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Sample records for central european city

  1. Disposable and Usable Pasts in Central European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lisiak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Central European cities memories and material histories of socialist regimes remain particularly difficult to address and incorporate into the new democratic present. After 1989, city authorities in the region have chosen to emphasize some pasts and neglect others and, thus, (rewrite their own versions of (urban history and (reshape their (urban identities. In my paper I inquire into how post-1989 Central European urbanities are shaped by and communicated through various designations including signs and symbols on city streets, monuments, and build-ings. Predictably, many material remnants of the socialist regimes have been de-stroyed or hidden from the public eye - my interest lies not only in which various designations on buildings and which monuments had to go, but also in why and how they disappeared. I discuss the most popular methods of hiding and/or effac-ing the remnants of socialism that range from subtle (surrounding of communist landmarks with tall buildings through the obvious (renaming of streets, squares, metro stations; giving old communist buildings new names and functions to the irreversible and, thus, most controversial (the razing of socialist architecture and monuments. The disappearance of the material capital of the socialist past has been accompanied by intense commemoration practices verging on memorial ob-sessions. New monuments, plaques, street names, and museums appeared almost as quickly as the old "disposable" ones were forced out from the urban landscape. The complexity of an urban identity as communicated through city streets, mo-numents, and buildings not only invites, but necessitates an interdisciplinary ap-proach and, thus, my analysis includes elements from such diverse areas of know-ledge as aesthetics, architecture, communication studies, comparative cultural studies, economics, history, and political science.

  2. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  3. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

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    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with −20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC. The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3, but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5–0.8 and 0.4–0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2–0.5. The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5 are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50–70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5, but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10–20 %. Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of % fraction of the

  4. Comparison of atmospheric new particle formation events in three Central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Zoltán; Rosati, Bernadette; Zíková, Naděžda; Salma, Imre; Bozó, László; Dameto de España, Carmen; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír; Wonaschütz, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous particle number size distribution measurements were performed in the urban environment of Budapest, Vienna, and Prague, three Central European cities located within 450 km of each other. The measurement days from the continuous, 2-year long campaign were classified for new particle formation (NPF) events using an adapted classification scheme for urban sites. The total numbers of NPF event days were 152 for Budapest, 69 for Vienna, and 143 for Prague. There were 12 days when new particle formation took place at all three sites; 11 out of these 12 days were in spring and in summer. There were only 2 (Budapest-Vienna), 19 (Budapest-Prague), and 19 (Vienna-Prague) nucleation days, when NPF did not occur on the third site. The main difference was related to source and sink terms of gas-phase sulphuric acid. Air mass origin and back-trajectories did not show any substantial influence on the atmospheric nucleation phenomena. The relative contribution of particles from NPF with respect to regional aerosol to the particles originating from all sources was expressed as nucleation strength factor. The overall mean nucleation strength factors were 1.58, 1.54, and 2.01 for Budapest, Vienna, and Prague, respectively, and showed diurnal and seasonal variations. The monthly mean NSF varied from 1.2 to 3.2 in Budapest, from 0.7 to 1.9 in Vienna, and from 1.0 to 2.3 in Prague. This implies that the new particle formation in cities is a significant source of ultrafine (UF) particles, and the amount of them is comparable to the directly emitted UF particles.

  5. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  6. Comparison of Atmospheric New Particle Formation Events Events in Three Central European Cities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh, Z.; Rosati, B.; Zíková, Naděžda; Salma, I.; Bozó, L.; Dameto de España, C.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír; Wonaschütz, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 178, APR 2018 (2018), s. 191-197 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015037 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654109 - ACTRIS-2 Grant - others:HSRFK(HU) K116788; HSRFK(HU) PD124283; NRDIO(HU) GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00055 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : urban environment * ultrafine particles * new particle formation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  7. Educated Cities and Regional Centralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper

    centralization where the shares of students rose significantly more in urban municipalities than non-urban municipalities. The highest shares of students as well as fastest increases were seen in the municipalities of the four largest cities, Copenhagen, Århus, Odense, and Aalborg. At the national level...

  8. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanous, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  9. The European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Michael; Wieland, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The establishment of the ECB and with it the launch of the euro has arguably been a unique endeavor in economic history, representing an important experiment in central banking. This note aims to summarize some of the main lessons learned from this experiment and sketch some of the prospects for the ECB. It is written for "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd edition. JEL Classification: E52, E58

  10. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  11. Diversity and biotic homogenization of urban land-snail faunas in relation to habitat types and macroclimate in 32 central European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Lososová, Zdeňka; Čejka, Tomáš; Juřičková, Lucie; Chytrý, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of non-native species invasions on community diversity and biotic homogenization have been described for various taxa in urban environments, but not for land snails. Here we relate the diversity of native and non-native land-snail urban faunas to urban habitat types and macroclimate, and analyse homogenization effects of non-native species across cities and within the main urban habitat types. Land-snail species were recorded in seven 1-ha plots in 32 cities of ten countries of Central Europe and Benelux (224 plots in total). Each plot represented one urban habitat type characterized by different management and a specific disturbance regime. For each plot, we obtained January, July and mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Snail species were classified into either native or non-native. The effects of habitat type and macroclimate on the number of native and non-native species were analysed using generalized estimating equations; the homogenization effect of non-native species based on the Jaccard similarity index and homogenization index. We recorded 67 native and 20 non-native species. Besides being more numerous, native species also had much higher beta diversity than non-natives. There were significant differences between the studied habitat types in the numbers of native and non-native species, both of which decreased from less to heavily urbanized habitats. Macroclimate was more important for the number of non-native than native species; however in both cases the effect of climate on diversity was overridden by the effect of urban habitat type. This is the first study on urban land snails documenting that non-native land-snail species significantly contribute to homogenization among whole cities, but both the homogenization and diversification effects occur when individual habitat types are compared among cities. This indicates that the spread of non-native snail species may cause biotic homogenization, but it depends on scale and

  12. The post-European city in Europe

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    Marco Venturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Established tools for forecasting urban development are evidently insufficient. Even most hypotheses seen as axiomatic in urbanisation processes are confronted by new phenomena on a daily basis. In the European tradition there is however a method, which allows definition of common methods and answers: the analysis of ties in urbanisation processes. By analysis of quantitative observation, re-evaluation of the essence of public investments, identification of signs of urbanity and transformation of hierarchies the author offers a possibility for urban futures of European cities, which stems from relationships of contradicting pairs.

  13. Urban Environment in European Big Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Cetkovský, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Klusáček, Petr; Kolibová, Barbora; Lacina, Jan; Mikulík, Oldřich; Zapletalová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2006), s. 46-62 ISSN 1210-8812 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK4-CT-2002-00086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : European big cities * urban environment * reurbanisation * životní prostředí * Bologna * Ljubljana * León * Brno * Leipzig Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  14. The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut

    2002-01-01

    The Eurosystem comprises the European Central Bank at its center as well as the national central banks of the twelve countries currently participating in monetary union. The European Central Bank was established in July 1998, six months before the beginning of Stage Three of economic and monetary union. Although decisions regarding monetary policy are made centrally by the Governing Council of the Eurosystem, the operational aspects of monetary policy-including open market operations, adminis...

  15. Determinants of urban sprawl in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Walid; Alvanides, Seraphim; Garrod, Guy

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that helps to answer several key questions relating to the extent of urban sprawl in Europe. Building on the monocentric city model, this study uses existing data sources to derive a set of panel data for 282 European cities at three time points (1990, 2000 and 2006). Two indices of urban sprawl are calculated that, respectively, reflect changes in artificial area and the levels of urban fragmentation for each city. These are supplemented by a set of data on various economic and geographical variables that might explain the variation of the two indices. Using a Hausman-Taylor estimator and random regressors to control for the possible correlation between explanatory variables and unobservable city-level effects, we find that the fundamental conclusions of the standard monocentric model are valid in the European context for both indices. Although the variables generated by the monocentric model explain a large part of the variation of artificial area, their explanatory power for modelling the fragmentation index is relatively low.

  16. Future heat-waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Selma B.; Dawson, Richard J.; Kilsby, Chris; Lewis, Elizabeth; Ford, Alistair

    2018-03-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to climate risks due to their agglomeration of people, buildings and infrastructure. Differences in methodology, hazards considered, and climate models used limit the utility and comparability of climate studies on individual cities. Here we assess, for the first time, future changes in flood, heat-waves (HW), and drought impacts for all 571 European cities in the Urban Audit database using a consistent approach. To capture the full range of uncertainties in natural variability and climate models, we use all climate model runs from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the RCP8.5 emissions scenario to calculate Low, Medium and High Impact scenarios, which correspond to the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of each hazard for each city. We find that HW days increase across all cities, but especially in southern Europe, whilst the greatest HW temperature increases are expected in central European cities. For the low impact scenario, drought conditions intensify in southern European cities while river flooding worsens in northern European cities. However, the high impact scenario projects that most European cities will see increases in both drought and river flood risks. Over 100 cities are particularly vulnerable to two or more climate impacts. Moreover, the magnitude of impacts exceeds those previously reported highlighting the substantial challenge cities face to manage future climate risks.

  17. The House Sparrows Passer domesticus and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus: fine-scale distribution, population densities, and habitat selection in a Central European city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-232 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : House Sparrow * Tree Sparrow * urban environment * city green * built-up area * habitat selection * nest-site selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2015

  18. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  19. The euro and the European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey M. Wrase

    1999-01-01

    The formation of a monetary union by 11 European countries has received a lot of notice from the press since January 1, 1999, when the union's common currency, the euro, was officially introduced. To facilitate adoption of a single currency, these same countries have established a central bank that sets a common monetary policy for the members of the monetary union. In this article, Jeff Wrase gives some background on the European monetary union, outlines the procedure for introduction of the...

  20. Changes in the species inventory of the vegetation in a Central European city (Osnabrueck). Veraenderungen des Arteninventars der Vegetation in einer mitteleuropaeischen Grossstadt (Osnabrueck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdieck, D.; Scheitenberger, A. (Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie)

    1989-01-01

    From the Osnabrueck town area (within the borders of 1987) floristic and phytosociological lists and herbarical material of 23 authors and collectors were compared by means of the computer program dBASE III PLUS for the time span 1805-1987. Thus in total 10,789 findings were evaluated. In spite of increasing numbers of findings (+ 116%) only 42% of the number of these vascular plant species occurring until 1900 were still registered from 1959 to 1987. In gardens, agricultural areas, heaths, meagre grasslands, flat bogs and swampy areas the number of findings decreased. The indicator values of vascular plants in Central Europe showed the tendency for downtown soils to become drier, more acid and richer in nitrogen. One third of the species that vanished from the total species inventory of Osnabrueck until 1958 is not registered in the current 'red books'. 657 vascular plant species were documented for the Osnabrueck town area of 120 km{sup 2} from 1959 to 1987. (orig.).

  1. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

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    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  2. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  3. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

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    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  4. Some economic effects of recent migration patterns on central cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlieb, G; Hughes, J W

    1981-01-01

    The authors examine demographic changes in central cities of the United States between 1970 and 1977 and the economic effects of these changes. Patterns of selective migration from central cities, particularly the general out-migration of the middle class and the recent return of the middle class to selected areas, are discussed. Changes in household and family patterns, racial composition, income, and poverty status are examined, and the aggregate impact of migration on resident incomes and purchasing power within central cities is analyzed. The findings show a continued concentration of poverty in central cities.

  5. European and Italian experience of Smart Cities: A model for the smart planning of city built

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    Starlight Vattano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the city through smart measures is now a frontier reached from many cities in the world. The built environment requires smart planning able to relate urban realities that are relegated to a marginal change. But how does the smart cities can create a relationship between sustainable cities of the future and their heritage? The article highlights the way of smart urban transformation of reality European and Italian proposing critical comparisons from which to infer smart parameters most used and easy to apply for the sustainable construction of these smart cities focusing on the urban sources of intelligent retrieval for quality their historical and cultural heritage.

  6. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  7. Workers doses in central European PWR NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    As is stated, the ISOE database which was established in 1992 forms an excellent basis for studies and comparisons of occupational exposure data between nuclear power plants. In the year 2001, 69% of all participating reactors were pressurised water reactors. The ISOE database presents workers' exposure from 213 participating pressurised reactors (PWR) from 27 countries in that year. Among these 32 PWRs belong to six Central European Countries. The analysis of the exposure of workers based on radiation protection performance indicators (collective dose, average dose etc.) in these PWRs could be related to some nuclear safety performance indicators for recent years using ISOE database. The comparison is made to ISOE world - wide data. In the six Central European Countries altogether 32 PWR operated in the year 2001.The international databases of performance indicators related to radiation protection as for example the ISOE or the UNSCEAR database can be use as an efficient tool in the management of radiation protection of workers in a nuclear facilities and regulatory bodies. The databases enable the study of performance trends and the improvement of radiation protection. (authors)

  8. Destination cities of European exchange students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; Ekamper, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Erasmus programme is generally considered the flagship of intra-European exchange programmes in higher education, with more than three million participants since 1987. Whereas a number of studies investigated the determinants of student mobility decisions, no knowledge exists on the main

  9. Istanbul and the Heritage of the European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sucker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “The society, which has produced form and shape of the traditional European city does not exist any more.” (Siebel 2004 Raising our conscience on this circumstance as it as been pointed to by Walter Siebel does make planning issues re-appear in the light of knowledge that problems tackled on the basis of realities no longer there, are not going to be solved. In spite of this knowledge however the discourse around the European city seems to narrow a perspective to fully grasp reasons for the stagnation of its spatial form in the backdrop of socio-cultural change. For this reason I want to include another city into the discussion, which by Siebel’s definition is a typical European city and therefore fit for a comparison with postfeudal European Cities around which Siebel´s theory is oriented. At the same time however Istanbul lifts itself from an euro-centred context by never having fully internalized culturally the mechanisms of spatial production based on western capitalism. In this contribution I will look at the role of this cultural heritage for the prevalence of spatial specificities. Without the cultural backbone of civic management and social redistribution Istanbul is now, in the late stage of capitalism, a city that has integrated the global tendencies of neo-liberalism directly into the production of urban space. It demonstrates therefore clearly the realities of society through the characteristics of the built environment. Possibly the image that prevails with its new more explicit forms of urban segregation and the rise of gated communities is a glimpse upon social realities which have gained validity also for the European City. Article in Germany

  10. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  12. Policy priority objectives: comparative assessment in four European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Ramos, A.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainability must be an urban issue. Cities should be managed so as to minimize their impacts on environment, but providing an appropriate framework for economic and social development. However, European cities are facing some trends that threaten sustainable development. The aim of the EC research project INSIGHT-7FP (2013/16) is to develop appropriate management tools that can help to achieve sustainability in the context of European cities. In the project, a set of policy objectives have been designed for the management of urban areas, in order to face the main threats existing over cities. The paper presents a methodology based on indicators for analysing the progress towards these ten policy objectives in the four EU cities participating in the project: London (12.3 mill. inhab.), Madrid (6.4 mill. inhab.), Barcelona (5.4 mill. inhab.) and Rotterdam (1.4 mill. inhab.). All the indicators used in the analysis have been validated by ten policy makers of European cities. These policy makers participated on the stakeholders consultation carried out in the project, where the importance of the policy objectives proposed was also assessed. The paper concludes determining the policy priority objectives in each city, in order to contain the main threats existing over them: London should especially address the threats of social exclusion and transport inefficiency; Madrid the threats of economic decline and urban sprawl; Barcelona the economic decline and Rotterdam the contribution to climate change and the urban sprawl. Finally, the role played by the land use and transport system in these policy objectives is analysed. To this end, the assessment allows for the comparability of the results in a horizontal manner, in the basis of common indicators. Nearly half of these indicators are related to the land use and transport system of the cities. (Author)

  13. The European City as a Place of Coexistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Luís Miguel; Bandeirinha, JA; Amorim Mota, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    The European urban institutions have always negotiated a balance between collective control and individual initiative. However, over the last seven decades this balance has been challenged. In the aftermath of World War II, the utopia of the functional city was hijacked to serve the welfare policies

  14. TRESCIMO: European Union and South African smart city contextual dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available the question is raised if insights into a South African Smart City can strengthen European initiatives. A need for inter-continental automated testing facilities such as those developed by TRESCIMO is identified through which integrated experiments can...

  15. CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Pagani, Roberto; Huang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The international literature has paid significant attention to presenting China as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the world, despite having much lower per-capita emissions than the global average. In fact, the imbalance of economic development leads to diversity in GHG emissions profiles in different areas of China. This paper employs a common methodology, consistent with the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) approved by the Covenant of Mayors (CoM), to estimate CO 2 emissions of four Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. The results show that the CO 2 emissions of all four cities are still rising and that secondary industries emit the most CO 2 in these cities. By comparing these data with the inventory results of two European cities, this paper further reveals that Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas contribute much higher per-capita emissions than their European competitors. Furthermore, the per-capita CO 2 emissions of the residential sector and private transport in these Chinese cities are growing rapidly, some of them approaching the levels of European cities. According to these findings, several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided that aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions of highly urbanized areas in China. - Highlights: ► An exemplary study of GHG emission inventory for Chinese cities. ► Estimate CO 2 emissions of Chinese city in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. ► The studied Chinese cities contribute higher per-capita emissions than European’s. ► Emissions of residential sector and private transport in China are growing rapidly. ► Several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided.

  16. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two-step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish DNA in dietary samples. This approach encompasses 78 fish and lamprey species native to Central European freshwaters and enables the identification of 31 species, six genera, two families, two orders and two fish family clusters. All targeted taxa were successfully amplified from 25 template molecules, and each assay was specific when tested against a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic environments. The applicability of the multiplex PCR system was evaluated in a feeding trial, wherein it outperformed morphological prey analysis regarding species-specific prey identification in faeces of Eurasian otters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of fish species was detected in field-collected faecal samples and regurgitated pellets of Common Kingfishers and Great Cormorants, demonstrating the broad applicability of the approach. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR system provides an efficient, easy to use and cost-effective tool for assessing the trophic ecology of piscivores in Central Europe. Furthermore, the multiplex PCRs and the primers described therein will be applicable wherever DNA of the targeted fish species needs to be detected at high sensitivity and specificity. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  18. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Town's Central City (see Figures. 1 and 2), located between the city's harbour and the iconic slopes of Table. Mountain, has a vital role to play in transforming the wider metropolitan region into a more inclusive and opportunistic urban area. Stretching from Woodstock and Salt. River into the CBD and out into Green.

  19. Security challenges to Central European bordering territories: view from the Transcarpatian region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lendel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The factor of integral Central European space determines the formation of common challenges to the region's security. One part of them is not visualized or not perceived in the capital cities. These threats may be most vividly traced in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, taking into consideration the fact that it borders with the abovementioned countries. These are ethnopolitical threats, caused by the multiethnic population of the region, energy dependence, threats of social economic peripherization of Central European bordering territories, informational influence on the population, different attitudes to Ukraine-Russia conflict.

  20. European Healthy Cities evaluation: conceptual framework and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Dyakova, Mariana; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the methodology, programme logic and conceptual framework that drove the evaluation of the Fifth Phase of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. Towards the end of the phase, 99 cities were designated progressively through the life of the phase (2009-14). The paper establishes the values, systems and aspirations that these cities sign up for, as foundations for the selection of methodology. We assert that a realist synthesis methodology, driven by a wide range of qualitative and quantitative methods, is the most appropriate perspective to address the wide geopolitical, demographic, population and health diversities of these cities. The paper outlines the rationale for a structured multiple case study approach, the deployment of a comprehensive questionnaire, data mining through existing databases including Eurostat and analysis of management information generation tools used throughout the period. Response rates were considered extremely high for this type of research. Non-response analyses are described, which show that data are representative for cities across the spectrum of diversity. This paper provides a foundation for further analysis on specific areas of interest presented in this supplement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The European Central Bank : Independence, accountability and strategy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews research on central banking and monetary policy, with special emphasis on the position of the future European Central Bank. Nowadays, it is often thought that an independent central bank with an explicit mandate to aim for price stability constitutes an important institutional

  2. Experiencing the Tourist City. The European Capital of Culture in Re-Designing City Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Guerreiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that providing memorable experiences is the raison d’être of tourism industry, the city envisaged as a tourist destination should assume the tourist’s perspective when designing the settings and the most significant activities of a visit. Cities are facing new challenges, noticeably the globalisation of economies, the growing importance of the visual and the symbolic that define the current trends of consumption and the attractiveness of a place. Culture and events play a strategic role when designing innovative and appealing tourism experiences. The European Capital of Culture (ECoC is an international event which represents a unique opportunity for the cities to stand out in this globalised and competitive scenario. This paper focuses on the study of Pécs, European Capital of Culture 2010, and it aims to study the influence of this event on the design of city tourism routes. A survey by questionnaire was administered to tourists before and during ECoC in Pécs. Respondents indicated in open-ended questions the most outstanding points in their visit to the city, on which were designed the relevant circuits and routes during that tourist experience in Pécs. Data analysis was performed using the statistical software STAS.

  3. Time for EU Matters: The Europeanization of Dutch Central Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent does the European Union (EU) affect national governments? This article seeks to answer this question by assessing the Europeanization of Dutch central government. Using data from a large-scale survey among civil servants, we assess to what extent the EU affects the structure and

  4. Dark cities? Developing a methodology for researching dark tourism in European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James; Powell, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent growth of research into dark tourism (Dale & Robinson, 2011; Lennon & Foley, 2000; Stone, 2013; Tarlow, 2005) and the growth of the dark tourism market (Biran & Hyde, 2013; Stone 2005; Stone & Sharpley, 2008), there has been little interest shown in understanding the relationship between dark tourism and urban tourism (Page & Hall 2002). This paper presents the initial findings of a research project that investigates the dark tourism products offered by European cities. A s...

  5. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. The democratic accountability of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. BINI-SMAGHI

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank (ECB is considered to be an institution with a high level of accountability compared with other central banks. However, the matter has yet to be investigated in practice. Accountability of the ECB will have to be checked by governing bodies both within and outside the ECB as well as the public. A survey is undertaken of the main reasons for central bank accountability, especially for the ECB.

  7. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to health......The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...

  8. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE EUROZONE CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Euro is the single currency shared by 17 of the European Union's Member States, which together make up the Euro area. Since its introduction, in January 2002, it became the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. With the launch of the Euro, the monetary policy became the responsibility of the independent European Central Bank, which was created for that purpose, and of the national central banks of the Member States, having adopted the Euro. However, the accumulation of massive and unsustainable deficits and public debt levels in a number of peripheral economies threatened the Eurozone's viability by the end of its first decade, triggering a Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. The institutional mechanisms surrounding the Euro have also been an integral part of the crisis. On this line, the European Monetary Union is supported on one side by treaties and multilateral agreements including the Maastricht Treaty, the Stability and Growth Pact and the Lisbon Strategy and, on the other side, by the European Central Bank. The combination of these institutions has produced a mix of monetary, fiscal and labour market policies with powerful social implications. And, what started as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a broader economic and political crisis in the Eurozone and European Union. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the roots of the Eurozone crisis, as the biggest challenge since the Euro adoption and the European Central Bank’s response to it. Therefore the objectives are: identification of the reasons that stand behind the crisis, then observing how the crisis has affected the functioning of the European Central Bank and the Euro, and how it was forced to respond and, finally, focusing on the future and the challenges that lie ahead.

