, enables the quantitative modeling of the rocks occurring in those parts of the lithosphere, including their mineral compositions and the chemical composition of individual minerals. The P3 seismic profile is located at the SW margin of the East European Craton. The lower crust is dominated by gabbronoritic intrusions (plagioclase An45Ab55, clinopyroxene Di80Hed20, orthopyroxene En74Fs26), and the uppermost mantle is harzburgitic (olivine and orthopyroxene Mg# 0.91). The lower crust and upper mantle of the P1 seismic profile belong to the Trans European Suture Zone, albeit the upper crust is of Variscan affinity. The P1 lower crust has gabbronoritic composition which is layered from plagioclase-rich compositions on the top to the orthopyroxene-rich ones at the bottom (plagioclase An45Ab55, clinopyroxene Di80Hed20, orthopyroxene En85Fs15), and is lithologically different Proterozoic and Variscan surroundings. The 100 × 200 km eclogite slice (garnet Alm48Gr25Py27, clinopyroxene Di51Hed10Jd39), with a thickness of 5-10 km, occurs in the uppermost mantle sampled by the P1 profile. The Niedźwiedź Massif is located at the NE margin of the Bohemian Massif, which shows an exposed Variscan basement. The lower crust beneath the Niedźwiedź Massif consists of gabbroic rock of variable proportions of plagioclase (An45Ab55) and clinopyroxene (Di80Hed20), whereas the uppermost mantle is supposedly spinel harzburgite (olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene Mg# 0.90). Our models show that the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle of the East European Craton do not continue to the SW into the Trans European Suture Zone in its Central European section in Poland.

  19. Mesozoic retroposons reveal parrots as the closest living relatives of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Alexander; Paus, Martin; Kiefmann, Martin; Churakov, Gennady; Franke, Franziska Anni; Brosius, Jürgen; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2011-08-23

    The relationships of passerines (such as the well-studied zebra finch) with non-passerine birds is one of the great enigmas of avian phylogenetic research, because decades of extensive morphological and molecular studies yielded highly inconsistent results between and within data sets. Here we show the first application of the virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertions to this controversy. Our study examined ~200,000 retroposon-containing loci from various avian genomes and retrieved 51 markers resolving early bird phylogeny. Among these, we obtained statistically significant evidence that parrots are the closest and falcons the second-closest relatives of passerines, together constituting the Psittacopasserae and the Eufalconimorphae, respectively. Our new and robust phylogenetic framework has substantial implications for the interpretation of various conclusions drawn from passerines as model organisms. This includes insights of relevance to human neuroscience, as vocal learning (that is, birdsong) probably evolved in the psittacopasseran ancestor, >30 million years earlier than previously assumed.

  20. Changes in Central European Soil Moisture Availability and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns between 1875 and 2005 - Regional Climate Change in Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, M.; Kysely, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Mozny, M.; Hostynek, J.; Svoboda, M.; Hayes, M. J.; Zalud, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Relationships between the soil moisture availability and the atmospheric circulation in Central Europe were analyzed for the period 1881-2005. The analysis was based on the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue of circulation types (CTs), and a series of weekly self-calibrated Palmer Z-index (scZ-index) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) values at seven stations where high-quality daily data has recently become available. The results show that the large-scale droughts during spring months (MAM) were associated with east (E), south (S), and south- east (SE) circulation types, whereas during summer (JJA) and the whole vegetation season, i.e., April-September (VEG), the Central Europe high pressure systems (HM) and east (E) circulation types were conducive to drought. Statistically significant drying trends were noted at a majority of the stations, especially during MAM and JJA, over the whole period for which the scPDSI and scZ-index series were available (1875-2005). Although almost no statistically significant tendencies were found prior to 1940, a significant tendency towards more intense drought was present at all sites after this year. The largest drying trend was noted during the VEG and AMJ seasons. The overall drying trend might be associated with shifts in the frequency of CTs, especially during AMJ. Although the aggregate frequency of occurrence of drought-conducive CTs (i.e. E, S and HM) remained stable at approximately 30% up to the 1940s, a steady increase to the present 55% frequency is observed afterwards. Higher frequencies of S and HM types drove the observed increase of drought-conducive CTs at the expense of N types that are associated with wet conditions. The long-term shifts in the frequency of circulation types conducive to drought explain more than 50% of the long-term variations of both scZ-index and PDSI values over the territory of the Czech Republic, and they are likely to affect whole central European region as well. Acknowledgement: This study

  1. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  2. Coccidia of New World passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): a review of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno P; Flausino, Walter; McIntosh, Douglas; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G

    2011-11-01

    In the New World, the avian order Passeriformes comprises 47 families and 2,453 species, yet to date only 21 (45%) of the families and 58 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only two species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and 81 species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 have been described. This review contributes to our understanding of the morphology and systematics of coccidian parasites of passeriforms, providing a scientific basis for the identification of sporulated oöcysts recovered from the faeces of passerine birds from North, Central and South America. To this end, the coccidia were organised and grouped according to the family of the host, following the widely recognised concept of family-specificity and the updated systematics of the class Aves. Details of 83 eimeriid species are presented along with an illustration and tabulated data.

  3. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  4. Paleostress analysis applied to fault-slip data from the southern margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Reicherter, K. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Mazur, S. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    2007-09-13

    We investigate the paleostress fields which controlled the post-Variscan evolution of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). Therefore, field studies are carried out in the marginal areas of the CEBS where Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the basin fill are present in outcrops bearing the imprints of several deformation phases that affected the basin system since the latest Carboniferous. Field studies including structural analysis, measurement of fault-slip data and careful collection of kinematic indicators provide the data base for this study. In the case of polyphase tectonics, the chronology of successive events is deduced and the total fault population from each site is qualitatively divided into different subsets, each being consistent with one specific stress regime. Since the stratigraphy and evolution of the CEBS are well known, temporal and spatial correlations of paleostress orientations are possible. Beside cross-cutting relationships derived from outcrops, we apply different graphical and numerical methods to separate the faults into homogeneous subsets. Depending on (1) the nature of faults (i.e. neoformed or reactivated), (2) the distribution of fault-slip data and (3) the deformation style, the deviatoric stress tensor is calculated for each subset using either the Numeric Dynamic Analysis (Spang, 1972; Sperner et al., 1993) or the Multiple Inverse Method (Yamaji 2000). The results are obtained in terms of a reduced stress tensor, consisting of (1) the orientations of the three principal stress axes {sigma}{sub 1}, {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 3} with {sigma}{sub 1}{>=}{sigma}{sub 2}{>=}{sigma}{sub 3} and (2) the ratio of principal stress differences, R=({sigma}{sub 2}-{sigma}{sub 3})/({sigma}{sub 1}-{sigma}{sub 3}) with 1{>=}{phi}{>=}0. (orig.)

  5. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region called ‘Partium’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Fényes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of ‘The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development’ project (N=602, 2010. We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify themselves with, what affects these attitudes (gender, faculty type, social background of students, locality type, religiosity, and finally what kind of educational policy implications could be relevant concerning our findings. We have used cluster analysis and a logistic regression model, and formulated several hypotheses that were controlled by these methods. Our results show that there are a large number of students who belong to the more traditional attitude cluster in this region, but women more frequently identify themselves with modern gender roles than men do. The faculty-type effect has only been partly detected. We have found that with ‘male-dominated’ majors, both women and men identify themselves with more traditional attitudes and that with ‘female-dominated’ majors all students have more modern attitudes. The effect of social background is contradictory. Those whose parents had larger numbers of books had increased modern attitudes, but the factor ‘regular financial problems in the family’ also increased it. Our next result is that students who live in villages are not more traditional than others, because they live in cities during their studies. Our final result is that churchly religious students think more traditionally regarding gender roles than others do, but those who are religious in their own way do not.

  6. Central European parasitic flatworms of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida): molecular and comparative morphological analysis rejects the synonymization of Renicola pinguis complex suggested by Odening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    The Renicolidae are digenean parasites of piscivorous and molluscivorous birds. Although they exhibit few morphological autapomorphies and are highly variable, the numerous suggested re-classifications within the family have never been supported by any molecular analyses. We address the possible synonymization of species within the Renicola pinguis complex suggested previously by Odening. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (ITS2, 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Renicolidae, namely Renicola lari, Renicola pinguis and Renicola sternae sp. n., and we also provide first sequences of Renicola sloanei. The combined molecular and comparative morphological analysis confirms the previously questioned validity of the three Renicola spp. of highly similar morphology, which display strict niche separation in terms of host specificity and selectivity. We identify two previously unreported clades within the genus Renicola; however, only one of them is supported by the analysis of adult worms. We also provide comparative measurements of the three examined closely related central European renicolids, and describe the newly proposed tern-specialized species Renicola sternae sp. n., which was previously repeatedly misidentified as Renicola paraquinta. Based on the extensive dataset collected in 1962-2015, we update the host spectrum of Renicolidae parasitizing central European birds (Renicola bretensis, R. lari, Renicola mediovitellata, R. pinguis, Renicola secunda and R. sternae sp. n.) and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections.

  7. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  8. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  9. Effects of the 2003 European heatwave on the Central Mediterranean Sea: surface fluxes and the dynamical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sorgente

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the 2003 European heatwave on the sea surface layer of the Central Mediterranean were studied using a regional 3-D ocean model. The model was used to simulate the period 2000 to 2004 and its performance was validated using remotely-sensed and in situ data. Analysis of the results focused on changes in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST and on changes to the surface and sub-surface current field. This permitted us to identify and quantify the anomalies of atmospheric and sea surface parameters that accompanied the heatwave. The dominant annual cycle in each variable was first removed and a wavelet analysis then used to locate anomalies in the time-frequency domain.

    We found that the excess heating affecting the sea surface in the summer of 2003 was related to a significant increase in air temperature, a decrease in wind stress and reduction of all components of the upward heat flux. The monthly averages of the model SST were found to be in good agreement with remotely-sensed data during the period studied, although the ocean model tended to underestimate extreme events. The spatial distribution of SST anomalies as well as their time-frequency location was similar for both the remotely-sensed and model temperatures. We also found, on the basis of the period of the observed anomaly, that the event was not limited to the few summer months of 2003 but was part of a longer phenomenon. Both the model results and experimental data suggest the anomalous heating mainly affected the top 15 m of ocean and was associated with strong surface stratification and low mixing.

    The skill of the model to reproduce the sub-surface hydrographic features during the heatwave was checked by comparison with temperature and salinity measurements. This showed that the model was generally in good agreement with observations. The model and observations showed that the anomalous warming also modified the currents in the region, most noticeably

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN ROMANIA, HUNGARY AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study is meant to be an extension of and completion to a former research paper entitled “The Role of Foreign Language Teachers in Developing Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills” concluding that students of the University of Oradea, Romania, generally lack intercultural sensitivity and it falls to a great extent to foreign language teachers to change this state of affairs. When the former study came up with proposals for methods of enhancing students’ cultural awareness (see simulation games on cultural differences like Barnga, BaFá BaFá, Randömia Balloon Factory and others, the present study focuses on an international comparison, though limited to only three academic institutions in three countries, regarding Eastern and Central European students’ intercultural sensitivity. The initial idea was to see to what extent students of the University of Oradea, Romania, studying Economics, Medicine and Law dispose of intercultural skills. For this reason a Likert-type scale questionnaire was applied to more than 200 students of the above mentioned faculties. The survey was extended in the second round in Oradea, Romania, also to the Faculty of Environmental Protection and that of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, respectively to an international level asking students of the University of Debrecen, Hungary and the University of Maribor, Slovenia, the same questions. Although we are aware of the limitations of present study, – only three institutions included in the research, having in Debrecen and Maribor less respondents than in Oradea and only from some fields of study, Slovenian students not getting a Slovenian version of the questionnaire, which may have influenced their level of understanding issues, responses not always being consistent – its results have still an informative value. They confirm the author’s initial hypothesis that in spite of the extended international relations and

  11. A new approach to evaluate multimodal orientation behaviour of migratory passerine birds recorded in circular orientation cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarowska, Agnieszka; Ilieva, Mihaela; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Akesson, Susanne; Muś, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Circular orientation cages have been used for several decades to record the migratory orientation of passerine migrants, and have been central to the investigation of the functional characteristics of the biological compasses used for orientation. The use of these cages offers unique possibilities to study the migratory behaviour of songbirds, but suffers from statistical limitations in evaluating the directions of the activity recorded in the cages. The migratory activity has been reported to vary, including complex multimodal orientation of migratory passerines tested in orientation cages irrespective of species studied. The currently applied circular statistical methods fail to describe orientation responses differing from unimodal and axial distributions. We propose for the first time a modelling procedure enabling the analysis of multimodal distributions at either an individual or a group level. In this paper we compare the results of conventional methods and the recommended modelling approach. Migratory routes may be more complex than a simple migratory direction, and multimodal behaviour in migratory species at the individual and population levels can be advantageous. Individuals may select the expected migratory direction, but may also return to safer sites en route, i.e. sites already known, which provide food and/or shelter in reverse directions. In individual birds, several directions may be expressed in the same test hour. At the species level, multimodal orientation may give an opportunity to expand the range or may refer to differential migration route preferences in different populations of birds. A conflicting experimental situation may also result in a different preferential orientation. In this paper we suggest a statistical solution to deal with these types of variations in orientation preference.

  12. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Holt, Ben G; Borregaard, Michael K; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world's major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial relationships have been resolved, based on phylogenetic analyses using multiple nuclear loci. In the current study we analyse eight nuclear and four mitochondrial loci to generate a dated phylogeny for the majority of corvoid species. This phylogeny includes 667 out of 780 species (85.5%), 141 out of 143 genera (98.6%) and all 31 currently recognized families, thus providing a baseline for comprehensive macroecological, macroevolutionary and biogeographical analyses. Using this phylogeny we assess the temporal consistency of the current taxonomic classification of families and genera. By adopting an approach that enforces temporal consistency by causing the fewest possible taxonomic changes to currently recognized families and genera, we find the current familial classification to be largely temporally consistent, whereas that of genera is not.

  13. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  14. Comparison between the European Central Bank as a New Monetary Experiment and other Major - Central Banks - US Federal Reserve and Bank of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to make a survey of three major central banks practices and to emphasize both the different national characteristics and the similarities derived from the global changes of financial environment. Using a descriptive methodology, the comparison will concern the central banks’ goals, the institutional and organizational structures, strategies and tools of monetary policy

  15. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of pure european beech forests in Oraştie river basin (central-western Romania

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    Petru BURESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Festuco drymejaeFagetum Morariu et al. 1968 (Syn.: Fagetum sylvaticae transylvaticum facies with Festuca drymeja I. Pop et al. 1974, found in the pure European beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, lying in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done byselecting the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to the Orăştie river basin. The phytocoenoses of these beech forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  16. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  17. The impact of recent Central and Eastern European migration on the Scottish health service: A study of newspaper coverage 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Alastair; Gorman, Dermot; Higgins, Martin

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines newspaper coverage of the impact on NHS Scotland of recent Central and Eastern European immigration. It follows rising public interest in the impacts of 'record' and 'unexpected' levels of migration after the 2004 and 2007 European Union (EU) enlargements. We reviewed reporting in six Scottish newspapers during 2004-2008 to track underlying themes within their coverage of EU migration. The framework of Social Representations Theory (SRT) was used to analyse how migration's impact was conceptualised and explained. This research shows that portrayal of migrants posing a threat to the NHS (e.g. European staff with inadequate qualifications), has increased in frequency but changed in nature over the past 4 years. Meanwhile, reports have also portrayed themes of reassurance (e.g. NHS management control) to allay societies' fears. The overall pattern is of representations of threat in the Scottish press being closely followed by those of reassurances. The most important reassurances relate to Scottish socioeconomic conditions, which raises questions might be seen in other UK newspapers as well as what will happen in Scotland if A8 migration decreases.

  18. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.; Van der Wal, R.

    1996-01-01

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden. Sna

  19. POOR REPRODUCTION IN FOREST PASSERINES FROM DECLINE OF SNAIL ABUNDANCE ON ACIDIFIED SOILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRAVELAND, J; VANDERWAL, R; VANBALEN, JH; VANNOORDWIJK, AJ

    1994-01-01

    ON poor, acidified soils in The Netherlands, an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and other forest passerines, produce eggs with thin and porous shells1. Here we show that the egg-shell defects, and the related high incidence of clutch desertion and empty nests, are caused by calcium def

  20. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  1. [Ecology of indigenious arbovirus in Alsace. Tick Central European Encephalitis. I.--Complex Ixodes ricinus--bank voles. II.--Study of bank voles population immunity. III.--Virologic results in bank voles population (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Rodhain, F; Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Salmon, A M; Ardoin, P; Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Sureau, P

    1979-01-01

    I.--After showing that bank voles are parasited only by Ixodes ricinus larvae, the authors attempt to found different factors (demographic, biometric, and sexual) who favor individual parasitism. The authors conclude to absent of anti tick immunity for this rodent specie. II.--The search for anti-central european encephalitis antibodies (I.H.A.) are shown that 2 p. cent animals were immuns. Yearly and monthly chronologies of antibodies apparition are shown, factors favoring the growth of specific Central european encephalitis antibodies are discussed. III.--The Central european encephalitis tick viral infection of bank vole is studied according to the number of viral strains isolated from different viscera. The monthly chronology of this infection is shown.

  2. Central nervous system (CNS) cancer in children and young people in the European Union and its involvements with socio-economic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Alcaide Capilla, Teresa; Chenlo Alonso, Unai; Rubio-López, Nuria; Alegre-Martinez, Antoni; Morales Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-12-15

    Malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the leading cause of death by cancer in children and the second commonest pediatric cancer type. Despite several decades of epidemiologic research, the etiology of childhood CNS tumors is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and therapeutic ionizing radiation are thought to account for 5-10% of childhood cancer, but the etiology of other cases remains unknown. Nongenetic causes, like environmental agents, are thought to explain them. However, as very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The biggest difference between cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are none could be the number of relevant studies. This study, which covers the 1980-2011 period, identified links between CNS cancer evolution and the socio-economic and environmental indicators in the same space and time limits in the European Union.

  3. Implications of the Eu Enlargement on the Foreign Trade Activity of the Eastern and Central European Countries which Recently Joined the Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Aurelia Chitiba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU-27 is by far the largest exporter of goods worldwide: in 2007, goods worth EUR 1 240 billionwere exported, against EUR 848 billion by the United States and EUR 889 billion by China. The United States importedslightly more than the EU-27 (EUR 1 472 billion and EUR 1 426billion respectively, more than double the value of totalimports registered by China (EUR 698 billion.Under the influence of a lot of general and specific factors, the foreign trade of Central and Eastern European(CEE countries which recently joined the European Union has been constantly growing till the second part of 2008 year,registering higher yearly growth rates than the total of EU-27.In the last years, for the foreign trade of all the ten new EU members CEE states it appears like a common tracethe deeply process of growing the importance of the intra EU commercial relationship within the total internationaleconomic relationship of these countries. Between the new EU members, the most important weight of the intra EUcommerce in their total foreign trade is registered by the Check Republic (83%, Slovakia (80%, Latvia (76%, Poland(75%, and Estonia (75%.In business environment, institutional, and logistics performance, the EU accession countries stand out as the bestperformers. Most new EU member states are in fact catching up to OECD countries on some measures of logisticsperformance, and all rank in the top 50 with the exception of Lithuania (ranked 58th.

  4. Central bank reaction to public deficit and sound public finance: the case of the European Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to shed light on the relation between monetary and fiscal policy in EMU, focusing on the interest rates and deficit dynamics. We present a theoretical model in which monetary and fiscal policy independently interact in a closed economic system through their own instrument, namely, the rate of interest for the central bank and deficit spending for governments. We demonstrate that the possibility of the two policy authorities producing not conflicting results depends on the idea ...

  5. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  6. 欧洲央行主权债券购买权的合法化研究%The Legitimacy Of The European Central Bank's Sovereign Bond Buying Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺霖

    2016-01-01

    The European Central Bank's sovereign bond buying program is being questioned in the euro area. On the one hand, in the current stage, the European Central Bank's sovereign bond purchase is an essential rescue program. On the other hand, the European Central Bank's sovereign bond buying power does exist illegal factors. It is worth noting that European Court of justice, in the case of June 2015, interprets the European Central Bank's two-market sovereign bonds as a legitimate act, completing the legalization process of the European Central Bank's sovereign bond buying power in the form of judgment. However, some problems still exist in the legal practices.%面对欧元区主权债务危机,欧洲央行提出的主权债券购买计划受到了合法性质疑,一方面现阶段欧洲央行的主权债券购买计划是必不可少的救市方案,另一方面欧洲央行的主权债券购买权的确存在违法因素。值得注意的是,欧洲法院在2015年6月的案件判决中将欧洲央行二级市场的主权债券购买解释为合法行为,完成了以判决的形式使欧洲央行主权债券购买权合法化的过程,但法律实践中的一些问题仍然存在。

  7. Evropejskaja ideja v Central'noj Evrope i Skandinavii kak chast' politiki bezopasnosti i mirnogo sosushhestvovanija v ramkah poslevoennogo planirovanija [The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Yevgeny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  8. Soil compaction of various Central European forest soils caused by traffic of forestry machines with various chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 g.cm-3 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 g.cm-3 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions.  Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of 18 passerines based on Adenylate Kinase Intron 5 sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-yan; YU Hui-xin; BAI Su-ying; MA Yu-kun

    2008-01-01

    The 18 species of bird studied originally are known to belong to muscicapids, robins and sylviids of passerines, but some disputations are always present in their classification systems. In this experiment, phylogenetic relationships of 18 species of passerines were studied using Adenylate Kinase Intron 5 (AK5) sequences and DNA techniques. Through sequences analysis in comparison with each other, phylogenetic tree figures of 18 species of passerines were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum-Parsimony (MP) methods . The results showed that sylviids should be listed as an independent family, while robins and flycatchers should be listed into Muscicapidae. Since the phylogenetic relationships between long-tailed tits and old world warblers are closer than that between long-tailed tits and parids, the long-tailed tits should be independent of paridae and be categorized into aegithalidae. Muscicapidae and Paridae are known to be two monophylitic families, but Sylviidae is not a monophyletic group. AK5 sequences had better efficacy in resolving close relationships of interspecies among intrageneric groups.

  10. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for t

  11. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  12. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-05-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A prevalence-based model was constructed for budget impact analysis. Two scenarios were compared to the reference scenario (RSc) where no biosimilar infliximab is available: biosimilar scenario 1 (BSc1), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is disallowed, and only patients who start new biological therapy are allowed to use biosimilar infliximab; as well as biosimilar scenario 2 (BSc2), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is allowed, and 80% of patients treated with originator infliximab are interchanged to biosimilar infliximab. Compared to the RSc, the net savings are estimated to be €15.3 or €20.8 M in BSc1 and BSc2, respectively, over the 3 years. If budget savings were spent on reimbursement of additional biosimilar infliximab treatment, approximately 1,200 or 1,800 more patients could be treated in the six countries within 3 years in the two biosimilar scenarios, respectively. The actual saving is most sensitive to the assumption of the acquisition cost of the biosimilar drug and to the initial number of patients treated with biological therapy. The study focused on one indication (RA) and demonstrated that the introduction of biosimilar infliximab can lead to substantial budget savings in health care budgets. Further savings are expected for other indications where biosimilar medicines are implemented.

  13. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic variation in central and northern European populations of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francuski, Ljubinka; Milankov, Vesna; Ludoški, Jasmina; Krtinić, Bosiljka; Lundström, Jan O; Kemenesi, Gábor; Ferenc, Jakab

    2016-06-01

    The floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans can be a massive nuisance in the flood plain areas of mainland Europe, and is the vector of Tahyna virus and a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis. This epidemiologically important species forms three subspecies worldwide, of which Aedes vexans arabiensis has a wide distribution in Europe and Africa. We quantified the genetic and phenotypic variation in Ae. vexans arabiensis in populations from Sweden (northern Europe), Hungary, and Serbia (central Europe). A landscape genetics approach (FST , STRUCTURE, BAPS, GENELAND) revealed significant differentiation between northern and southern populations. Similar to genetic data, wing geometric morphometrics revealed two different clusters, one made by Swedish populations, while another included Hungarian and Serbian populations. Moreover, integrated genetic and morphometric data from the spatial analysis suggested groupings of populations into three clusters, one of which was from Swedish and Hungarian populations. Data on spatial analysis regarding an intermediate status of the Hungarian population was supported by observed Isolation-by-Distance patterns. Furthermore, a low proportion of interpopulation vs intrapopulation variance revealed by AMOVA and low-to-moderate FST values on a broader geographical scale indicate a continuous between-population exchange of individuals, including considerable gene flow on the regional scale, are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the observed population similarity in Aе. vexans. We discussed data considering population structure in the light of vector control strategies of the mosquito from public health importance.

  15. Molecular species identification of Central European ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae using nuclear rDNA expansion segments and DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raupach Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of vast numbers of unknown organisms using DNA sequences becomes more and more important in ecological and biodiversity studies. In this context, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene has been proposed as standard DNA barcoding marker for the identification of organisms. Limitations of the COI barcoding approach can arise from its single-locus identification system, the effect of introgression events, incomplete lineage sorting, numts, heteroplasmy and maternal inheritance of intracellular endosymbionts. Consequently, the analysis of a supplementary nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Results We tested the effectiveness of the COI barcoding region and of three nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in discriminating ground beetles of Central Europe, a diverse and well-studied invertebrate taxon. As nuclear markers we determined the 18S rDNA: V4, 18S rDNA: V7 and 28S rDNA: D3 expansion segments for 344 specimens of 75 species. Seventy-three species (97% of the analysed species could be accurately identified using COI, while the combined approach of all three nuclear markers provided resolution among 71 (95% of the studied Carabidae. Conclusion Our results confirm that the analysed nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in combination constitute a valuable and efficient supplement for classical DNA barcoding to avoid potential pitfalls when only mitochondrial data are being used. We also demonstrate the high potential of COI barcodes for the identification of even closely related carabid species.

  16. Ecosystem disturbances in Central European spruce forests: a multi-proxy integration of dendroecology and sedimentary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Chiverrell, Richard; Kunes, Petr; Svoboda, Miroslav; Boyle, John

    2016-04-01

    Disturbance dynamics in forest ecosystems shows signs of perturbation in the light of changing climate regimes with the frequency and intensity of events (e.g. pathogens in North America and Central Europe) amplified, becoming more frequent and severe. The montane Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominated forests of Central Europe are a niche habitat and environment; situated outside their natural boreal distribution (e.g. Fenno-Scandinavia). These communities are at or near their ecological limits and are vulnerable to both short term disturbances (e.g. fire, windstorm and pathogens) and longer-term environmental change (e.g. climate induced stress and changing disturbance patterns). Researches have linked negative impacts on spruce forest with both wind disturbance (wind-throw) and outbreaks of spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus), and there is growing evidence for co-association with wind damage enhancing pathogenic outbreaks. Examples include: in the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) the mid-1990s spruce bark beetle outbreak and the 2007 windstorm and subsequent bark beetle outbreak. In the High Tatra Mountains (Slovakia) there is a further co-association of forest disturbance with windstorms (2004 and 2014) and an ongoing bark beetle outbreak. The scale and severity of these recent outbreaks of spruce bark beetle are unprecedented in the historical forest records. Here, findings from ongoing research developing and integrating data from dendroecological, sedimentary palaeoecological and geochemical time series to develop a longer-term perspective on forest dynamics in these regions. Tree-ring series from plots or forest stands (>500) are used alongside lake (5) and forest hollow (3) sediments from the Czech and Slovak Republics to explore the local, regional and biogeographical scale of forest disturbances. Dendroecological data showing tree-ring gap recruitment and post-suppression growth release highlight frequent disturbance events focused on tree or forest

  17. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  18. The influence of volcanic eruptions on growth of central European trees in NE Germany during the last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, H.; Heinrich, I.; Heussner, K. U.; Helle, G.

    2011-12-01

    species show a clearly negative response in tree growth after volcanic eruptions. Volcanic aerosols originating from the northern hemisphere appear to cause a greater ring-width reduction than aerosols from volcanoes from the southern hemisphere. The study clearly indicates that effects of major volcanic eruptions are less obvious in central Europe than they are for trees growing at the altitudinal or latitudinal timberline.

  19. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J-H; Hu, K-N; Ilgen, J; Ilgen, G

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in total 80 wine samples of different types and seven grape juice and 23 beer samples purchased from markets in Central Europe in order to understand the arsenic (As) speciation and help assess the potential As toxicity via intake of alcoholic beverages. Generally, total As concentrations in most samples investigated were below the drinking water limit 10 µg l(-1) published by the World Health Organization (WHO); ranging from 0.46 to 21.0 µg l(-1) As in red and white wines and from 0.75 to 13.4 µg l(-1) As in beers. In addition, concentrations of total As in rice wine and in rice beer were 0.63-6.07 and 3.69-8.23 µg l(-1) As, respectively. The total As concentrations in ice wine ranged from 7.94 to 18.8 µg l(-1) As, significantly higher than in white and red wine. Arsenite predominated as the As species in most of the wine samples, whereas arsenate was the dominant species in rice wine, beer and rice beer. Methyl As components were usually minor components in all wine and beer samples. Monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and two additional unknown As species were frequently found in grape juice, late harvest and ice wine with higher sweetness. After air exposure, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid were stable at 4°C for months, probably due to the acidic conditions of wine and beer samples. The presence of sulfite had little influence on As speciation in wine. Despite the predominance of more toxic arsenite and arsenate in wine and beer, the estimated weekly exposure to As (via consumption of beer, wine and rice wine) is low. The As intake per capita is 6.81 µg from beer, <1.93 µg from wine and 0.88 µg from rice wine, estimated using the median of total As concentration multiplied by the average consumption per capita of the corresponding beverage.

  20. Metals in the 0.25-0.05 mm sand fraction of forest soils in central European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the vertical and lateral geochemical differentiation of 0.25-0.05 mm sand fraction partitioned from uncontaminated forest soils on the central part of the Russian Plain. The vertical distribution of Fe, Ti, Mn, Zr, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Co was examined in 5 soil profiles: two podzoluvisols developing on sheet loam on interfluvial summits, two poorly differentiated soddy and soddy gleyic soils occupying slope and footslope positions, and one floodplain soil. The spatial variations of 0.25-0.05 mm fraction geochemistry were characterized using elemental data from the humus horizons of two soil catenas and the topsoil of an erosional landform (a gully system), typical for the study area. Analyses show the following median concentrations in the sand fraction: Fe - 3,2%, Ti - 3000 ppm, Mn - 500 ppm, Zr - 640 ppm, Zn, Cu, Cr - 50 ppm, and Ni, Pb and Co - 23, 18 and 8 ppm, respectively. Variation coefficients diminish in magnitude: Mn, Cu (70-80%) > Co, Zn, Ni, Fe (60-65%) >Zr, Ti (45%) > Cr, Pb (35%). The sand fraction content in the soils varied widely, from 0.4 to 56% depending on the lithological features of parent material and underlying strata. No even distribution of the fraction across soil profiles was registered. In soils on loamy deposits sand enrichment was observed in the upper horizons, in contrast to the lower horizons for soils underlain by sandy glacio-fluvial deposits. The higher contents of metals in the sand fraction in all soil profiles were found in the topsoil, characterized by more active humus accumulation, biogeochemical processes and sand grain weathering. However, Ti and Zr were distributed more evenly, implying their presence in a form of stable primary minerals. The spatial distribution of the metals in 0.25-0.05 mm particles revealed important soil-geochemical convergence processes in lateral direction along catenas. Fraction samples partitioned from soils in the lowermost positions on the two catenas

  1. The influence of climate cycles on the water regime and carbonate profile in chernozems of Central European Russia and adjacent territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazykina, G. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of long-term "dry" and "wet" climatic cycles on the water regime, hydrological parameters, and carbonate profiles of chernozems in Central European Russia and adjacent territories was studied. The hydrological and carbonate profiles were found to change during the wet cycle. However, the upper part of the hydrological profile is basically unchanging, whereas in its lower part, the number of hydrological horizons and contrast in their moistening decrease in the forest-steppe chernozems and increase in the steppe chernozems. The frequency of through wetting of chernozems increases during the wet cycles. The vertical lithological heterogeneity of the parent material affects the soil moisture status. In the wet climatic cycle, the moisture content above the lithological contact increases resulting in the development of the features of soil hydromorphism. In the carbonate profile, the character of pedofeatures is changing: some carbonate neoformations disappear, while the other ones develop. Possible variations of the periodically percolative water regime were revealed in chernozems. The classification of water regime proposed by A.A. Rode may be updated based on the data obtained during the dry climatic cycle. Rode's hypothesis about cyclic variations in the soil water regime is confirmed.

  2. The Holocene paleoenvironmental history of central European Russia reconstructed from pollen, plant macrofossil, and testate amoeba analyses of the Klukva peatland, Tula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, Elena Yu.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Volkova, Elena M.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; Lavrentiev, Nikita V.; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri A.

    2015-05-01

    Holocene climatic variability and human impact on vegetation are reconstructed from a region in central European Russia, which lies at an important ecotone between broadleaf forest and steppe. For the first time in this region we adopt a multi-proxy approach that combines analysis of local mire conditions from plant macrofossil and testate amoeba analyses with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstruction. The proxies indicate a long-term warming trend from 9700 to 7500 cal yr BP, interrupted by a series of short-term cold events. From 7500 to 5000 cal yr BP the results imply a relatively stable climate, warmer and drier than present, spanning the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Since 5000 cal yr BP the data suggest a change to cooler climate, but with centennial-scale variability. This shift at around 5000 cal yr BP is supported by extensive evidence from other sites. In the early Holocene, the region was occupied mainly by pine and birch forests. Broad-leafed forests of oak, lime and elm expanded after 7800 cal yr BP and remained dominant until the last few centuries. During the historical period, vegetation changes have been driven mainly by human activities.

  3. Predator Control as Part of a Land Management System: Impacts on Breeding Success and Abundance of Passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoate, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of nest predators such as the Corvidae is regarded as an important component of the management system for wild gamebirds. Although there is strong evidence of an impact of corvid control on nesting success of passerines, the relative roles of nest predation, winter food and other potential influences on breeding abundance of passerines are poorly understood. This study investigates the implications for passerines of cessation of predator control within a game management system in lowland England. The paper discusses results for the two years following cessation of predator control, relative to those from earlier years. These preliminary results suggest that there are complex interactions between human behavioural influences, the abundance of species regarded as 'pests' and the abundance of those targeted for conservation.

  4. Influence of trees in the landscape on parasitism rates of grassland passerine nests in Southeastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.; Shaffer, J.A.; Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Woody vegetation has been linked to increased rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism for some grassland hosts. In northern North Dakota, however, studies reported that parasitism of grassland passerine nests was lower in landscapes with trees than in those without trees. We looked for evidence of this pattern elsewhere, using data from two studies conducted on the Sheyenne National Grassland in southeastern North Dakota. Specifically, we examined the probability of parasitism relative to percent tree cover within 2 km of a nest. We found a negative relationship for grassland passerine nests of all species tested. Our results support the suggestion that cowbirds are less likely to parasitize nests of grassland passerines where tree cover on the landscape is greater. This pattern could be explained by cowbirds switching to alternative hosts in woodlands, but this hypothesis needs further testing. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Emmanuel, Simon; Vile, Melanie A; Erel, Yigal; Véron, Alain; Paces, Tomás; Wieder, R Kelman; Vanecek, Mirko; Stepánová, Markéta; Brízová, Eva; Hovorka, Jan

    2003-02-01

    Lead originating from coal burning, gasoline burning, and ore smelting was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60,000 km2. The Sphagnum-dominated bogs were located mainly in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic bordering with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11,000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.193). Peat deposited around 1800 AD had a lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.168-1.178, indicating that environmental lead in Central Europe had been largely affected by human activity (smelting) even before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Five of the sites exhibited a nearly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.175) throughout the 19th century, resembling the "anthropogenic baseline" described in Northern Europe (1.17). At all sites, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of peat decreased at least until 1980; at four sites, a reversal to more radiogenic values (higher 206Pb/207Pb), typical of easing pollution, was observed in the following decade (1980-1990). A time series of annual outputs for 14 different mining districts dispersing lead into the environment has been constructed for the past 200 years. The production of Ag-Pb, coal, and leaded gasoline peaked in 1900, 1980, and 1980, respectively. In contrast to other European countries, no peak in annual Pb accumulation rates was found in 1900, the year of maximum ore smelting. The highest annual Pb accumulation rates in peat were consistent with the highest Pb emission rates from coal-fired power plants and traffic (1980). Although maximum coal and gasoline production coincided in time, their isotope ratios were unique. The mean measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios of local coal, ores, and gasoline were 1.19, 1.16, and 1.11, respectively. A considerable proportion of coal emissions, relative to gasoline emisions, was responsible for the higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the recent atmosphere (1.15) compared to Western Europe (1.10). As in West European

  6. The crustal structure of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and central part of the East-European platform based on seismic, regional geophysic and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mints, M. V.; Berzin, R. G.; Babayants, P. S.; Konilov, A. N.; Suleimanov, A. K.; Zamozhniaya, N. G.; Zlobin, V. L.

    2003-04-01

    The 1-EU and 4B CDP transects worked out during 1998-2002 years by "Spetsgeophyzica", together with previously developed CDP profiles, have crossed most of the main tectonic units of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield and central part of the East-European platform. They provide seismic images of the Early Precambrian crust and upper mantle from the surface to about 80 km depth (25 s). The Neoarchaean granite-greenstone complexes of the Karelia craton along the 4B profile form a series of the tectonic slices descending eastward, some of which can be traced to the Moho. The Palaeoproterozoic structures presented by two main types: (1) volcano-sedimentary (VS) and (2) granulite-gneiss (GN) belts. The Pechenga-Varzuga VS belt has been identified as overthrust-underthrust southward-dipping package. Tectonic slices formed by the Palaeoproterozoic VS belts alternating with slices of the Neoarchaean granite-gneisses form the imbricated crustal unit that extends along the eastern margin of the Neoarchaean Karelia craton. The slices dip steeply northeastward flattening and partially juxtaposing at 20 km depth at the 1-EU cross-section. This level, which can be understood as the surface of main detachment, ascends westward. An imbrication and related thickening of the crust was caused by displacement of crustal slices in western and southwestern directions because of the Palaeoproterozoic collision event. The Palaeoproterozoic Onega unit comprising VS assemblages originated in a setting of the rifted passive margin forms the northwestward displaced thrust nappe complex. It is considered initially belonging to the southern edge of the Svecofennian passive margin. The Lapland GN belt has been transected by the Polar and EGGI profiles. Both cross-sections demonstrated that it constitutes thick composite crustal-scale tectonic slice. According to geophysical data, the continuation of the Lapland GN belt beneath the platform cover of the East European Craton forms an extended arch

  7. Europeanization and Transnational States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove Kaj; Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...