  9. THE MANIFESTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S LEGAL PERSONALITY AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank is one of the world’ s most important central banks, responsible for the monetary policy covering the 17 member States of the Eurozone. Established by the European Union in 1998, it was given the exclusive right to authorize the issue of banknotes within the European Union. The European Central Bank has legal personality under public international law. As article 282, paragraph 3 of the Treaty on functioning of the European Union and article 9, paragraph 1 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank states, the European Central Bank and the National Central Banks enjoy their own legal personality. The European Central Bank, given its important role in the economic integration, is the single institution of the European Union which has legal personality. This is a premise for it to fulfill its objectives. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the effects of the European Central Bank’s legal personality from a complete perspective: at national, European and international level. Therefore the objectives of my study are: an introspection in the concept of legal personality, the identification of the reason why it was entrusted to a single institution of the European Union and a detailed analyze of the effects of the European Central Bank’ s legal personality.

  10. Socio-economic segregation in European capital cities: East meets West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly

  11. Housing context and social transformation strategies in neighbourhood regeneration in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Western European city thesis, European cities have a unique institutional mix which helps to explain how social patterns come about. The most important elements of this mix are the interventionist state and the housing system legacy of non-private housing. While these two are vital,

  12. Central European projects could alter oil movement patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Howard, D.J.; Treat, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that several oil transportation projects are set to transform the flows of oil in Central Europe, with potentially important implications for crude oil and product prices in the region. These projects are spurred by the desires of the newly opened economies of Central Europe to diversify their sources of oil supplies away from the U.S.S.R. and by expectations of economic growth in this region. Today, Central European countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Bulgaria) rely heavily on Soviet crude supplies. Of the 1.7 million b/d of crude oil consumed by these six countries, about 55% is imported from the U.S.S.R. This is down significantly from the more than 75% import dependence in the mid-1980s. This dependency on U.S.S.R. crude - for countries that either have a history of indigenous production (Romania) or access to Middle East or North African supplies (Yugoslavia) - testifies to more than 40 years of centrally planned economics in which Moscow provided the energy and raw materials and Central European countries delivered finished goods. Since the end of World War II, the pipeline flow of crude oil and products from Western to Central Europe has been almost nonexistent. In fact, the Western European crude and product pipeline network itself is a rather poorly integrated system, with only limited interconnections between northern and southern networks and no real competition across the major flow routes

  13. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  14. Computational content analysis of European Central Bank statements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milea, D.V.; Almeida, R.J.; Sharef, N.M.; Kaymak, U.; Frasincar, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the computational content analysis of European Central Bank (ECB) statements. Based on this framework, we provide two approaches that can be used in a practical context. Both approaches use the content of ECB statements to predict upward and downward movement

  15. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within and betw...

  16. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15......The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...

  17. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  18. The European Central Bank: The Bank that rules Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, D.

    2009-01-01

    The power of the European Central Bank (ECB) is rooted in its independence established in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. This power is reinforced though the bank’s monetary policy credibility—achieved through meeting its price stability mandate, whilst resisting political pressures to manipulate monetary policy to other ends. This credibility contributes to the ideational power of the ECB which is rooted in widespread support for price stability, one of the core objectives of Economic and Mon...

  19. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, A.; Mohnen, S.M.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Andrusaityte, S.; Helbich, M.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Masterson, D.; Ellis, N.; Kempen, E. van; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona

  20. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health : an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain),

  1. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  2. Optimal City Hierarchy: A Dynamic Programming Approach to Central Place Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tai Hsu; Thomas J. Holmes

    2009-01-01

    It is an empirically plausible description of cities and is route to explain empirical regularities in city size distribution and industrial locations. This paper formalizes central place hierarchy by providing a rationale for it via a social planner's problem. The optimal city hierarchy is then compared with the equilibrium city hierarchy in Hsu (2008).

  3. Innovation capabilities and challenges for energy smartdevelopment in medium sized European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhult, Erik; Campillo, J.; Dahlquist, E.; Read, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Transition towards becoming Energy smart city integrating different areas of energy production, distribution and use in a community requires a spectrum of capabilities. The paper reports on findings from the EU planning project PLEEC, involving six medium sized European cities. The purpose of the

  4. An emission inventory for the central European initiative 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Z.; Amann, M.; Cofala, J.; Gyárfáŝ, F.; Klaassen, G.; Schöpp, W.

    This paper presents the first consistent inventory of emission of sulphur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO 2), for the countries co-operating in the Central European Initiative: Austria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Slovenia. The inventory is based on national and regional statistics as well as on information received from collaborating institutions. National data has been verified and converted into a common format, consistent with the database used by the European Environmental Agency and the European Community (the "CORINAIR" system). The inventory describes emissions in the year 1988, before the restructuring process began in former socialist economies. Data has been collected on the national level, for administrational units and for large point sources. The database on point sources contains specific information on 400 large plants in the region (e.g. capacity, commissioning year, fuel use, production, etc.). Total emissions of SO 2 in the CEI region in 1988 were 10.3 million tons, which accounts for 25% of total European SO 2 emissions. The highest emission densities (more than 100 t km -2) are found in Northern Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Upper Silesia (Poland). The overwhelming majority of SO 2 emissions (70%) originates from combustion of domestic (brown and hard) coal. Across the region, 60% of SO 2 is emitted from the large point sources identified in the study and over 60% of SO 2 emissions from public power plants in the CEI region is produced in plants older than 20 years.

  5. European cities in search of knowledge for their integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.; Scholten, P.; Erntzinger, H.; Penninx, R.; Verbeek, S.

    2015-01-01

    Research-policy dialogues may take place not only at the national and EU level, but also at the local level, especially in cities. However, research on how local policymakers call on researchers, or how researchers try to influence the policymaking process in cities is scarce. This chapter explores

  6. CityDelta: A model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuvelier, C.; Thunis, P.; Vignati, E.; Vautard, R.; Hodzic, A.; Vautard, R.; Hodzic, A.; Amann, M.; Bessagnet, B.; Honore, C.; Rouil, L.; Bedogni, M.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.; Brocheton, F.; Peuch, V.H.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Carnavale, C.; Volta, M.; Coppalle, A.; Denby, B.; Douros, J.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Graf, A.; Hellmuth, O.; Jonson, J.; Tarrason, L.; Wind, P.; Kerschbaumer, A.; Stern, R.; De Leeuw, F.; Minguzzi, E.; Pertot, C.; Pirovano, G.; Sauter, F.; White, L.; Zuber, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the set up, methodology and the obtained results of the CityDelta (phase 1 and 2) project. In the context of the Clean Air For Europe programme of the European Commission, the CityDelta project was designed to evaluate the impact of emission-reduction strategies on air quality at the European continental scale and in European cities. Ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the main components that have been studied. To achieve this goal, a model intercomparison study was organized with the participation of more than 20 modelling groups with a large number of modelling configurations. Two following main topics can be identified in the project. First, in order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating models were evaluated against observations in a control year (1999). An accompanying paper will discuss in detail this evaluation aspect for four European cities. The second topic is the actual evaluation of the impact of emission reductions on levels of ozone and PM, with particular attention to the differences between large-scale and fine-scale models. An accompanying paper will discuss this point in detail. In this overview paper the main input to the intercomparison is described as well as the use of the ensemble approach. Finally, attention is given to the policy relevant issue on how to implement the urban air quality signal into large-scale air quality models through the use of functional relationships. (authors)

  7. Impact of Location of the Central Activities on Development of Open Public Space in the City Centers of Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgemut, Mateja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the central activities with mixed land use are crucial for the development of city center, even in small cities. In the last decades or two the attention is drawn on the retail and service activities that are usually located outside of cities near main roads. Municipalities had already detected this problem, but they are not implementing any of the measures (Rebernik, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the central activities in small cities in Slovenia are located in freestanding buildings, which is most appropriate in terms of forming the open public space in the city center. In this research we compared ten central activities (Vrišer, 1988, 1990, Kokole, 1971 in 34 small cities. We selected only those small cities (Prosen et al, 2008 which have among other activities a county court. The results showed the differences and commonalities of the central activities in selected small cities according to the indicators. Litija, Domžale and Sevnica are small cities, where activities that could articulate open public space are located in the larger building complexes. The phenomenon is similar to a modern machine, where action in it and indirectly the insight into the functioning of the society is invisible to the observer (Kos, 2008. We found out that in these tree cities the central activities are not forming the open public spaces in front of the public buildings (Vertelj Nared, 2014. The result is problematic image of the city and changed forces of the city life.

  8. Residents' Dissatisfaction and All-Cause Mortality. Evidence from 74 European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 2/3 of the Europeans reside in cities. Thus, we must expand our knowledge on how city characteristics affect health and well-being. Perceptions about cities' resources and functioning might be related with health, as they capture subjective experiences of the residents. We characterized the health status of 74 European cities, using all-cause mortality as indicator, and investigated the association of mortality with residents' dissatisfaction with key domains of urban living.Methods: We considered 74 European cities from 29 countries. Aggregated data on residents' dissatisfaction was obtained from the Flash Eurobarometer, Quality of life in European cities (2004–2015. For each city a global dissatisfaction score and a dissatisfaction score by domain (environment, social, economic, healthcare, and infrastructures/services were calculated. Data on mortality and population was obtained from the Eurostat. Standardized Mortality Ratios, SMR, and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI were calculated. The association between dissatisfaction scores and SMR was estimated using Generalized Linear Models.Results: SMR varied markedly (range: 73.2–146.5, being highest in Eastern Europe and lowest in the South and Western European cities. Residents' dissatisfaction levels also varied greatly. We found a significant association between city SMR and residents' dissatisfaction with healthcare (β = 0.334; IC 95% 0.030–0.639 and social environment (β = 0.239; IC 95% 0.015–0.464. No significant association was found with the dissatisfaction scores related with the physical and economic environment and the infrastructures/services.Conclusions: We found a significant association between city levels of mortality and residents' dissatisfaction with certain urban features, suggesting subjective assessments can be also used to comprehend urban health.

  9. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity, and European Central Bank Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relation between credit risk and liquidity in the Italian sovereign bond market during the eurozone crisis and the subsequent European Central Bank (ECB) interventions. Credit risk drives the liquidity of the market. A 10% change in the credit default swap (CDS) spread leads...... to a 13% change in the bid-ask spread, the relation being stronger when the CDS spread exceeds 500 basis points. The Long-Term Refinancing Operations of the ECB weakened the sensitivity of market makers’ liquidity provision to credit risk, highlighting the importance of funding liquidity measures...

  10. Advanced scoring method of eco-efficiency in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Robaina, Margarita; Villar, José

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes a set of selected German and French cities' performance in terms of the relative behavior of their eco-efficiencies, computed as the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) over their CO 2 emissions. For this analysis, eco-efficiency scores of the selected cities are computed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique, taking the eco-efficiencies as outputs, and the inputs being the energy consumption, the population density, the labor productivity, the resource productivity, and the patents per inhabitant. Once DEA results are analyzed, the Malmquist productivity indexes (MPI) are used to assess the time evolution of the technical efficiency, technological efficiency, and productivity of the cities over the window periods 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2008. Some of the main conclusions are that (1) most of the analyzed cities seem to have suboptimal scales, being one of the causes of their inefficiency; (2) there is evidence that high GDP over CO 2 emissions does not imply high eco-efficiency scores, meaning that DEA like approaches are useful to complement more simplistic ranking procedures, pointing out potential inefficiencies at the input levels; (3) efficiencies performed worse during the period 2000-2005 than during the period 2005-2008, suggesting the possibility of corrective actions taken during or at the end of the first period but impacting only on the second period, probably due to an increasing environmental awareness of policymakers and governors; and (4) MPI analysis shows a positive technological evolution of all cities, according to the general technological evolution of the reference cities, reflecting a generalized convergence of most cities to their technological frontier and therefore an evolution in the right direction.

  11. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model......BACKGROUND: Public health is often affected by societal decisions that are not primarily about health. Climate change mitigation requires intensive actions to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Many of these actions take place in cities due to their traffic, buildings, and energy...... consumption. Active climate mitigation policies will also, aside of their long term global impacts, have short term local impacts, both positive and negative, on public health. Our main objective was to develop a generic open impact model to estimate health impacts of emissions due to heat and power...

  12. Role of environment in strengthening competitiveness of cities by example of European Green Capitals and Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Ratas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing a high-level living environment is one of the most important preconditions to the balanced and sustainable economic and social development of the European Union. Serious environmental problems can be seen in European cities, which are the places where most of the population live and which create the highest number of jobs, economic growth and added value. The level of urbanisation in Europe was 72.7% in 2010 and the UN forecast that it will increase to 82.2% by 2050. The European Green Capital Award was created in 2006 in order to recognise cities that have contributed to the improvement of their quality of life. The cities that have won the award have started using the most innovative and efficient measures for increasing the city’s competitiveness, and are an example of how to achieve sustainable development for all cities, not just capitals. The environmental indicators of cities that have won the European Green Capital Award are high. In this article the problem is analysed using the example of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, which strives for a place among cities with the highest quality of life in Europe. The objective of this article is to analyse the areas of the city’s environmental activities and environmental organisation in the context of increasing competitiveness. The original database used by the author in this article consists of the responses given by the governments of the cities who have already been awarded the title of European Green Capital when asked to describe the impact that applying for and achieving the title had on their cities

  13. Pathways toward European creative-knowledge city-regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, M.; Musterd, S.; Kovacs, Z.; Murie, A.

    2011-01-01

    Across Europe there is a lively policy and academic debate on what the essential conditions are for the development of new economic activities in city-regions. The focus is on knowledge-intensive and creative industries. Different theories (glocalization, clustering, embeddedness, path dependence,

  14. Problems of European inner cities and their residential environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2003), s. 24-35 ISSN 1210-8812 Grant - others:Evropská unie(XE) EVK4-CT-2002-00086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : inner city, residential environment, sustainibility, re- urbanization , Brno Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  15. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  16. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  17. Evaluation and intercomparison of Ozone and PM10 simulations by several chemistry transport models over four European cities within the CityDelta project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautard, R.; Builtjes, P.H.J.; Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.; Bedogni, M.; Bessagnet, B.; Honoré, C.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Pirovano, G.; Schaap, M.; Stern, R.; Tarrason, L.; Wind, P.

    2007-01-01

    The CityDelta project Cuvelier et al. [2006. CityDelta: a model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010. Atmospheric Environment] is designed to evaluate the air quality response of several emission abatement scenarios for 2010 at the scale of

  18. The foreign exchange market interventions of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frenkel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effectiveness of the foreign exchange market interventionsconducted by the European Central Bank (ECB in the fall of 2000 to support the external stability of the euro. To this end, we discuss different channels through whichinterventions may influence exchange rate dynamics. We use the insights provided by the theoretical and empirical literature to evaluate the effectiveness of theintervention policy of the ECB. In addition, we present an empirical analysis in which we use intra-daily exchange rate data to examine in detail the effects of theinterventions. We find that the interventions only had a rather short-term impact on the exchange rate path and had no effects beyond the short term. Therefore, our results suggest that the intervention policy of the ECB was not effective.

  19. Morphological separation of the Central European Trochosa females (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepner, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult females of the five Central European wolf spiders Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, T. robusta (Simon, 1876, T. ruricola (DeGeer, 1778, T. spinipalpis (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1895, and T. terricola Thorell, 1856 were morphologically analysed. We defined sets of continuous and binary (presence/absence variables. Continuous data of various epigynal and carapace dimensions were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Using the PC loadings each individual was plotted along the PC axis in order to find gaps(overlaps between the species. The binary data sets were subjected to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA in order to find characters that clearly separate the five Trochosa species. Using PCA only individuals of T.robusta and T.ruricola and of T.robusta and T.hispanica could be separated from each other. Using HCA all five species could clearly be separated by epigynal and vulval characteristics."

  20. Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution.

    OpenAIRE

    De Long, J Bradford; Shleifer, Andrei

    1993-01-01

    As measured by the pace of city growth in western Europe from 1000 to 1800. absolutist monarchs stunted the growth of commerce and industry. A region ruled by an absolutist prince saw its total urban population shrink by one hundred thousand people per century relative to a region without absolutist government. This might be explained by higher rates of taxation under revenue-maximizing absolutist governments than under non-absolutist governments. which care more about general economic prospe...

  1. Determinants of SME Finance: Evidence from Three Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ashiqur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.

  2. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  3. Perceived Satisfaction with Public Transport Service in Nine European Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fellesson, Markus; Friman, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides a transnational comparison of the perceived service satisfaction with public transport in eight European countries. Data was collected from 9,542 respondents in Stockholm, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Geneva, Helsinki, Vienna, Berlin, Manchester, and Oslo. The respondents rated their agreement with 17 attribute-related statements regarding local public transport services. Using factor analysis, this study identifies the four satisfaction dimensions of system, comfort, sta...

  4. Consumer preferences for cultural heritage and tourism e-sevices: A case study of three European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a marketing study aimed at discovering consumer preferences for the e-services in European cultural destinations. Our results are central to eliciting potential consumers’ preferences for tourism and cultural heritage-related e-services. The paper is based on the analysis of user surveys conducted by the authors within the ISAAC EU-funded project in Amsterdam, Genoa and Leipzig in 2007-2009. Three types of consumers were contacted: residents, visitors and (cultural heritage service providers. Our results provide a number of important recommendations for the design of e-tourism ICT platforms in European cities. The ICT platforms constitute a new market product, representing a novel approach to increasing the revenues from incoming tourism. The recommendations suggest priorities to ensure that the information system will most readily meet potential consumers’ needs.

  5. Slovakia, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project; and Central European integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the economic, social, ecological and cultural problems in connection of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) with the integration process of the 12 European Communities countries. Slovakia - sometimes also called the corridor between the East and the West - appears to have great potential as a link in the general east-west integration. Such a role could be further reinforced by the close and purposeful cooperation between Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Austria and Bavaria, and it could have a positive signal effect for the whole of Central Europe, as well as for Europe in general. However, this is possible only provided that the former COMECON countries will reduce their tendency to compete for western attention and they will begin, to a larger extent, to lay down the foundations for the indisputable benefits accruing to their population from cooperation and integration. In this respect, the GNP appears to be a crucial issue an the social and political decision on the completion of the Project would become a signal that Central Europe has entered the path towards becoming one of the most important regions of Europe

  6. Compact and resource efficient cities? Synergies and trade-offs in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    city. Compact cities and compact urban development are thought to decrease energy and resource demand per capita and increase efficiency. At the same time trade-offs and potential rebound effects of increased resource efficiency question certain achievements of a dense urban structure. This paper...... alternative travel modes. Also the allocation of efficiency gains due to compact urban development has to be taken into account in order to avoid direct and indirect rebound effects....

  7. Anxious politics in the European city: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modest, W.; Koning, A. de

    2016-01-01

    At the time of writing this introduction, the news media were still filled with concerns over the New Year's Eve incidents in Cologne. As reported, during those celebrations, close to Cologne's central station, men described as being of Middle Eastern or North African appearance, and as having

  8. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  9. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  10. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, JM; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390-429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were

  11. The Copper Balance of Cities: Exploratory Insights into a European and an Asian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-05-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available.

  12. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, Vladimir [Institute of Hygiene, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Ungvary, Gyoergy [National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-07-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  13. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencko, Vladimir; Gyoergy Ungvary

    1992-01-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  14. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  15. The German 'Energiewende' from central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szynol, Kazimierz [TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A., Jaworzno (Poland)

    2014-03-15

    Germany is a country of an exceptional economic significance for Europe and the entire world therefore everything that takes place in this country is carefully analyzed and investigated especially in the Central Europe. Hundreds of thousands workplaces in EU-11 are directly or indirectly connected with German economy present in those countries. That is why an unquestionable revolution in the power sector, i.e. Energiewende, is of importance to us both at present and in the future. The present article presents comparison of installed capacity, generation of electrical energy and power systems in Germany and EU-11. The article also assesses the differences regarding economic development of the aforementioned countries presenting the EU-11's understanding of what Energiewende is and what its objectives are. In addition, the article includes impartial evaluation of problems related to Energiewende and its outcome for the German economy and society. Due to considerable differences regarding economic development, it is hard to imagine a similar revolution taking place in EU-11. Therefore, a compromise with respect to European energy and climate policy acceptable for EU-11, Germany and the entire Europe is of the utmost necessity and the author is convinced that such a compromise is achievable. (orig.)

  16. Interspecific and interploidal gene flow in Central European Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marte H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Results Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Conclusions Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression.

  17. En Garde: Fencing at Kansas City's Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, 1991-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri is one of the oldest schools west of the Mississippi and the first public high school built in Kansas City. Kansas City's magnet plan resulted in Central High School being rebuilt as the Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, a school that was designed to offer students an…

  18. Assessment of PM10 in Aurangabad City of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Kaushik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost 670 million people comprising 54.5% of our population reside in regions that do not meet the Indian NAAQS for fine particulate matter. Numerous studies have revealed a consistent correlation for particulate matter concentration with health than any other air pollutant. Aurangabad city a rapidly growing city with population of 1.5 million is home to five major industrial areas, the city is also known for its historical monuments which might also be adversely affected from air pollution. Therefore, this research aims at estimating PM10 concentrations at several locations across Aurangabad. The concentration of PM10 was highest at the Railway Station followed by Waluj (an industrial zone and City chowk is the centre of the city which has high population, tall buildings, few open spaces which causes high congestion and does not allow the particulates to disperse. Other locations with high concentrations of PM are Mill corner, Harsul T-point, Kranti Chowk, Seven Hill, TV centre and Beed Bye pass. All these locations have narrow roads, high traffic density, poor road condition with pot holes and few crossing points which cause congestion and vehicle idling which are responsible for high pollution. Therefore, it is evident that air pollution is a serious issue in the city which may be further aggravated if it is not brought under control. Hence, strategies have to be adopted for combating the menace of air pollution.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page :61-74

  19. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    Although the origin of quantum optics can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the fundamental ideas about the quantum nature of the interaction between light and matter were put forward, the splendid blossoming of this part of physics began half a century later, after the invention of masers and lasers. It is remarkable that after another half a century the tree of quantum optics is not only very strong and spreading, but all its branches continue to grow, showing new beautiful blossoms and giving very useful fruits. A reflection of this progress has been the origin and development of the series of annual events called the Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). They started at the beginning of the 1990s as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe, but in less than two decades they have transformed into important events, gathering 100 to 200 participants from practically all European countries. Moreover, many specialists from other continents like to attend these meetings, since they provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. Regarding this, it seems worth mentioning at least some of the most interesting and important areas of quantum optics that have attracted the attention of researchers for the past two decades. One of these areas is quantum information, which over the course of time has become an almost independent area of quantum physics. But it still maintains very close ties with quantum optics. The specific parts of this area are, in particular, quantum computing, quantum communication and quantum cryptography, and the problem of quantitative description of such genuine quantum phenomena as entanglement is one of the central items in the current stream of publications. Theory and experiment related to quantum tomography have also become important to contemporary quantum optics. They are closely related to the subject of so

  20. Integration Policies of European Cities in Comparative Perspective: Structural Convergence and Substantial Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinus Penninx

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the comparative study of integration policies of European cities. The first two sections present an analytical framework for the study of immigrants’ integration processes and the policies that intend to steer such processes. The third section outlines how local integration policies have developed in relation to national policies and EU integration policies, particularly after 2003. The fourth and main section analyses the framing and content of integration policies of European cities, looking at their diversity in the legal/political dimension, the socio-economic dimension – including the domains of work, housing, education and health – and the cultural, religious and ethnic dimension. It is concluded that there is a structural convergence, in the sense that in the complex structure of multilevel governance of migration and integration, cities do take a similar position, developing horizontal relations of cooperation and exchange. Cities that develop explicit integration policies tend to do this from a more inclusive and pragmatic framing than national and EU-policies. At the same time, there is great variation in what cities actually do: in the legal/political and in the cultural/religious dimensions, framing, intentions and measures do vary greatly; in the socio-economic dimension this variation is less when it comes to the domains of activity, but more in the intensity of policy intervention.