  8. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for shrubland passerine birds: a multiscale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Knick, Steven T.; Knick, Steven T.; Connelly, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Working groups and government agen-cies are planning and conducting land actions in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats to benefit Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. Managers have adopted an umbrella concept, creating habitat characteristics specific to sage-grouse requirements, in the belief that other wildlife species dependent on sagebrush will benefit. We tested the efficacy of this approach by first identifying the primary environmental gradients underlying sagebrush steppe bird com-munities (including Greater Sage-Grouse). We integrated field sampling for birds and vegetation with geographic information system (GIS) data to characterize 305 sites sampled throughout the current range of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Intermountain West, United States. The primary environmental axis defining the bird community represented a gradient from local-scale Wyoming/basin big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis/A. t. ssp. tridentata), and bare ground cover to local and regional grassland cover; the second axis repre-sented a transition from low-elevation Wyoming/basin big sagebrush and bare ground to mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) and habitat edge. We identified the relative overlap of sage-grouse with 13 species of passerine birds along the multiscale gradients and estimated the width of the umbrella when applying management guidelines specific to sage-grouse. Passerine birds associated with sagebrush steppe habitats had high levels of overlap with Greater Sage-Grouse along the multiscale environmental gradients. However, the overlap of the umbrella was prima-rily a function of the broad range of sagebrush habitats used by sage-grouse. Management that focuses on creating a narrow set of plot-scale con-ditions will likely be less effective than restoration efforts that recognize landscape scale heterogene-ity and multiscale organization of habitats. These multiscale efforts may improve some sage-grouse habitats and strengthen the

  9. An efficient method of capturing Painted Buntings and other small granivorous passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    To study survival in the eastern breeding population of the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris), I developed a technique to capture a large sample of buntings for color marking with leg-bands. This involved the use of bird feeders and an array of three short mist nets located at 40 sites in four states, each site meeting five specific criteria. In five years of mist netting (1999-2003), 4174 captures (including recaptures) of Painted Buntings were made in 3393 net-hours or 123 captures per 100 net-hours. The technique proved to be effective and efficient, and may have broad application for capturing large numbers of small granivorous passerines.

  10. Eine neue Rolle für die Europäische Zentralbank? Anmerkungen zu einem spezifisch Deutschen Konflikt. A new role for the European Central Bank? Remarks on a special German conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Ehrig

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent European debt crisis has generated a growing importance of the ECB. The central bank was forced to take measures far beyond its traditional role to stabilize monetary markets and inflation. The European central bank has adopted a new function as lender of last resort, providing banks and governments with almost unlimited liquidity. The new and unconventional monetary policy has been hotly debated. In Germany the debate even reached the Constitutional Court. The article will give a survey of the debate referring to the arguments of the ECB versus Deutsche Bundesbank. It is indeed questionable whether the ECB has a mandate for its new role in monetary and by the way also fiscal policy. Whatever the arguments are convincing, new steps towards fiscal arrangements and a deeper political cooperation are needed to stabilize the euro area.

  11. Role of health technology assessment in the process of implementation of the EU Transparency Directive: relevant experience from Central Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Kalo, Zoltan; Zah, Vladimir; Dolezal, Tomas

    2012-06-01

    A total of 7 years after the addition of Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to the EU, the pricing and reimbursement regulations introduced in these countries are still considered to be not fully compliant with Directive 89/105/EEC, commonly referred to as the 'Transparency Directive' (TD). The TD aims to ensure the transparency of the pricing and reimbursement processes for medicinal products established by the member states. Among the most difficult barriers on the way to successful implementation of the TD discussed are meeting the timelines indicated by the TD, the implementation of objective and verifiable criteria for decisions, and the availability of remedies for negative decisions. Health technology assessment (HTA) has been introduced in to the reimbursement systems in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary almost simultaneously to their accession to the EU. Even though Central Eastern European (CEE) countries faced similar challenges during the transformation to a democratic system, certain differences in the extent to which HTA principles have been implemented in these countries could be distinguished. Hence, it is thought-provoking to consider the different views of HTA experts on the role of HTA in the adaptation of the TD in the CEE region. The key objective of this article will be to discuss whether the adaptation of HTA principles has supported or only triggered additional challenges in the process of successful implementation of the TD in the CEE region. In particular, the article will discuss whether the introduction of mandatory HTA recommendations or explicit willingness-to-pay threshold would encourage or discourage implementation of the TD. The importance of the independent HTA agency as a condition for successful introduction of the TD will also be debated.

  12. THE ANALYTICAL INSIGHT INTO CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE E-COMMERCE MODEL BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER SUBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Bačík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shops was identification of the suitable  online portals focused on post-purchase evaluation of e-shops in Visegrad group countries. Automatic data collection method was used for the observed variables (evaluations within selected online portals of the identified e-shops. The total of 5,228,127 evaluations of 9,260 e-shops were analysed. The main focus was given to customer overall satisfaction with an e-shop in relation to communication with a customer or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Findings: The results of the research showed that there exists a direct relation between overall satisfaction with an e-shop and communication with customers or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Originality/Value of paper: The ambition of this paper through the findings is to help subjects of e-commerce in their marketing decisions in order to even better understand the factors that influence customers’ satisfaction. 

  13. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  14. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1995 the European Commission, through the SAVE programme, and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, through the Energy Efficiency 2000 Project, jointly sponsored the so called SACHA projects in Central and Eastern European Countries regarding major household appliances. Consistently, the main objective of the projects was to analyse and interpret the situation of refrigerators, freezers and washing machines in seven CEEC, so as to increase the knowledge and understanding of the issues at stake in the area of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, and therefore to identify possible scenarios of improvement. This paper describes the work accomplished and the results achieved in this context, focusing more on the data collection and market survey moments and illustrates, with an abundant series of exhibits, the quantitative picture resulting form the analyses carried out. Possibility exists for replication in Latin America, where ENEA and Italian experience could be fruitfully applied. Reliable and complete information is in fact one of the prerequisites to overcome potential barriers and facilitate a successful enforcement of any energy efficiency policy. Effective implementation and regional harmonisation are necessary, even if projects can facilitate the fulfilment of these goals as it provides a consolidated methodology and an integrated scheme for basic data collection and analysis. [Italian] A partire dal 1995 la Commissione Europea e la Commissione Economica per l'Europa delle Nazioni Unite hanno congiuntamente promosso lo studio dei piu' importanti apparecchi domestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale ed orientale. Principale obiettivo di questi progetti, piu' noti come progetti con SACHA, dall'acronimo del titolo, era analizzare e soprattutto interpretare la situazione dei frigoriferi, congelatori e lavatrici in sette PECO, per migliorare da un lato la conoscenza e la comprensione delle problematiche

  15. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  16. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  17. Brain size, head size and behaviour of a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2010-03-01

    A recent increase in comparative studies of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of brain size in birds and primates in particular have suggested that cognitive abilities constitute a central link. Surprisingly, there are hardly any intraspecific studies investigating how individuals differing in brain size behave, how such individuals are distributed and how brain size is related to life history and fitness components. Brain mass of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica was strongly predicted by external head volume, explaining 99.5% of the variance, allowing for repeatable estimates of head volume as a reflection of brain size. Repeatability of head volume within and between years was high, suggesting that measurement errors were small. In a 2 years study of 501 individual adult barn swallows, I showed that head volume differed between sexes and age classes, with yearlings having smaller and more variable heads than older individuals, and females having smaller and more variable heads than males. Large head volume was not a consequence of large body size, which was a poor predictor of head volume. Birds with large heads arrived early from spring migration, independent of sex and age, indicating that migratory performance may have an important cognitive component. Head volume significantly predicted capture date and recapture probability, suggesting that head volume is related to learning ability, although morphological traits such as wing length, aspect ratio and wing area were unimportant predictors. Intensity of defence of offspring increased with head volume in females, but not in males. Barn swallows with large heads aggregated in large colonies, suggesting that individuals with large heads were more common in socially complex environments. These results suggest that brain size is currently under natural and sexual selection, and that micro-evolutionary processes affecting brain size can be studied under field conditions.

  18. Using Genealogical Mapping and Genetic Neighborhood Sizes to Quantify Dispersal Distances in the Neotropical Passerine, the Black-Capped Vireo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athrey, Giridhar; Lance, Richard F; Leberg, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is a key demographic process, ultimately responsible for genetic connectivity among populations. Despite its importance, quantifying dispersal within and between populations has proven difficult for many taxa. Even in passerines, which are among the most intensely studied, individual movement and its relation to gene flow remains poorly understood. In this study we used two parallel genetic approaches to quantify natal dispersal distances in a Neotropical migratory passerine, the black-capped vireo. First, we employed a strategy of sampling evenly across the landscape coupled with parentage assignment to map the genealogical relationships of individuals across the landscape, and estimate dispersal distances; next, we calculated Wright's neighborhood size to estimate gene dispersal distances. We found that a high percentage of captured individuals were assigned at short distances within the natal population, and males were assigned to the natal population more often than females, confirming sex-biased dispersal. Parentage-based dispersal estimates averaged 2400m, whereas gene dispersal estimates indicated dispersal distances ranging from 1600-4200 m. Our study was successful in quantifying natal dispersal distances, linking individual movement to gene dispersal distances, while also providing a detailed look into the dispersal biology of Neotropical passerines. The high-resolution information was obtained with much reduced effort (sampling only 20% of breeding population) compared to mark-resight approaches, demonstrating the potential applicability of parentage-based approaches for quantifying dispersal in other vagile passerine species.

  19. Nest and nest site characterisitcs of some ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We summarized biological and ecologic characteristics of 2490 nests of 16 species of upland-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands found during 1963 through 1991. Nest initiation and hatch dates, clutch sizes, nest fates, causes of failure, success rates of nests among major habitat types and land uses, and vegetation measurements at nest sites are analyzed.

  20. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  1. Tree ring isotopes of beech and spruce in response to short-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O isotopes provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The short-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the isotope time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both isotopes decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the isotopic ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of isotope responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the short-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate

  2. Are maternal antibodies really that important? Patterns in the immunologic development of altricial passerine house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies are believed to play an integral role in protecting immunologically immature wild-passerines from environmental antigens. This study comprehensively examines the early development of the adaptive immune system in an altricial-developing wild passerine species, the house sparrow (Passer domestics, by characterizing the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma, the onset of de novo synthesis of endogenous antibodies by nestlings, and the timing of immunological independence, where nestlings rely entirely on their own antibodies for immunologic protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an aviary study we vaccinated females against a novel antigen that these birds would not otherwise encounter in their natural environment, and measured both antigen-specific and total antibody concentration in the plasma of females, yolks, and nestlings. We traced the transfer of maternal antibodies from females to nestlings through the yolk and measured catabolisation of maternal antigen-specific antibodies in nestlings during early development. By utilizing measurements of non-specific and specific antibody levels in nestling plasma we were able to calculate the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma and the time point at which nestling were capable of synthesizing antibodies themselves. Based on the short half-life of maternal antibodies, the rapid production of endogenous antibodies by nestlings and the relatively low transfer of maternal antibodies to nestlings, our findings suggest that altricial-developing sparrows achieve immunologic independence much earlier than precocial birds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first in depth analyses performed on the adaptive immune system of a wild-passerine species. Our results suggest that maternal antibodies may not confer the immunologic protection or immune priming previously proposed in other passerine studies. Further research needs

  3. The European free-tailed bat, Tadarida teniotis, in a suburban area of Latina, Latium (Central Italy / Il Molosso di Cestoni, Tadarida teniotis, nell'ambiente suburbano di Latina, Lazio (Italia centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corsetti

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since April 1983 to March 1990, the author carried out observations on the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis in a suburban house of Latina. The shelter used by the species was located between the outer wall and the flue of the central heating system. The maximum number of specimens observed at the same time was one male and two females. Some characteristic calls uttered by the male have been noticed. These consisted in several very loud shrill notes often given out in rapid succession. These calls have been heard mainly during the day and at sunset, amid the noise from the city and industries in the surrounding; they lasted about 30 seconds on average (up to 45. These calls were probably given out at times of maximum excitement, perhaps in the pre-mating phase. They were heard more frequently in spring (March-May but also in autumn (October-November. Flight generally occurred at temperatures no lower than 16 °C and from 25 to 60 minutes after sunset, after characteristic loud calls, and coming its habitual shelter. The presence of the European free-tailed bat in this spot may have been influenced by the source of heat represented by the flue, which supplied warmth during the winter months and, at the same time, by the trophic opportunities offered by the vast uncultivated fields in the area, with luxuriant herbaceous vegetation, scattered shrubs and trees, ditches, a few small cane thickets, flooded fields. The flue has not been activated since 1987, but the species has continued to live in the same place until 1590 (last sighting on March 1. The author excludes the presence of the species in the study site before 1983. Riassunto Dall'aprile 1983 al marzo 1990 l'autore ha compiuto osservazioni sul Molosso di Cestoni (Tadarida teniotis, in un'abitazione alla periferia della città di Latina. I1 ricovero abituale della specie è localizzato tra il muro esterno e la canna

  4. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  5. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  6. Ticks on passerines from the Archipelago of the Azores as hosts of borreliae and rickettsiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literak, Ivan; Norte, Ana Claudia; Núncio, Maria Sofia; de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nováková, Markéta; Martins, Thiago F; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Rodrígues, Pedro

    2015-07-01

    We examined the presence of borreliae and rickettsiae bacteria in ticks from wild passerine birds on three islands of the Archipelago of the Azores, the westernmost region of Palearctic. A total of 266 birds belonging to eight species from seven families were examined on São Miguel, Santa Maria and Graciosa islands in 2013. Ticks collected from these birds consisted of 55 Ixodes frontalis (22 larvae, 32 nymphs, 1 adult female) and 16 Haemaphysalis punctata nymphs. Turdus merula and Erithacus rubecula were the birds most infested with both tick species. Three T. merula in Santa Maria were infested with 4 I. frontalis infected with Borrelia turdi. No rickettsiae were found in the ticks. We report for the first time the presence of I. frontalis and B. turdi on the Azores islands and we showed that the spatial distribution reaches further west than previously thought.

  7. Further investigations of the mite genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) from North American passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S

    2011-07-01

    Four new syringophilid species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 are described from North American passerines: S. zonotrichia n. sp. from Zonotrichia albicolis (Gmelin) (Emberizidae) on Texas; S. jackowiaki n. sp. from Poecile carolinensis (Auduborn) (Paridae) in Texas; and S. xanthocephalus n. sp. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) (Icteridae) and S. agelaius n. sp. from Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus (Icteridae), both from Arizona. Spizella breweri (Cassin) (Emberizidae) from California is a new host for Syringophiloidus sialius Skoracki, Flannery & Spicer, 2009; and Melospiza lincolnii (Auduborn) (Emberizidae) from Texas and Vermivora ruficapilla (Wilson) (Parulidae) from California are new hosts for S. seiuri (Ckark, 1964). S. daberti Bochkov, Fain & Skoracki, 2004 from Passerina ciris Linnaeus (Cardinalidae) is recorded in the USA for the first time. A table with the host associations and distribution of all of the North American species of Syringophiloidus is given.

  8. Two sympatric species of passerine birds imitate the same raptor calls in alarm contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Chaminda P.; Goodale, Eben; Kotagama, Sarath W.

    2010-01-01

    While some avian mimics appear to select sounds randomly, other species preferentially imitate sounds such as predator calls that are associated with danger. Previous work has shown that the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo ( Dicrurus paradiseus) incorporates predator calls and heterospecific alarm calls into its own species-typical alarm vocalizations. Here, we show that another passerine species, the Sri Lanka Magpie ( Urocissa ornata), which inhabits the same Sri Lankan rainforest, imitates three of the same predator calls that drongos do. For two of these call types, there is evidence that magpies also use them in alarm contexts. Our results support the hypothesis that imitated predator calls can serve as signals of alarm to multiple species.

  9. Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Krista M; Dearing, M Denise; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosides are a major group of plant secondary compounds characterized by one or more sugars conjugated to a lipophilic, possibly toxic aglycone, which is released upon hydrolysis. We compared small intestinal homogenate hydrolysis activity of three rodent and two avian species against four substrates: amygdalin and sinigrin, two plant-derived glucosides, the sugar lactose, whose hydrolysis models some activity against flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides, and the disaccharide sugar maltose (from starch), used as a comparator. Three new findings extend our understanding of physiological processing of plant glucosides: (1) the capacity of passerine birds to hydrolyze plant glucosides seems relatively low, compared with rodents; (2) in this first test of vertebrates' enzymic capacity to hydrolyze glucosinolates, sinigrin hydrolytic capacity seems low; (3) in laboratory mice, hydrolytic activity against lactose resides on the enterocytes' apical membrane facing the intestinal lumen, but activity against amygdalin seems to reside inside enterocytes.

  10. The intensity threshold of colour vision in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud; Del Rey Granado, Maria; Bassoul, Marine; Degueldre, David; Perret, Philippe; Doutrelant, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviour but their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is known only for humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using classic conditioning of colour cues to food rewards in three individuals, we find a threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 cd m(-2). Results are comparable to the two previously tested bird species. For tits, nest light conditions probably exceed that threshold, at least after sunrise. These results shed new light on the lively debate questioning the visual performance of cavity nesters and the evolutionary significance of egg and chick coloration. Although this needs further investigation, it is possible that blue tits exploit both colour and brightness cues when viewing their eggs, chicks or conspecifics in their nests.

  11. A review of the zumpti species group of the genus Harpyrhynchoides (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--ectoparasites of passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2014-11-18

    The zumpti species group of the genus Harpyrhynchoides (Harpirhynchidae), parasites of passerines, is revised. A key to the species of this group is provided and data on host associations and geographic distribution of its constituent species are summarized. This group includes six previously recognized species: Harpyrhynchoides alaudinus Bochkov, 2000, H. brevis (Ewing, 1911) comb. nov., H. heatherae Bochkov and Galloway, 2013, H. rubeculinus (Cherny and Sixl, 1971), H. vulgaris Bochkov and Galloway, 2004, and H. zumpti (Fain, 1972). Three species from North American passerines are described as new: H. setophaga sp. nov. from Setophaga ruticilla (Parulidae), H. xanthocephalus sp. nov. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Icteridae), and H. spizella sp. nov. from Spizella passerina (Emberizidae). Additionally, H. brevis is redescribed based on samples from Coccothraustes vespertinus (type host) and Loxia curvirostra (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from North America. Harpyrhynchoides kirgizorum Fain et al. 1999 syn. nov. is synonymized with H. zumpti. 

  12. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  13. Microanatomy of Passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Blake, J.; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The microanatomy of healthy beaks and claws in passerine birds has not been well described in the literature, despite the importance of these structures in avian life. Histological processing of hard-cornified tissues is notoriously challenging and only a few reports on effective techniques have been published. An emerging epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest region of North America recently highlighted the need for additional baseline information about avian hard-cornified structures. In this study, we examine the beak and claw of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), a common North American passerine that is affected by what has been described as “avian keratin disorder.” We use light and scanning electron microscopy and high-magnification radiography to document the healthy microanatomy of these tissues and identify features of functional importance. We also describe detailed methods for histological processing of avian hard-cornified structures and discuss the utility of special stains. Results from this study will assist in future research on the functional anatomy and pathology of hard-cornified structures and will provide a necessary reference for ongoing investigations of avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees and other wild passerine species.

  14. Proceedings of a workshop, held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014, on Oral Health of Children in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the context of the current economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Dorjan; Eaton, Kenneth A; Tsakos, George; Vassallo, Paula; Amariei, Corneliu

    2016-07-25

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014. During the workshop, representatives from 18 Central and Eastern European countries gave oral presentations on the current oral health of children and young adults aged 16 years and younger. The aim of the workshop was to collect and present data relating to the oral health of children from Central and Eastern European countries and to discuss them in the context of the political changes that have taken place over the last two decades and the recent economic crisis.The presenters had previously completed a series of questions on oral epidemiological studies, prevention of oral disease, treatment and payment, dental personnel, uptake of oral health care and other considerations and structured their presentations on these topics plus the influence of the economic crisis on oral health. It should be remembered that this paper is a report of the proceedings of a workshop and not a study. Ethics approval is not required for workshops.After the 18 oral presentations a 90 min discussion took place during which further points were raised. The presentations, the discussion and the conclusions which were reached are reported in this manuscript.

  15. 国际金融危机对中东欧国家经济的影响%The Effect of International Financial Crisis on the Central and East European Countries' Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坡岭; 张鲁平

    2009-01-01

    Central and east European transitional countries' economy was affected even severer in the international financial crisis. The influence and shock of international financial crisis on the central and east European countries is partly due to these countries' institution and economic development mode. Each transitional economic body has different mode of international division of labor and has different comparative advantages, as a result, it is different that they are affected but it is basically the same for them to face the challenge.%中东欧的经济转轨国家在当前的国际金融危机中受到了比其他经济体更严重的影响.国际金融危机对中东欧国家造成的影响和冲击与这些国家转型后形成的制度基础和经济发展模式有关;各转型经济体因参与国际分工的方式和比较优势的不同,受到的影响也不同,但面临着性质大体相同的挑战.

  16. Nesting biology of three grassland passerines in the northern tallgrass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, J.A.; Svedarsky, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Basic nesting information on grassland passerines is needed for improving grassland bird management. Among the information needs are (1) the suitability of nesting habitat, (2) periods during the breeding season in which birds are most vulnerable to disturbances, and (3) how to fit grasslands into a prioritization scheme for conservation. Comparisons of nesting parameters among grassland species will help identify important management considerations. We describe and compare nest-site characteristics, nesting phenology, clutch size, hatching and fledging success, and brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) for three grassland passerine species nesting in tallgrass prairie of northwestern Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota. During 1998-2002, we found 793 Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida), 687 Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and 315 Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) nests. These species differed in many aspects of their breeding ecology. Clay-colored and Savannah sparrows initiated their nests almost 2 weeks earlier than Bobolinks, with peak nesting occurring in June. Clutch size was lower (3.77 ?? 0.03 SE) for Clay-colored Sparrows than Savannah Sparrows (4.13 ?? 0.05) and Bobolinks (5.25 ?? 0.08). The number of host eggs hatched per nest was higher in Bobolinks (3.46 ?? 0.20) than in Clay-colored Sparrows (2.52 ?? 0.09) and Savannah Sparrows (2.41 ?? 0.11), but the number of young fledged per Bobolink nest (1.97) was similar to that of Savannah Sparrows (2.01). Clay-colored Sparrows fledged only 1.35 host young per nest. Mayfield nest success was higher for Savannah Sparrows (31.4%) than for Clay-colored Sparrows (27.4%) or Bobolinks (20.7%). The main cause of nest failure was nest predation: predation in Clay-colored Sparrows (47.9%) was higher than in Savannah Sparrows (33.5%) but similar to Bobolinks (41.8%). Brood parasitism was lower in Clay-colored Sparrows (5.1%) than in Bobolinks (10.8%), and intermediate (6.7%) in

  17. Ultraviolet visual sensitivity in three avian lineages: paleognaths, parrots, and passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Huynen, Leon; Brennan, Patricia L R; Musser, Jacob; Fidler, Andrew; Chong, Nicola; Machovsky Capuska, Gabriel E; Anderson, Michael G; Talaba, Amanda; Lambert, David; Hauber, Mark E

    2012-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-transmitted signals play a major role in avian foraging and communication, subserving functional roles in feeding, mate choice, egg recognition, and nestling discrimination. Sequencing functionally relevant regions of the short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) opsin gene that is responsible for modulating the extent of SWS1 UV sensitivity in birds allows predictions to be made about the visual system's UV sensitivity in species where direct physiological or behavioral measures would be impractical or unethical. Here, we present SWS1 segment sequence data from representative species of three avian lineages for which visually based cues for foraging and communication have been investigated to varying extents. We also present a preliminary phylogenetic analysis and ancestral character state reconstructions of key spectral tuning sites along the SWS1 opsin based on our sequence data. The results suggest ubiquitous ultraviolet SWS1 sensitivity (UVS) in both paleognaths, including extinct moa (Emeidae), and parrots, including the nocturnal and flightless kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), and in most, but not all, songbird (oscine) lineages, and confirmed violet sensitivity (VS) in two suboscine families. Passerine hosts of avian brood parasites were included both UVS and VS taxa, but sensitivity did not co-vary with egg rejection behaviors. The results should stimulate future research into the functional parallels between the roles of visual signals and the genetic basis of visual sensitivity in birds and other taxa.

  18. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  19. Scale-dependent mechanisms of habitat selection for a migratory passerine: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M.; Cornell, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection theory predicts that individuals choose breeding habitats that maximize fitness returns on the basis of indirect environmental cues at multiple spatial scales. We performed a 3-year field experiment to evaluate five alternative hypotheses regarding whether individuals choose breeding territories in heterogeneous landscapes on the basis of (1) shrub cover within a site, (2) forest land-cover pattern surrounding a site, (3) conspecific song cues during prebreeding settlement periods, (4) a combination of these factors, and (5) interactions among these factors. We tested hypotheses with playbacks of conspecific song across a gradient of landscape pattern and shrub density and evaluated changes in territory occupancy patterns in a forest-nesting passerine, the Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation structure plays a primary role during presettlement periods in determining occupancy patterns in this species. Further, both occupancy rates and territory turnover were affected by an interaction between local shrub density and amount of forest in the surrounding landscape, but not by interactions between habitat cues and social cues. Although previous studies of this species in unfragmented landscapes found that social postbreeding song cues played a key role in determining territory settlement, our prebreeding playbacks were not associated with territory occupancy or turnover. Our results suggest that in heterogeneous landscapes during spring settlement, vegetation structure may be a more reliable signal of reproductive performance than the physical location of other individuals.

  20. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on prolactin secretion in three species of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleck, C M; Patrick, D J

    1999-01-01

    Previous work on domesticated species has indicated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important prolactin-releasing factor in these birds, but no comparative work in passerine birds has been reported. This study showed that iv injections of VIP (50-100 microg/kg body mass) result in a dramatic, but transitory, rise in plasma prolactin in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina). Significant increases in prolactin were also observed following VIP injection in blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and zebra finches (Poephilla guttata). At the dosage we used, maximum levels of prolactin attained were slightly lower (Mexican jays) or very similar (blue jay and zebra finch) to the maximum prolactin levels observed in other, breeding birds of the same species. In zebra finches that initially had low prolactin, VIP injection resulted in a greater than 10-fold increase in prolactin within 10 min, but those individuals that already had elevated prolactin showed no further increase in response to VIP. Slow-release pellets of VIP implanted subcutaneously in Mexican jays and releasing 10 or 15 microg VIP/day (two or three pellets) produced a significant increase in plasma prolactin (78 and 92% rise, respectively) compared to birds with placebo pellets or with with one pellet releasing only 5 microg/day.

  1. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Barnes, Michael R.; Elbers, Clara C.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Bauer, Florianne; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber; Berenson, Gerald S.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Burke, Gregory; Cade, Brian; Chen, Wei; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gieger, Christian; Gong, Yan; Gorski, Mathias; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Johnson, Toby; Lamonte, Michael J.; Mcdonough, Caitrin; Monda, Keri L.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Nelson, Christopher P.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Peters, Annette; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqinq; Smith, Erin; Speilotes, Liz; Thomas, Fridtjof; Thorand, Barbara; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Anand, Sonia S.; Dominiczak, Anna; Davidson, Karina W.; Hegele, Robert A.; Heid, Iris; Hofker, Marten H.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Illig, Thomas; Johnson, Julie A.; Kirkland, Susan; Koenig, Wolfgang; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Mccaffery, Jeanne; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Munroe, Patricia; Murray, Sarah S.; Papanicolaou, George; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Shimbo, Daichi; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Tobin, Martin D.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Yusuf, Salim; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Leslie A.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alex P.; Keating, Brendan; Taylor, Kira C.

    2014-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to d

  2. Central nervous system involvement in mantle cell lymphoma : clinical features, prognostic factors and outcomes from the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheah, C. Y.; George, A.; Gine, E.; Chiappella, A.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Jurczak, W.; Krawczyk, K.; Mocikova, H.; Klener, P.; Salek, D.; Walewski, J.; Szymczyk, M.; Smolej, L.; Auer, R. L.; Ritchie, D. S.; Arcaini, L.; Williams, M. E.; Dreyling, M.; Seymour, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is uncommon, and the manifestations and natural history are not well described. We present the data on 57 patients with MCL who developed CNS involvement, from a database of 1396 consecutively treated patients at 14 institutions.

  3. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  4. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  6. European structuralism

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    European structuralism is a paradigm for the study of language developed by prominent European linguists during the inter-war period and the first decades after World War II that radically rejected the prevailing atomism of 19th century (particularly neo-grammarian) linguistics and language psychology.

  7. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  8. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. Based on a modelling approach with COSMO-CLM, moisture fluxes, backward trajectories, cyclone tracks and precipitation fields are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May–2 June 2013. We identify potential moisture sources and quantify their contribution to the flood event focusing on the Danube basin through sensitivity experiments: Control simulations are per...

  9. Quantitative magnetic resonance analysis and a morphometric predictive model reveal lean body mass changes in migrating Nearctic-Neotropical passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Most studies of lean mass dynamics in free-living passerine birds have focused on Old World species at geographical barriers where they are challenged to make the longest non-stop flight of their migration. We examined lean mass variation in New World passerines in an area where the distribution of stopover habitat does not require flights to exceed more than a few hours and most migrants stop flying well before fat stores near exhaustion. We used either quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) analysis or a morphometric model to measure or estimate, respectively, the fat and lean body mass of migrants during stopovers in New York, USA. With these data, we examined (1) variance in total body mass explained by lean body mass, (2) hourly rates of fat and lean body mass change in single-capture birds, and (3) net changes in fat and lean mass in recaptured birds. Lean mass contributed to 50% of the variation in total body mass among white-throated sparrows Zonotrichia albicollis and hermit thrushes Catharus guttatus. Lean mass of refueling gray catbirds Dumetella carolinensis and white-throated sparrows, respectively, increased 1.123 and 0.320 g h(-1). Lean mass of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapillus accounted for an estimated 33-40% of hourly gains in total body mass. On average 35% of the total mass gained among recaptured birds was lean mass. Substantial changes in passerine lean mass are not limited to times when birds are forced to make long, non-stop flights across barriers. Protein usage during migration is common across broad taxonomic groups, migration systems, and migration strategies.

  10. European Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    is the European Union. The EU’s doctrine of stabilization through association has laid foundations not only for its own establishment and later enlargement but also for its European Neighbourhood Policy and Crisis Management activities in the Eastern neighbourhood. These, like the Union’s early initiatives, build...... on the belief that conflicts between former belligerents can be transformed through association processes thought to bring peace to unstable regions. Examining whether this is actually the case, this contribution traces European peacebuilding from the early integration of post-World War Two economies in Western...

  11. Short-term forecast of air pollutants' concentrations over the central European part of Russia on the basis of COSMO-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, G.; Revokatova, A.; Kirsanov, A.; Rivin, G.

    2012-04-01

    A state-of-the-art chemical-transport model COSMO-ART including a mesoscale nonhydrostatic meteorological model COSMO and a model of atmospheric chemistry ART is used to predict concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the centre of the European part of Russia under different synoptic conditions and with effect of biomass burning. Data on emissions prepared by TNO and concentrations calculated by MOZART are used as boundary and initial conditions in ART. To specify emissions in Moscow megapolis additionally, we started to develop a technology of assimilation of observed concentration. The results of the numerical experiments show that the model is able to simulate adequately the spatial-temporal features of concentration fields. It gives the perspectives to predict pollution of the Moscow megalopolis, taking into account natural and anthropogenic sources under real weather conditions, to carry out case study on assessing the impact of special pollution sources. We would like to thank Bernhard Vogel, Hieke Vogel and their colleagues as well as Christoph Knot for their kind assistance and regular consultations.

  12. Fold/cleavage relationships as indicator for late Variscan sinistral transpression at the Rheno-Hercynian-Saxo-Thuringian boundary zone, Central European Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Tobias; Kroner, Uwe; Hahn, Torsten; Hallas, Peter; Heuse, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The boundary between the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian zones of the European Variscides is characterized by a NE-SW striking late orogenic fold-and-thrust belt affecting the intervening Rheic suture. Classical models used the first-order strike of this zone as an indicator for perpendicular plate convergence, i.e. NW-SE. We present structural data from both sides of the suture, focusing on fold-cleavage relationships. The statistical analysis reveals an orientation maximum of the youngest cleavage that deviates from the strike of the fold-and-thrust belt by c. 22°. The presence of clockwise transection of the folds by the cleavage (up to - 16°) indicates pervasive sinistral transpression. Three types of fold-cleavage relationships are observed: NE trending folds (I) with or (II) without a transecting cleavage, and (III) non-transected ENE trending folds. We explain the occurrence of different fold-cleavage types by strain partitioning due to NNW convergence obliquely to pre-existent NE trending mechanical anisotropies. In terms of plate tectonics we propose that the classical boundary of the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian Zone represents an initial transform plate boundary that was finally affected by sinistral transpression.

  13. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and region...

  14. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Fanni Dora; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. A modelling approach with COSMO-CLM is used for a detailed analysis of the evolution of the event. Moisture flux, backward trajectories, evaporation and cyclone track analysis are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May to 2 June 2013. The aim is to identify potential moisture sources and to quantify their contribution to the flood event in the Danube basin. Control simulations with undisturbed ERA-Interim boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to estimate the role of moisture evaporated from different marine and land areas. The simulated cyclone tracks and upper level flow are compared against reanalysis. Simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. Two relevant cyclones are identified, which moved counterclockwise in a retrograde path from Southeastern Europe over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The control simulations represent the cyclone characteristics and tracks reasonably well. The evolution of the precipitation event in the simulations shows some minor differences to the Reanalysis in terms of its spatial and temporal characteristics. Our sensitivity experiment results provide evidence that the two main sources contributing to the event were the continental evapotranspiration (moisture recycling) and the North Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea played only a minor role as a moisture source. This study confirms the importance of continental moisture recycling for heavy precipitation events over Central Europe during the summer half year.

  15. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni D. Kelemen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. Based on a modelling approach with COSMO-CLM, moisture fluxes, backward trajectories, cyclone tracks and precipitation fields are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May–2 June 2013. We identify potential moisture sources and quantify their contribution to the flood event focusing on the Danube basin through sensitivity experiments: Control simulations are performed with undisturbed ERA-Interim boundary conditions, while multiple sensitivity experiments are driven with modified evaporation characteristics over selected marine and land areas. Two relevant cyclones are identified both in reanalysis and in our simulations, which moved counter-clockwise in a retrograde path from Southeastern Europe over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The control simulations represent the synoptic evolution of the event reasonably well. The evolution of the precipitation event in the control simulations shows some differences in terms of its spatial and temporal characteristics compared to observations. The main precipitation event can be separated into two phases concerning the moisture sources. Our modelling results provide evidence that the two main sources contributing to the event were the continental evapotranspiration (moisture recycling; both phases and the North Atlantic Ocean (first phase only. The Mediterranean Sea played only a minor role as a moisture source. This study confirms the importance of continental moisture recycling for heavy precipitation events over Central Europe during the summer half year.

  16. Extremes of heat, drought and precipitation depress reproductive performance in shortgrass prairie passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrey, Reesa Y.; Skagen, Susan; Yackel, Amy; Panjabi, Arvind O.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change elevates conservation concerns worldwide because it is likely to exacerbate many identified threats to animal populations. In recent decades, grassland birds have declined faster than other North American bird species, a loss thought to be due to habitat loss and fragmentation and changing agricultural practices. Climate change poses additional threats of unknown magnitude to these already declining populations. We examined how seasonal and daily weather conditions over 10 years influenced nest survival of five species of insectivorous passerines native to the shortgrass prairie and evaluate our findings relative to future climate predictions for this region. Daily nest survival (n = 870) was best predicted by a combination of daily and seasonal weather variables, age of nest, time in season and bird habitat guild. Within a season, survival rates were lower on very hot days (temperatures ≥ 35 °C), on dry days (with a lag of 1 day) and on stormy days (especially for those species nesting in shorter vegetation). Across years, survival rates were also lower during warmer and drier breeding seasons. Clutch sizes were larger when early spring temperatures were cool and the week prior to egg-laying was wetter and warming. Climate change is likely to exacerbate grassland bird population declines because projected climate conditions include rising temperatures, more prolonged drought and more intense storms as the hydrological cycle is altered. Under varying realistic scenarios, nest success estimates were halved compared to their current average value when models both increased the temperature (3 °C) and decreased precipitation (two additional dry days during a nesting period), thus underscoring a sense of urgency in identifying and addressing the current causes of range-wide declines.

  17. Passerine migrant stopover duration and spatial behaviour at an urban stopover site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Slayton, Eric J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2010-09-01

    Migration routes of many Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds pass through the most urbanized regions of North America. Migrants are known to use urban habitats as stopover sites and often occur in cities at exceptional density; yet knowledge of migrant behaviour and ecology in such places is surprisingly limited. We radio-tracked ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapillus) during stopovers in a New York City park to obtain some of the first detailed information on how landbird migrants utilize an urban habitat as a stopover site. We examined fine-scale movement patterns, home range sizes, stopover durations, and how arrival condition affected each of these metrics. During both seasons, most birds moved widely throughout the site upon presumed arrival and then either continued migration that night or settled into a more defined area on subsequent days. Area usage varied markedly among individuals during both seasons, ranging 1-16 ha. Stopover durations averaged 3.0 days (range = 1-10 days) during spring and 2.9 days (range = 1-14 days) during autumn. Spatial behaviours and stopover durations were not influenced by arrival condition during spring, and during autumn only movement rates and displacement distances were significantly (negatively) condition-related. Our findings do not support previous assumptions that urban stopover habitats are only used by migrants briefly in times of urgency when alternatives are unavailable. At least half of the birds we studied stopped over for multiple days during both seasons, and bird movements were indicative of an ability to search for, locate, and occupy suitable micro-sites. Ovenbird behaviour in our study site was similar in many ways to what has been observed in recent telemetry studies of ovenbirds and other passerine migrants at various non-urban stopover sites.