  1. A classification of european cities On the basis of e-images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has become a major enabling technology that is nowadays very much 'en vogue'. It has also become an important tool to promote a variety of business goals and public policies. The growing importance of ICT in daily life, business activities and governance prompts the need to consider ICT more explicitly in local policies. The expected benefits from ICT encourage urban policy-makers to formulate proper strategies for public ICT policies. But, what are the urban policy-makers' expectations about ICT? And how do they assess the future implications of ICT for their city? This paper is focusing on the way urban decision-makers perceive the opportunities of modern ICT and its related ICT policy. By highlighting the importance of understanding the decision-maker's 'black box' on ICT, we will address three crucial issues in European cities, viz. perception of the city, attitude towards ICT, and assessment of the relevance of ICT policy. We will give an operational meaning to these three variables by using a survey comprising more than 200 European cities as the basis for a classification of these cities by means of their e-images.

  2. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  3. Heavy Metals in Brown Bears from the Central European Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Čelechovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal load in the brown bear (Ursus arctos living in the central European Carpathians. Between 2002 and 2004, fifteen bears were examined to evaluate the distribution of cadmium, lead, mercury and copper in the animals' muscles (diaphragm, spleen, liver and kidney. The highest content of cadmium, lead and mercury was found in the kidney (17.4 ± 5.2 mg kg-1, 1.16 ± 0.39 mg kg-1, 0.39 ± 0.25 mg kg-1, whereas the lowest content of the metals was observed in the muscles (0.017 ± 0.009 mg kg-1, 0.299 ± 0.308 mg kg-1, 0.013 ± 0.011 mg kg-1. Second highest concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was detected in the liver (0.83 ± 0.24 mg kg-1, 0.99 ± 0.61 mg kg-1, 0.11 ± 0.05 mg kg-1. Copper distributions and concentrations in bear tissues were as follows (in descending order: liver (23.9 ± 6.7 mg kg-1, > kidneys (9.0 ± 3.3 mg kg-1, > muscles (1.9 ± 1.6 mg kg-1 and > spleen (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1. As compared with heavy metal load observed in bear tissues between 1988 and 1990, the concentration of cadmium in the muscles and liver was significantly lower (p p p < 0.01. Lead and copper tissue concentrations did not change substantially.

  4. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  5. Interaction between Cities and Climate Change: Modelling Urban Morphology and Local Urban Planning Scenarios from Open Datasets across European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bart; Stevens, Catherine; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Cities are characterised by a large spatiotemporal diversity of local climates induced by a superposition of various factors and processes interacting at global and regional scales but also at the micro level such as the urban heat island effect. As urban areas are known as 'hot spots' prone to climate and its variability over time leading to changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves, it is of crucial importance to capture the spatial heterogeneity resulting from variations in land use land cover (LULC) and urban morphology in an effective way to drive local urban climate simulations. The first part of the study conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission focusses on the extraction of land surface parameters linked to urban morphology characteristics from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with openly accessible European datasets such as the degree of soil sealing and disaggregated population densities from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). While it has been demonstrated that good correlations can be found between those datasets and the planar and frontal area indices, the present work has expanded the research to other urban morphology parameters including the average and variation of the building height and the sky view factor. Correlations up to 80% have been achieved depending on the considered parameter and the specific urban area including the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Moreover, the transferability of the established relations has been investigated across the various cities. Secondly, a flexible and scalable approach as a function of the required the level of detail has been elaborated to update the various morphology parameters in case of integration with urban planning data to analyse the local impact of future land use scenarios

  6. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  7. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  8. Exposure to ultrafine particles and respiratory hospitalisations in five European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the associations between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP), with aerodynamic electrical mobility diameters <100 nm, and health is limited. We gathered data on UFP from five European cities within 2001-2011 to investigate associations between short-term changes in c...... period may reflect better exposure assessment and that the main source of non-soluble UFP in urban areas is traffic, our results call for improved regulation of traffic emissions....

  9. Seeing the People’s Republic of China through the Eyes of Montesquieu: Why Sino-European Collaboration on Eco City Development Suffers from European Misinterpretations of “Good Governance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Jong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China faces a number of impressive challenges in dealing with climate change: rising energy use, growing emission levels of greenhouse gases, dangerous levels of air pollution over cities and low resilience against flood and drought. Sustainable urbanization has been adopted as a keyword in handling these challenges. The Chinese central government has undertaken a variety of measures, including the launch of large Sino-European programs to learn from ‘developed nations’. In the wake of these partnerships, a great variety of cross-national and cross-city agreements were signed. Sino-European cooperation does not often run as smoothly as initially hoped because of diverging interests, cultural misunderstandings and practical limitations. In the background, a mismatch in normative conceptions Chinese and European participants have of ‘good governance’ plays a role. In this contribution, insights taken from Montesquieu’s ‘The Spirit of Laws’ regarding checks and balances and trias politica (updated to ‘sextas politica’ for the 21st century are used to comprehend how the exertion of power is distributed and expected to be distributed differently in Chinese than in European administrative traditions. The article will end with conclusions on how European misconceptions of Chinese governance complicate Sino-European collaboration in sustainable urbanization policies.

  10. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface

  11. Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Selma; Dawson, Richard; Kilsby, Chris; Lewis, Elizabeth; Ford, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods were assessed for 571 European cities. We used all available climate model runs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 - CMIP5 - for their higher emission scenario (RCP8.5) and grouped the projections into Low, Mid and High impact scenarios. This resulted in impact projections outside the range of published literature, but enabled us to better understand uncertainties in future climate projections (both due to climate model errors but also the effects of natural variability) therefore providing the basis for broad scale risk analysis and thereafter identification of robust adaptation strategies. While heat-waves will worsen for every European city, changes in droughts and floods are spatially variable and climate model dependent. The largest increases in the number of heat-wave days are shown to be in southern Europe, but higher heat-wave maximum temperature increases are expected in the mid-latitudes. In the low impact scenario, drought conditions are expected to intensify only in southern Europe while river flooding in expected to worsen in the north. However, in the high impact scenario most European cities show increases in both drought conditions and river flooding. There is a very wide range of projections for future changes in Europe with disagreement between different studies, partly due to their methodological differences but potentially also due to the small number of climate model runs that limits the uncertainties due to natural variability and model errors that each study captures.

  12. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves. PMID:29557944

  13. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves.

  14. Measurement of the environmental broadband electromagnetic waves in a mid-size European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, R; Gil, I

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the level of exposure to broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic field in a mid-size European city was evaluated in accordance with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines from 1998. With the aim to analyse all the potential electromagnetic waves present in the city up to 18GHz, a total of 271 locations distributed along Terrassa (Spain) have been measured. To show the results in an easy-to-interpret way by the citizen, the results have been represented in a set of raster maps. The measurement results obtained showed that the electromagnetic wave measured in all broadband frequency range along the city is much lower than the safety level according to the international regulations for both public and occupational sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A partnership approach to local energy management between European and Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Peter; Pardo, Manuel; Conway, Stewart; Lack, Don; Ferreira, Vasco; Castanheira, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, several local areas have a number of years of experience with implementing local energy and greenhouse gas management policies, addressing national and international climate change targets. For example, in the city of Leicester in the UK, local strategies and measures have been implemented over several years to improve the energy efficiency of the Council's own operations and to manage city-wide energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, Leicester has participated in a European Commission funded project, which explores the potential for European local authorities and agencies to use their experience to work with a local area in a developing country where energy demand has been increasing rapidly, addressing climate change and sustainable development issues. The project has aimed to provide support at the local level with developing a framework to minimise energy-related contributions to climate change and air pollution, while giving quality of life benefits. It has used a partnership approach between Leicester, Vila Nova de Gaia municipality in Portugal, and a city in the Gujarat, India. The local level's role in each country in local energy management has been investigated. This has included a baseline assessment of local energy use, renewable energy and climate change issues in each partner city. The most locally relevant energy technologies have been selected and their implementation discussed in the local workshops involving a range of organisations and individuals, with actions being identified to improve the local management of energy, such as raising awareness and ensuring easy access to information

  16. Self-reported adverse tattoo reactions: a New York City Central Park study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bobbi G; Gold, Heidi; Leger, Elizabeth A; Leger, Marie C

    2015-08-01

    Although permanent tattoos are becoming increasingly commonplace, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on adverse tattoo reactions. Several European studies have indicated that tattoo reactions may be relatively common, although the extent of this phenomenon in the United States is largely unknown. To provide insights into the prevalence and nature of adverse tattoo reactions. We administered a survey about adverse tattoo reactions to 300 randomly selected tattooed people in Central Park, New York City. Of 300 participants, 31 (10.3%) reported experiencing an adverse tattoo reaction, 13 (4.3%) reported acute reactions, and 18 (6.0%) suffered from a chronic reaction involving a specific colour lasting for >4 months. Forty-four per cent of colour-specific reactions were to red ink, which was only slightly higher than the frequency of red ink in the sampled population (36%). Twenty-five per cent of chronic reactions were to black ink, which was less than expected based on the number of respondents with black tattoos (90.3%). Study participants with chronic, colour-specific reactions had more tattoo colours than those without reactions. This study shows that tattoo reactions are relatively common, and that further investigation into the underlying causes is merited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  18. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  19. ESCO FORMATION AS ENABLING FACTOR FOR SMART CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION (UE: SPAIN CASE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Morcillo Bellido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities have reached a huge magnitude and they represent great potential improvement platforms for wealth, employment and competitiveness creation, but also they involve an enormous amount of complexity that emphasized their future management challenges. Cities evolution could be seen as a strong trend towards the development of more efficient and livable cities that have been called "Smart Cities", where one of key topics is linked to how efficiently scarce resources are managed. This document analyzes the development of Energy Service Companies (ESCO in Spain, as a type of organization preliminary focused on promoting and managing projects related to the efficient use of energy, being their business success linked to energy savings achieved by their clients and getting their revenue from these achieved savings. Outcome of this study expects to provide information of interest to understand the current development of ESCO model projects in Spain as example of what is happening in several major European Union (EU countries in relation to Smart Cities development and subsequence ESCO growth, the important barriers they currently face to grow faster, and to find evidences of how collaboration between organizations could facilitate energy efficiency management, which at the end is linked to a better understanding of the future development of “Smart Cities” initiatives in EU countries.

  20. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984–2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood hazard assessments. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense. Results suggest that the past 30 years of urban development alone has increased the city's exposure to pluvial flooding by 6% for 10-year rainfall up to 26% for 100-year rainfall. Corresponding estimates for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios (2071–2100 are in the order of 40 and 100%, indicating that land cover changes within cities can play a central role for the cities' exposure to flooding and conversely also for their adaptation to a changed climate.

  1. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, P.; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Madsen, H.; Drews, M.

    2015-06-01

    The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984-2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood hazard assessments. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense. Results suggest that the past 30 years of urban development alone has increased the city's exposure to pluvial flooding by 6% for 10-year rainfall up to 26% for 100-year rainfall. Corresponding estimates for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios (2071-2100) are in the order of 40 and 100%, indicating that land cover changes within cities can play a central role for the cities' exposure to flooding and conversely also for their adaptation to a changed climate.

  2. Reports submitted by participants from central and eastern european countries and the new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, V.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.; Yatsevich, V.; Soljan, V.; Valcic, I.; Saar, J.; Abraitis, M.; Bieliauskas, V.; Szkultecka, E.; Cutoiu, D.; Chirica, M.T.; Karasev, A.V.; Pospisil, M.; Zlatnansky, J.; Kot, Y.; Shvytai, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this communication are grouped the reports submitted by participants from central and eastern European countries and the new independent states, concerning their government legislation relative to the nuclear liability in the event of a nuclear accident. (N.C.)

  3. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  4. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  5. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY: CHANGING EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S PERSPECTIVE ON FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to look at the European Central Bank governance in terms of decisions taken to deploy a new kit of unconventional monetary policy measures, in order to respond to a new economic paradigm characterized by dynamic change in evolution, high volatility and enhanced financial risks. As an institution, the European Central Bank is led by the Governing Council and the decisions taken on how to use monetary policy impact an entire financial system. European Central Banking governance is about safeguarding the common currency and ensuring a future for the economic and monetary area to emerge stronger. For this purpose, when conventional monetary policies reach limits in their effects, it is time for the European Central Bank governance to analyse and assume the decision to deploy the arsenal of unconventional monetary policies. The experience of recent years showed a positive effect of the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary measures, but costs could rise in case of extensive use of such measures. When these measures are used in combination, the effect is amplified and the European Central Bank needs to assess when it is time to withdraw the support, how to communicate and what exit strategy should use, what the costs are and impact can expect.

  6. Forming Professional Competency of Education Managers in Central European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkanets, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming education managers' professional competency in the context of European integration educational processes. The peculiarities of education managers' competences as well as directions of their professional training in motivational, cognitive and metacognitive spheres have been theoretically justified. The…

  7. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities : Results from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, HR; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, JP; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan,

  8. The competitiveness through taxes in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, many countries Central and Eastern European countrieshave reduced their corporate income tax rates with the purpose of attractingmultinational companies. Various studies indicate the fact that the level of the corporateincome tax represents an important advantage that drives the decisions to place foreigndirect investments. Many European Union member states have initiated corporateincome tax reforms, in order to generate the increase in the competitiveness of nationaleconomies. In the case of the Central and Eastern European countries, where thedecrease in the corporate income taxes was higher, these reforms brought profoundchanges in the economic environment.

  9. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    After the breakdown of the former Soviet Union and the COMECON the demarcation line between western Europe and central/eastern Europe has disappeared. The central and eastern European economies as a whole and their gas industries as well as the western European gas companies are preparing for the future enlarged market in creating the prerequisites to participate successfully in such a market and to seize the opportunities this market is offering. The framework for this future European Gas Market has to be created now. The European gas industries and gas markets are in transition and are in a process of reshaping, with the following challenges: (1) In Central and Eastern European countries: To complete the privatization and restructuring process from centrally-planned economies to market-oriented structures with deregulated prices, market-oriented tariff systems and new legal and regulatory frameworks. These are the essential prerequisites for an integration of the central and eastern European countries into a single European gas market and the basis for an effective and successful trans border gas co-operation between east and west. (2) In western European countries: To pursue nearly similar processes of restructuring which are underway: privatization by reducing state participation and influence in gas and energy companies, with the accent on liberalization and deregulation of market structures with fewer market entry barriers, and more competition by reducing the influence of state or private monopolies. Gas companies are undertaking cost-efficiency measures to be prepared to meet the requirements of more competitive market structures and also of a more advanced internationalized gas business. The fundamental rules on which western European gas industries based their operations up to now have to be reconsidered. The old western European structures which have developed under the shelter of governmental protection are under pressure from several sources. EU energy

  10. Study tour: welcome to 11 european cities. Exchanges of good practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Pejovic, D.; Schilken, P.; Vallar, J.P.

    2001-11-01

    On-site visits, information, meetings with players engaged in practical actions and exchanges of experience: eleven European cities organize visits of about forty sites or installations which include: energy efficient and high environmental quality buildings and districts, cogeneration and tri-generation installations, new technologies such as the fuel cell or the Stirling engine, bike-stations or tram-train stations within the scope of innovative mobility policies, low energy consumption equipment, renewable energy installations, solar buildings, hydro-electric or photovoltaic power stations, wind farms.This document presents a typical two day's visit for the following cities: Amersfoort/Utrecht, Barcelona, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Grenoble, Hannover, Heidelberg, Lausanne, London, Montpellier, Saarbrucken. (J.S.)

  11. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  12. A comparative analysis of urban energy governance in four European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlet, Clémence; Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    Cities are at the forefront of efforts to combat climate change and in this paper, we examine the influence of urban energy governance on these policy goals. An innovative framework for quantifying the combined governance of cities and energy systems is presented before focusing on a detailed study of London, Paris, Berlin and Copenhagen. By applying an optimization model to assess the lowest cost technology pathways to achieve emission reduction targets, the links between the governance of urban energy systems and the cost of achieving carbon targets are shown. Additionally a novel metric of scenario similarity is introduced in order to evaluate the difficulty of hypothesized energy system transitions. The results indicate that these tools can be valuable in identifying similar cities for the sharing of best practice, for performing comparative evaluations of energy transitions, and for reinforcing the need to complement quantitative assessments with a more holistic appreciation of local context. - Highlights: • Novel framework for comparing urban energy systems and their governance is presented. • Applied to four European cities with focus on climate change issues. • Bhattacharyya's distance introduced as measure of energy system scenario similarity. • Results suggest Paris is closest to its 2020 climate goals, London furthest

  13. Cooperation Agreement between the European Central Bank and Europol for Combating Euro Counterfeiting. Some Critical Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper there has been examined the Agreement between the European Police Office (Europol and the European Central Bank (ECB for preventing and combating euro counterfeiting, focusing on certain provisions which take into account the aim and the exchange of information between the two European institutions. The novelty of this paper relates to the achieved examination, where it is highlighted the importance of European legal instrument and the critical opinions and proposals for improving the agreement. The paper can be useful to academics and practitioners who conduct their activity within this area.

  14. Urban sprawl and growth management - drivers, impacts and responses in selected European and US cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2016-01-01

    Urban growth management has become a common term to circumscribe strategies and tools to regulate urban land use in metropolitan areas. It is particularly used to counteract negative impacts of urban sprawl but also to frame future urban development. We discuss recent challenges of urban growth...... in 6 European and 2 US American city-regions. The paper compares the urban development focusing on a quantification of drivers and effects of urban growth and a qualitative analysis of the applied urban growth management tools. We build our analysis on findings from the EU-FP6 project PLUREL...

  15. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted...... Vegetation Index (SAVI) are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR), and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s

  16. Evolving Privatization in Eastern and Central European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    With the fall of communism in 1989, Eastern and Central Europe would quickly become part of an already strong global tide of privatization in higher education. Nowhere else did private higher education rise so suddenly or strongly from virtual nonexistence to a major regional presence. A fresh database allows us to analyze the extent and…

  17. Understanding Urban Spatial Structure of Shanghai Central City Based on Mobile Phone Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu; Xinyi; Ding; Liang; Song; Xiaodong; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    Taking Shanghai Central City as its case study, this paper presents an approach to exploring the urban spatial structure through mobile phone positioning data. Firstly, based on base station location data and mobile phone signaling data, the paper analyses the number of users connecting to each base station, and further generates the maps of mobile phone user density through kernel density analysis. We move on to calculate the multi-day average user density based on a time frame of 10:00 and 23:00 at workdays and 15:00 and 23:00 at weekends for Shanghai Central City. Then, through spatial aggregation and density classifi cation on the density maps of 10:00 at workdays and 15:00 at weekends, we identify the ranks and functions of public centers within Shanghai Central City. Lastly, we identify residential areas, business off ice areas, and leisure areas in Shanghai Central City and measure the degree of functional mix by comparing the ratio of day and night user density as well as the user density at nighttime of workdays and weekends.

  18. About opportunities of the sharing of city infrastructure centralized warmly - and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaleev, M. M.; Gubin, I. V.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that joint use of engineering infrastructure of centralized heat and water supply of consumers will be the cost-efficient decision for municipal services of the city. The new technology for regulated heating of drinking water in the condenser of steam turbines of combined heat and power plant is offered. Calculation of energy efficiency from application of new technology is executed.

  19. Psychoanalysis and the Emigration of Central and Eastern European Intellectuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erős, Ferenc

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important phenomena in the intellectual history of the 20th century was the exodus of the European mind, the emigration of persons, ideas, techniques, and institutions in the vast areas of social, human, and natural sciences, as well as in literature and the visual arts. Among these exiled intellectuals, psychoanalysts formed a special group. This paper examines the major lines of the emigration of psychoanalysts from the countries of issue to the countries of reception. It focuses, in particular on Hungarian analysts and analytic candidates who left their country of birth in two waves, first after the failure of revolutions in 1918/19 for Berlin, and then after 1938, to escape the Nazis. The paper comments on the existential situation of émigré psychoanalysts in light of Hannah Arendt's writings on refugees.

  20. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  1. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  2. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  3. Actual versus Perceived Central Bank Transparency : The Case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency lit- erature the distinction between actual and perceived central bank trans- parency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the ac- tions of economic

  4. New considerations for PM, Black Carbon and particle number concentration for air quality monitoring across different European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM are exceeded. Emissions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been implemented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air quality plans overestimated? Do the road traffic emissions contribute less than expected to ambient air PM levels in urban areas? Or do we need a more specific metric to evaluate the impact of the above emissions on the levels of urban aerosols?

    This study shows the results of the interpretation of the 2009 variability of levels of PM, Black Carbon (BC, aerosol number concentration (N and a number of gaseous pollutants in seven selected urban areas covering road traffic, urban background, urban-industrial, and urban-shipping environments from southern, central and northern Europe.

    The results showed that variations of PM and N levels do not always reflect the variation of the impact of road traffic emissions on urban aerosols. However, BC levels vary proportionally with those of traffic related gaseous pollutants, such as CO, NO2 and NO. Due to this high correlation, one may suppose that monitoring the levels of these gaseous pollutants would be enough to extrapolate exposure to traffic-derived BC levels. However, the BC/CO, BC/NO2 and BC/NO ratios vary widely among the cities studied, as a function of distance to traffic emissions, vehicle fleet composition and the influence of other emission sources such as biomass burning. Thus, levels of BC should be measured at air quality monitoring sites.

    During morning traffic rush hours, a narrow variation in the N/BC ratio was evidenced, but a wide variation of

  5. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  6. SKODA JS in Central and Eastern European markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptacik, P.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, SKODA JS a.s. gained a leading position in the manufacture of equipment for the nuclear power sector in Central and Eastern Europe. The company benefited from its experience accumulated during the construction of VVER 440 and VVER 1000 NPPs at a time that saw a global decrease in popularity of the nuclear power sector. The company is building its success on a comprehensive understanding of the function of the primary coolant circuit and efforts to upgrade the equipment and processes so as to reflect new requirements in terms of safety and reactor unit service life. (orig.)

  7. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zelei, Tam?s; Moln?r, M?ria J.; Szegedi, M?rta; Kal?, Zolt?n

    2016-01-01

    Background In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. Objectives To e...

  8. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.; Vrijen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  9. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  10. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Schayes, G.

    2007-08-01

    Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE). The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) and its urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  11. Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her paper "Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing," Louise O. Vasvári analyzes voices of women survivors from a gendered perspective in order to provide insights for both Holocaust studies and gender studies. Vasvári considers whether it can be claimed that there is a specifically female style of remembering and of testifying about these traumatic experiences. Vasvári's selection includes the writings of some two dozen Central European emigrée survivors, all native ...

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in Central and Eastern European countries - ESOREX EAST -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1999-02-01

    On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  13. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    Recent developments in the global positioning system (GPS) and the global system for mobile communications, or third generation technology (GSM/3G), have enabled an increasingly simple and cost-effective tracking of human activity in urban areas through the use of mobile telephony...... was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122 461...

  14. Source apportionment of population representative samples of PM(2.5) in three European cities using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Hänninen, Otto; Saarela, Kristina; Katsouyanni, Klea; Künzli, Nino; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-10-01

    Apportionment of urban particulate matter (PM) to sources is central for air quality management and efficient reduction of the substantial public health risks associated with fine particles (PM(2.5)). Traffic is an important source combustion particles, but also a significant source of resuspended particles that chemically resemble Earth's crust and that are not affected by development of cleaner motor technologies. A substantial fraction of urban ambient PM originates from long-range transport outside the immediate urban environment including secondary particles formed from gaseous emissions of mainly sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Most source apportionment studies are based on small number of fixed monitoring sites and capture well population exposures to regional and long-range transported particles. However, concentrations from local sources are very unevenly distributed and the results from such studies are therefore poorly representative of the actual exposures. The current study uses PM(2.5) data observed at population based random sampled residential locations in Athens, Basle and Helsinki with 17 elemental constituents, selected VOCs (xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, nonane and benzene) and light absorbance (black smoke). The major sources identified across the three cities included crustal, salt, long-range transported inorganic and traffic sources. Traffic was associated separately with source categories with crustal (especially Athens and Helsinki) and long-range transported chemical composition (all cities). Remarkably high fractions of the variability of elemental (R(2)>0.6 except for Ca in Basle 0.38) and chemical concentrations (R(2)>0.5 except benzene in Basle 0.22 and nonane in Athens 0.39) are explained by the source factors of an SEM model. The RAINS model that is currently used as the main tool in developing European air quality management policies seems to capture the local urban fraction (the city delta term) quite well, but underestimates

  15. Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her "Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English," Louise O. Vasvári discusses aspects and perspectives of women's life writing, including her criteria of selection, the problematics of sourcing, issues of translation, and processes of publication. While the authors listed in the bibliography are overwhelmingly Jewish and from Central and East Europe, there are works listed by others whose experiences also offer important testimony not onl...

  16. Actual versus perceived central bank transparency: the case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.; Eijffinger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this

  17. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted...... Vegetation Index (SAVI) are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR), and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s ... the potential for developing and applying a single regression model to estimate IS fractions for numerous urban areas without reducing the accuracy considerably. Our findings indicate that the models can be applied broadly for multiple urban areas, and that the accuracy is reduced only marginally by applying...

  18. The analysis of the sustainable mobility level in selected European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaston-Ciulkin, A.

    2016-07-01

    Transport needs have to be met through efficient and integrated usage of existing transport infrastructure and urban space together with actions taken in order to reduce traffic congestion by reducing the number and length of travels by car and reducing the demand for the travelling. The expected effect of these actions is the less noise, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The article presents the proposal of the indicator for measuring the degree of sustainable mobility based on the example of European Union cities. The presented method for determining the level of sustainable mobility has been inspired by different researches and it is based on a study of different sub-indicators used for measuring the degree of sustainability of the modal split. (Author)

  19. Exploring the use of tools for urban sustainability in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings from case studies analysed within the Practical Evaluation Tools for Urban Sustainability (PETUS) project, about the practical use of tools for sustainable urban development in European cities. The paper looks across 60 case studies and identifies the main...... drivers for using tools, the benefits gained by using them and discusses why, in genera, there is limited use of available tools. The main question raised by the PETUS project was, ' why are so few tools for urban sustainability being used, when so many are available?' Recent years have shown a growing...... number of theoretical tools to assess and evaluate urban sustainability. However, experience also shows that only a few of such tools are being used in practice. The paper outlines the motivations for actors to use tools, the benefits achieved and the barriers for using tools. From this, different...

  20. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  1. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bosque-Prous

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many risk behaviours in adolescence are socially patterned. However, it is unclear to what extent socioeconomic position (SEP influences adolescent drinking in various parts of Europe. We examined how alcohol consumption is associated with parental SEP and adolescents’ own SEP among students aged 14–17 years. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in the 2013 SILNE study. Participants were 8705 students aged 14–17 years from 6 European cities. The dependent variable was weekly binge drinking. Main independent variables were parental SEP (parental education level and family affluence and adolescents’ own SEP (student weekly income and academic achievement. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance and random intercept were fitted to estimate the association between adolescent drinking and SEP. Results Prevalence of weekly binge drinking was 4.2% (95%CI = 3.8–4.6. Weekly binge drinking was not associated with parental education or family affluence. However, weekly binge drinking was less prevalent in adolescents with high academic achievement than those with low achievement (PR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.14–0.87, and more prevalent in adolescents with >€50 weekly income compared to those with ≤€5/week (PR = 3.14; 95%CI = 2.23–4.42. These associations were found to vary according to country, but not according to gender or age group. Conclusions Across the six European cities, adolescent drinking was associated with adolescents’ own SEP, but not with parental SEP. Socio-economic inequalities in adolescent drinking seem to stem from adolescents’ own situation rather than that of their family.

  2. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Espelt, Albert; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Brugal, M Teresa; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-08-08

    Many risk behaviours in adolescence are socially patterned. However, it is unclear to what extent socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adolescent drinking in various parts of Europe. We examined how alcohol consumption is associated with parental SEP and adolescents' own SEP among students aged 14-17 years. Cross-sectional data were collected in the 2013 SILNE study. Participants were 8705 students aged 14-17 years from 6 European cities. The dependent variable was weekly binge drinking. Main independent variables were parental SEP (parental education level and family affluence) and adolescents' own SEP (student weekly income and academic achievement). Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance and random intercept were fitted to estimate the association between adolescent drinking and SEP. Prevalence of weekly binge drinking was 4.2% (95%CI = 3.8-4.6). Weekly binge drinking was not associated with parental education or family affluence. However, weekly binge drinking was less prevalent in adolescents with high academic achievement than those with low achievement (PR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.14-0.87), and more prevalent in adolescents with >€50 weekly income compared to those with ≤€5/week (PR = 3.14; 95%CI = 2.23-4.42). These associations were found to vary according to country, but not according to gender or age group. Across the six European cities, adolescent drinking was associated with adolescents' own SEP, but not with parental SEP. Socio-economic inequalities in adolescent drinking seem to stem from adolescents' own situation rather than that of their family.

  3. Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghomashlooyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination rate of the public parks of Isfahan city with Toxocara spp. eggs. Methods: A total of 140 soil samples were collected from 28 public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran, during the summer of 2014. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of Toxocara eggs by flotation method using sucrose solution. The prepared wet mount slides were examined under light microscope using 10 × and 40 × objectives. Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21 (75% out of 28 studied public parks. Also Toxocara spp. eggs were observed in 40 (28.6% out of 140 collected soil samples. Conclusions: Contamination rate with Toxocara spp. eggs in Isfahan is fairly high. Isfahan is a city that has lots of parks and gardens. The stray dogs and cats that roam around the parks contaminate the soil. Therefore preventive measures, especially for children, should be implemented.

  4. Glossario per la città europea / Glossary for the European city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Tsiomis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il concetto di “città in estensione” di Giuseppe Samonà è l'occasione per riflettere sul significato del fenomeno urbano oggi. L’autore lo fa attraverso nove punti, da “estensione” a “polisemia”, passando per “scala”, “metodo” e “funzione”, che diventano i termini di un nuovo glossario ragionato per la città europea, per un approccio cosciente allo studio e al progetto di quello che lui chiama “il dilemma territoriale”. / Giuseppe Samonà's idea of the "city in extension" offers the occasion to reflect on the meaning of the urban phenomenon today. The author does so through nine points, from “extension” to “polysemy”, passing via “scale”, “method” and “function”, which become the terms of a new reasoned glossary for the European city, for an aware approach to studio and the project of what he calls “the territorial dilemma”.

  5. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  6. China in light of the performance of Central and East European economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 26 (2007), s. 1-39 Keywords : economic transition * China * CEE countries Subject RIV: AH - Economic s http://www.internationalpolicy.umich.edu/workingpapers/ipc-26-svejnar, china -in-light-of-the-performance-of-central- and -east-european-economies.pdf

  7. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  8. Genetic variability of central-western European pine marten (Martes martes) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Elschot, Kelly; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; van de Zande, Louis; Zalewski, Andrzej; Munoz, Joaquin; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Loeschcke, Volker; de Groot, Arjen; Bijlsma, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlighted the potential role of cryptic glacial refugia for temperate taxa in Europe beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas. To further investigate phylogeographic features of the European pine marten (Martes martes) in previously identified cryptic refugia located in central-western

  9. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics. Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO2 Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees. Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation. In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  10. The democratic accountability of the European Central Bank : A comment on two fairy-tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Eijffinger, SCW

    The European Central Bank (ECB) is widely considered to be (legally) independent. Buiter (1999) critizes the ECB for its lack of democratic accountability, which he does not define in a very precise way. Issing (1999) replies to some of the points raised by Buiter and argues that the ECB is both

  11. Structural changes in Central and Eastern European economies: breaking news or breaking the ice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2006), s. 85-103 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries * multiple structural breaks * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  13. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on

  14. Institutionalisation without internalisation. The cultural dimension of French-German conflicts on European Central Bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, F.A.W.J. van; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  15. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  16. Institutionalisation without Internalisation. The Cultural Dimension of French-German Conflicts on European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, F.A.W.J.; Jong, Eelke, De

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  17. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  18. Reasons for Discontinuing Hashish Use in a Group of Central European Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined self-reported reasons for discontinuing marijuana use among 61 former marijuana using students at central European sports training facility. Most common reasons given for discontinuing marijuana use were dislike of effects, athletic training regimen, health reasons, and mental/emotional problems. (Author/NB)

  19. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  20. Mercury in urban soils: A comparison of local spatial variability in six European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Davidson, C.M.; Grcman, H.; Hossack, I.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Ljung, K.; Martini, C.; Otabbong, E.; Reinoso, R.; Ruiz-Cortes, E.; Urquhart, G.J.; Vrscaj, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and assess for the first time the variability of total mercury in urban soils at a European level, using a systematic sampling strategy and a common methodology. We report results from a comparison between soil samples from Aveiro (Portugal), Glasgow (Scotland), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Sevilla (Spain), Torino (Italy) and Uppsala (Sweden). At least 25 sampling points (in about 4-5 ha) from a park in each city were sampled at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm). Total mercury was determined by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The quality of results was monitored using certified reference materials (BCR 142R and BCR 141R). Measured total mercury contents varied from 0.015 to 6.3 mg kg -1 . The lowest median values were found in Aveiro, for both surface (0-10 cm) and sub-surface (10-20 cm) samples (0.055 and 0.054 mg kg -1 , respectively). The highest median mercury contents in soil samples were found in samples from Glasgow (1.2 and 1.3 mg kg -1 , for surface and sub-surface samples, respectively). High variability of mercury concentrations was observed, both within each park and between cities. This variability reflecting contributions from natural background, previous anthropogenic activities and differences in the ages of cities and land use, local environmental conditions as well as the influence of their location within the urban area. Short-range variability of mercury concentrations was found to be up to an order of magnitude over the distance of only a few 10 m

  1. The Analysis of Strategic Priorities for the Development of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries of the European Union have gained rich experience in developing and implementing a balanced socio-economic and regional policy. The development of regions and individual territories and cities in these countries is given special attention, since this direction provides one of the greatest opportunities to create a synergetic effect by reducing the unevenness of regional (territorial development and the effective use of existing potential and, as a result, ensures the welfare of citizens of the territories, decrease of socio-political tension in the society, creation of new jobs and increase of competitiveness of the national economy as a whole. The integration of Ukraine into the modern world community envisages development and implementation of an effective regional policy in view of integrated and rational use of all multipurpose resources and depends on a comprehensive evaluation of the existing social and economic potential of the country as a whole and its regions. Also it involves identification of sources and scales of development, definition and assessment of long-term options for socio-economic development of the country and individual territories based on the rational allocation of productive forces with consideration to specialization and individual characteristics. In the context of introducing the reform of power decentralization in Ukraine, the responsibility of local authorities for ensuring effective management in many areas of life is becoming ever greater. Sustainable and efficient economic development of territories is a guarantee of a high level of the population life quality in all its aspects. At the same time, it is necessary to fully understand the main problems of communities, cities and ways to solve them in the context of global trends in the development of territories, in particular cities.

  2. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proposal of a service delivery integration index of home care for older persons: application in several European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.C.; Ankri, J.; Frijters, D.; Carpenter, I.; Topinkova, E.; Garms-Homolova, V.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Wergeland Sorbye, L.; Jonsson, P.V.; Ljunggren, G.; Schroll, M.; Wagner, C.; Bernabei, R.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To propose an integration index of home care delivery to older persons, to study its validity and to apply it to home care services of European cities. THEORY: Home care delivery integration was based on two dimensions referring to process-centred integration and organisational structure

  4. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard risk maps in Mexico City and Morelia, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Hernández-Espriu, J.; Cigna, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.; Colombo, D.

    2012-12-01

    Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task. We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico: Morelia and Mexico City. Our analysis in Mexico City and Morelia is based on a risk matrix using the horizontal subsidence gradient from a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (Morelia) and SqueeSAR (Mexico City) analysis and 2010 census population distribution data from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. Our Morelia analysis (597,000 inhabitants with localized subsidence rates up to 80 mm/yr) shows that 7% of the urbanized area is under a high to very high risk level, and 14% of its population (11.7% and 2.3% respectively) lives within these areas. In the case of the Mexico City (15'490,000 inhabitants for the

  5. High contributions of vehicular emissions to ammonia in three European cities derived from mobile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Slowik, Jay G.; Richter, Rene; Teinemaa, Erik; Hüglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2018-02-01

    Ambient ammonia (NH3) measurements were performed with a mobile platform in three European cities: Zurich (Switzerland), Tartu (Estonia) and Tallinn (Estonia) deploying an NH3 analyzer based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A heated inlet line along with an auxiliary flow was used to minimize NH3 adsorption onto the inlet walls. In addition, a detailed characterization of the response and recovery times of the measurement system was used to deconvolve the true NH3 signal from the remaining adsorption-induced hysteresis. Parallel measurements with an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to correct the observed NH3 for the contribution of ammonium nitrate, which completely evaporated in the heated line at the chosen temperature, in contrast to ammonium sulfate. In this way a quantitative measurement of ambient gaseous NH3 was achieved with sufficient time resolution to enable measurement of NH3 point sources with a mobile sampling platform. The NH3 analyzer and the aerosol mass spectrometer were complemented by an aethalometer and various gas-phase analyzers to enable a complete characterization of the sources of air pollution, including the spatial distributions and the regional background concentrations and urban increments of all measured components. Although at all three locations similar increment levels of organic aerosols were attributed to biomass burning and traffic, traffic emissions clearly dominated the city enhancements of NH3, equivalent black carbon (eBC) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Urban increments of 3.4, 1.8 and 3.0 ppb of NH3 were measured in the traffic areas in Zurich, Tartu and Tallinn, respectively, representing an enhancement of 36.6, 38.3 and 93.8% over the average background concentrations. Measurements in areas strongly influenced by traffic emissions (including tunnel drives) were used to estimate emission factors (EF) for the traffic-related pollutants. The obtained median EFs range between 136.8-415.1 mg kg-1 fuel for NH3, 157.1-734.8 mg

  6. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  7. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  8. Radon measurement works in Dhaka city and central part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, S.R.; Hamid Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The major source of natural radiation that irradiates the human body is primarily due to inhalation of Radon and its short-lived progeny nuclides. It is well known that exposure of population to high concentration of Radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) are being used for detection and measurement works of radon and its progeny in Bangladesh. Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh and some areas of the central region of Bangladesh are chosen for the present study to measure the Radon concentration level of the country. Dhaka is one of the most populous cities in Bangladesh as well as in the world. High working levels (WL) were found in some locations of Dhaka city specially in the old part of the city where so many ancient building are established and in some villages of the central part of the country. The aim of the study is to prepare a Radon Map of Bangladesh and the results so far obtained have been presented in the paper. (author)

  9. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  10. Land Mobility in a Central and Eastern European Land Consolidation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    in a Central and Eastern European land consolidation context. The term land mobility is defined and the limited theory available is reviewed. Case studies of land mobility in land consolidation pilot projects in Moldova, Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina show the correlation between land mobility and the success......In most of the Central and Eastern European countries, land reforms after 1989 have resulted in extensive land fragmentation. The majority of the countries have during the two recent decades introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems with land fragmentation...... or failure of voluntary land consolidation projects. In situations with low land mobility, land consolidation instruments need in order to be successful to be supported by other land policy tools such as land banks. The use of existing state agricultural land is an obvious foundation for establishing a state...

  11. Income inequality in post-communist Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ROSE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality has become an important issue in Central and Eastern European countries during their transition process. This study constructs a model incorporating different categories of factors that impact inequality and tests whether the wealth of a country makes a difference in these relationships. This article shows that different income categories of Central and Eastern European transition countries do experience different relationships between income inequality and its contributing factors: economic, demographic, political, and cultural and environmental. The resulting Random Effects models of the best fit incorporate economic and political factors and show differences in magnitude, direction, and in their significance. These findings add to the literature by taking a cross-country and cross-income view on the impact of various factors.

  12. The monetary policy of the European Central Bank in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitskaya Irina, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monetary policy analysis of the European Central Bank (ECB under the present crisis conditions. The paper systematizes the ECB monetary policy in today's crisis and researches it at different stages of the crisis. A detailed analysis showed that the ECB's monetary policy is significantly different from the actions of other central banks during the current crisis (for example, the Federal Reserve. Thus, the ECB unconventional monetary policy combined with traditional measures, but does not replace them. Often ECB use credit easing instead of quantitative easing. The ECB's monetary policy used not only to combat the financial crisis, such as the Fed, but also to deal with the debt crisis. These features of the ECB’s monetary policy were due to both the institutional characteristics of the European Union, as well as special conditions of flow of the financial crisis in the euro zone.

  13. Contagion among Central and Eastern European stock markets during the financial crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2013), s. 443-453 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wavelets * financial crisis * Central and Eastern European stock markets * comovement * contagion Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/barunik-0396416.pdf

  14. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  15. How Do Neural Networks Enhance the Predictability of Central European Stock Returns?

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Baruník

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author applies neural networks as nonparametric and nonlinear methods to Central European (Czech, Polish, Hungarian, and German) stock market returns modeling. In the first part, he presents the intuition of neural networks and also discusses statistical methods for comparing predictive accuracy, as well as economic significance measures. In the empirical tests, he uses data on the daily and weekly returns of the PX-50, BUX, WIG, and DAX stock exchange indices for the 2000–...

  16. Wavelet Analysis of Central European Stock Market Behaviour During the Crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 23 (2009), s. 1-14 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : wavelet analysis * multiresolution analysis * Central European stock markets * financial crisis Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Behavioral Determinants of Russian Nuclear State-Owned Enterprises in Central and Eastern European Region

    OpenAIRE

    Vlcek, Tomas; Jirusek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rosatom State Nuclear Corporation play a substantial role in the energy sector of the Central and Eastern European region and the behavioral characteristics of the company forms the basis of this article. Rosatom is positioned as the dominant provider of nuclear technology and fuel supplies to the region, in large part stemming from the Soviet legacy in CEE countries. Compounding this challenge, nuclear energy is one of the major sources of power generation in CEE. Given the long-time, near m...

  18. Agreement and Accuracy of National Stereotypes in Five Central European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hřebíčková, M. (Martina); Graf, S. (Sylvie)

    2016-01-01

    In the chapter, we provide an overview of the current research on the accuracy of national stereotypes and introduce results of a research project on national stereotypes in five Central European countries. National stereotypes were operationalized as personality traits of typical country representatives. In Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia, we measured stereotypes from ingroup as well as outgroup perspectives. Each typical country representative was rated by people ...

  19. Changes in Inflation Dynamics under Inflation Targeting? Evidence from Central European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Jaromír; Plašil, M.; Vašíček, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-130 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian model averaging * Central European countries * Inflation Dynamics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/baxa-0449816.pdf

  20. The Impact of Bribery on Firm Performance: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kochanova

    2012-01-01

    I examine the relation between bureaucratic corruption ('to get things done') and firm performance in Central and Eastern European countries. While previous re- search relies on data from the BEEPS survey, which suffers from excessive non- reporting of corporate performance, I combine the information on bribery practices from the BEEPS with reliable firm performance data from the Amadeus database. The estimates, identified from within-firm variation, suggest that bureaucratic cor- ruption neg...

  1. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-19 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * rescaled range * modified rescaled range * bootstrapping Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-long-range dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices.pdf

  2. Radiation processing in some Central-East European countries: an area report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The area report presents the state of art and the hard-ware status of radiation processing in some Central-East European countries. Only sources exceeding 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) of the isotope and 0.5 kW beam power electron accelerators have been taken into account, operating in the first half of 1989. Trends of development are discussed. (author)

  3. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  4. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawidis, T. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Breuste, J., E-mail: juergen.breuste@sbg.ac.at [Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, 5010 Salzburg (Austria); Mitrovic, M.; Pavlovic, P. [Department of Ecology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsigaridas, K. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. - Highlights: > Oriental plane and Austrian pine are suitable for comparative urban air quality biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. > Pine tree is excellently suitable as urban bioindicator as it accumulates high concentrations of trace metals. > The highest heavy metal pollution was found in Belgrade followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. - Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, are suitable for comparative biomonitoring of urban air pollution.

  5. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawidis, T.; Breuste, J.; Mitrovic, M.; Pavlovic, P.; Tsigaridas, K.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. - Highlights: → Oriental plane and Austrian pine are suitable for comparative urban air quality biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. → Pine tree is excellently suitable as urban bioindicator as it accumulates high concentrations of trace metals. → The highest heavy metal pollution was found in Belgrade followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. - Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, are suitable for comparative biomonitoring of urban air pollution.

  6. An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Antonio

    2008-01-01

    determinants (age, gender, and cause of death of heat related mortality in three European cities using a standard approach. Our results are consistent with previous evidence for individual determinants, and also confirm the lack of a strong socio-economic gradient in heat health effects currently in Europe.

  7. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in wuhan, a city in central china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldman, J.M.; Lioy, P.J.; Zelenka, M.; Jing, L.; Lin, Y.N.

    1991-01-01

    In the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), the pervasive use of soft coal leads to situations where the concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter approach or surpass those historically observed in London. A cooperative investigation of the effects of air pollution upon the lung function of children in five Chinese cities has been developed among China EPA, U.S. EPA and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The paper presents initial results of a winter air pollution field study conducted in Wuhan, one of the selected cities. A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. The purpose of this initial intensive study period was to obtain information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the aerosol species in the urban P.R.C. setting. The focus was the composition and acidity of fine particulate material

  8. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüggler, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  9. Impact of passenger car NOX emissions on urban NO2 pollution - Scenario analysis for 8 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraeuwe, Bart; Thunis, Philippe; Clappier, Alain; Weiss, Martin; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Vranckx, Stijn

    2017-12-01

    Residents of large European cities are exposed to NO2 concentrations that often exceed the established air quality standards. Diesel cars have been identified as a major contributor to this situation; yet, it remains unclear to which levels the NOX emissions of diesel cars have to decrease to effectively mitigate urban NO2 pollution across Europe. Here, we take a continental perspective and model urban NO2 pollution in a generic street canyon of 8 major European cities for various NOX emission scenarios. We find that a reduction in the on-road NOX emissions of diesel cars to the Euro 6 level can in general decrease the regional and urban NO2 concentrations and thereby the frequency of exceedances of the NO2 air quality standard. High NO2 fractions in the NOX emissions of diesel cars tend to increase the urban NO2 concentrations only in proximity of intense road traffic typically found on artery roads in large cities like Paris and London. In cities with a low share of diesel cars in the vehicle fleet such as Athens or a high contribution from the NO2 background to the urban NO2 pollution such as Krakow, measures addressing heavy-duty vehicles, and the manufacturing, energy, and mining industry are necessary to decrease urban air pollution. We regard our model results as robust albeit subject to uncertainty resulting from the application of a generic street layout. With small modifications in the input parameters, our model could be used to assess the impact of NOX emissions from road transport on NO2 air pollution in any European city.