  18. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  19. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  20. Effect of Climate Change on Mediterranean Winter Ranges of Two Migratory Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, José L; Fernández-López, Javier; Fandos, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of climate change on the distribution of two insectivorous passerines (the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and the chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita) in wintering grounds of the Western Mediterranean basin. In this region, precipitation and temperature can affect the distribution of these birds through direct (thermoregulation costs) or indirect effects (primary productivity). Thus, it can be postulated that projected climate changes in the region will affect the extent and suitability of their wintering grounds. We studied pipit and chiffchaff abundance in several hundred localities along a belt crossing Spain and Morocco and assessed the effects of climate and other geographical and habitat predictors on bird distribution. Multivariate analyses reported a positive effect of temperature on the present distribution of the two species, with an additional effect of precipitation on the meadow pipit. These climate variables were used with Maxent to model the occurrence probabilities of species using ring recoveries as presence data. Abundance and occupancy of the two species in the study localities adjusted to the distribution models, with more birds in sectors of high climate suitability. After validation, these models were used to forecast the distribution of climate suitability according to climate projections for 2050-2070 (temperature increase and precipitation reduction). Results show an expansion of climatically suitable sectors into the highlands by the effect of warming on the two species, and a retreat of the meadow pipit from southern sectors related to rain reduction. The predicted patterns show a mean increase in climate suitability for the two species due to the warming of the large highland expanses typical of the western Mediterranean.

  1. Effects of habitat fragmentation on passerine birds breeding in Intermountain shrubsteppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, S.T.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and loss strongly influence the distribution and abundance of passerine birds breeding in Intermountain shrubsteppe. Wildfires, human activities, and change in vegetation communities often are synergistic in these systems and can result in radical conversion from shrubland to grasslands dominated by exotic annuals at large temporal and spatial scales from which recovery to native conditions is unlikely. As a result, populations of 5 of the 12 species in our review of Intermountain shrubsteppe birds are undergoing significant declines; 5 species are listed as at-risk or as candidates for protection in at least one state. The process by which fragmentation affects bird distributions in these habitats remains unknown because most research has emphasized the detection of population trends and patterns of habitat associations at relatively large spatial scales. Our research indicates that the distribution of shrubland-obligate species, such as Brewer's Sparrows (Spizella breweri), Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli), and Sage Thrashers (Oreoscoptes montanus), was highly sensitive to fragmentation of shrublands at spatial scales larger than individual home ranges. In contrast, the underlying mechanisms for both habitat change and bird population dynamics may operate independently of habitat boundaries. We propose alternative, but not necessarily exclusive, mechanisms to explain the relationship between habitat fragmentation and bird distribution and abundance. Fragmentation might influence productivity through differences in breeding density, nesting success, or predation. However, local and landscape variables were not significant determinants either of success, number fledged, or probability of predation or parasitism (although our tests had relatively low statistical power). Alternatively, relative absence of natal philopatry and redistribution by individuals among habitats following fledging or post-migration could account for the pattern of

  2. The impact of an invasive exotic bush on the stopover ecology of migrant passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is highly energy-demanding and birds often need to accumulate large fuel loads during this period. However, original habitat at stopover sites could be affected by invasive exotic plants outcompeting native vegetation. The impact of exotic plants on the stopover behavior of migrant bird species is poorly understood. As a general hypothesis, it can be supposed that habitat change due to the presence of exotic plants will affect migrants, having a negative impact on bird abundance, on avian community assemblage, and/or on fuel deposition rate. To test these predictions, we used data obtained in August 2011 at a ringing station in a coastal wetland in northern Iberia which contained both unaltered reedbeds (Phragmites spp. and areas where the reedbeds had been largely replaced by the invasive saltbush (Baccharis halimifolia. Passerines associated with reedbeds during the migration period were used as model species, with a particular focus on sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. The saltbush promoted a noticeable change on bird assemblage, which became enriched by species typical of woodland habitats. Sedge warblers departed with a higher fuel load, showed a higher fuel deposition rate, and stayed for longer in the control zone than in the invaded zone. Invasive plants, such as saltbush, can impose radical changes on habitat, having a direct effect on the stopover strategies of migrants. The substitution of reedbeds by saltbushes in several coastal marshes in Atlantic Europe should be regarded as a problem with potential negative cons equences for the conservation of migrant bird species associated with this habitat.

  3. Genetic diversity, temporal dynamics, and host specificity in blood parasites of passerines in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Dong, Lu; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-12-01

    Avian blood parasites have been preliminarily studied in East Asia, but no data are available from long-term monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, genetic diversity, and temporal dynamics of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in two passerine communities (one forest and one urban) in north China from 2008 to 2013, as well as the association between infected lineages and host specificities. Out of 633 birds from 40 species, 157 individuals (24.8 %) were infected; overall prevalence was 26.7 % and 16.8 % in two sites, respectively. The dominant avian blood parasite genus in the forest park changed yearly between Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, while the Leucocytozoon maintained a low infection level. Forty-four haplotypes were identified by sequencing a 432-bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene; more than 70 % were novel (six Plasmodium lineages, 16 Haemoproteus lineages, and nine Leucocytozoon lineages). Based on our data gathered over consecutive years, we found that the highly observed lineages of Haemoproteus showed higher host diversities than those of Plasmodium, and the most infected lineage EMEL01 (100 % identity with SGS1) take on the highest host diversity but low temporal diversity of the two genera, implying that this lineage infected a great diversity of species in certain years, but maintained a lower infection level or even disappeared in other years. The results suggest that genetic diversity of avian blood parasites in East Asia is high and provides scope for further research. In addition, compared with overall analysis, yearly prevalence monitoring is important in uncovering the temporal dynamic and host specificity variations over time.

  4. Use of captive starlings to determine effects of pollutants on passerine reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Christian, C.L.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three reproductive trials were conducted to develop techniques for propagation of captive starlings (Stumus vulgaris) which could determine the effects of environmental contaminants on passerine reproduction. Trials were conducted during the spring of 1979 in five adjacent 2.4 by 3 by 12-m outdoor wire pens containing four or ten pairs of starlings, a similar number of nest boxes, perches, water, commercial turkey starter, and alfalfa hay as nesting material. Nestling diets consisted of combinations of Nebraska Brand bird of prey diet, live or frozen mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domestica), or live earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Starlings reproduced successfully when the number of breeding pairs per pen was reduced from ten to four. The average clutch sizes for each pen (4.3 to 4.9) were similar to those reported for wild starlings. Hatching (60 to 90.4 percent) and fledging (0 to 100 percent) success varied among pens. The fledging success was greatest in the pens which received the most diverse nestling diets: Nebraska Brand diet plus frozen or live mealworms and crickets. Whether the insects were presented alive or frozen appeared to have little effect on the reproductive success. The starlings did not consume or carry earthworms to their young. The body weights of 20-day-old nestlings raised in captivity (X=73.9 g) were similar to those of starlings in the wild. The use of single pairs per pen may eliminate problems in presentation of nestling diets due to asynchrony in breeding between pairs and excessive interactions among individuals, which may interfere with parental care. The starling appears to be an excellent model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction of songbirds in captivity.

  5. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  6. Evaluation of moisture sources of the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    In May/June 2013, heavy precipitation hit Central Europe, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and on Elbe basins. In this study, we perform a detailed analysis of the synoptic development of the event based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations performed with the COSMO-CLM. Simulations are performed with reanalysis data boundary conditions in multiple set-ups and horizontal resolutions of 0.375° and 0.125°. In particular, the aim is to identify potential moisture sources, and how they contributed to the event quantitatively. A control simulation with undisturbed (reanalysis) boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to distinguish the role of moisture evaporated from marine and land areas. To keep the structure of the simulations close to reality as possible, spectral nudging is applied on the upper level atmospheric wind fields. For all simulations, the synoptic situations and cyclone tracks are evaluated against an independent reanalysis dataset, and simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. In general, the upper level atmospheric characteristics, which trigger the cyclones, are similar in the simulations compared to the reanalysis. Moreover, the time evolution of the precipitation event is well simulated. Nevertheless there are some differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation. In both, the reanalysis and the control simulation, the cyclones relevant for this event were moving westward (retrograde movement), counterclockwise from the Mediterranean region over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The pre-existing moist soil over East and Central Europe and the circulation associated with the cyclones contributed to intense evapotranspiration, and thus the westward propagating cyclones brought a lot of moisture along their tracks towards Central Europe. The sensitivity studies performed with

  7. Passeriformes: nest predators and prey in a Neotropical Savannah in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. França

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of predators of birds' nests, crucial to a better understanding of predator-prey interactions, remains poorly known. Here we provide evidence that birds, and especially passerines, may depredate birds' nests in the Cerrado (Neotropical Savannah of Central Brazil. Data was collected primarily in a Conservation Unit (Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas during the breeding season, between 2003 and 2007. We report and discuss details on 14 events of nest predation, 12 of which by passerines, mostly by curl-crested jays - Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823. The results of our study suggest that the role of birds as nest predators in the Cerrado has been underestimated and needs to be further investigated.

  8. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients.

  9. Satellite-delivered medical education and training for central Europe: a TEMPUS project. Trans-European Mobility Programme for University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H L

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the experience gained in delivering continuing and postgraduate medical education by satellite to update medical teachers in Central Europe. An infrastructure of receiving sites was established in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The sites participated in regular, live interactive broadcasts on a range of medical education topics. Over three years a network of sites was established incrementally and a national coordinator identified for each country, who fed back from national coordinating committees to an overall steering body. In the final year a formal evaluation revealed high satisfaction levels and maintenance of activity during the grant period. The major problems related to a lack of telephone lines to facilitate interactivity, the timing of the programmes, and the need for training in medical English language. Video libraries were established, and the majority continued to be active at the end of the project grant. Material was incorporated into both undergraduate and postgraduate education. It is calculated that continuing professional development can be delivered at less than 18 ECU per participant per country.

  10. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  11. Aerosol properties, source identification, and cloud processing in orographic clouds measured by single particle mass spectrometry on a central European mountain site during HCCT-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A.; Schneider, J.; Klimach, T.; Mertes, S.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.; Borrmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud residues and out-of-cloud aerosol particles with diameters between 150 and 900 nm were analysed by online single particle aerosol mass spectrometry during the 6-week study Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT)-2010 in September-October 2010. The measurement location was the mountain Schmücke (937 m a.s.l.) in central Germany. More than 160 000 bipolar mass spectra from out-of-cloud aerosol particles and more than 13 000 bipolar mass spectra from cloud residual particles were obtained and were classified using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Analysis of the uncertainty of the sorting algorithm was conducted on a subset of the data by comparing the clustering output with particle-by-particle inspection and classification by the operator. This analysis yielded a false classification probability between 13 and 48 %. Additionally, particle types were identified by specific marker ions. The results from the ambient aerosol analysis show that 63 % of the analysed particles belong to clusters having a diurnal variation, suggesting that local or regional sources dominate the aerosol, especially for particles containing soot and biomass burning particles. In the cloud residues, the relative percentage of large soot-containing particles and particles containing amines was found to be increased compared to the out-of-cloud aerosol, while, in general, organic particles were less abundant in the cloud residues. In the case of amines, this can be explained by the high solubility of the amines, while the large soot-containing particles were found to be internally mixed with inorganics, which explains their activation as cloud condensation nuclei. Furthermore, the results show that during cloud processing, both sulfate and nitrate are added to the residual particles, thereby changing the mixing state and increasing the fraction of particles with nitrate and/or sulfate. This is expected to lead to higher hygroscopicity after cloud evaporation, and therefore to an increase of

  12. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the question: why has Danish minority policy shown such remarkable selectiveness with regard to Europeanization? This question is particularly pertinent given that Denmark is typically seen as an otherwise very efficient and keen complier, especially with EU norms and ru...

  13. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  14. The stoichiometric approach in determining total evaporative water loss and the relationship between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss in two resting bird species: passerine and non-passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valery M.Gavrilov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaporation is of significant ecological interest.Evaporation from an animal always results in a decrease in the temperature of the surface from which the evaporation occurs.Therefore,evaporation is a one-way transfer which causes heat loss from the organism.Biological evaporation always involves the loss of water which is a vital resource for nearly all biochemical processes.Evaporation is loss of heat via loss of body mass.Methods: The simultaneous determination of energy expenditure and loss of body mass in resting birds allows us to estimate evaporative heat loss.This method includes direct measurements of the energetic equivalent of the loss of body mass as the ratio between heat production,determined by the rate of oxygen consumption and the loss of body mass at various ambient temperatures.Results: The data indicate that evaporation was minimal at lower critical temperature and that the rate of evaporation increased at lower or higher temperatures.Obtained results indicate that passerine and non-passerine species have the ability to change their non-evaporative heat conductance the same number of times(approximately fourfold),and that their abilities in this respect are similar.Conclusions: The novelty of the study resides in the stoichiometric approach to determination of total evaporative water loss.The analysis shows that determinations by stoichiometric approach of total evaporative water loss yielded the values,which fit into the confidence intervals of all equations from literatures.The basal metabolic rate and nonevaporative thermal conductance are fundamental parameters of energetics and determine the level of physiological organization of an endothermic animal.

  15. The Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    express for the EU and fellow Europeans, and the passion with which supporters of the EU argue for greater integration and enlargement are today central to understanding European integration. Being mindful of Europe - reflecting on the ways in which psychology and politics are deeply implicated in under...

  16. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  17. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  18. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  19. Lithuania eyeing Swedish, Central European grid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Leedu valitsus kordas, et ühendab Leedu elektrivõrgu Rootsi, Poola ja Tsehhi süsteemidega. Ka Soome elektrivõrk ühendatakse Balti riikidega. Tabel: Millistest allikatest tuleb Baltimaade elektrienergia

  20. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  1. Gecser, Ottó, József Laszlovszky, Balázs Nagy, Marcell Sebők, Katalin Szende, eds. 2011. Promoting the Saints – Cults and their Contexts from Late Antiquity until the Early Modern Period – Essays in Honor of Gábor Klaniczay for his 60th Birthday. Budapest: Central European University Press. 325 pp. Illus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen V. Kish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gecser, Ottó, József Laszlovszky, Balázs Nagy, Marcell Sebők, Katalin Szende, eds. 2011. Promoting the Saints – Cults and their Contexts from Late Antiquity until the Early Modern Period – Essays in Honor of Gábor Klaniczay for his 60th Birthday. Budapest: Central European University Press. 325 pp. Illus.  Reviewed by Kathleen V. Kish, San Diego State University, California

  2. Two species of Synhimantus (dispharynx) railliet, Henry and Sisoff, 1912 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae), in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-10-01

    Members of 2 species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) live under the lining of the gizzard in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) occurs in Thraupis episcopus, Turdus grayi, Caryothraustes poliogaster, Platyrinchus cancrominus, Ramphocaenus melanurus, Vermivora peregrina, and Geothlypis poliocephala. A single male, in Turdus grayi, apparently representing a new species, distinguishable from all other species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) by having similar shaped left and right spicules, is described but not named.

  3. Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), parasites of the passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australia and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) are described from passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): Harpirhynchoides artamus n. sp. from Artamus fuscus Vieillot (Artamidae) from an unknown locality in South Asia and Neharpyrhynchus domrowi n. sp. from three host species of the family Meliphagidae, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham) (type-host) from Australia (New South Walles), Ptiloprora perstriata (De Vis) and Myzomela rosenbergii Schlegel from Papua New Guinea.

  4. Predicting origins of passerines migrating through Canadian migration monitoring stations using stable-hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers: a new tool for bird conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Keith A.; Steve L. Van Wilgenburg; Dunn, Erica H.; Hussell, David J. T.; Taylor, Philip D; Douglas M. Collister

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN) consists of standardized observation and migration count stations located largely along Canada's southern border. A major purpose of CMMN is to detect population trends of migratory passerines that breed primarily in the boreal forest and are otherwise poorly monitored by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). A primary limitation of this approach to monitoring is that it is currently not clear which geographic regions of the boreal for...

  5. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    . In comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own......During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers....... Only a minority combine local and central buying. Apparently, buying functions are organised differently in the Baltic countries than in the Central European countries. This seems partly to be attributable to size differentials as Baltic retail chains are smaller than Central European retailers...

  6. Growth rate variation among passerine species in tropical and temperate sites: an antagonistic interaction between parental food provisioning and nest predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Lloyd, Penn; Bosque, Carlos; Barton, Daniel C; Biancucci, Atilio L; Cheng, Yi-Ru; Ton, Riccardo

    2011-06-01

    Causes of interspecific variation in growth rates within and among geographic regions remain poorly understood. Passerine birds represent an intriguing case because differing theories yield the possibility of an antagonistic interaction between nest predation risk and food delivery rates on evolution of growth rates. We test this possibility among 64 Passerine species studied on three continents, including tropical and north and south temperate latitudes. Growth rates increased strongly with nestling predation rates within, but not between, sites. The importance of nest predation was further emphasized by revealing hidden allometric scaling effects. Nestling predation risk also was associated with reduced total feeding rates and per-nestling feeding rates within each site. Consequently, faster growth rates were associated with decreased per-nestling food delivery rates across species, both within and among regions. These relationships suggest that Passerines can evolve growth strategies in response to predation risk whereby food resources are not the primary limit on growth rate differences among species. In contrast, reaction norms of growth rate relative to brood size suggest that food may limit growth rates within species in temperate, but not tropical, regions. Results here provide new insight into evolution of growth strategies relative to predation risk and food within and among species.

  7. Designing fiscal and monetary institutions for a European Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores under what conditions a European Monetary Union (EMU) is an optimum currency area. The scope for an EMU increases with convergence of structural and fiscal policies, small money holdings, a conservative European Central Bank, and dependent national central banks. How national pol

  8. Agricultural Policy and Enlargement of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Oskam, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The European Union could soon have up to ten new members from Central and Eastern Europe. Harmonisation of agricultural policies will be one of the most difficult chapters in the accession negotiations. The outcome will have an important influence on the adjustment of Central and Eastern European ag

  9. Body attributes of both parents jointly affect offspring sex allocation in a socially monogamous, size-monomorphic passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Xianhai ZENG; Bo DU

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that because males are more variable in reproductive success than females,a mother should produce more sons to maximize fitness return from the sex allocation if she is of high-quality (the female quality hypothesis) or mates with a high-quality male (the male quality hypothesis).While most previous studies have looked at each hypothesis,we tested both of them simultaneously in the white-rumped snowfinch Montifringilla taczanowskii,a socially monogamous,sexually monomorphic passerine where body size is a potential indicator of individual quality in intrasexual competition and territory defense.Brood sex ratios at the population level did not deviate from random expectation.Among individual broods,the proportion of sons did not depend on body size of either male or female parent,but on interaction of this trait of both parents.Further analyses revealed that brood sex ratios were independent of body size of male or female parents when their mates were smaller,but positively related with body size of male or female parents when their mates were larger.These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the two hypotheses may act jointly on offspring sex allocation.The mechanisms are expected to evolve through size-assortative mating which is often reached by sexual selection.

  10. Relationships betweeninterspeciifc differences inthe mass ofinternal organs, biochemical markers ofmetabolic activity, andthe thermogenic properties ofthree small passerines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minlan Bai; Xujian Wu; Kejing Cai; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The capacity for thermogenesis is considered part of an animal’s adaptive strategy for survival, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) is one of the fundamental physiological standards for assessing the energy cost of ther-moregulation in endotherms. BMR has been shown to be a highly lfexible phenotypic trait both between, and within, species, but the metabolic mechanisms involved in the regulation of BMR, which range from variation in organ mass to biochemical adjustments, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between organ mass, biochemical markers of metabolic tissue activity, and thermogenesis, in three species of small passerines: wild Bram-blings (Fringilla montifringilla), Little Buntings (Emberiza pusilla) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus), caught in Wenzhou, southeastern China. Methods: Oxygen consumption was measured using an open-circuit respirometry system. Mitochondrial state-4 res-piration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and pectoral muscle were measured with a Clark electrode. Results: Our results show that Eurasian Tree Sparrows had signiifcantly higher BMR, digestive organ mass, mitochon-drial state-4 respiration capacity and COX activity in liver and muscle, than Bramblings and Little Buntings. Further-more, interspeciifc differences in BMR were strongly correlated with those indigestive tract mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity. Conclusions: Our ifndings suggest that the digestive organ mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity play an impor-tant role in determining interspeciifc differences in BMR.