  10. Dietary patterns are associated with general and central obesity in elderly living in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lucelia Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: dietary pattern evaluation is often used in order to determine wheter a diet is healthy, as well as to predict the onset of diseases. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns, and to examine their associations with general (body mass index and central (waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity in community-living elderly in a Brazilian city. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 126 elderly subjects aged 60 or older (57.1% females and mean age 74.2 ± 6.46 years. Anthropometric variables, weight, height, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, were measured. Body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Answers to a Food Frequency Questionnaire were interpreted by Principal Component Analysis in order to identify dietary patterns. Results: five dietary patterns were identified and named as prudent (fruit, vegetables and meat, sweets and fats (pastries, sugary foods, fatty foods, whole milk, typical Brazilian (fried eggs, cooked beans, beef, candy, string beans, fried cassava, Mediterranean (fruit, vegetables, olive oil and nuts and traditional meal (rice and beans. Moderate and high adherences to the Mediterranean pattern were protective factors to general and central obesity (WHR. High adherence to prudent was also protective to central obesity (WC. Conclusion: adherences to the dietary patterns prudent and Mediterranean were protective factors to general and central obesity in elderly.

  11. Evidence of ancient DNA reveals the first European lineage in Iron Age Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C Z; Li, C X; Cui, Y Q; Zhang, Q C; Fu, Y Q; Zhu, H; Zhou, H

    2007-07-07

    Various studies on ancient DNA have attempted to reconstruct population movement in Asia, with much interest focused on determining the arrival of European lineages in ancient East Asia. Here, we discuss our analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of human remains excavated from the Yu Hong tomb in Taiyuan, China, dated 1400 years ago. The burial style of this tomb is characteristic of Central Asia at that time. Our analysis shows that Yu Hong belonged to the haplogroup U5, one of the oldest western Eurasian-specific haplogroups, while his wife can be classified as haplogroup G, the type prevalent in East Asia. Our findings show that this man with European lineage arrived in Taiyuan approximately 1400 years ago, and most probably married a local woman. Haplogroup U5 was the first west Eurasian-specific lineage to be found in the central part of ancient China, and Taiyuan may be the easternmost location of the discovered remains of European lineage in ancient China.

  12. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.

  13. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  14. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  15. The application of the European heat wave of 2003 to Korean cities to analyze impacts on heat-related mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. Scott; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Kim, Kyu Rang; Choi, Young-Jean; Lee, Dae-Geun

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this research is to transpose the unprecedented 2003 European excessive heat event to six Korean cities and to develop meteorological analogs for each. Since this heat episode is not a model but an actual event, we can use a plausible analog to assess the risk of increasing heat on these cities instead of an analog that is dependent on general circulation (GCM) modeling or the development of arbitrary scenarios. Initially, the 2003 summer meteorological conditions from Paris are characterized statistically and these characteristics are transferred to the Korean cites. Next, the new meteorological dataset for each Korean city is converted into a daily air mass calendar. We can then determine the frequency and character of "offensive" air masses in the Korean cities that are historically associated with elevated heat-related mortality. One unexpected result is the comparative severity of the very hot summer of 1994 in Korea, which actually eclipsed the 2003 analog. The persistence of the offensive air masses is considerably greater for the summer of 1994, as were dew point temperatures for a majority of the Korean cities. For all the Korean cities but one, the summer of 1994 is associated with more heat-related deaths than the analog summer, in some cases yielding a sixfold increase over deaths in an average summer. The Korean cities appear less sensitive to heat-related mortality problems during very hot summers than do large eastern and Midwestern US cities, possibly due to a lesser summer climate variation and efficient social services available during extreme heat episodes.

  16. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  17. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  18. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng

    2016-07-06

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  19. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1 examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2 explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3 investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs, but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  20. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Reif, Jochen C.; Mette, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  1. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Reif, Jochen C.; Mette, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population. PMID:27383841

  2. Central European Workshops on Soil Zoology (CEWSZ) České Budějovice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel

    č. 36 (2003), s. 21 ISSN 1161-2398. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /6./. České Budějovice, 24.04.2001-25.04.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : European Workshop * soil zoology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. The European central bank and the us federal reserve as lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without a lender of last resort financial stability is not possible and systemic financial crises get out of control. During and after the Great Recession the US Federal Reserve System (Fed and the European Central Bank (ECB took on the role of lender of last resort in a comprehensive way. The Fed stabilised the financial system, including the shadow banking system. However, the chance to fundamentally restructure the financial system was not used. The ECB was confronted with sovereign debt crises and an incomplete integration of the European Monetary Union (EMU. It followed a kind of “muddling through” to keep the Euro area together. In the EMU not only a fundamental restructuring of the financial system is needed but also a deeper economic and political integration. The Fed and the ECB both were the most important institutions to avoid repetition of the 1930s.

  4. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  5. Centralized vs decentralized options for a european data relay satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Ph. Saint; Hervieux, M.; Perbos, J. L.; Saggese, E.; Soprano, C.

    The European Data Relay Satellite (DRS) is now being planned to support future European missions in the nineties and in particular the various elements of the in-orbit infrastructure. Studies are being conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Relay System as well as to provide the basis for issuing technical specifications for a development and launch in 1993. This paper presents the results of a study issued by ESA on possible options for a DRS System, concentrating on the comparison between a centralized and a decentralized data distribution concept. After recalling the space programmes foreseen in Europe, the paper discusses the architecture and design of the various elements of the System: space segment, DRS ground segment and user ground segment for different options of data dissemination.

  6. Centralized vs decentralized options for an European Data Relay Satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Aubert, S.; Hervieux, M.; Perbos, J. L.; Saggese, E.; Soprano, C.

    1985-10-01

    The European Data Relay Satellite (DRS) is now being planned to support future European missions in the nineties and in particular the various elements of the in-orbit infrastructure. Studies are being conducted to investigate the usefulness of the relay system as well as to provide the basis for issuing technical specifications for a development and launch in 1993. This paper presents the results of a study issued by ESA on possible options for a DRS System, concentrating on the comparison between a centralized and a decentralized data distribution concept. After recalling the space programs foreseen in Europe, the paper discusses the architecture and design of the various elements of the System: space segment, DRS ground segment, and user ground segment for different options of data dissemination.

  7. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, S; Yao, J; Guo, X; Fernandez-Rhodes, L; Lim, U; Boston, J; Buzková, P; Carlson, C S; Cheng, I; Cochran, B; Cooper, R; Ehret, G; Fornage, M; Gong, J; Gross, M; Gu, C C; Haessler, J; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B; Hindorff, L A; Houston, D; Irvin, M R; Jackson, R; Kuller, L; Leppert, M; Lewis, C E; Li, R; Le Marchand, L; Matise, T C; Nguyen, K-Dh; Chakravarti, A; Pankow, J S; Pankratz, N; Pooler, L; Ritchie, M D; Bien, S A; Wassel, C L; Chen, Y-D I; Taylor, K D; Allison, M; Rotter, J I; Schreiner, P J; Schumacher, F; Wilkens, L; Boerwinkle, E; Kooperberg, C; Peters, U; Buyske, S; Graff, M; North, K E

    2017-02-01

    Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine-mapping cardiovascular-associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Of the 17 WHR loci, eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine-mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female-stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of this

  8. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Yao, Jie; Guo, Xiuqing; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Lim, Unhee; Boston, Jonathan; Buzková, Petra; Carlson, Christopher S.; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Fornage, Myriam; Gong, Jian; Gross, Myron; Gu, C. Charles; Haessler, Jeff; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Le Marchand, Loic; Matise, Tara C.; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Pooler, Loreall; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bien, Stephanie A.; Wassel, Christina L.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Allison, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Buyske, Steven; Graff, Mariaelisa; North, Kari E.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of BMI and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. Subjects/Methods To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine mapping cardiovascular associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Results Of the 17 WHR loci, eight SNPs located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Conclusions Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of

  9. Fractionation of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from five European cities by means of a harmonised sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Christine M.; Urquhart, Graham J.; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Biasioli, Mattia; Costa Duarte, Armando da; Diaz-Barrientos, Encarnacion; Grcman, Helena; Hossack, Iain; Hursthouse, Andrew S.; Madrid, Luis; Rodrigues, Sonia; Zupan, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The revised (four-step) BCR sequential extraction procedure has been applied to fractionate the chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc contents in urban soil samples from public-access areas in five European cities. A preliminary inter-laboratory comparison was conducted and showed that data obtained by different laboratories participating in the study were sufficiently harmonious for comparisons to be made between cities and land types (e.g. parks, roadside, riverbanks, etc.). Analyte recoveries by sequential extraction, with respect to direct aqua regia digestion, were generally acceptable (100 ± 15%). Iron, nickel and, at most sites, chromium were found mainly in association with the residual phase of the soil matrix. Copper was present in the reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions, whilst zinc was found in all four sequential extracts. Manganese was strongly associated with reducible material as, in some cities, was lead. This is of concern because high lead concentrations were present in some soils (>500 mg kg -1 ) and the potential exists for remobilisation under reducing conditions. As would be expected, extractable metal contents were generally highest in older, more heavily industrialised cities. Copper, lead and zinc showed marked (and often correlated) variations in concentrations between sites within the same city whereas manganese and, especially, iron, did not. No overall relationships were, however, found between analyte concentrations and land use, nor between analyte partitioning and land use

  10. Complete Evaluation of Suspended Air Particles and Their Composition in the Central Area of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Younesian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air pollution is one of the problems of the recent century caused by vehicles, industries and other urban activities. The City of Yazd faces air pollution due to its high population, vehicular traffic and industrial places around the city. One of the important parameters of air pollution is suspended air particles that have harmful effects on the health of people, plants and objects. Methods: This research has been carried out by first determining a station in the central area of the city (Shahid Beheshti Square of Yazd. The suspended particles were measured during a five-month period from March to July, 2006. A high volume sampler was used for measuring Total Suspended Particles (TSP. The amount of lead content of TSP was measured in samples by using atomic absorption method. In the next stage, the percentage of organic and inorganic particles in the TSP of all samples was measured by using gravimetric methods and by burning in the oven. Results: The results of this study showed that amount of suspended particles in the city of Yazd is higher than national standard and the general mean average of the suspended particles of air in five months was 233 micrograms per cubic meter. The average concentration of suspended air particles from end of March to August during the five month period was 118, 193, 231, 267and 333, respectively. The average concentration of lead was 0.04 microgram per cubic meter and amount of organic and inorganic particles in TSP was 25.31% and 74.68%, respectively. Conclusion: With respect to the results, the minimum amount of TSP concentration was in March. This could be due to reduction in trading and industrial activities and New Year vacations. In addition, the average monthly TSP increased from March to July; the cause of which could be relative decrease in humidity and increase in temperature. The amount of lead in samples was much less than standard, which could be due to omission of lead from petrol

  11. Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canavan, Réamonn

    2012-07-27

    AbstractBackgroundMental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities.MethodTwo methods of data collection were employed; (i) In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii) Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them.ResultsAcross the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision.ConclusionsWhile there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of homeless specific and generic

  12. Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavan Réamonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities. Method Two methods of data collection were employed; (i In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them. Results Across the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision. Conclusions While there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of

  13. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  14. Perspectives for long-term competition in the central European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the Central European electricity market and analyse whether liberalization, deregulation, and privatization are sufficient to bring about real competition. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of the following conditions to bring about real competition and to avoid market power: 1) A rigorous correct un bundling; 2) excess capacities in transmission; 3) excess capacities in generation; 4) a large number of generators and suppliers; 5) the balanced existence of short-term (e.g. spot markets) and long-term markets (e.g. bilateral contracts, forwards); 6) full liberalization; Some major findings of this analysis are: 1) Currently, demand is continuously increasing while capacities are shut down. At least in 2009 demand will have caught up with generation capacities. This could lead to severe price spikes. 2) The Central European electricity market is separated from other markets by means of limited transmission capacities; 3) With respect to effective competition in Central Europe the major problems are: i) a very small (and continuously decreasing) number of generators, and ii) a lack of serious un bundling between generation and transmission mainly in Germany; This leads to cross-subsidization of generation by the network operation and to a heavy discrimination of other and new generators; 4) Moreover, a crucial condition for active competition is a sufficiently large transmission grid. Yet, currently especially at the border to the new EU member countries transmission capacities are rather scarce and there are no signs of extensions of the grid. This also limits the access of countries with potential excess capacities like Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania to the Central European market The major conclusion of this analysis is: All conditions investigated above must be fulfilled simultaneously to bring about a competitive electricity market in Western Europe and the extended European Union. If only one of these conditions is missing, competition

  15. Assessment of Single European Sky Implementation in the Functional Airspace Block Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mihetec

    2017-12-01

    implementation is performed through sub-regional grouping of Air Navigation Service Providers in a form of Functional Airspace Blocks. This paper analyses the level of implementation of ATM-related projects in the Functional Airspace Block Central Europe and their relation to other Functional Airspace Blocks defined in Europe. From this paper it is obvious that even though the planning of Single European Sky projects is based on the collaborative implementation of Functional Airspace Block level, the real implementation is fragmented and based on national levels.

  16. Analysis of the Voting Method used in the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorata Sosnowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theoreticians usually deal with standard voting methods such as plurality voting or approval voting. In reality however, some complicated non-standard voting methods are used. In this paper the voting method and rotation scheme have been presented used by the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (ECB, as it enlarges to accommodate new members of the economic and monetary union. We present game theoretical approaches for analyzing this method and different methods of computing the Shapley value for games connected with voting under such rotation schemes. (original abstract

  17. Where Did Central- and Eastern-European Emigrants Go and Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    Central European countries, and Romania and Bulgaria, while immigrants from the Baltic countries seem to rely much less on networks. Income gaps have a positive effect on migration flows, particularly from the Southeastern countries, while employment opportunities in destination countries are main...... an important role in international migration from those countries. The disaggregated results show that there are large differences between the CEE countries with respect to emigration patterns. The lagged stock of immigrants, which may reflect networks has a strong and positive effect for immigrants from...

  18. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our results confirm the majority of literature and show a negative significant relation between the variables analyzed, but at a lower intensity than expected.

  19. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 27 (2010), s. 50-67 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 5183/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * bootstrapping * rescaled range analysis * rescaled variance analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-long-range dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices bces.pdf

  20. Vulnerability assessment: A comparison of three different city sizes in the coastal area of Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwandari Handayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of connecting urbanization phenomena and vulnerability assessments, this paper aims to explore vulnerability assessment in three different city sizes in the northern coast of Central Java province of Indonesia. It compares the vulnerability levels of the three cities based on their sizes (that is, levels of urbanization. It uses the most current secondary data from the lowest administrative levels, called as kelurahan (urban village, for its assessment. There are two indexes used to indicate their vulnerability levels, namely exposure and sensitivity index (ESI and adaptive capacity index (ACI. By combining the ESI and ACI, the study found that the kelurahans in Tegal (the medium sized city have similar vulnerability levels. The kelurahans in Semarang (as the big city have more combination of vulnerability levels—indicating that the city has various sensitivity, exposure, as well as adaptive capacity among its kelurahans. In Lasem (the small sized city, due to limitations imposed by adaptation—mostly because of lack of public services and high dependency on primary economic sectors—all of its kelurahans were found to be vulnerable. The study therefore concluded that the bigger a city is, the more the different areas of that city will have varying levels of vulnerability, leading to a high propensity of vulnerability among its inhabitants. On the other hand, the smaller a city is, the less capacity it will have in reducing its emerging vulnerability challenges.

  1. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Albert H.; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  3. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Albert H., E-mail: Albert.H.Baur@campus.tu-berlin.de; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  4. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE FEDERAL RESERVE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Clichici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main differences and similarities between the European Central Bank (ECB and US Federal Reserve (FED in terms of their functional framework and monetary policy. The research is based on a comparative analysis of the history of establishing the Eurosystem and the Federal Reserve System, which has influenced the way these central banks operate today. It also analyzes the policy responses of the two institutions to the 2007 global financial crisis, since both their non-conventional policy measures and the effects thereof on growth, inflation and unemployment rates were slightly different. The paper finds that there are differences between the ECB and FED rather regarding the organization and functioning of the Committees for monetary policy and monetary policy objectives than the institutional structure and policy framework

  5. The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Matúš; Nosko, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

  6. The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Podgórzańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  7. Ravenna from imperial residence to episcopal city: processes of centrality across empires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cosentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages, two basic factor shaped Ravenna’s ability to influence a much more extensive space than its natural hinterland. The first was its establishment as an imperial residence the second was its location within the northern Adriatic basin, which had since Antiquity been a crossroads for peoples, trade and cultures. Just on the basis of the support it received from the imperial power, its episcopate was elevated to one of the most important sees of Italy. By means of the large international harbour of Classe, from the 5th to the 7th centuries the city imported products from around the entire Mediterranean. With the arrival of the Byzantine government, the ties between the port of Classe and the other Mediterranean export centres shifted by moving from West to East. Moreover, the relationship with Constantinople reaffirmed the political and ecclesiastical importance of Ravenna. As long as these ties remained strong, Ravenna retained a vital contact to the other maritime Mediterranean trade centres. The twilight of Byzantine rule did not cause the decline of the city, but rather a progressive turn of its ruling class toward the political scenario of the medieval West. By virtue of being the management centre of the patrimonium beati Apollinaris, the city remained wealthy and influential well beyond the 9th century. This was due both to the economic power of its archbishops and to their alliance with the Ottonians and then later with the Salian and Swabian emperors. The trajectories of the political centrality of Ravenna from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages were, therefore, deeply influenced by the dynamic of successive empires, which, in one form or another, were all connected or attempted to reconnect to the memory of its Roman past.

  8. Geoarchaeological results from geophysical prospections at the Roman city of Urbs Salvia, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Perna, Roberto; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Ghezzi, Annalisa; Tassi, Luca; Cingolani, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    We report on a combined magnetic-GPR survey performed in 2015 and 2016 at the ancient Roman city of Urbs Salvia, located in central Italy. The main objective of this survey was to reconstruct the urban organization of the city forum and determine possible sites of future excavations. We found a complex pattern of buried structures, possibly resulting from the coexistence of republican and imperial artifacts and burned structures. A test excavation at the location where we detected a long linear structure characterized by strong magnetic signal revealed the presence of thermal baths. GPR data were acquired in areas characterized by high magnetic noise induced by metallic infrastructures (e.g., fences), which prevented a correct acquisition of archaeological anomalies. These data not only allowed to overcome the magnetic noise, but provided interesting 3D reconstructions of the buried structures. A detailed GPR survey in the theatre area was also performed, with the aim to investigate the plan of the porticus post scaenam. This survey allowed to identify some interesting structures related to different chronological phases and confirms the epigraphic data related to the development of the monument.

  9. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  10. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  12. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  13. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  14. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere where the relationship between Britain and East-Central Europe is characterized in terms of capitalist worldview as opposed to a post-communist existence. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the most important intertext for Tremain’s novel. Hamlet is obsessed with the vulnerability of material in light of the spiritual value attached to it in the form of human soul. Stephen Greenblatt’s ideas on food, waste and the Christian belief in divine existence residing in material objects - ideas that originate in early modern times - shed light on the motif of material and food in The Road Home. Seen through the symbolism of food and the idea of differing values being attached to matter, the narrative identity of Lev, the protagonist of Tremain’s work, experiences drastic change due to his encounter with the capitalist, British ‘other’.

  15. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Research Highlights: → Financial development affects energy consumption in 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. → Bank variables have a larger impact on energy consumption than do stock market variables. → Long run bank elasticities range from 0.117 to 0.276. → These results have implications for energy demand forecasts and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)

  17. A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Michela; D'Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Analitis, Antonis; Menne, Bettina; Katsouyanni, Klea; De' Donato, Francesca K; Basagana, Xavier; Salah, Afif Ben; Casimiro, Elsa; Dörtbudak, Zeynep; Iñiguez, Carmen; Peretz, Chava; Wolf, Tanja; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-07-03

    The Mediterranean region is particularly vulnerable to the effect of summer temperature.Within the CIRCE project this time-series study aims to quantify for the first time the effect of summer temperature in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities and compared it with European cities around the Mediterranean basin, evaluating city characteristics that explain between-city heterogeneity. The city-specific effect of maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) was assessed by Generalized Estimation Equations, assuming a linear threshold model. Then, city-specific estimates were included in a random effect meta-regression analysis to investigate the effect modification by several city characteristics. Heterogeneity in the temperature-mortality relationship was observed among cities. Thresholds recorded higher values in the warmest cities of Tunis (35.5°C) and Tel-Aviv (32.8°C) while the effect of Tappmax above threshold was greater in the European cities. In Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities a higher effect was observed among younger age groups (0-14 in Tunis and 15-64 in Tel-Aviv and Istanbul) in contrast with the European cities where the elderly population was more vulnerable. Climate conditions explained most of the observed heterogeneity and among socio-demographic and economic characteristics only health expenditure and unemployment rate were identified as effect modifiers. The high vulnerability observed in the young populations in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities represent a major public health problem. Considering the large political and economic changes occurring in this region as well future temperature increase due to climate change, it is important to strengthen research and public health efforts in these Mediterranean countries.

  18. Cities, Europeanization and Multi-level Governance: Governing Climate Change through Transnational Municipal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, K.; Bulkeley, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance.

  19. Impacts of urban sprawl on the area of downtown lakes in a highly developing city on central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wuhan city in central China is full of water resources and numerous lakes are located. Downtown lakes have significant ecological value and ornamental value for urban inhabitants in Wuhan. Under the rapid process of urban sprawl, downtown lakes are occupied by impervious areas. This research uses Landsat images to extract land uses from 1991 to 2013 in Wuhan city , and attempts to find out how urban sprawl affects the water body area decline in space. Two largest downtown lakes in Wuhan city, Donghu Lake located in central city and Tangxunhu Lake located in suburbs, are taken as case study area. A direction change index (DCI) is proposed to evaluate the changes of a specific land use in different directions. The results reveal that two downtown lakes are undergoing rapid water body area decline from 1991 to 2013, with decline rate are -0.022 in Donghu watershed and -0.011 in Tangxunhu watershed. 68.26% and 62.50% of the reduced water body is occupied by built-up land in Donghu watershed and Tangxunhu watershed, respectively. According to DCI, the water body reduce is highly correlated with built-up land increase in all direction. Moreover, it is found that in the Donghu watershed the north-west part suffered significant water body area decline, which is close to central city. While in Tangxunhu watershed, the area of water body declined in north-west, south-west and north-east part, and the area obstructed from central city by the lake was suffering less water body area decline. It is concluded that the water body area of downtown lakes are highly affected by the process of urban sprawl, and the lakes in central districts trends to suffer higher descend than that of the downtown lake located in suburbs. Meanwhile, even for the same downtown lake, the area orientating and close to the central city may suffer more rapid decline than the area that does not orientate to the central city.

  20. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions...... was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some....... Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V...