  11. Quaternary history of an endemic passerine bird on Corsica Island: Glacial refugium and impact of recent forest regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Jean-Claude; Cibois, Alice; Prodon, Roger; Pasquet, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Molecular studies support the hypothesis that Corsica Island was a glacial refugium for a number of forest birds during the Pleistocene. We focused on the Corsican nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi), an endemic passerine strongly associated with the laricio pine (Pinus nigra laricio). The range of laricio pine has been impacted by the Pleistocene glacial periods and forest has been recently fragmented by cutting and fires. Using both molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear) and morphological characters, we assessed the variation within the nuthatch population. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Corsican nuthatch endured through the late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic variations, and sustained the subsequent cycles of forests reduction/expansion. The results also suggest that the recent anthropization of the landscape resulted in the isolation of a cluster of populations in the northern part of the island. The fragmentation of the habitat of the nuthatch may impede the future of the bird by creating isolated population units between which the gene flow is reduced.

  12. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, J; Czarnoleski, M; François-Krassowska, A; Maciak, S; Pis, T

    2010-12-23

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes, and in mammals only with the sizes of some cell types. Size of mammalian erythrocytes correlated with body mass only within the most taxonomically uniform group of species (rodents and lagomorphs). Cell volume increased with body mass of birds and mammals to less than 0.3 power, indicating that body size evolved mostly by changes in cell number. Our evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms determining cell size relationships in tissues are conservative in birds and amphibians, but less stringent in mammals. The patterns of cell size to body mass relationships we obtained challenge some key assumptions of fractal and cellular models used by allometric theory to explain mass-scaling of metabolism. We suggest that the assumptions in both models are not universal, and that such models need reformulation.

  13. European Cenozoic rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  14. Sex-differentiated migration patterns, protandry and phenology in North European songbird populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders Peter; Thorup, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate causes and mechanisms controlling protandrous migration patterns (the earlier breeding area arrival of males relative to females) and inter-sexual differences in timing of migration in relation to the recent climate-driven changes in phenology. Using standardised...... ringing data from a single site for eight North European migratory passerines collected throughout 22 years, we analysed sex-differentiated migration patterns, protandry and phenology of the entire populations. Our results show protandrous patterns for the first as well as later arriving individuals...... changes may influence subsequent mating decisions, with subsequent feedbacks on population dynamics such as reproductive success and individual fitness. However, during decades of consistent earlier spring arrival in all phases of migration we found no evidence of inter-sexual phenological differences....

  15. Seasonally Changing Cryptochrome 1b Expression in the Retinal Ganglion Cells of a Migrating Passerine Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Nießner

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes, blue-light absorbing proteins involved in the circadian clock, have been proposed to be the receptor molecules of the avian magnetic compass. In birds, several cryptochromes occur: Cryptochrome 2, Cryptochrome 4 and two splice products of Cryptochrome 1, Cry1a and Cry1b. With an antibody not distinguishing between the two splice products, Cryptochrome 1 had been detected in the retinal ganglion cells of garden warblers during migration. A recent study located Cry1a in the outer segments of UV/V-cones in the retina of domestic chickens and European robins, another migratory species. Here we report the presence of cryptochrome 1b (eCry1b in retinal ganglion cells and displaced ganglion cells of European Robins, Erithacus rubecula. Immuno-histochemistry at the light microscopic and electron microscopic level showed eCry1b in the cell plasma, free in the cytosol as well as bound to membranes. This is supported by immuno-blotting. However, this applies only to robins in the migratory state. After the end of the migratory phase, the amount of eCry1b was markedly reduced and hardly detectable. In robins, the amount of eCry1b in the retinal ganglion cells varies with season: it appears to be strongly expressed only during the migratory period when the birds show nocturnal migratory restlessness. Since the avian magnetic compass does not seem to be restricted to the migratory phase, this seasonal variation makes a role of eCry1b in magnetoreception rather unlikely. Rather, it could be involved in physiological processes controlling migratory restlessness and thus enabling birds to perform their nocturnal flights.

  16. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  17. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  18. Context-dependent effects of yolk androgens on nestling growth and immune function in a multibrooded passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, J; Salmón, P; Nunez-Buiza, A; de Salas, F; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Puerta, M; Gil, D

    2015-08-01

    Female birds may adjust their offspring phenotype to the specific requirements of the environment by differential allocation of physiologically active substances into yolks, such as androgens. Yolk androgens have been shown to accelerate embryonic development, growth rate and competitive ability of nestlings, but they can also entail immunological costs. The balance between costs and benefits of androgen allocation is expected to depend on nestling environment. We tested this hypothesis in a multibrooded passerine, the spotless starling, Sturnus unicolor. We experimentally manipulated yolk androgen levels using a between-brood design and evaluated its effects on nestling development, survival and immune function. Both in first and replacement broods, the embryonic development period was shorter for androgen-treated chicks than controls, but there were no differences in second broods. In replacement broods, androgen-treated chicks were heavier and larger than those hatched from control eggs, but this effect was not observed in the other breeding attempts. Androgen exposure reduced survival with respect to controls only in second broods. Regarding immune function, we detected nonsignificant trends for androgen treatment to activate two important components of innate and adaptive immunity (IL-6 and Ig-A levels, respectively). Similarly, androgen-treated chicks showed greater lymphocyte proliferation than controls in the first brood and an opposite trend in the second brood. Our results indicate that yolk androgen effects on nestling development and immunity depend on the environmental conditions of each breeding attempt. Variation in maternal androgen allocation to eggs could be explained as the result of context-dependent optimal strategies to maximize offspring fitness.

  19. Two species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Two species of Acuaria were collected from passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proenca, 1945, was collected from Myiarchus nuttingi. Specimens from Costa Rica differ from the original description by having a spicule ratio of 1:1.5-1.7 versus 1:1.43-1.47, as well as shorter spicules and female tails. Acuaria wangi n. sp. in Hylophylax naevioides and Gymnopithys leucaspis resembles A. alii, A. crami, A. cyanocitta, A. minuta, A. pattoni, and A. cissae by having cordons extending posteriorly to the anterior portion of the glandular esophagus. The new species differs from A. alii by having 4 pairs of preanal and 6 pairs of postanal papillae rather than 2 pairs of preanal and 7 pairs of postanal papillae, a shorter left spicule, a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.1 and in having spicules with blunt rather than pointed distal ends. Acuaria crami and A. minuta differ from A. wangi by having 7 pairs of postanal papillae and spicule ratios of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.3 in A. crami and 1:1.1 in A. minuta; in addition, A. minuta has spatulate-shaped spicules and a tricupsid-shaped distal end of the right spicule. The new species can be distinguished from A. pattoni by having a longer left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1 and from A. cissae by having a shorter left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:2.5-2.7. Acuaria wangi is similar to A. cyanocitta, which has similarly shaped spicules, including a very pointed distal end of the left spicule, but differs in body length, in having shorter spicules, in the arrangement of postanal papillae, and in having smaller eggs.

  20. Energetic costs and implications of the intake of plant secondary metabolites on digestive and renal morphology in two austral passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Gonzalo; Ríos, Juan Manuel; Maldonado, Karin; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Seed-eating birds have a diet of high nutritional value; however, they must cope with plant secondary metabolites (PSM). We postulated that the detoxification capacity of birds is associated with a metabolic cost, given that the organs responsible for detoxification significantly contribute to energetic metabolism. We used an experimental approach to assess the effects of phenol-enriched diets on two passerines with different feeding habits: the omnivorous rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) and the granivorous common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca). The birds were fed with one of three diets: control diet, supplemented with tannic acid, or supplemented with Opuntia ficus-indica phenolic extract (a common food of the sparrow but not the finch). After 5 weeks of exposure to the diets, we measured basal metabolic rates (BMR), energy intake, glucuronic acid output and digestive and kidney structure. In both species, detoxification capacity expressed as glucuronic acid output was higher in individuals consuming phenol-enriched diets compared to the control diet. However, whereas sparrows increase energy intake and intestinal mass when feeding on phenol-enriched diets, finches had lower intestinal mass and energy intake remains stable. Furthermore, sparrows had higher BMR on phenol-enriched diets compared to the control group, whereas in the finches BMR remains unchanged. Interspecific differences in response to phenols intake may be determined by the dietary habits of these species. While both species can feed on moderate phenolic diets for 5 weeks, energy costs may differ due to different responses in food intake and organ structure to counteract the effects of PSM intake.

  1. European Network Against Racism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    From the point of view of social movement theory, ENAR (European Network Against Racism) is a strange creature. Partly being an outcome of the European Year Against Racism celebrated in 1997, ENAR was created in 1998 explicitly as an interlocutor with the European Commission in terms of its...

  2. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government and ...

  3. Willingness for Mobility amongst European Fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Cristina; Dickey, Heather; Pierce, Graham J.; Mente, Elena; Theodossiou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The global trend of fisheries overexploitation and collapse has resulted in the need to reduce fishing effort, and providing alternative employment for fishermen is a frequently mentioned policy option in order to achieve this goal. Reducing fishing effort is central to the European Commission Common Fisheries Policy and over the years, the…

  4. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffrennes, M. [EC, DG XVII, Nuclear Energy, Brussels (Belgium); Engl, G. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Estorff, U. von [EC, JRC/IAM, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC`s (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS`s (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC`s and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS`s and CEEC`s of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC`s and NIS`s and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  5. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to

  6. THE INDEPENDENCE OF CENTRAL BANKS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE-A MONETARY POLICY STRATEGY BASED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu Iulian Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims to examine the trends of the last decade and a half of central banks independence (CBI) in Central and Eastern European countries on the road to the euro adoption and to compare the results with those identified in the case of the European Central Bank (ECB). We approached CBI from the perspective of monetary policy strategies central banks (CBs) use. The main results show increasing independence during the selected time frame for all monetary authorities subject to ana...

  7. Lingua franca in Central Europe after the Disappearance of German

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, G.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses a multilingual community of writers and intellectuals who gathered around the idea of a Central European culture in the 1980s, during the last decade of the Cold War. Czesław Miłosz, Danilo Kiš, Milan Kundera, György Konrád and others advocated the idea of a Central European c

  8. Fiscal Policy Surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural Checks or Simple Arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the EU-

  9. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    EuroGeographics - their pan-European umbrella association, contribute to the ELF through an enrichment of data coverage. As a result, over 20 European countries will be covered with the ELF topo Base Map in 2016. Most countries will contribute also with other harmonized thematic data for viewing or down-loading. To overcome the heterogeneity of data resources and diversity of languages in tens of European countries, ELF builds on the existing INSPIRE rules and its own coordination and interoperability measures. ELF realisation empowers the implementation of INSPIRE in Europe and it complements related activities of European NMCAs, e.g. Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (CUZK), which provides a large portfolio of spatial data/services and contributes significantly to the NSDI of Czech Republic. CUZK is also responsible for the Base Register of Territorial Identification, Addresses and Real Estates (RUIAN) - an important pillar of Czech e-Government. CUZK became an early-bird in implementing INSPIRE and it provides to the ELF a number of compliant datasets and web services. CUZK and the Polish NMCA (GUGiK) collaborate in the Central-European ELF Pilot (cluster) and test various cross-border prototypes. The presentation combines the national and crossborder view and experiences of CUZK and the European perspective of EuroGeographics.

  10. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the princip......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  11. Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication from the Central European Vascular Forum (C.E.V.F.)-3rd revision (2013) with the sharing of the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, and the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, G M; Kalodiki, E; L Gašpar, L; Martini, R; Minar, E; Angelides, N; Nicolaides, A N; Novo, S; Visonà, A; Prior, M; Arosio, E; Hussein, E A; Poredos, P; Antignani, P L; Avram, R; Roztocil, K; Stvrtinova, V; Kozak, M; Vacula, I

    2014-08-01

    This paper is the review of the Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication of the Central European Vascular Forum (CEVF), published in 2008, and and shared with the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology and the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery. The Document presents suggestions for general practitioners and vascular specialists for more precise and appropriate management of PAD, particularly of intermittent claudication, and underlines the investigations that should be required by GPs and what the GP should expect from the vascular specialist (angiologist, vascular surgeon). The idea of the Faculty is to produce a short document, which is an easy reference in daily clinical practice, both for the GPs and vascular specialists.

  12. Assessment of Water Availability in a Central-European River Basin(Elbe)Under Climate Change%对气候变化背景下中欧易北河流域可用水的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred F.Hattermann; Joachim Post; Valeutina Krysanova; Toblas Conradt; Frank Wechsung

    2008-01-01

    The Elbe region is representative of humid to semi-humid landscapes in Central Europe,where water availability during the summer season is the limiting factor for plant growth and crop yields.especially in the loess areas with high crop productivity having annual precipitation lower than 500 mm.This paper summarizes the results of the first phase of the GLOWA(GLObal WAter)-Elbe project and tries to assess the reliability of water supply in the German part of the Elbe river basin for the next 50 years,a time scale relevant for the implementation of water and land use management plans.One focus of the study was developing scenarios which are consistent with climate and land use changes considering possible uncertainties.The concluding result of the study is that nature and communities in parts of Central Europe will have to deal with considerably lower water resources under scenario conditions.

  13. 中东欧国家促进少数民族“社会融入”政策及评估%Policy and the Evaluation of the Central and Eastern European Countries Promoting the Minority’s“Social Inclusion”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友孙

    2013-01-01

      2000年3月,欧盟制定了“里斯本战略”,要求积极推动少数群体和弱势群体的“社会融入”。为执行该战略,中东欧国家出台了很多促进少数民族社会融入的政策、措施。由于中东欧国家有较严重的排斥少数民族传统,加之投入资金有限,中东欧国家在促进少数民族融入社会方面仍然存在不少问题。尽管如此,上述政策的执行效果仍值得肯定,以“社会融入”为核心的少数民族政策相对以往的“权利保护”理念是一个历史性飞跃。%In March 2000, EU made“Lisbon strategy”, propelling“Social Inclusion”in the Minority groups and disadvantaged groups. In order to carry out the strategy, the central and eastern European countries announced some measures to promote the minority’s“social inclusion”. Because the central and eastern European countries have serious repel-minority tradition, and limited money, there are still lots of problems in this aspect. Even so, the policies above still worth affirmation. Compared with“rights protection”idea,“Social Inclusion”is a historical Leap of minority policy.

  14. Arsenic and lead contamination in soil and in feathers of three resident passerine species in a semi-arid mining region of the Mexican plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Castro-Larragoitia, Javier; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2016-08-23

    The current study aimed at quantifying arsenic and lead in feathers from three passerine species that are residents from areas exposed to mining activities (Toxostoma curvirostre, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, and Melozone fusca). Lead and As contents in bird feathers and in superficial soil samples were measured with AAS. Levels of these metals were compared between sites exposed and unexposed to mining. Possible correlations of As and Pb between superficial soil and bird feathers were also investigated. Soil metal concentrations were significantly higher near mining sites, and metal concentrations in bird feathers showed a behavior similar to those recorded for soil samples. Individual birds from polluted sites had higher mean feather metal concentrations in comparison with non-polluted sites; no differences in metal concentrations were recorded among bird species. This work constitutes a basis for monitoring contaminants, and for future toxicological studies attempting to understand the impact that some mining activities may have on bird populations.

  15. The European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is generally examined the institution of the European arrest warrant according to the latest changes and additions through the adoption of a new European legislative act. The paper is a continuation of research in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. It may be useful to the judicial bodies with the responsibilities of issuing and executing a specific European arrest warrant and to academics and students in law schools. The research results, the essential contribution, the originality consist of the general examination of the institution, the critical remarks and proposals for amending and completing certain provisions insufficiently clear.

  16. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  17. European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Seldin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between "northern" and "southern" European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have >85% membership in the "southern" population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the "northern" population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the "southern" population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

  18. Dietary variation and overlap in Central and Northwest European Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia) influenced by habitat diversity. "You'll have to take pot luck!" (proverb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    To trace the dietary evolution of the two abundant Middle to Late Pleistocene rhinoceros species Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in Europe over several climatic cycles, we examined comprehensive material of stratigraphically well-defined palaeopopulations from different regions and interglacials. Using morphometrics and mesowear analysis, these reconstructions of Stephanorhinus diets indicate that habitat diversity and interspecific competition with closely related rhinoceros species induced variation in feeding behaviour. Although anatomical features of both species suggest significantly higher dietary specializations compared to the Early to early Middle Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, their mesowear signals are characteristic of a mixed feeder diet, similar to that of extant mammal species in relatively open habitats. Both species retained a degree of dietary flexibility, enabling them to survive in a range of environments. Although each of these rhinoceroses preferred different habitats, species identity alone is not sufficient to establish the real dietary traits of a Stephanorhinus palaeopopulation. As a consequence, their occurrence in a faunal assemblage alone cannot be taken to indicate a specific habitat. S. kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus were embedded in a dynamic process of temporo-spatial replacements and interspecific differentiation of rhinoceroses in the western Palaearctic. However, dietary specialization in these Middle to Late Pleistocene European rhinoceroses was not the result of a directed time-transgressive evolution. Rather, within the range of each species' ecological tolerance, it was controlled by environmental parameters, with habitat variability as the main factor.

  19. The European Geoparks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NickolasZouros

    2004-01-01

    The European Geoparks Network was established in June 2000 by four regions of different European Countries--France, Germany, Spain and Greece--with similar natural and socioeconomic characteristics. These four regions are rural areas, with a particular geological heritage, natural beauty and high cultural potential, all facing problems of slow economic development,

  20. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...

  1. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  2. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union’s ...

  3. Theorizing European societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Explores key sociological concepts and theory in relation to European crises, identity, inequality and social order. It offers a firm understanding of the modernization of Europe and everyday European life, while not neglecting the historical context. Essential reading for students of sociology in E

  4. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  5. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Medi

  6. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  7. Institutionalization through Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    to the question of Europeanization. The main argument is that the EC’s ongoing push for the Pan-European idea, through pressures and enabling structures, have contributed to the promotion of a process of institutionalization with re-nationalization and affirmation of national film-cultural diversity as its main...

  8. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  9. INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS AND OF THEIR QUALITY - CURRENT CONCERNS AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issues referring to official statistics quality and reliability became the main topics of debates as far as statistical governance in Europe is concerned. The Council welcomed the Commission Communication to the European Parliament and to the Council « Towards robust quality management for European Statistics » (COM 211, appreciating that the approach and the objective of the strategy would confer the European Statistical System (ESS the quality management framework for the coordination of consolidated economic policies. The Council pointed out that the European Statistical System management was improved during recent years, that progress was noticed in relation with high quality statistics production and dissemination within the European Union, but has also noticed that, in the context of recent financial crisis, certain weaknesses were identified, particularly related to quality management general framework.„Greece Case” proved that progresses were not enough for guaranteeing the complete independence of national statistical institutes and entailed the need for further consolidating ESS governance. Several undertakings are now in the preparatory stage, in accordance with the Commission Communication; these actions are welcomed, but the question arise: are these sufficient for definitively solving the problem?The paper aims to go ahead in the attempt of identifying a different way, innovative (courageous! on the long run, towards an advanced institutional structure of ESS, by setting up the European System of Statistical Institutes, similar to the European System of Central Banks, that would require a change in the Treaty.