  1. International conference “Intellectuals and the First World War: Central European Perspective” (Kraków, Poland, 20–22 Oct., 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pudłocki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Intellectuals and the First World War: Central European Perspective”, a conference organized on October 20–22, 2016 in Kraków, was a perfect opportunity to discuss the phenomenon of the 1914–1918 conflict and its impact on the lives of intellectuals and the creators of culture. Many important scientific studies or cultural activities were interrupted by the war as a result of the conscription of the intellectuals and their death either on the WW1 fronts or as civilian victims. On the other hand, the war was also an opportunity for many to redirect professional careers in new directions e.g. in the service of military propaganda. The conference was organized by the Institute of History of the Jagiellonian University with the financial support of the Kraków City Council – City of Kraków. The conference brought together nearly 30 speakers from the European Union and the United States of America.

  2. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  3. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2011-04-01

    To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.

  4. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  5. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  6. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  7. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelei, Tamás; Molnár, Mária J; Szegedi, Márta; Kaló, Zoltán

    2016-06-04

    In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. To explore and summarize the recent scientific evidence on value drivers related to the health technology assessment of ODs with a special focus on the perspective of third party payers in CEE countries. The review aims to list all potentially relevant value drivers in the reimbursement process of orphan drugs. A systematic literature review was performed; PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant publications until April 2015. Extracted data were summarized along key HTA elements. From the 2664 identified publications, 87 contained relevant information on the evaluation criteria of orphan drugs, but only 5 had direct information from the CEE region. The presentation of good clinical evidence seems to play a key role especially since this should be the basis of cost-effectiveness analyses, which have more importance in resource-constrained economies. Due to external price referencing of pharmaceuticals, the relative budget impact of orphan drugs is expected to be higher in CEE than in Western European (WE) countries unless accessibility of patients remains more limited in poorer European regions. Equity principles based on disease prevalence and non-availability of alternative treatment options may increase the price premium, however, societies must have some control on prices and a rationale based on multiple criteria in reimbursement decisions. The evaluation of orphan medicines should include multiple criteria to appropriately measure the clinical added value of orphan

  8. Some stylised facts about the exchange rate behaviour of Central European currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vejmělek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates developments of exchange rate time series of Central European currencies and tries to find evidence of some stylised facts. Statistical methods and an econometric approach to the univariate time series modelling of high-frequency data, i.e., daily, are used. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 All the CE nominal exchange time series are not stationary: nevertheless, stationarity of all the return time series was confirmed. (2 Volatility clustering was proven and the GARCH modelling approach was successfully applied, including asymmetric modelling of volatility. (3 The more flexible an exchange rate regime is, the more volatile the respective currency. This is true for both nominal and real exchange rates. While nominal volatility is lower than real volatility in a system of fixed or less flexible exchange rates, the opposite is true for flexible systems: exchange rate volatility is higher in nominal terms than in real terms.

  9. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  10. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  12. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  13. The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology”: Snapshot†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Sklenář, Vladimír; Nováček, Jiří; Papoušková, Veronika; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Žídek, Lukáš; Kozłowski, Henryk; Watły, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Kołkowska, Paulina; Koča, Jaroslav; Svobodová-Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Sehnal, David; Horský, Vladimír; Geidl, Stanislav; Enriz, Ricardo D.; Matějka, Pavel; Jeništová, Adéla; Dendisová, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Weissig, Volkmar; Olsen, Mark; Coffey, Aidan; Ajuebor, Jude; Keary, Ruth; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; van Raaij, Mark J.; McAuliffe, Olivia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H.; Diederich, Marc; Musioł, Robert; Košmrlj, Janez; Polanński, Jarosław; Jampílek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology” was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on 28 August–1 September 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered “Chemistry towards Biology”, meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting. PMID:27763518

  14. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  15. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  16. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. (author)

  17. Spatial concentration of economic activity and competitiveness of Central European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with a still somewhat underdeveloped aspect of regional competiveness which regards to spillover effects stemming from spatial proximity of highly competitive neighbors. Although spillover effects are well recognized in the literature, we focus more on inter-regional concentration of business activity when enterprises are located in a particular district which is not far from the agglomeration center but not the center itself. We check for statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation measures (local Moran’s Ii statistic in order to identify spillovers between districts in Central European countries (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. We use variables indicating Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS, in particular hi-tech KIS and information and communication services (including computer science. We compare 2009 with 2015 to notice agglomeration dynamics. We observe statistically significant spillover effects in Central European countries in urbanization-type clusters as well as strengthening of the effect over time. Taking into consideration more detailed data for Poland we conclude that while hi-tech KIS mostly spill over to neighboring districts, the reverse pattern may be observed for computer science (programming and consultancy. One explanation is that this subsector relies on highly demanded workforce and a prestigious localization (in the agglomeration centers works as a bargaining chip to attract programmers. In order to measure the spillover effects more precisely it is recommended to define and measure the neighborhood of agglomeration centers using localization of firms based on GPS coordinates instead of centroids (geometric means of districts – as shown in example of Poland.

  18. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  19. Social Progress in Romania and other Central and Eastern European Non- Eurozone States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA CÂMPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research paper refers to the social progress achieved in the last 10 years by Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland and Hungary as non- Eurozone members (CEE-6, compared to the minimum and maximum levels in the EU-28, depending on their economic development levels. This analysis isa part of the larger-scale study regarding the readinessassessment of Romania and other five Central and Eastern European countries (CEE-6 for accession to the Eurozone in terms of the real convergence. We extended the analysis of the real economic convergence to the sphere of social convergence. The purpose of the extended analysis is to compare the living standards in Romania, CEE-6 and other European Union member states (EU-28 and to draw conclusions on the social convergence as a complement to real economic convergence. Using a new analytical tool, the global composite index “Social Progress Index” at different levels of disaggregation, this article reveals the social gaps between CEE-6 and the EU and identifies strengths, and weaknesses for these countries to achieve social progress on the road to real economic and social convergence with the EU.The aim is to provide to the national decision-makers some milestones to remove weaknesses and to turn threats into opportunities in the future social and economic policies.

  20. Increasing large scale windstorm damage in Western, Central and Northern European forests, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregow, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Alper, M. E.

    2017-04-01

    Using reports of forest losses caused directly by large scale windstorms (or primary damage, PD) from the European forest institute database (comprising 276 PD reports from 1951-2010), total growing stock (TGS) statistics of European forests and the daily North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, we identify a statistically significant change in storm intensity in Western, Central and Northern Europe (17 countries). Using the validated set of storms, we found that the year 1990 represents a change-point at which the average intensity of the most destructive storms indicated by PD/TGS > 0.08% increased by more than a factor of three. A likelihood ratio test provides strong evidence that the change-point represents a real shift in the statistical behaviour of the time series. All but one of the seven catastrophic storms (PD/TGS > 0.2%) occurred since 1990. Additionally, we detected a related decrease in September-November PD/TGS and an increase in December-February PD/TGS. Our analyses point to the possibility that the impact of climate change on the North Atlantic storms hitting Europe has started during the last two and half decades.

  1. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  2. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  3. City image towards tourist attraction (case in Solo, Central Java) examining city image of solo as tourist attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyana, T.; Putranto, T. S.; Zulkarnain, A.; Kusdiana, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Affective and cognitive image are two main factors that influence destination in Solo. The purpose of this research is to examine the two main factors of Solo towards tourist attraction. The research method is quantitative. Data collected from observation and survey. A total of 113 respondents obtained from accidental sampling method. The results indicate based on cognitive and affective image. Cognitive consists of culture, batik, city tagline, and community. While, affective consists of tradition, culinary, purposes, climate, and welcoming. The findings show that image has weak correlation towards tourist attraction of Solo. It means most of the tourists are not influenced by city image when they choose Solo as one of their travel destination. The differences between primary and minor image are also examined. Research implication is directed for local government to pursue continuous improvement particularly for the branding of Solo.

  4. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities: a scalable assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki; Asikainen, Arja; Perez, Laura; Trüeb, Stephan; Jantunen, Matti; Künzli, Nino; Sabel, Clive E

    2015-12-14

    Public health is often affected by societal decisions that are not primarily about health. Climate change mitigation requires intensive actions to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Many of these actions take place in cities due to their traffic, buildings, and energy consumption. Active climate mitigation policies will also, aside of their long term global impacts, have short term local impacts, both positive and negative, on public health. Our main objective was to develop a generic open impact model to estimate health impacts of emissions due to heat and power consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model should follow the building stock in time, make comparisons between scenarios, propagate uncertainties, and scale to different levels of detail. We tested The functionalities of the model in two case cities, namely Kuopio and Basel. We estimated the health and climate impacts of two actual policies planned or implemented in the cities. The assessed policies were replacement of peat with wood chips in co-generation of district heat and power, and improved energy efficiency of buildings achieved by renovations. Health impacts were not large in the two cities, but also clear differences in implementation and predictability between the two tested policies were seen. Renovation policies can improve the energy efficiency of buildings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly, but this requires systematic policy sustained for decades. In contrast, fuel changes in large district heating facilities may have rapid and large impacts on emissions. However, the life cycle impacts of different fuels is somewhat an open question. In conclusion, we were able to develop a practical model for city

  5. CITY MARKETING AND ITS IMPACT OVER URBAN TOURISM – SIBIU EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE 2007 - A SUCCESS STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LIDIA ALEXA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past years tourism has become the fastest-growing economic sector, both in terms of turnover and the opportunity to create jobs. In this context, it begun to be one of the activities with an important potential and, in the same time, a challenge for the development of urban centers which find themselves forced to redefine their identity, due to the decrease of other types of industries under the impact of the global economic crisis and the economic reset. After analyzing the main indicators of the touristic activity in the urban area, it is noticeable that cities have an important percentage in the overall touristic circulation. The future development of this form of tourism is, however, conditioned by the assimilation in the urban management process of marketing strategies meant to allow the development of touristic functions in the main urban localities and of touristic programs designed to bring added value to the cultural attractions for large and small cities alike. Urban marketing comes, in this case, as a natural response to the requirements of the city to better answer the market’s needs and to adjust to the dynamics of the tourist market. The present article aims to analyze the different urban marketing strategies used by urban centers interested in attracting important tourist flows and their impact over their future development, based on the Sibiu case after implementing the “Sibiu - European Capital of Culture” Programme in 2007.

  6. Pitchblende deposits at the Wood and Calhoun mines, Central City mining district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frank R.; Butler, C.R.

    1952-01-01

    Pitchblende has been mined in commercial quantities from four gold- and silver-bearing pyrite-sphalerite-galena veins that occur in an area about one-half mile square on the south side of Quartz Hill, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo. These veins are the Kirk, the German-Belcher, the Wood, and the Calhoun. Two of these veins, the Wood and the Calhoun, were studied in an attempt to determine the geologic factors favorable for pitchblende deposition. All accessible workings at the Wood and East Calhoun mines were mapped by tape and compass, and the distribution of radioactivity was studied in the field. Channel and chip samples were taken for chemical assay to compare radioactivity with uranium content. The pitchblende-bearing veins cat both pre-Cambrian granite gneiss and quartz-biotite schist; however, the gneiss was the more favorable host rock. Two bostonite porphyry dikes of Tertiary(?) age were crosscut by the Wood and Calhoun veins. The pitchblende occurs in lenses erratically distributed along the veins and in stringers extending outward from the veins. In the lenses it forms hard'. masses, but elsewhere it is Soft and powdery. The pitchblende is contemporaneous with the pyrite bat earlier than the sphalerite and galena in the same vein. All the observed pitchblende was at depths of less than 400 ft. The veins probably cannot be mined profitably for the pitchblende alone under present conditions.

  7. Land Surface Temperature Differences within Local Climate Zones, Based on Two Central European Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geletič, Jan; Lehnert, M.; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2016), č. článku 788. ISSN 2072-4292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Grant - others:UrbanAdapt(XE) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-036-2015 Program:CZ02 Biodiverzita a ekosystémové služby / Monitorování a integrované plánování a kontrola v životním prostředí/ Adaptace na změnu klimatu Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : land surface temperature * local climate zones * ASTER * LANDSAT * analysis of variance * Prague * Brno * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2016

  8. Comparison of Particulate Number Concentrations in Three Central European Capital Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borsós, T.; Řimnáčová, Daniela; Ždímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Wagner, Zdeněk; Weidinger, T.; Burkart, J.; Steiner, G.; Reischl, G.; Hitzenberger, R.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Salma, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 433, SEP (2012), s. 418-426 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Grant - others:HSRF(HU) K84091; ASF(AT) FWF19515-N20 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : urban environment * number size distribution * diurnal variation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.258, year: 2012

  9. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region called ‘Partium’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Fényes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of ‘The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development’ project (N=602, 2010. We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify themselves with, what affects these attitudes (gender, faculty type, social background of students, locality type, religiosity, and finally what kind of educational policy implications could be relevant concerning our findings. We have used cluster analysis and a logistic regression model, and formulated several hypotheses that were controlled by these methods. Our results show that there are a large number of students who belong to the more traditional attitude cluster in this region, but women more frequently identify themselves with modern gender roles than men do. The faculty-type effect has only been partly detected. We have found that with ‘male-dominated’ majors, both women and men identify themselves with more traditional attitudes and that with ‘female-dominated’ majors all students have more modern attitudes. The effect of social background is contradictory. Those whose parents had larger numbers of books had increased modern attitudes, but the factor ‘regular financial problems in the family’ also increased it. Our next result is that students who live in villages are not more traditional than others, because they live in cities during their studies. Our final result is that churchly religious students think more traditionally regarding gender roles than others do, but those who are religious in their own way do not.

  10. Dominant psychoactive drugs in the Central European region: A wastewater study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Hasan, Jamal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Vojs-Staňová, Andrea; Gál, Miroslav; Naumowicz, Monika; Tichý, Jozef; Brandeburová, Paula; Híveš, Ján

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze 26 various illicit drugs, psychopharmaceuticals and metabolites thereof in sewer from 17 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Slovak and Czech Republics. Urinary bio-markers used were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with the tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. The present study shows that the Slovak and Czech Republics have one of the highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Dunajská Streda with the mean specific load of the drug in sewage being up to 479mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest load was detected in Trnava (354mg/day/1000 inhabitants). The methamphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumptions in our study were comparable to those found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. Among all of the studied psychopharmaceuticals, tramadol and venlafaxine were represented in the highest concentrations. The highest mean specific load of tramadol was detected in the spa town of Piešťany (371mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Košice (372mg/day/1000 inhabitants), while the highest mean loads of venlafaxine were recorded for the towns of Trenčín (230mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Piešťany (108mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  12. Web of science coverage and scientific performance of Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploszaj, A.; Olechnicka, A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper put forward the hypothesis that changes in the list of journals, particularly in the number of periodicals published in specific Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, have a significant impact on bibliometric indicators and, consequently, on the convergence levels they are used to measure. The analyses presented in the article support the argument that countries from Central and Eastern Europe, despite showing fairly consistent convergence trends, achieve noticeably weaker results than Western Europe regarding research and development and scientific activity. The evident impact made by the inclusion of numerous CEE journals in WoS on the values of the indicator analysed, directly supports the hypothesis put forward in this article. The results of the study are important because data on the number of publications and citations in the Web of Science are increasingly used as development indicators of national R&D sectors. By showing how modifications in these databases influence the results obtained, we can better understand and thus make better use of data from these sources. The article concludes with listing the possibilities for furthering and deepening selected themes pointed out in the paper. (Author)

  13. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okokon, E.O.; Yli-Tuomi, T.; Turunen, A.W.; Taimisto, P.; Pennanen, A.; Vouitsis, I.; Samaras, Z.; Voogt, M.; Keuken, M.; Lanki, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during

  14. Non-Standard Monetary Policies Implemented By The European Central Bank After The Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Filiz Baştürk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis which began in the U.S. in 2007 influenced all economies on a global scale followingthe collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. As a response to the crisis, central banksstarted to implement non-standard monetary policy tools as well as short-term interest rates alsoknown as standard policy tools in order to help monetary policy transmission channels work effectively.The European Central Bank (ECB implemented non-standard monetary policies as in additionto the standard policy tools during this period. The non-standard monetary policies introducedby the ECB were different from those implemented by other central banks (Fed, Bank of England interms of implementation and results. Firstly, the policies of the ECB were not specific to one singlecountry. Secondly, the banking system was the major source of finance in Europe, which had an impacton the policies. In this regard, the ECB introduced a policy of enhanced credit support consistingof five main elements in order to maintain price stability over the medium term following the crisis.By 2010, public debt in some member countries of the European Union reached high levels, requiringthem to take additional measures. The Securities Markets Programme was introduced to that end.Initially focusing on the debt securities of Greece, Ireland, and Portugal, the Securities Markets Programmewas expanded in August 2011 to cover the debt securities of Italy and Spain. In addition, twoLong-term Refinancing Operations (LTROs were introduced. This article presents a descriptive analysisof the non-standard monetary policy tools introduced by the ECB following the financial crisis.However, the monetary policy implemented in the Euro zone is not specific to one single country, andevery country has a different financial structure, both of which limit the effectiveness of the policiesimplemented. The changing structure of the monetary policy implemented in the aftermath of the crisisaims to

  15. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreasing soil erosion rates with evolving land-use techniques in a central European catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Annegret; Heckmann, Tobias; Hans-Rudolf, Bork; Alexander, Fuelling

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural societies around the world have caused accelerated soil erosion. Soil erosion and a decrease in soil fertility may also have caused the abandonment of entire landscapes and the collapse of civilizations. In central Europe, Medieval land-use is thought to have lead to the largest loss of top soil in history, which in turn lead to a malnutrition of the population and abandonment of agricultural land. However, this might be only part of the picture, as people are also able to adapt to changing environmental conditions, including the type of land-use they adopt. Within a catchment in the central European mountain belt, we were able to distinguish the evolution between three main types of land-use techniques between ~ 900 AD and 1950 AD: horticulture, agriculture and shifting cultivation. We were able to relate these techniques with different soil erosion rates, which differ by an order of magnitude, ranging from 0.83 ± 0.09 mm/yr to 1.62 ± 0.17 mm/yr. Using high-resolution surface data and chrono-stratigraphical methods in combination with soil charcoal analysis, we were able to reconstruct past land-use techniques on a local scale. This illustrates that less erosive and more sustainable techniques were developed through time, and hypothesize that people were able to adapt to the less favorable environmental conditions by changing the cultivation techniques. Although cultural adaptation to changing environmental conditions has been extensively discussed, this study is able to quantitatively demonstrate improved soil management with evolving land-use in central Europe.

  17. Validation of the Martilli's Urban Boundary Layer Scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Schayes, G.

    2005-07-01

    The Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate the Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE). The results show that the urban parameterization scheme is able to reproduce the generation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect over urban area and represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) and its urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of the Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  18. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hamdi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE. The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE and its urban boundary layer (UBL campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  19. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  20. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  1. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants...

  2. Number Concentrations and Modal Structure of Indoor/Outdoor Fine Particles in Four European Cities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazaridis, M.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Wagner, Zdeněk; Ondráček, Jakub; Drossinos, Y.; Glytsos, T.; Vratolis, S.; Torseth, K.; Moravec, Pavel; Hussein, T.; Smolík, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 131-146 ISSN 1680-8584 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor/outdoor aerosol * I/O ratio * modal structure Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2016

  3. Development through Knowledge Economy: Cluj-Napoca – a European Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marilena PORUMB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is related to both theoretical concepts and best practice in the field of Knowledge Management Strategy. We have designed a mixture of research methodology that covers literature review, comparative case-study analysis, and best practices in the Smart-City field, in order to propose an adequate model, with a suitable quick guide for implementation that may provide a solution for the development of Cluj-Napoca case study. After an in-depth literature review, we proposed the following as the main research question: Could a smart city comparative case study methodology be used as a knowledge management strategy for development? After a preparatory stage we focused on the upgrading of a smart city development model. To put this model at work we looked for and designed a quick guide that can be used as a tool for implementing the model named Knowledge Broker Intervention Model (KBIM. This KBIM and the quick guide for implementation may be seen as our small contribution to the theory and practice in the field. The Knowledge Broker Intervention Model was designed to improve the networks of components in a new way and a more sustainable development. These outcomes of the comparative analysis may be used as a starting point for the transformation of Cluj Napoca into a Smart City based on the quick guide we developed. Cluj Innovation City is a first step towards transforming Cluj-Napoca into a Smart City, which could be developed around the existing Cluj IT Cluster. The role of a knowledge broker would be to ensure that knowledge of the organizational culture of private firms could be harvested, processed and further transferred to universities. In their turn, universities would adopt the new knowledge and apply it in such a way in which it will influence the nurture of scientists. This would come as a solution in the process of closing the gap between knowledge generation, dissemination and feedback actions. It will link research results with

  4. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.       JEL Codes: E58, F31Keywords: Devaluation, Exchange Rates, Monetary

  5. Attractiveness of Central and Eastern European Countries for Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of European Integration: The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the world have increased rapidly during the last decade. Most of the FDI inflows are targeted to developed countries (78% in 1999, about fifth of the flows are going to developing countries and Central and Eastern European transition countries are the host countries for only 2% of the world FDI. The necessity of foreign investments in the transition countries is the result of industrial restructuring in post-socialist Eastern Europe and the Baltic coun...

  6. European Association for Palliative Care: Forging a Vision of Excellence in Palliative Care in Central and Eastern European and Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, Lukas; Ling, Julie; Hegedus, Katalin; Larkin, Philip

    2018-02-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) represents many thousands of health care workers and volunteers working in or with an interest in palliative care. In 2016, the EAPC has individual members from 48 nations across the world, and collective members from 57 national palliative care associations in 32 European countries. Throughout its history, the EAPC has produced guidance on a range of palliative care issues. The biennial congresses and research congresses and the comprehensive Web site (www.eapcnet.eu) are renowned and well utilized platforms for dissemination and exchange of palliative care information. The EAPC has also published a newsletter specifically for Eastern European and Central Asian countries that has been available in both English and Russian from 2005 to 2012. In addition, for a period of time, a Russian Web site (www.eapcspeaksrussian.eu) was also available. A survey of palliative care in Central and Eastern European nations sponsored by Open Society Foundation's International Palliative Care Initiative found that in most countries, the national language is preferred rather than using English or Russian for the provision of information. Accordingly, the EAPC Web site provides translations of white papers, position papers, and blog posts in a number of languages. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Kontic, Raymond; Kyncl, Tomáš; Pfister, Christian; Chromá, Kateřina; Tegel, Willy

    2011-12-01

    A predicted rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated effects on the Earth's climate system likely imply more frequent and severe weather extremes with alternations in hydroclimatic parameters expected to be most critical for ecosystem functioning, agricultural yield, and human health. Evaluating the return period and amplitude of modern climatic extremes in light of pre-industrial natural changes is, however, limited by generally too short instrumental meteorological observations. Here we introduce and analyze 11,873 annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurement series from living and historical fir ( Abies alba Mill.) trees sampled across France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, which continuously span the AD 962-2007 period. Even though a dominant climatic driver of European fir growth was not found, ring width extremes were evidently triggered by anomalous variations in Central European April-June precipitation. Wet conditions were associated with dynamic low-pressure cells, whereas continental-scale droughts coincided with persistent high-pressure between 35 and 55°N. Documentary evidence independently confirms many of the dendro signals over the past millennium, and further provides insight on causes and consequences of ambient weather conditions related to the reconstructed extremes. A fairly uniform distribution of hydroclimatic extremes throughout the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and Recent Global Warming may question the common believe that frequency and severity of such events closely relates to climate mean stages. This joint dendro-documentary approach not only allows extreme climate conditions of the industrial era to be placed against the backdrop of natural variations, but also probably helps to constrain climate model simulations over exceptional long timescales.

  8. The times are changing: temporal shifts in patterns of fish invasions in central European fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitsch, W; Milasowszky, N; Nehring, S; Wiesner, C; Wolter, C; Essl, F

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the invasion history of alien fish species based on exhaustive national data sets on fish invasions of two contiguous central European countries (Germany and Austria). Fifteen alien fish species are currently established in both countries, constituting 14 and 17% of the total freshwater fish fauna of Germany and Austria, respectively. In both countries, six alien species are present, but not established. The status of five alien species in Germany and three species in Austria remains unknown. Accumulation rates of alien fish species have increased in recent decades with >50% of them reported after 1971. North America and Asia were the primary sources of alien fish species in Germany and Austria up to the 1980s, whereas European species of Ponto-Caspian origin dominate now. Fisheries (including aquaculture) and the animal trade were responsible for most earlier introductions, whereas waterways were the main pathway for recent invaders. The extent of the spatial distribution of alien species was positively correlated with residence time, i.e. the time elapsed since the first national record. Different thermal preferences of early invaders (mostly coldwater species) and new invaders (typically warmwater adapted) may benefit the latter in the face of climate change. It is concluded that new challenges for alien fish management arise and that ecosystem-based approaches as endorsed by the E.U. Water Framework Directive (maintaining or restoring good ecological status of rivers and streams) should become the centrepiece of river management in Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Money supply growth and inflation – the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to find out whether there is a significant relationship between money supply growth and inflation in the Eurozone. For this reason, the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank (ECB has been evaluated. Since the establishment of the ECB in January 1999 to May 2003 the ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consisted of three main elements: a quantitative definition of price stability, a prominent role for money in the assessment of risks to price stability (aggregate M3 as a reference value, and a broadly based assessment of the outlook for price developments. Nevertheless, since May 2003 M3 or any other monetary aggregate has lost its prominent role in the ECB‘s strategy. Therefore the nowadays ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consists of a quantitative definition of the primary objective of price stability and an analytical framework based on two pillars – economic analysis and monetary analysis. These two pillars are used by the ECB‘s Governing Council in the overall assessment of risks to price stability and in monetary policy decisions.The empirical part of this article is based on time series correlation between money supply growth and inflation in selected member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU - Eurozone during the period 1995–2005. The time series are divided into two parts. The first part covers data for selected member countries of the European Union from 1995 till 1998, i.e. before the establishment of the EMU. Whereas the second part includes data for the whole Eurozone since its official start in 1999 to 2005. The time series are adjusted by SARIMA models.

  10. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called "Partium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fényes, Hajnalka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of "The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development" project (N = 602, 2010). We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify…

  11. Impact of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolotutu, A. D.; Djirimu, M. A.; Lutfi, M.; Anggadini, F.

    2018-05-01

    Research was conducted in several districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province in order to determine the effect of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate, and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty at the districts/city in the province. The analysis used is Panel Data Regression. The results show that first, life expectancy and gross domestic regional income have a negative and significant impact on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province. Second, the opened unemployment rate has a positive and significant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the province. Third, literacy rates show a positive effect and insignificant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province of Central Sulawesi. Fourth, these four variables simultaneously affect the poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi

  12. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-11-01

    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  14. Causes of the outbreak of the eurozone crises: the role of the USA and the European Central Bank monetary polic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalia Białek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the loose monetary policy of two of the world’s most important financial institutions—the U.S. Federal Reserve Board and the European Central Bank—were ultimately responsible for the outburst of global financial crisis of 2008-09. Unusually low interest rates in 2001- 05 compelled investors to engage in high risk endeavors. It also encouraged some governments to finance excessive domestic consumption with foreign loans. Emerging financial bubbles burst first in mortgage markets in the U.S. and subsequently spread to other countries. The paper also reviews other causes of the crisis as discussed in literature. Some of them relate directly to weaknesses inherent in the institutional design of the European Monetary Union (EMU while others are unique to members of the EMU. It is rather striking that recommended remedies tend not to take into account the policies of the European Central Bank.

  15. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  16. The Frequency of Occurrence of Air Masses Over Twelve European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    cluster analysis technique to investigate the possibility of simplifying the European "",Oskar Essermanger, 1954, Neue Methode der Zerleang von...Masses, Streamlines, and the Boreal Forest," Geographical Bulletin, Vol 8 11 J. M. Davis, 1981, The Use of Cluster Analysis in the Identification and...Atmosphere and a Proposed Model for Frontal Analysis," Tellus, Vol 5 ’’N. S. McDonald, 1975, "Etgenvectur Analisis as an Aid to Air Mass Recognition

  17. DATA ISSUES IN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BENCHMARKING: A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machek Ondrej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity is a method of measuring overall productivity of businesses, industries or economies. It is an approach which is recently becoming popular among government regulatory agencies when applying the so-called performance-based regulation. This principle induces regulated companies (for instance, electricity or natural gas distributors to behave efficiently even if their industries are not exposed to competitive pressures, since they are rewarded for being more productive than other firms in the industry, and penalized in the opposite case. The aim of this article is to deal with the question what are the main data issues when comparing total factor productivity among firms or industries with focus on the Central European region, which is very heterogeneous in terms of geographic, social, economic and historic conditions. In the first part, we introduce total factor productivity and the most common methods of its measurement � Malmquist and T�rnqvist indexes. Consequently, we divide the data issues into separate categories and discuss them more in detail. The first category of issues is related to defining the set of comparable firms. Many factors, such as the degree of competition in the market, the extent of government regulation, economies of scale, firm size, geographical conditions and historic development have to be taken into consideration. The second category is associated with specifying the time period. TFP estimates should be based on long time series and the period should include the whole business cycle and be representative and exclude extraordinary events. The third group of issues is related to defining and measuring the inputs and outputs. Since a number of difficulties are associated with labor input measurement, it is often included into operating expenditures along with materials and services. The measurement of capital is even more contentious. The outputs should reflect performance

  18. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  19. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

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    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The public authorities (the agency messages could play a key role in the social subjects’ decisions. How and when the agency communicates the path of its future policies influences the present social and economic architecture. The aim of this paper is to advance an explanatory framework for the connections between the transparency and credibility of the public authorities and the volatility of the social output. In order to provide some empirical evidences, the paper will consider the case of the European Central Bank as a representative monetary authority. The main output of the paper resides in the thesis that, with a certain consistency, there are some connections between the agency’s mandates, the types of the messages transmitted by the agency and the volatility of the obtained results, and also in the idea that an agency entrusted with a “strong” mandate could transmit “mixed” type messages (i.e. “informative-persuasive” ones which, in special conditions, could influence the decisions of certain categories of clients and/ or non-members. Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  20. Export Promotion Aims and Reality: A Comparison of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European Region

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    Éltető Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the international crisis in 2008-2009, the role of exports in economic growth came into focus in most countries. Exports of EU Member States gained momentum from 2010 onward but with certain changes in their structure and direction. In several countries, the turn towards non-EU areas, such as China or Latin America was part of the state export strategy. On the one hand, our article describes these foreign trade strategies and their institutional framework of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European governments, detecting possible similarities. On the other hand, we analyse recent export data. This way we can get a picture on the structure and direction of exports of periphery economies and this can be compared to the aims of the given states. Our hypothesis is that there is a gap between the reality and the intentions of the governments. The size of this gap varies and is influenced by certain factors such as the different involvement of multinational companies in foreign trade or the different economic structure of these countries. In our paper we list which countries adopted a government strategy and with what aim. We provide a short literature review on state trade promotion policies and discuss these policies and their institutions in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian countries.

  1. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. TRUST, CORRUPTION, BRIBES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iolanda Voda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Western world has drawn on theoretical structures of classical and neoclassical liberalism for its explanatory support and sources of inspiration for centuries. Against this ideological background, institutionalists aim at showing that growth is a process of transformation, a double change: an economic and an institutional one. In this analysis, our purpose is to highlight the importance of informal institutional arrangements and their quality in explaining the disparities of revenues and developments between countries. In our approach, we will consider several indicators meant to highlight various aspects of research. The approach proposed is a transversal-comparative one and static methods pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis. The results obtained suggest the existence of major differences within the Central and East European area as far as informal institutions are concerned; moreover, the analysis conducted confirms the existence of a significant relation between the level of development and the structure of informal arrangements such as: trust level, bribe culture and corruption control.

  3. Neighborhood environment and walking for transport and recreation in Central European older adults

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    Jana Pelclová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment is an aspect that influences physical activity, mainly walking. Hence, built environment research may help to use environmental and policy strategies to increase physical activity. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between perceived neighborhood environment and meeting the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of walking 5 or more days a week within active transportation and leisure-time domains in Central European older adults. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty six healthy ambulatory older adults filled out the modified and culturally adapted version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS for obtaining perceived environment information and the self-administrative long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for assessing physical activity levels. RESULTS: Respondents living in high residential density neighborhoods (OR 1.87, living in flats (OR 2.09 and in location with ≤100,000 inhabitants (OR 1.63 were more likely to meet recommendation within walking for transportation. Owning a dog was associated with meeting recommendation within walking for leisure (OR 1.69. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the specific impact of environment on meeting PA recommendations within transportation and leisure time walking in older adults. Out of all perceived neighborhood environmental attributes received from ANEWS questionnaire, only high residential density was positively associated with meeting recommendation within total walking and walking for transport.

  4. Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for influenza vaccination in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza. Discussion Vaccination of healthy children is not widespread in Europe despite clear demonstration of the benefits of vaccination in reducing the large health and economic burden of influenza. Universal vaccination of infants and children also provides indirect protection in other high-risk groups in the community. This paper contains the Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for the vaccination of infants and children against influenza. The aim of CEVAG is to encourage the efficient and safe use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious diseases. Summary CEVAG recommends the introduction of universal influenza vaccination for all children from the age of 6 months. Special attention is needed for children up to 60 months of age as they are at greatest risk. Individual countries should decide on how best to implement this recommendation based on their circumstances. PMID:20546586

  5. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

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    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  6. Political and Legal Bases of Foreign Policy Activity of the European Union in the Region of Central Asia

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    Turdimurat M. Tursunmuratov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the European Union’s foreign policy in Central Asia. He indicates the basic tendencies of development of the EU cooperation with the countries of Central Asian region. Further, the author analyzes the implementation of joint projects within the framework adopted by the Partnership Agreements. Based on a critical analysis, the researcher highlights a number of constraints to effective development of relations between the EU and Central Asian states. He carries out a structural analysis of conceptual documents of the European Union for the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian countries in the region. Scientific novelty of this work lies in the systematization of stages in the evolution of relations between the European Union and the countries of Central Asia. The author divides the formation of cooperation into four main stages. The first stage of the relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia includes conceptual framework of the legal regulatory structure of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The second stage is characterized by the realization of a number of joint projects in the field of transport communications, democratic transformations, regional security and stability. The third stage of the relations is determined by acquiring of special geographical significance of the region of Central Asia resulting from the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan in 2001. The fourth stage has begun in 2015 with the adoption of the EU Strategy for a New Partnership with Central Asia for 2017-2021. These studies serve as a basis for developing some important proposals and recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of cooperation between the parties.

  7. Cost benefit analysis of European air quality targets for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and fine and suspended particulate matter in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsthoorn, X.; Dorland, K.; Jansen, H.; Amann, M.; Cofala, J.; Bartonova, A.; Clench-Aas, J.; Guerreiro, C.; Henriksen, J.; Larssen, S.

    1999-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed air quality standards for NO 2 , SO 2 and PM 10 to be in force by 2010. The present paper presents a study that gauged their costs and benefits. An analysis of the expected emissions for 2010 (reference emission scenario), using simplified air quality models, showed that non-compliance with these standards will occur in cities only, not in rural areas. Most compliance problems are expected for PM 10 , least for SO 2 . Central estimates of the costs to meet standards range from 21 MECU (SO 2 ), to 79 MECU (NO 2 ) to 87-225 MECU (PM 10 ). The estimated benefits are 83-3783 MECU (SO 2 ), 408-5900 MECU (NO 2 ), and 5007- 51247 MECU (PM 10 ). Uncertainties are high, due to errors and incertitude in various steps of the methodology, mainly the estimation of the human health effects, in particular effects on mortality, and in the valuation of a statistical life. In the case of PM 10 , additional uncertainty results from the small size of the air quality database. Notwithstanding the uncertainties, the indications are that the benefits exceed the costs. 28 refs

  8. Gravity signals from the lithosphere in the Central European Basin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Bayer, U.; Thybo, H.; Maystrenko, Y.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lyngsie, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the gravity signals from different depth levels in the lithosphere of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). The major elements of the CEBS are the Northern and Southern Permian Basins which include the Norwegian-Danish Basin (NDB), the North-German Basin (NGB) and the Polish Trough (PT). An up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, hides the gravity signal from below the basin and masks the heterogeneous structure of the consolidated crust, which is assumed to be composed of domains that were accreted during the Paleozoic amalgamation of Europe. We performed a three-dimensional (3D) gravity backstripping to investigate the structure of the lithosphere below the CEBS. Residual anomalies are derived by removing the effect of sediments down to the base of Permian from the observed field. In order to correct for the influence of large salt structures, lateral density variations are incorporated. These sediment-free anomalies are interpreted to reflect Moho relief and density heterogeneities in the crystalline crust and uppermost mantle. The gravity effect of the Moho relief compensates to a large extent the effect of the sediments in the CEBS and in the North Sea. Removal of the effects of large-scale crustal inhomogeneities shows a clear expression of the Variscan arc system at the southern part of the study area and the old crust of Baltica further north-east. The remaining residual anomalies (after stripping off the effects of sediments, Moho topography and large-scale crustal heterogeneities) reveal long wavelength anomalies, which are caused mainly by density variations in the upper mantle, though gravity influence from the lower crust cannot be ruled out. They indicate that the three main subbasins of the CEBS originated on different lithospheric domains. The PT originated on a thick, strong and dense lithosphere of the Baltica type. The NDB was formed on a weakened Baltica low-density lithosphere formed during the Sveco

  9. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  10. Top-down NOX Emissions of European Cities Derived from Modelled and Spaceborne Tropospheric NO2 Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Boersma, K. F.; Douros, J.; Williams, J. E.; Eskes, H.; Delcloo, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    High nitrogen oxides (NOX = NO + NO2) concentrations near the surface impact humans and ecosystems badly and play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. NO2 is an important precursor of tropospheric ozone (O3) which in turn affects the production of the hydroxyl radical controlling the chemical lifetime of key atmospheric pollutants and reactive greenhouse gases. Combustion from industrial, traffic and household activities in large and densely populated urban areas result in high NOX emissions. Accurate mapping of these emissions is essential but hard to do since reported emissions factors may differ from real-time emissions in order of magnitude. Modelled NO2 levels and lifetimes also have large associated uncertainties and overestimation in the chemical lifetime which may mask missing NOX chemistry in current chemistry transport models (CTM's). The simultaneously estimation of both the NO2 lifetime and as well as the concentrations by applying the Exponentially Modified Gaussian (EMG) method on tropospheric NO2 columns lines densities should improve the surface NOX emission estimates. Here we evaluate if the EMG methodology applied on the tropospheric NO2 columns simulated by the LOTOS-EUROS (Long Term Ozone Simulation-European Ozone Simulation) CTM can reproduce the NOX emissions used as model input. First we process both the modelled tropospheric NO2 columns for the period April-September 2013 for 21 selected European urban areas under windy conditions (averaged vertical wind speeds between surface and 500 m from ECMWF > 2 m s-1) as well as the accompanying OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) data providing us with real-time observation-based estimates of midday NO2 columns. Then we compare the top-down derived surface NOX emissions with the 2011 MACC-III emission inventory, used in the CTM as input to simulate the NO2 columns. For cities where NOX emissions can be assumed as originating from one large source good agreement is found between the top-down derived

  11. Imported Zika Virus in a European City: How to Prevent Local Transmission?

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    Joan-Pau Millet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission.Methods: An observational cross-sectional population-based study in Barcelona, Spain was performed.An analysis of the socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mosquito control activities of the ZIKV cases detected between January 1st and December 2016 was carried out using a specific ZIKV epidemiological survey of the Barcelona Public Health Agency.Results: A total of 118 notifications of possible ZIKV infections were received, and 44 corresponded to confirmed cases in Barcelona residents.Amongst these, the median age was 35 years and 57% were women. All cases were imported, 48% were Spanish-born and 52% foreign-born. Dominican Republic was the most visited country amongst foreign-born patients and Nicaragua amongst Spanish-born. The most frequent symptoms were exanthema, fever, and arthralgia. Among the 24 diagnosed women, 6 (25% were pregnant. There was one case of microcephaly outside Barcelona city. Entomological inspections were done at the homes of 19 cases (43.2% of the total and in 34 (77.3% public spaces. Vector activity was found in one case of the 44 confirmed cases, and 134 surveillance and vector control were carried out associated to imported ZIKV cases. In all cases prevention measures were recommended to avoid mosquito bites on infected cases.Conclusion: Epidemiological and entomological surveillance are essential for the

  12. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  13. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Gianelle, Vorne L.; Colombi, Cristina; Alves, Celia; Custódio, Danilo; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mario; Pio, Casimiro; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Reche, Cristina; Cruz Minguillón, María; Manousakas, Manousos-Ioannis; Maggos, Thomas; Vratolis, Stergios; Harrison, Roy M.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM) sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB), one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB) and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR). After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on) simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX) and non-exhaust (NEX) contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m-3 (16-32 %) to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m-3 (15-36 %) to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics) in PM2.5 (37-82 %) but also in PM10 (40-71 %), mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB) contributions vary widely, from 14-24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to levels increase on an annual basis by 1-9 µg m-3 due to biomass burning influence. Other significant sources are the following. - Local dust, 7-12 % of PM10 at SUB and UB sites and 19 % at the TR site, revealing a contribution from road dust resuspension. In PM2.5 percentages decrease to 2-7 % at SUB-UB sites and 15 % at the TR site. - Industry, mainly metallurgy, contributing 4-11 % of PM10 (5-12 % in PM2.5), but only at BCN-UB, POR-TR and MLN

  14. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in 5 Southern European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Karanasiou, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Severi, M.; Becagli, S.; Gianelle, V. L.; Colombi, C.; Alves, C.; Custódio, D.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Pio, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Manousakas, M.; Maggos, T.; Vratolis, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Querol, X.

    2015-09-01

    The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterising similarities and heterogeneities in PM sources and contributions in urban areas from the Southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB, MLN-UB) one sub-urban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB) and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR). After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples from January 2013 to February 2014 simultaneously at the 5 cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these datasets in a harmonised way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust contributes within 3.9-10.8 μg m-3 (16-32 %) to PM10 and 2.3-9.4 μg m-3 (15-36 %) to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulphate and organics) in PM2.5 (37-82 %) but also in PM10 (40-71 %) mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB) contributions vary widely, from 14-24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB to levels increase on an annual basis by 1-9 μg m-3 due to this source. Other significant sources are: - Local dust, 7-12 % of PM10 at SUB and UB sites and 19 % at the TR site, revealing a contribution from road dust resuspension. In PM2.5 percentages decrease to 2-7 % at SUB-UB sites and 15 % at the TR site. - Industries, mainly metallurgy, contributing 4-11 % of PM10 (5-12 % in PM2.5), but only at BCN-UB, POR-TR and MLN-UB. No clear impact of industrial emissions was found in FI-UB and ATH

  15. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  16. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984 and present-day (2014 urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984–2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity

  17. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, Per; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Madsen, Henrik; Drews, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984) and present-day (2014) urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984-2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity resembles present

  18. Holocene climate dynamics in the central part of the East European plain (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the broad-leaved forest zone of the central part of the East European plain have been reconstructed on the base of pollen, plant macrofossil, testate amoebae and radiocarbon data from the mire Klukva (N 53.834812, E 36.252488), located in the kast depression in the Upper Oka River basin (Tula region, European Russia). The reconstruction of main parameters of past climate (the mean annual temperature precipitation) was carried out by the "Best Modern Analog" approach. Reconstructions of vegetation show that in the early Holocene the territory was occupied mainly by birch and pine-birch forests. Significant changes in the plant cover of the Upper Oka River basin are attributed to the 7.5 cal kyr BP). The climatic conditions were favorable for development of the broad-leaved forests those persisted in this area up to industrial period. In the 17th century, when the population density greatly increased and watersheds were ploughed, natural vegetation communities were gradually destroyed and transformed into agricultural landscapes. According to obtained climatic reconstructions the period 10-8.5 cal kyr BP was relatively cold and wet, when the mean annual temperature was in 3°C lower and precipitation was in 50-100 mm higher then nowadays. The significant climate warming occurred in about 7.0-5.0 cal kyr BP (The Holocene thermal maximum): the mean annual temperature in 2°C exceeded the modern value and precipitation was close to that. The environment conditions were drier due to decrease of effective moisture. In the second part of the Holocene the sequence of second-, and even third-order climatic oscillations expressed against the background of the overall slight trend towards cooling have been determined. The most pronounced cool and wet intervals were reconstructed in 2.5-2.0 cal kyr BP and 1.5-1.3 cal kyr BP. The mean annual temperature decreased in 1.5-2 °C and precipitation rose in 200 mm in compare to modern

  19. A profile of informal traders in four South African city central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The situation in South African cities is no exception as the unemployment rate ... 1. INTRODUCTION. In developing countries, state resources and formal employment opportunities .... like labour-force surveys in resource- constrained African ...

  20. From forced migration to forced arrival: the campization of refugee accommodation in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreichauf, René

    2018-01-01

    In the aftermath of large refugee arrivals in 2015, EU regulations and national asylum laws were tightened, especially those regarding reception and accommodation. The current contribution introduces the concept of "campization" to explain the impact of law and policy changes on the socio-spatial configuration and functions of refugee accommodation in European capital regions. Based on qualitative research concerning case studies for Athens, Berlin, and Copenhagen, I argue that refugee accommodation has increasingly been transformed into large, camp-like structures with lowered living standards and a closed character. This is shown by the structural, functional, and socio-spatial characteristics of the accommodation in the three case studies, as well as the political and administrative objectives that determine the campization of accommodation. The contribution lastly highlights changing notions and forms of containment, exclusion, and temporality as part of campization, and links this process to current trends in asylum and urban development.

  1. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  2. Catalogue of good practice case studies in european towns and cities from 1995 to 2002; Catalogue des bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes de 1995 a 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    Many towns and cities have already implemented sustainable local energy policies. This has also been the ''raison d'etre of Energie-Cites'', the association of European towns and cities that has been promoting sustainable local energy policies over the last ten years. Energie-Cites has a portfolio of about 400 European good practice case studies in sustainable local energy policies. The 3 to 5 page case studies provide complete information on the action carried out. After general information about the city and a brief introduction to the subject and its general context, the action is presented in detail: local players involved, costs, positive and negative evaluation, prospects and one or more local contacts. (A.L.B.)

  3. ‘The Vienna school and Central European art history’: Jan Bakoš, Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Mitrović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jan Bakoš’s recent book Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses presents a comprehensive picture of the Vienna School of art history from its inception in the mid-nineteenth century to the influence it exercised on Central European scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century. Although the book is a collection of essays that have been published or presented in the past it is very coherent in the perspective it provides. A particularly important merit of the book is the presentation of the works of Slavic- and Hungarian-speaking art historians that are often ignored in contemporary English-speaking scholarship.