  10. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  11. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether......NB: For those interested in our use of the Issuecrawler in this paper, please see our more recent web science paper entitled "Tracing Eurosceptic Party Networks via Hyperlink Network Analysis and #FAIL!ng: Can Web Crawlers Keep up with Web Design?", where we outline the limitations we uncovered...... while using the Issuecrawler. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the, perhaps paradoxical, phenomenon of Europeanization of Eurosceptic parties and the role the internet played in this process during the campaign for the European Parliament elections of May 2014. We exemplify this phenomenon...

  12. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  13. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  14. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  15. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  16. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours...... to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  17. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  18. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  19. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  20. MOOCs, the European way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How the European approach to MOOCs is largely that of a pedagogical innovation whereas the initial US xMOOCs were largely seen as a vehicle to make education cheaper, to export American quality education to developing countries

  1. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  2. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo;

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...... the European university landscape according to the following dimensions: history/foundation of university, dynamics of growth, specialization pattern, subject mix, funding composition, offer profile and productivity....

  3. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  4. Low-frequency drug-resistant HIV-1 and risk of virological failure to first-line NNRTI-based ART: a multicohort European case–control study using centralized ultrasensitive 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schuurman, Rob; Däumer, Martin; Aitken, Sue; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Geretti, Anna Maria; Booth, Clare L.; Kaiser, Rolf; Michalik, Claudia; Jansen, Klaus; Masquelier, Bernard; Bellecave, Pantxika; Kouyos, Roger D.; Castro, Erika; Furrer, Hansjakob; Schultze, Anna; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Paredes, Roger; Metzner, Karin J.; Paredes, Roger; Metzner, Karin J.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Schuurman, Rob; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Günthard, Huldrych; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Kaiser, Rolf; Geretti, Anna Maria; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Masquelier, Bernard; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; André, K.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Bernard, N.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F. A.; De Witte, S.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Duffau, P.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Gemain, M. C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J. P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Pistone, T.; Receveur, M. C.; Schmeltz, J. Roger; Tchamgoué, S.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Vareil, M.O.; Viallard, J. F.; Moreau, J. F.; Pellegrin, I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M. E.; Masquelier, B.; Reigadas, S.; Trimoulet, P.; Bouchet, S.; Breilh, D.; Molimard, M.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé., G.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; D'Ivernois, C.; Hanapier, C.; Leleux, O.; Lenaud, E.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Sicard, X.; Geffard, S.; Le Marec, F.; Conte, V.; Frosch, A.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Bonnet, F.; Breilh, D.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Bouchet, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Lacoste, D.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Ramos Mejia, J. M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J. P.; Girard, P. M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Bickel, M.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; HassounRambam, G.; Elinav, H.; HaouziHadassah, M.; EspositoI, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Vullo, V.; Moroni, M.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Monforte, A. D'Arminio; Antinori, A.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, M.; Ammassari, A.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Girardi, E.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Cicconi, P.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Castrogiovanni, A.; Di Caro, A.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Mazzoccato, S.; Angarano, G.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Viale, P.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Lo Caputo, S.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Rizzardini, G.; Puoti, M.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Castagna, A.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Marchetti, G.; Mussini, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Guida, M. G.; Gargiulo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART. Methods This Europe-wide case–control study included ART-naive subjects infected with drug-susceptible HIV-1 as revealed by population sequencing, who achieved virological suppression on first-line ART including one NNRTI. Cases experienced virological failure and controls were subjects from the same cohort whose viraemia remained suppressed at a matched time since initiation of ART. Blinded, centralized 454 pyrosequencing with parallel bioinformatic analysis in two laboratories was used to identify MVs in the 1%–25% frequency range. ORs of virological failure according to MV detection were estimated by logistic regression. Results Two hundred and sixty samples (76 cases and 184 controls), mostly subtype B (73.5%), were used for the analysis. Identical MVs were detected in the two laboratories. 31.6% of cases and 16.8% of controls harboured pre-existing MVs. Detection of at least one MV versus no MVs was associated with an increased risk of virological failure (OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.35–5.60, P = 0.005); similar associations were observed for at least one MV versus no NRTI MVs (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 0.76–6.77, P = 0.140) and at least one MV versus no NNRTI MVs (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.12–5.18, P = 0.024). A dose–effect relationship between virological failure and mutational load was found. Conclusions Pre-existing MVs more than double the risk of virological failure to first-line NNRTI-based ART. PMID:25336166

  5. Motivation and values of European Commission staff. Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenabeele, W.V.; Ban, C.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of public service motivation has been central to the discussion of motivation in the field of public management but has never been studied in international organizations. This paper reports on a preliminary study of motivational issues within the European Commission, including motivation for entry and public service motivation. Based on a survey distributed to the entire staff of the European Commission, supplemented by personal interviews, we demonstrate the importance of public ...

  6. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  7. Relations between Economic Transition and Political Transition:Differences among Central Asian and Eastern European Countries and Their Explanations%经济转型与政治转型的关联:中亚、东欧国家间的差异及解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坡岭; 王旖欢

    2012-01-01

      Group differences of a large scale of political and economic transition are an important feature in the twenty-year transition practice. Examining the basic achievements of economic and political transition of five Central Asian countries and eight Eastern European countries, comparing the differences of their transition results, we find out that political transition is of independence and has restrictions on economic transition and growth in the relations of economic and political transition.%  大规模政治经济转型的群体差异是20年来转型实践的一个重要特征。对中亚五国和东欧八国经济政治转型的基本成就进行梳理,比较上述国家经济转型与政治转型结果的差异,可以发现,在经济转型与政治转型的相互关系中,政治转型更具独立性,并对经济转型及经济增长具有制约作用。

  8. Enresa's Participation in the Technical Assistance Programmes to the Eastern European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E. [ENRESA. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This article briefly describes the participation of ENRESA in the technical assistance programmes to the Central and Eastern European countries (PHARE) and to the New Independent States (TACIS) as well as in the co-operation programmes all of them established by the European Commission. It is worth to point out the active role of ENRESA within the European Consortium CASSIOPEE, formed in 1993 by the six radioactive waste management companies in existence in the European Union at that time. CASSIOPEE was created to assist the European Commission in the area of radioactive waste management of the PHARE and TACIS technical assistance programmes. (Author)

  9. Rickettsiae of spotted fever group, Borrelia valaisiana, and Coxiella burnetii in ticks on passerine birds and mammals from the Camargue in the south of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Reynaud, Pierre; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that have a limited mobility, but can be transported over large geographical distances by wild and domestic mammals and birds. In this study, we analyze the presence of emerging zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from passerine birds and mammals present in the Camargue, in the south of France, which is a major rallying point for birds migrating from Eurasia and Africa. The presence of Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Bartonella was examined by real-time PCR on DNA samples extracted from 118 ticks. Rickettsia massiliae was detected in ticks from Passer domesticus, Ri. aeschlimannii in ticks from Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Luscinia megarhynchos, and Borrelia valaisiana in one tick from Turdus merula. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, Candidatus Ri. barbariae, and C. burnetii were detected in ticks from dogs, horses, cats, and humans. No Bartonella DNA was detected in these samples. The migratory birds may play a role in the transmission of infectious diseases and contribute to the geographic distribution of Ri. aeschlimannii, Bo. valaisiana, and C. burnetii. The role of birds in spreading Rh. sanguineus ticks infected with Ri. massiliae needs to be clarified by complementary studies. This is the first detection of Candidatus Ri. barbariae in Rh. sanguineus from the south of France.

  10. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level.

  11. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  12. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  13. Making European Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education, and government policy intersect in the lives of young Muslims and inform their developing religious beliefs and practices. Mark Sedgwick’s introduction provides a framework for theorizing Muslimness in the European context, arguing that Muslim children must navigate different and sometimes......Making European Muslims provides an in-depth examination of what it means to be a young Muslim in Europe today, where the assumptions, values and behavior of the family and those of the majority society do not always coincide. Focusing on the religious socialization of Muslim children at home...

  14. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  15. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  16. Teaching European Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  17. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  18. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  19. Tasty European Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An European Union delegation paid an official visit to China from March 25 to 30 to attend the opening ceremony of Shanghai International Food and Beverage Exhibition, the largest ever held in the city. The EU set a special stall to display high-quality food from its members.

  20. The European Commission as Network Broker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Borrás

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent transformations in the European Union have been putting significant pressure on the management function of the European Commission. Examining its brokerage position in policy networks, this article asks what kind of role does the Commission have in the political interactions in Brussels after the year 2000. Developing a conceptual framework about brokerage roles in EU policy, the article uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative data in an empirical analysis of two very different cases where the Commission has been embattled the past years. The article argues that previous reports of the Commission’s demise are much exaggerated, because it continues playing a leading role in managing interaction between multiple actors at different levels of governance. The empirical results show that the Commission is a resilient central network broker.

  1. Ecological taxes in some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and consumption of fossil fuels is one of the major causes of the green house effect, which is in economics known as a form of ecological externality. Fiscal solution, as one way of internalization of externalities, is based on polluters-pay principle and the imposition of tax on emission. Although the implementation of ecological tax was intensified during the previous decade, fiscal revenues are modest and account for only 5% of the total fiscal revenues of the European Union. Taxes on energetic products, accounting for 76%, are dominant among ecological taxes. Since the EU Directive 82/92 imposes minimum excise rates on oil products, during the last decade Central Eastern European countries have increased excise rates on fossil fuels and fully engaged in the field of ecological policy.

  2. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  3. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...

  4. Postglacial colonisation patterns and the role of isolation and expansion in driving diversification in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hansson

    Full Text Available Pleistocene glacial cycles play a major role in diversification and speciation, although the relative importance of isolation and expansion in driving diversification remains debated. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 15 great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus populations distributed over the vast Eurasian breeding range of the species, and revealed unexpected postglacial expansion patterns from two glacial refugia. There were 58 different haplotypes forming two major clades, A and B. Clade A dominated in Western Europe with declining frequencies towards Eastern Europe and the Middle East, but showed a surprising increase in frequency in Western and Central Asia. Clade B dominated in the Middle East, with declining frequencies towards north in Central and Eastern Europe and was absent from Western Europe and Central Asia. A parsimonious explanation for these patterns is independent postglacial expansions from two isolated refugia, and mismatch distribution analyses confirmed this suggestion. Gene flow analyses showed that clade A colonised both Europe and Asia from a refugium in Europe, and that clade B expanded much later and colonised parts of Europe from a refugium in the Middle East. Great reed warblers in the eastern parts of the range have slightly paler plumage than western birds (sometimes treated as separate subspecies; A. a. zarudnyi and A. a. arundinaceus, respectively and our results suggest that the plumage diversification took place during the easterly expansion of clade A. This supports the postglacial expansion hypothesis proposing that postglacial expansions drive diversification in comparatively short time periods. However, there is no indication of any (strong reproductive isolation between clades and our data show that the refugia populations became separated during the last glaciation. This is in line with the Pleistocene speciation hypothesis invoking that much longer periods of time in isolation are

  5. Yearly and Seasonal Variation of Breeding Parameters in a Declining Multi-Brooded Passerine, the Tree Sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    García-Navas, Vicente; Sanz, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Over a five-year period we monitored breeding parameters in a colony of Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in central Spain. This multi-brooded species can raise one to three broods per season. In this study, we analyzed inter-brood variation in reproductive success to infer the existence of seasonal patterns. We also explored inter-annual variation of life-history traits, which is of particular interest in a declining species like the Tree Sparrow. In agreement with our expectation of a multi-bro...

  6. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  7. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  8. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  9. What Drives the European Central Bank's Interest-Rate Changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Aastrup, Morten

    We show that the ECB's interest rate changes during 1999-2010 have been mainly driven by changes in economic activity in the Euro area. Changes in actual or expected future HICP inflation play a minor, if any, role.......We show that the ECB's interest rate changes during 1999-2010 have been mainly driven by changes in economic activity in the Euro area. Changes in actual or expected future HICP inflation play a minor, if any, role....

  10. Central and Eastern European NGO Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正At the invitation of CAFIU, a 15-member delegation composed of representatives from Civil Association "Polish House", "Amicus Europe" (Friends of Europe) Foundation of Poland, "World Bridge" Foundation of Hungary, Czech-China

  11. LGBTI asylum claims: the Central and Eastern European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Śmiszek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that CEE countries still lag far behind therest of Europe in their asylum practices in relation to LGBTI asylumclaims. Low levels of awareness, lack of guidance and cultural hostility are jeopardising asylum seekers’ prospects for fair treatment.

  12. Monitoring nitrogen accumulation in mosses in central European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther; Genssler, Lutz

    2008-10-01

    In order to assess whether nitrogen (N) loads in mosses reflect different land uses, 143 sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, the Weser-Ems Region and the Euro Region Nissa were sampled between 2000 and 2005. The data were analysed statistically with available surface information on land use and forest conditions. N bioaccumulation in mosses in the Weser-Ems Region with high densities of agricultural land use and livestock exceeded the concentrations in the more industrialised Euro Region Nissa. In all three study areas agricultural and livestock spatial densities were found to be positively correlated with N bioaccumulation in mosses. In North Rhine-Westphalia, the N concentrations in mosses was also moderately correlated with N concentrations in leaves and needles of forest trees. The moss method proved useful to assess the spatial patterns of N bioaccumulation due to land use.

  13. Obama and the Central European Summit / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    27. mail Varssavis toimunud Kesk-Euroopa riikide presidentide kohtumisel rõhutas Leedu president Dalia Grybauskaite, et Baltimaad vajavad ainult NATO abi ballistiliste rakettide tõrje osas. 27. mail toimus ka Baltimaade riigipeade Dalia Grybauskaite, Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Valdis Zatlersi kohtumine Varssavis asuvas Leedu saatkonnas. Varssavi oli saabunud ka USA president Barack Obama

  14. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...

  15. Old European Couples' Retirement Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco

    This study investigates old European couples' retirement choices in order to bridge the gap between the European and the American literature. The typical European family approaching retirement is a dual-earner family: the dataset used in this paper reveals that 78 percent of working males is marr...

  16. English as a Lingua Franca: A Source of Identity for Young Europeans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Claus; Jakisch, Jenny; Rabe, Frank

    2014-01-01

    As a result of globalisation and the European integration process, identity concepts of young Europeans are becoming more and more diverse and possibly heterogeneous. The factors that influence the development of identity formation and impact on identity constructions are complex--but language seems to be of central importance. It is generally…

  17. Motivation and values of European Commission staff. Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, W.V.; Ban, C.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of public service motivation has been central to the discussion of motivation in the field of public management but has never been studied in international organizations. This paper reports on a preliminary study of motivational issues within the European Commission, including motivation

  18. NUMERIC: Statistics for the Digitisation of European Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Roswitha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present results of NUMERIC, a project of the European Commission that started out to define measures and methods for assessing the current state of digitisation in Europe's cultural institutions (archives, libraries and museums). The central task of the NUMERIC project was to develop a framework for the…

  19. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  20. European Attitude to the Disposal of Wastewater in the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, R.; Neves, M. J. V.

    1998-01-01

    A network of European organisations with interest in the utilisation of long sea outfalls as an integral element in the sewerage of coastal communities has recently been established. The central aim is to provide a focus both for the adoption of best practices and the identification of outstandin...

  1. SCENARIOS REGARDING THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-IULIAN NEDELCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to argumentatively identify the future evolution of the European construction, identifying a potential scenario which would settle the current contradiction within the European Union, namely the existence of a true “economic federation” and of only a “political quasi-confederation” , being notorious the fact that in Europe, federalism is mainly known as a specific solution of power assignment between the institutions of a central power and those of the member states (for federal states or as a potential model of transnational integration (for the European Union and even for regionalism within certain states (Spain, Italy, France. It shall be tried the decryption of the philosophical and legal base of federalism as a doctrine able to provide a solution of state’s organisation in the conditions of the European integration.

  2. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  3. Advanced long-term bird banding and climate data mining in spring confirm passerine population declines for the Northeast Chinese-Russian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shengwu; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin; Li, Xianda; Ouyang, Yanlan

    2016-09-01

    The migration of birds is fascinating for humans but it's also a serious environmental monitoring and management issue on a global level. Bird banding using mistnets has been the method of choice for decades worldwide; linking these data with climate data allows to infer on global warming and outlier events. However, good methods to achieve this effectively in time and space for many species are still missing; data for Asia are specifically sparse and often 'messy'. Here we present a data mining summary information for data from two bird banding stations (Gaofeng and Qingfeng) along the vast Northeast Chinese-Russian flyway. Bird data were collected during spring 2002-2011 with standardized techniques and then linked with related climate data in the banding as well as the wintering sites. This creates a complex data set which is based on a decade and which includes many predictors. This first-time data mining analysis with 'data cloning' and machine learning methods (boosted regression trees) shows how to extract the major signals in this unique dataset from highly correlated and interacting predictors. Our results indicate a large-scale warming trend for the flyway, with a start in 2003, and a freezing rain outlier event in 2008; the last years remained on a rather warm level. All evidence along this vast flyway supports major changes, warming trends, habitat losses and consequently strong passerine declines. Presumably human pressures are a major factor either way and we propose to address these problems immediately for betterment if meaningful conservation targets are to be met.

  4. Predicting origins of passerines migrating through Canadian migration monitoring stations using stable-hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers: a new tool for bird conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Hobson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN consists of standardized observation and migration count stations located largely along Canada's southern border. A major purpose of CMMN is to detect population trends of migratory passerines that breed primarily in the boreal forest and are otherwise poorly monitored by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS. A primary limitation of this approach to monitoring is that it is currently not clear which geographic regions of the boreal forest are represented by the trends generated for each bird species at each station or group of stations. Such information on "catchment areas" for CMMN will greatly enhance their value in contributing to understanding causes of population trends, as well as facilitating joint trend analysis for stations with similar catchments. It is now well established that naturally occurring concentrations of deuterium in feathers grown in North America can provide information on their approximate geographic origins, especially latitude. We used stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers (δ²Hf from 15 species intercepted at 22 CMMN stations to assign approximate origins to populations moving through stations or groups of stations. We further constrained the potential catchment areas using prior information on potential longitudinal origins based upon bird migration trajectories predicted from band recovery data and known breeding distributions. We detected several cases of differences in catchment area of species passing through sites, and between seasons within species. We discuss the importance of our findings, and future directions for using this approach to assist conservation of migratory birds at continental scales.

  5. Towards the simplification of MHC typing protocols: targeting classical MHC class II genes in a passerine, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canal David

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC has drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists due to its importance in crucial biological processes, such as sexual selection and immune response in jawed vertebrates. However, the characterization of classical MHC genes subjected to the effects of natural selection still remains elusive in many vertebrate groups. Here, we have tested the suitability of flanking intron sequences to guide the selective exploration of classical MHC genes driving the co-evolutionary dynamics between pathogens and their passerine (Aves, Order Passeriformes hosts. Findings Intronic sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 were isolated from different species using primers sitting on conserved coding regions of MHC class II genes (β chain. Taking the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca as an example, we demonstrate that careful primer design can evade non-classical MHC gene and pseudogene amplification. At least four polymorphic and expressed loci were co-replicated using a single pair of primers in five non-related individuals (N = 28 alleles. The cross-amplification and preliminary inspection of similar MHC fragments in eight unrelated songbird taxa suggests that similar approaches can also be applied to other species. Conclusions Intron sequences flanking the usually polymorphic exon 2 may assist the specific investigation of classical MHC class II B genes in species characterized by extensive gene duplication and pseudogenization. Importantly, the evasion of non-classical MHC genes with a more specific function and non-functional pseudogenes may accelerate data collection and diminish lab costs. Comprehensive knowledge of gene structure, polymorphism and expression profiles may be useful not only for the selective examination of evolutionarily relevant genes but also to restrict chimera formation by minimizing the number of co-amplifying loci.

  6. Species- and tissue-specific accumulation of Dechlorane Plus in three terrestrial passerine bird species from the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxin; Luo, Xiaojun; Wu, Jiangping; Mo, Ling; Chen, Shejun; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fasheng; Mai, Bixian

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) in terrestrial organisms. Three terrestrial passerine bird species, light-vented bulbul, long-tailed shrike, and oriental magpie-robin, were collected from rural and urban sites in the Pearl River Delta to analyze for the presence of DP and its dechlorinated products in muscle and liver tissues. The relationships between trophic level and concentration and isomeric composition of DP in birds were also investigated based on stable nitrogen isotope analysis. DP levels had a wide range from 3.9 to 930 ng g(-1)lipid weight (lw) in muscle and from 7.0 to 1300 ng g(-1)lw in liver. Anti-Cl(11)-DP and syn-Cl(11)-DP, two dechlorinated products of DP, were also detected in bird samples with concentrations ranged between not detected (nd)-41 and nd-7.6 ng g(-1)lw, respectively. DP preferentially accumulated in liver rather than in muscle for all three bird species. Birds had significantly higher concentrations of DP in urban sites than in rural sites (mean, 300 vs 73 ng g(-1)lw). The fractions of anti-DP (f(anti)) were higher in birds collected in rural sites than in urban sites. Significant positive correlation between DP levels and δ(15)N values but significant negative correlation between f(anti) and δ(15)N values were found for birds in both urban and rural sites, indicating that trophic level of birds play an important role in determining DP level and isomeric profile.

  7. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Barresi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a rich social fabric go hand in hand, the social capital being able to produce an added value for the cities. We are exactly in a new phase of urban growth centred on the economy of services characterized by widespread digital technologies and new innovative organization patterns, which encourage the participation in the civic policy processes through the realization of structures to share information and data so as to define intervention policies. The most recent studies and trials about innovation and competitiveness, such as the examples illustrated in the present work (Amsterdam, Paredes, Aarhus and Gent show a growing interest in measuring the relationship between innovation and economic growth at various territorial levels, key factors in conceiving inclusive smart strategies, linked to principles of sustainability and territorial cohesion, and building smarter cities. In the light of these remarks, the article is divided into three parts: the first part is focussed on the above-mentioned central issues of the international debate; the second part examines four significant European initiatives; the third part draws preliminary conclusions and directions for further research.

  8. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  9. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Madlener, Reinhard, E-mail: RMadlener@eonerc.rwth-aachen.d [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. {yields} Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  10. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  11. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  12. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    with a web of meanings encompassed by the central imaginary signification of autonomy, manifested as critique and questioning of established representations, pursuit of truth through rational communication and scientific knowledge, as well as democratic citizenship, conceived of as social and personal self....... This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  13. Bourdieu, International Relations and European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Despite promising attempts to apply the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu to International Relations (IR), the field could still profit from unexplored potential in his thinking for understanding pivotal theoretical and empirical puzzles. This article takes the failure to fully grasp the paradigmatic...... case of European security after the Cold War as an example of how IR would benefit from reformulating not only its empirical research questions but also several of its central conceptual building blocks with the aid of Bourdieusian sociology. The separation between theory and practice...

  14. Education Funding Methods in European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gherghina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At European level, the allocation of a small amount of financial resources to education as a percentage of GDP associated with major economic difficulties affected the whole structure of the education expenditure: by type of expenditure, level of education and residence type. State intervention in educational activity requires to be aware of the amount of public expenditure conducted by public bodies, both central and local authorities, to finance this activity. Funding education must provide incentives to ensure efficiency as it is important not only for being the base of a proper organization of the educational activity, but also because it can improve its content.

  15. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  16. La Banca Centrale Europea: istituzione concettualemnte "evoluta" o all'inizio della sua "evoluzione"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SARCINELLI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to answer the questions posed by many Europeans: ‘Is the proposition for a European Central Bank workable or not?’ In an attempt to provide an answer to such a complex question, the history associated with the idea of such an organisation is outlined as well as an exposition of its probable objectives and possible functions.  JEL Codes: E58Keywords: European Central Bank

  17. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  18. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  19. DISCURSUL EUROPEAN: SINTAGME SI PARADIGME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina CMECIU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to interpret some of the most frequently usedparadigms and syntagms belonging to the European discourse since Romania joined theEuropean Union against the background of cultural postmodernism. The process ofcommunication, that is of encoding and decoding messages, circumscribes, on the one hand,a type of two-way journey (from European authoritative institutions to a local individualand from the latter back to European heights and, on the other hand, the awareness of adouble citizenship mentality (both Romanian and European.

  20. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert De Groof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  1. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may...... to their natal breeding area....

  2. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  3. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  4. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  5. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  6. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...

  7. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  8. FDI in the New European Neighbours of Southern Europe: a quest of institutions-based attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Fabry, Nathalie; Zeghni, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    Why the “New European Neighbours” at the South East of Europe, after more than 10 years of transition and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), are not sufficiently attractive for inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)? The experience of Central and Eastern European Countries has shown that the access to the EU membership can be positively pushed by the European Neighborhood Policy and inward-FDI. On the one hand, ENP can be a supportive framework for improving the investor’s confidence. ENP I...

  9. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  10. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  11. Academic cooperation strategies for the development of training and research in Central America and the European Union Estrategias de cooperación académica para el desarrollo de la formación e investigación en Centroamérica y la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Trejos Benavides

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the actions for the institutional strengthening and research projects for the training and research of the agribusiness capacities in Costa Rica and the Region of Murcia. The training of teachers, graduates and students; the knowledge of agribusiness and rural tourism companies, social economy and the development of agribusiness, the creation of spin-off, logistics and the operations of horticultural companies are some of the main objectives of academic cooperation projects for the development of the Central American countries and the European Union. These aspects of the research will lead to a better understanding of rural areas and agricultural activities to encourage the consolidation in the regions.El artículo resume las acciones de fortalecimiento institucional y proyectos de investigación para la formación e investigación de las capacidades de agronegocios en Costa Rica y la Región de Murcia.La formación del profesorado, egresados y estudiantes; el conocimiento de las agro empresas y la emprendimientos en turismo rural, la economía social y el desarrollo de los agronegocios, la creación de spin-off, la logística y las operaciones de empresas hortofrutícolas, son algunos de los objetivos principales de estos proyectos de cooperación académica para el desarrollo de los países de Centroamérica y la Unión Europea. Estos aspectos de la investigación llevarán a un mejor conocimiento de las zonas rurales y de las actividades agropecuarias para impulsar la consolidación en las regiones.

  12. European Conference on Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.

  13. Bring European finance ministries kicking and screaming into geopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2017-01-01

    The issue of burden-sharing will be a hot topic at the Munich Security Conference, a major annual event that kicks off this week. In Europe the political mechanics of defense budget hikes work differently than in the United States, where it is Congress that holds the purse strings. Across...... the Atlantic, it is the ministries of finance that play the central role in controlling budgets — defense and otherwise. This means that real progress on raising European defense spending will require convincing the finance ministers and their top civil servants of the new realities of European geopolitics...

  14. Ethics and the European countries in transition--the past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovecki, Ana; ten Have, Henk; Oreskovic, Stiepan

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the situation regarding bioethical issues in the European transitional societies. It aims at exploring past, present and future characteristics of bioethics in the European countries in transitions, analysing similarities, differences and common themes together with the historical development of bioethics. By carefully studying articles published since the early 1990s, one can perceive a number of bioethical issues, varying from specificities for certain countries to similar problems for all transitional European societies. It seems that more than 15 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Central and Eastern European societies were able to achieve significant improvements in the development of bioethics. However, looking at the bioethical issues important for European transitional societies, it seems that the invisible wall between eastern and western European societies is still there and that it will take years to remove it.

  15. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling the ...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  16. Westinghouse European trainee program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, G. [Safety and Licensing Department, Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table

  17. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  18. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renami...

  19. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    announced by Descartes degenerates to the pseudo-materialistic consumo ergo sum.”98 One major point in this development is that both on the national...change the patron -client relationship.270 The European solution to this asymmetrical relationship led the European Community to further diversify

  20. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  1. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding m

  2. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  3. HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan V t man

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how the project of the ‘European Union’ evolved both in the interwar period and in the years following the Second World War, focusing on promoters of the idea of federal Europe who attempted to find the best ways for building a suitable European Community development. The establishment of three European Communities in the 50`s, although they were mainly orientated economically also involved political cooperation, thus contributing to a new federal vision. Evolution of the European Communities has been marked by the widening of their accession of new members and by the review of the institutive treaties in order to speed and flexibly achieve those objectives. Given the constant changing of modern world, the European leaders had to agree on new rules that would take into account political, economic and social changes, while also meeting the aspirations and hopes of the Europeans. Signing the Lisbon Treaty was the recognition that the EU needs to modernize and to have effective and consistent tools, not only adapted to the functioning of a Union extended to 27 countries, but also to the rapid changes of the present day world. The Lisbon Treaty clearly defined objectives and values of the European Union on peace, democracy, human rights, justice, equality, rule of law durability and also set up a stable institutional framework which gives the ability to obtain better results closer to expectations of European citizens.

  4. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.;

    2011-01-01

    A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  5. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  6. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  7. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......Research and innovation are key pillars of the EU’s strategy to create sustainable growth and prosperity in Europe. Research infrastructures (RIs) are central instruments to implement this strategy. They bring together a wide diversity of expertise and interests to look for solutions to many......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...

  8. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  9. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    fields from economic, social and political issues, on the contrary "culture" and "identity" are constructed through social, economic and political relations. Issues of "language" and "images" are central to both of them. By questioning the role that "language" and "visual images play in the construction of European identity and culture, we are considering "language" as well as "visual images" not just as representations, but also as forms of social action. In addition to that, inspired by discourse theory (Laclau 1985, 1994, 2007) and psychoanalysis (Zizek 1989, 1993, 1994; Stavrakakis 1999, 2005, 2007) we explore the libidinal dimension of identification processes. We focus on the European MEDIA Programme in order to analyse how different languages and images are being used to create a sense of "European unity in diversity". Along with Stavrakakis we argue that due to the lack of libidinal investment into discourses of Europeanness, Europe is failing to create a strong supranational identity. However we also show that there have been recent attempts by European policy makers to try and fill this gap through various projects which focus entirely on emotions; which appears to reinforce new possibilities of identification with Europe.

  10. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  11. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  12. The Effectiveness of Transgovernmental Networks: Managing the Practical Application of European Integration in the case of Solvit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Hobolth, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    and shortcomings of the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and national courts as central and decentralised enforcers. However, the practical application of EU rights and obligations remains rather unexplored. Drawing on survey data covering EU-27 and three EEA states...

  13. Opening of the first CO{sub 2} capture installation on the fumes of a coal power plant - european project Castor, Denmark; Inauguration de la premiere installation de captage du CO{sub 2} sur les fumees d'une centrale electrique au charbon - Projet europeen Castor, Danemark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The 15 March 2006, was launched the first industrial pilot of CO{sub 2} capture of the Castor project, coordinated by the IFP and financed by the european commission, on the site of the Esbjerg (Denmark) power plant. It is the first world installation allowing the CO{sub 2} capture on the fumes of a coal power plant. This document presents the pilot installation, discusses the european project Castor, the advantages of the CO{sub 2} capture and storage for a better use of the fossil energies, where and how capturing the CO{sub 2} and the Denmark energy context. (A.L.B.)

  14. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  15. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  16. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation.

  17. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  18. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Gend en Loos and Costa V. ENEL. The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the ECSC was allegedly conservative dominated by technical and economic considerations less than adventurous activism. Recent historical research has demonstrated the complexity of the legal landscape of the 1950s, in which...... the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making....

  19. Remuneration in European Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tóth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the new rules to be applied in the European Union, data on compensation of material risk takers are to be disclosed from year 2014. This paper overviews the different expectations regarding remuneration of bank managers highlighting the requirements of European Parliament and Council. Furthermore, it analyses data of 18 European banks disclosed based on the new lawful requirements. Based on empirical study it proves there is correlation between number of material risk takers and value of total assets. However this correlation is not too strong.

  20. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  1. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  2. The Relations Between Romania and European Union (1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IVAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the communism regimes in central and eastern Europe, the states from this area, among which Romania, expressed their aspiration to integrate in the big European family represented by the European Union. In this respect the European Union proposed “association agreements” to these countries, agreements to which Romania adhered in February 1993 (in 1995 Romania presented its request for admission in the EU. Further on, in 1997 Romania launched “The national program for the adoption of the acquis comunautaire”. An important moment for Romania has arrived at Helsinki during the meeting of the European Council (10-11 December 1999, which decided to organize bilateral intergovernmental conferences for all the 13 candidate states in order to begin the accession negotiations, which were opened by Romania on the 16th of February 2000. The Helsinki decision regarding the beginning of the admission negotiations with Romania was a political one; Romania having acute economical, juridical and administrative problems. In the European Commission 2003 country report regarding Romania, there are positive appreciations with regard to the fulfillment of the political criteria and for the progress made in the adoption of the acquis comunautaire as well as for the economical progress but Romania still did not receive the statute of functional market economy. On the other hand the malfunctions still persist in the domains of public administration, agriculture, justice and the fight against corruption.

  3. The influence of the Gulf Stream on wintertime European blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Wintertime blocking is responsible for extended periods of anomalously cold and dry weather over Europe. In this study, the influence of the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature (SST) front on wintertime European blocking is investigated using a reanalysis dataset and a pair of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. The AGCM is forced with realistic and smoothed Gulf Stream SST, and blocking frequency over Europe is found to depend crucially on the Gulf Stream SST front. In the absence of the sharp SST gradient European blocking is significantly reduced and occurs further downstream. The Gulf Stream is found to significantly influence the surface temperature anomalies during blocking periods and the occurrence of associated cold spells. In particular the cold spell peak, located in central Europe, disappears in the absence of the Gulf Stream SST front. The nature of the Gulf Stream influence on European blocking development is then investigated using composite analysis. The presence of the Gulf Stream SST front is important in capturing the observed quasi-stationary development of European blocking. The development is characterised by increased lower-tropospheric meridional eddy heat transport in the Gulf Stream region and increased eddy kinetic energy at upper-levels, which acts to reinforce the quasi-stationary jet. When the Gulf Stream SST is smoothed the storm track activity is weaker, the development is less consistent and European blocking occurs less frequently.

  4. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  5. The European VLF/LF radio network: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Ermini, A.

    2014-11-01

    For several years researches about correlation between seismicity and disturbances in radio broadcasting are being carried out: in particular, the Japanese Pacific VLF radio network and the European VLF-LF radio network have been developed during the last years. The European network has been developed starting from two LF receivers located in central Italy in 1996. Up to now, 11 receivers of a new type, able to sample the VLF and LF intensity of ten radio signals, are being into operation in different European countries. The daily updating of data is effective and the data bank is located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy) which is the central node of the network. In order to discover anomalies, the software able to carry out automatically a daily data analysis by the Wavelet spectra method has been planned and realized. At the moment, the software operates on four signals (two LF and two VLF) collected by one of the receiver located in Italy. If the anomaly is particularly strong a warning system gives an advise on the work station into operation in the central node of the Network. In any case, before assuming an anomaly as a seismic anomaly, geomagnetic and meteorological data must be checked as well as any possible instrumental malfunction. At present these controls are carried out only discontinuously by the researchers of the Bari Team.

  6. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A; Glauser, M P; Weber, R; Katlama, C; Barton, S E; Lundgren, J D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied. Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p < 0.001). The probability was also higher for patients from Central Europe compared with patients from South Europe (4.1% versus 2.5%, p = 0.005). The rate of developing cryptosporidiosis after the diagnosis of AIDS was 3 per 100 patient years of follow-up. The rate was significantly lower for intravenous drug users than for homosexual men (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence limits 0.22-0.54) and for women compared with men (RR 0.43 (0.21-0.87)). The risk was higher in North Europe than in South and Central Europe. In a multivariate analysis only transmission category remained a significant predictor for the development of cryptosporidiosis. CONCLUSION: The development of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients may be associated with sexual risk behaviour. PMID:8698361

  7. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  8. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from...

  9. EUROPEAN MANAGERIAL PROFESSION AND BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Liset Ivascu

    2009-01-01

    The European manager‘s behavior must be flexible and adaptable to the behaviors of various employees of the enterprise. Its flexibility enables the manager to act efficiently in the current, so mobile environment

  10. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  11. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  12. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  13. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  14. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts. Th...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  15. Do European capital flows comove?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Contessi; Pierangelo DePace

    2008-01-01

    We study the cross-sectional correlations of net, total, and disaggregated capital flows for the major source and recipient European Union countries. We seek evidence of changes in these correlations since the introduction of the euro to understand whether the European Union can be considered a unique entity with regard to its international capital flows. We first use Ng's (2006) "uniform spacing" methodology to rank cross-sectional correlations (i.e., which flows comove more) and to shed lig...

  16. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  17. Integrated modeling of European migration

    OpenAIRE

    Raymer, James; Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; Forster, Jonathan J.; Peter W. F. Smith; Bijak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    International migration data in Europe are collected by individual countries with separate collection systems and designs. As a result, reported data are inconsistent in availability, definition and quality. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian model to overcome the limitations of the various data sources. The focus is on estimating recent international migration flows amongst 31 countries in the European Union and European Free Trade Association from 2002 to 2008, using data collated by Euro...

  18. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  19. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  20. A European Res publica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Zetterquist

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the fundamental constitutional enigma of the European Union (EU, namely whether the EU can be considered as a (from its Member States separate and independent constitutional legal order. The EU is often referred to as a legal order sui generis, i.e. of a unique character that defies traditional definitions. More specifically, the notion of an independent and separate EU is at odds with the idea of the sovereign state. The notion of the EU as a legal order sui generis is too much influenced by the models of the sovereign state and sovereignty (in the vein of Thomas Hobbes. The key component in the Hobbesian idea of sovereignty is freedom as non-interference. A sovereign state is consequently a state that is free from, i.e. not interfered with by, external actors like, for example, the EU. Put differently, either the EU is sovereign or the Member States are sovereign. By shifting the perspective to a neo-Roman republican understanding of freedom as non-domination the constitutional picture of the EU will become more nuanced. Res publica is best understood as what citizens hold in common and above their narrow self-interest. According to a republican notion of the constitution the purpose of the law is to eliminate the possibility of arbitrary domination. For that reason, not all interference is to be considered as a restriction of freedom but only those restrictions that cannot be justified according to the res publica. Viewed through the republican prism it can be argued that the EU represents an important advancement in securing freedom as non-domination without implying that the EU must become a state. The fundamental enigma can thus be rephrased as a clash between two diverging concepts of freedom. Whereas the EU will always be at odds with the idea of sovereignty (however framed it will be much easier to reconcile with the republican ideal. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837332