  4. Imported malaria in a cosmopolitan European city: a mirror image of the world epidemiological situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Juan Pablo; Garcia de Olalla, Patricia; Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Gascón, Joaquim; Treviño, Begoña; Muñoz, José; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Cabezos, Juan; González Cordón, Anna; Caylà, Joan A

    2008-04-08

    International travel and migration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. There has been considerable immigration to Barcelona from low-income countries (LIC) in recent years. The objective is to describe the epidemiology and to determine the trends of the disease in Barcelona. Analysis of the cases notified among city residents between 1989 and 2005. Patients were classified as: tourists, voluntary workers, resident immigrants (visiting friends and relatives, VFR) and recently arrived immigrants. An analysis was conducted using the chi2 test and comparison of means. As a measure of association we calculated the Relative Risk (RR) and Odds Ratio (OR) with a Confidence Interval of 95% (CI) and carried out a trends analysis. Of the total of 1,579 imported cases notified, 997 (63.1%) lived in Barcelona city, and 55.1% were male. The mean age of patients was 32.7 years. The incidence increased from 2.4 cases/100,000 in 1989 to 3.5 cases/100,000 in 2005 (RR 1.46 CI:1.36-1.55). This increase was not statistically significant (trends analysis, p = 0.36). In terms of reason for travelling, 40.7% were VFR, 33.6% tourists, 12.1% voluntary workers and 13.6% were recently arrived immigrants. The most frequent species found was Plasmodium falciparum (71.3%), mainly in visitors to Africa (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.7-3.2). The vast majority (82.2%) had had some contact with Africa (35.9% with Equatorial Guinea, a Spanish ex-colony) and 96.6% had not completed chemoprophylaxis. Six deaths were observed, all tourists who had travelled to Africa and not taken chemoprophylaxis (3.9% fatality rate). Over the period studied there is an increase in malaria incidence, however the trend is not statistically significant. Lack of chemoprophylaxis compliance and the association between Africa and P. falciparum are very clear in the imported cases. Most of the patients with malaria did not take chemoprophylaxis.

  5. Imported malaria in a cosmopolitan European city: A mirror image of the world epidemiological situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez i Prat Jordi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International travel and migration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. There has been considerable immigration to Barcelona from low-income countries (LIC in recent years. The objective is to describe the epidemiology and to determine the trends of the disease in Barcelona. Methods Analysis of the cases notified among city residents between 1989 and 2005. Patients were classified as: tourists, voluntary workers, resident immigrants (visiting friends and relatives, VFR and recently arrived immigrants. An analysis was conducted using the chi2 test and comparison of means. As a measure of association we calculated the Relative Risk (RR and Odds Ratio (OR with a Confidence Interval of 95% (CI and carried out a trends analysis. Results Of the total of 1,579 imported cases notified, 997 (63.1% lived in Barcelona city, and 55.1% were male. The mean age of patients was 32.7 years. The incidence increased from 2.4 cases/100,000 in 1989 to 3.5 cases/100,000 in 2005 (RR 1.46 CI:1.36–1.55. This increase was not statistically significant (trends analysis, p = 0.36. In terms of reason for travelling, 40.7% were VFR, 33.6% tourists, 12.1% voluntary workers and 13.6% were recently arrived immigrants. The most frequent species found was Plasmodium falciparum (71.3%, mainly in visitors to Africa (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.7–3.2. The vast majority (82.2% had had some contact with Africa (35.9% with Equatorial Guinea, a Spanish ex-colony and 96.6% had not completed chemoprophylaxis. Six deaths were observed, all tourists who had travelled to Africa and not taken chemoprophylaxis (3.9% fatality rate. Conclusion Over the period studied there is an increase in malaria incidence, however the trend is not statistically significant. Lack of chemoprophylaxis compliance and the association between Africa and P. falciparum are very clear in the imported cases. Most of the patients with malaria did not take chemoprophylaxis.

  6. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  7. Foliage response of young central European oaks to air warming, drought and soil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Vollenweider, P

    2013-01-01

    Three Central European oak species, with four provenances each, were experimentally tested in 16 large model ecosystem chambers for their response to passive air warming (AW, ambient +1-2 °C), drought (D, -43 to -60% irrigation) and their combination (AWD) for 3 years on two forest soil types of pH 4 or 7. Throughout the entire experiment, the influence of the different ambient and experimental climates on the oak trees was strong. The morphological traits of the Quercus species were affected in opposing ways in AW and D treatments, with a neutral effect in the AWD treatment. Biochemical parameters and LMA showed low relative plasticity compared to the morphological and growth parameters. The high plasticity in physiologically important parameters of the three species, such as number of intercalary veins or leaf size, indicated good drought acclimation properties. The soil type influenced leaf chlorophyll concentration, C/N and area more than drought, whereas foliage mass was more dependent on drought than on soil type. Through comparison of visible symptom development with the water deficits, a drought tolerance threshold of -1.3 MPa was determined. Although Q. pubescens had xeromorphic leaf characteristics (small leaf size, lower leaf water content, high LMA, pilosity, more chlorophyll, higher C/N) and less response to the treatments than Q. petraea and Q. robur, it suffered more leaf drought injury and shedding of leaves than Q. petraea. However, if foliage mass were used as the criterion for sustainable performance under a future climate, Q. robur would be the most appropriate species. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  9. Anticarbohydrate antibodies as markers of inflammatory bowel disease in a Central European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lakatos, Peter L; Bortlik, Martin; Komarek, Viktor; Janatkova, Ivana; Lukas, Milan

    2010-02-01

    The study discusses the role of antichitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), antilaminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and antimannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA) in Central European patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twohundred and seventy-two serum samples were used - 116 Crohn's disease (CD), 84 ulcerative colitis, and 72 healthy control samples. All samples were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the following four anticarbohydrate assays: ACCA, ALCA, AMCA, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (gASCA). gASCA antibodies showed the highest sensitivity (67%) for a CD diagnosis, followed by AMCA (31%), ACCA (27%), and ALCA (25%). Positivity of at least one of the four assays increased the overall sensitivity of antibody testing in CD up to 85.5%. Mean serum gASCA levels were significantly higher in CD patients who were younger at diagnosis and had a longer disease duration before blood sampling (PACCA, and ALCA) antibodies and CD location, behavior, age at onset, and disease duration was found; however, that sample size of some of our subgroups was probably too small to make firm conclusions on associations with all CD phenotypes. None of the assessed anticarbohydrate assays was predictive of colonic CD in patients in whom the distinction between CD and ulcerative colitis is not obvious using routine diagnostic methods. There was no relationship between the presence or concentration of anticarbohydrate antibodies and the inflammation measured by C-reactive protein levels. The use of a panel of anticarbohydrate antibodies may provide additional help in distinguishing IBD from non-IBD disease patterns. The addition of AMCA, ALCA, and ACCA assays as IBD serology markers improves the overall sensitivity of immunological examinations in IBD; however, anticarbohydrate assays are not helpful for predicting CD behavior.

  10. Central European attitudes towards Chinese energy investments: The cases of Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, Richard Q.

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on Europe-wide knowledge of EU-China energy investment relations and discusses the cases of three Central European countries’ attitudes towards Chinese energy investments. It focuses on how Chinese investments are perceived compared to investments from other countries, and how the energy sector is perceived compared to other sectors. Media analysis, interviews with experts, and semi-structured questionnaires were used as data sources. It was discovered that these three countries dislike foreign control over strategic assets and Chinese energy investments are seen as falling into this category. The discourse frames on the general level fluctuate between beneficial and threatening at both the political and economic levels, yet the benefits are seen as greater than any potential threats in all three countries. Energy security frames are only just beginning to be discussed within national discourses about Chinese energy investments. In Poland, the Chinese presence in the energy sector is framed as an issue of availability, affordability, and efficiency, and is related to Polish plans for maximizing efficient use of local coal resources. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, China is often perceived ideologically and only the energy frame of environmental stewardship is present in a minor way. - Highlights: • Chinese investments in energy are perceived more negatively than investments in other sectors due to their strategic nature. • Availability, affordability, and efficiency appear in Poland as a result of the special position of coal. • Environmental stewardship appears as an issue in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. • The Polish discourse is most similar to Europe-wide discourse.

  11. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Götschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brändli, O

    2003-09-01

    In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p cafes for this reason. Two thirds stated that all cafe/restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p cafe. In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies.

  12. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Calatayud, Vicent; Garrec, Jean Pierre; He Shang; Penuelas, Josep; Ribas, Angela; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Stine; Sanz, Maria Jose; Vergne, Phillippe

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites

  13. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  14. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  15. A decade of proteomics accomplished! Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) celebrates its 10th Anniversary in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Drahos, László; Vékey, Károly; Kovarova, Hana

    2017-07-01

    The Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) proudly celebrated its 10th Anniversary with an exciting scientific program inclusive of proteome, proteomics and systems biology in Budapest, Hungary. Since 2007, CEEPC has represented 'state-of the-art' proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe and these series of conferences have become a well-recognized event in the proteomic calendar. Fresher challenges and global healthcare issues such as ageing and chronic diseases are driving clinical and scientific research towards regenerative, reparative and personalized medicine. To this end, proteomics may enable diverse intertwining research fields to reach their end goals. CEEPC will endeavor to facilitate these goals.

  16. CITY AND CENTRAL CAPITALISM IN GLOBALIZATION´S TIME – A CRITICAL CONTRIBUTION OF THE URBAN BARBARITY IN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Alves Natal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper concern the central economies urban spaces issues on the capitalism contemporaneity. First of all, we related the historic potentiality of this social phenomenon in terms of the human existence and contrasting subsequently with the growing capital's appropriation in the last 250 years. The article also reviews this social phenomenon, the capitalist city, under the three main scientific and technological revolutions in the capitalism history. In the third part we face the main reflections by some of the great bourgeoisie's intellectuals with the capital city and his urban barbarity process. Lastly, this paper ends by showing our conclusions and indicates a need for reflections that can articulate public policies, different analyze scales and insurgent planning on his urban citizenship interaction.

  17. Developing a framework for estimating the potential impact of obesity interventions in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Malcolm; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Green, Geoff; Lewis, Kevin; Hindle, Linda; Levy, Cathy

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a global challenge for healthy populations. It has given rise to a wide range of public health interventions, focusing on supportive environments and lifestyle change, including diet, physical activity and behavioural change initiatives. Impact is variable. However, more evidence is slowly becoming available and is being used to develop new interventions. In a period of austerity, momentum is building to review these initiatives and understand what they do, how they do it and how they fit together. Our project seeks to develop a relatively straight forward systematic framework using readily accessible data to map the complex web of initiatives at a policy, population, group and individual level aiming to promote healthy lifestyles, diet and physical activity levels or to reduce obesity through medical treatments in a city or municipality population. It produces a system for classifying different types of interventions into groupings which will enable commissioners to assess the scope and distribution of interventions and make a judgement about gaps in provision and the likely impact on mean body mass index (BMI) as a proxy measure for health. Estimated impact in each level or type of intervention is based upon a summary of the scientific evidence of clinical and/or cost effectiveness. Finally it seeks, where possible, to quantify the potential effects of different types of interventions on BMI and produce a cost per unit of BMI reduced. This approach is less sophisticated but identifies the areas where more sophisticated evaluation would add value. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Excessive credit growth and countercyclical capital buffers in basel III: an empirical evidence from central and east european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Jakub; Gersl, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Excessive credit growth is often considered to be an indicator of future problems in the financial sector. This paper examines the issue of how best to determine whether the observed level of private sector credit is excessive in the context of the “countercyclical capital buffer”, a macroprudential tool proposed in the new regulatory framework of Basel III by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. An empirical analysis of selected Central and Eastern European countries, including the Cz...

  19. A decade of Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC): Credibility, cohesion and vision for the next decade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, S1 (2017), s. 2-7 ISSN 1874-3919. [Central and Eastern European Proteomics Conference /10./. Budapest, 11.10.2016-14.10.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CEEPC * protein diveristy * proteome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  20. Characteristics of Boundary Layer Structure during a Persistent Haze Event in the Central Liaoning City Cluster, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Wang, Yangfeng; Shen, Lidu; Zhang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Hujia; Zhang, Yunhai; Ma, Yanjun

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of boundary layer structure during a persistent regional haze event over the central Liaoning city cluster of Northeast China from 16 to 21 December 2016 were investigated based on the measurements of particulate matter (PM) concentration and the meteorological data within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). During the observational period, the maximum hourly mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi ranged from 276 to 355 μg m-3 and from 378 to 442 μg m-3, respectively, and the lowest hourly mean atmospheric visibility (VIS) in different cities ranged from 0.14 to 0.64 km. The central Liaoning city cluster was located in the front of a slowly moving high pressure and was mainly controlled by southerly winds. Wind speed (WS) within the ABL (pollutants. A potential temperature inversion layer existed throughout the entire ABL during the earlier hazy episode [from 0500 Local Time (LT) 18 December to 1100 LT 19 December], and then a potential temperature inversion layer developed with the bottom gradually decreased from 900 m to 300 m. Such a stable atmospheric stratification further weakened pollutant dispersion. The atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) estimated based on potential temperature profiles was mostly lower than 400 m and varied oppositely with PM2.5 in Shenyang. In summary, weak winds due to calm synoptic conditions, strong thermal inversion layer, and shallow atmospheric boundary layer contributed to the formation and development of this haze event. The backward trajectory analysis revealed the sources of air masses and explained the different characteristics of the haze episodes in the four cities.

  1. OMI and Ground-Based In-Situ Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Observations over Several Important European Cities during 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiru Paraschiv

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 content over several important European cities during 2005–2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO2 content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, while the NO2 volume mixing ratio measurements were obtained from the European Environment Agency (EEA air quality monitoring stations database. The European cities selected are: Athens (37.98° N, 23.72° E, Berlin (52.51° N, 13.41° E, Bucharest (44.43° N, 26.10° E, Madrid (40.38° N, 3.71° W, Lisbon (38.71° N, 9.13° W, Paris (48.85° N, 2.35° E, Rome (41.9° N, 12.50° E, and Rotterdam (51.91° N, 4.46° E. We show that OMI NO2 tropospheric column data can be used to assess the evolution of NO2 over important European cities. According to the statistical analysis, using the seasonal variation, we found good correlations (R > 0.50 between OMI and ground-based in-situ observations for all of the cities presented in this work. Highest correlation coefficients (R > 0.80 between ground-based monitoring stations and OMI observations were calculated for the cities of Berlin, Madrid, and Rome. Both types of observations, in-situ and remote sensing, show an NO2 negative trend for all of locations presented in this study.

  2. Proposal of a service delivery integration index of home care for older persons: application in several European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Henrard

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To propose an integration index of home care delivery to older persons, to study its validity and to apply it to home care services of European cities. Theory: Home care delivery integration was based on two dimensions referring to process-centred integration and organisational structure approach. Method: Items considered as part of both dimensions according to an expert consensus (face validity were extracted from a standardised questionnaire used in “Aged in Home care” (AdHoc study to capture basic characteristics of home care services. Their summation leads to a services' delivery integration index. This index was applied to AdHoc services. A factor analysis was computed in order to empirically test the validity of the theoretical constructs. The plot of the settings was performed. Results: Application of the index ranks home care services in four groups according to their score. Factor analysis identifies a first factor which opposes working arrangement within service to organisational structure bringing together provisions for social care. A second factor corresponds to basic nursing care and therapies. Internal consistency for those three domains ranges from 0.78 to 0.93. When plotting the different settings different models of service delivery appear. Conclusion: The proposed index shows that behind a total score several models of care delivery are hidden. Comparison of service delivery integration should take into account this heterogeneity.

  3. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  4. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality in three Central and Eastern European urban populations: the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Grosso, Giuseppe; Stefler, Denes; Topor-Madry, Roman; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Nikitin, Yuri; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between individual-level dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three Central and Eastern European (CEE) populations. Data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe cohort study were used. At the baseline survey, between 2002 and 2005, 28,945 men and women aged 45-69 years were examined in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between vitamin consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) disease and cancer mortality. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there were no clear inverse associations between antioxidant vitamin intakes and mortality, although in some groups, several hazard ratios (HRs) were significant. For example, in men, compared with the lowest quintile of vitamin C intake, all-cause mortality in the third and fourth quintiles was lower by 28 % (HR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.61-0.85) and by 20 % (HR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68-0.95), respectively. CVD mortality was lower by 35 % (HR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.50-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.59-0.99) in third and fourth quintile of vitamin C intake, respectively. In women, the third and fourth quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin E were associated with reduced risk of all-cause death by 33 % (HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.53-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97), respectively. Consumption of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene was not related to CVD mortality in women and to cancer mortality in either gender. This large prospective cohort study in CEE populations with low prevalence of vitamin supplementation did not find a strong, dose-response evidence for protective effects of antioxidant vitamin intake.

  5. Formation of the City of Belém (PA: Central Area and its Paper Historical and Geographical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Ribeiro Araújo Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 17th Century the urban life of Belém spread out from a promontorylocated at the meeting point of Guajará Bay and Guamá River. These "natural obstacles" (waterways, floodplains and flooded forest presented momentary setbacks to urban expansion. Overcoming these obstacles the city of Belém developed a central area characerized by change and continuity. By identifying and analyzing historical and geographical changes in the central area of Belém a better understanding can be obtained of new functions and features of urban space in Belém today.

  6. Multilingual Maps of the Terrestrial Planets and their Moons: the East and Central European Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.; Berczi, Sz.

    A series of Multilingual planetary maps has been published by the Cosmic Materials Space Research Group of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) with consultations by Russian and German colleagues. The maps are a result of a cooperation of MIIGAiK (which offered the base maps), ELTE, the Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, the Zagreb Astronomical Observatory, the Jagellonian University Observatory, the Tectonics and Geological Cartography Section of the Faculty of Geology at Warsaw University and the University of Architecture, Civil Engeneering and Geodesy in Sofia. The series has been initiated by the International Cartographic Association (ICA), Commission on Planetary Cartography (Shingareva et al. 2006). The now complete series has been published from 2001 to 2006: Mars (2001), Venus (2003), Moon (2003), Mercury (2004) and Phobos and Deimos (2006). (Hargitai et al 2001-2006) These maps are more than outreach posters but less than maps for scientific purposes. These give a good overview of the topography and geology of the planets in a global to regional scale. They contain multilingual information concerning planetary science results and specific characteristics of the planetary body relief, placed on the lower margins of the front sides of the maps and the whole back side (geography, geology, stratigraphy, history of discovery and full index of names). These texts appear in Czech, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Croatian, Polish and English. In some cases it was the first time that a particular term (and its definition) was translated into one of these Central European languages. After compiling the first four maps it can be concluded that such work can effectively draw the attention of earth scientists to the specific features - and the mere existence - of other planetary bodies by simply discussing the translation of their terminology. Apart from circulating the maps in classrooms, this might be the most important scientific result of this

  7. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  8. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  9. Interannual variability of Central European mean temperature in January / February and its relation to the large-scale circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.C.; Storch, H. von

    1993-01-01

    The Central European temperature distribution field, as given by 11 stations (Fanoe, Hamburg, Potsdam, Jena, Frankfurt, Uccle, Hohenpeissenberg, Praha, Wien, Zuerich and Geneve), is analysed with respect to its year-to-year variability. January-February (JF) average temperatures are considered for the interval 1901-80. An Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis reveals that the JF temperature variability is almost entirely controlled by one EOF with uniform sign. The second EOF represents only 7% of the total variance and describes a north-south gradient. The time coefficient of the first EOF is almost stationary whereas the second pattern describes a slight downward trend at the northern stations and a slight upward trend at the southern stations. The relationship of the temperature field to the large-scale circulation, represented by the North Atlantic/European sea-level pressure (SLP) field, is investigated by means of a Canonical Correlation (CCA) Analysis. Two CCA pairs are identified which account for most of the temperature year-to-year variance and which suggest plausible mechanisms. The CCA pairs fail, however, to consistently link the long-term temperature trends to changes in the large-scale circulation. In the output of a 100-year run with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model (ECHAM1/LSG), the same CCA pairs are found but the strength of the link between Central European temperature and North Atlantic SLP is markedly weaker than in the observed data. (orig.)

  10. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  11. Water and chemical input via hydrometeors in central European mountains with Szrenica as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaś, M.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.

    2010-07-01

    of precipitation (880 µMoles•l 1), with nitrates, ammonia and sulphates as major ions (27%, 26% and 11% respectively). It is due to the more polluted nature of the boundary layer than the free atmosphere, as well as fog water originating in low-level air. That is also the reason why chemical composition of low-level clouds forms an appriopriate indicator of the local and regional scale anthropogenic pollution and for larger scale comparisons of chemical components in cloudy environments. Summarizing, direct pollutant deposition via cloud droplets to vegetation is larger than via precipitation because of much higher pollutant concentration of the former. Dew and hoarfrost provide water quantities much lower to fog or rain, but is a modest supplementary source of water (approximately 0,8% when compare with precipitation). They appear especially during the anticyclonic type of weather with no wind and clear night skies, rare at summit position. TIC for dew and hoarfrost samples was a bit higher in comparison with precipitation (346 µMoles•l-1), but chemical composition quite different to others hydrometeors (chloride - 20%, sodium - 19% and calcium - 18%). It might be explained by air subsidence from the upper part of atmosphere, typical for the mountain summits in anticyclonic type of weather. Stable thermal stratification limits vertical air pollutant transport, especially of anthropogenic origin, and the thickness of the atmospheric mixing layer is visibly lessened. Hence, maritime aerosol is much more important in such circumstances. Both climate and landscape in Poland are similar to major part of central and western Europe so you can expect that relationship between different components of water flux and pollutant deposition observed at the Mt. Szrenica are applicable also to other European countries where similar natural conditions are found.

  12. TREE CANOPY COVER MAPPING USING LiDAR IN URBAN BARANGAYS OF CEBU CITY, CENTRAL PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ejares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014, the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2 of the city’s urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2. Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 % while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %. The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59–-27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city’s urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  13. A central European training course on reactor physics and kinetics - the 'Eugene Wigner Course' - Organisers view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Miglierini, M.; Sukods, C.

    2004-01-01

    Initiated by the 5th Framework Program of the European Commission, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN) is preparing the future European Nuclear Education schemes, degrees and requirements. To fully utilize the benefits of international cooperation and to promote the knowledge of students in nuclear engineering a 2.5 weeks course has been held, both in spring 2003 and 2004. The main emphasis of the course is to perform reactor physics and kinetics experiments on three different research- and training reactors in three different locations (Vienna, Prague, Budapest). The experimental work is preceded by theoretical lectures aiming to prepare the students for the experiments (Bratislava). The students' work will be evaluated, and upon success the students will get a certificate. The finally accepted credit (ECTS) value will be determined by the students' home university. The ENEN-recommended value is between 6 and 8 ECTS. The more detailed description of the course will be given in the full paper. (author)

  14. ISHO Real Estate Regenerating Timişoara. The non-metropolitan city of Timişoara elected as European Capital of Culture for 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad A. Gaivoronschi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Timisoara is a major city situated in western Romania. In 2021, it will be European Capital of Culture. The city evolved around a fortified citadel surrounded by satellite settlements. After the demolition of the fortification (the XIXth century a consistent urban tissue developed between the core and satellites. During the years, our office produced projects situated in these intermediate areas, developing an ”urban landscape” perspective, managing to attribute to the interventions a connecting role between the existing landmarks and poles; an important role was given to the ”modelling” of the volumes in order  to open vistas and visual cones, as well as to the choice of forms and textures in order to ”stitch” the existing fabric and to offer a new reading of the city. We have selected one project in order to illustrate the methodology: the ”ISHO” Real Estate development.

  15. Changes in the Effect of Heat on Mortality in the Last 20 Years in Nine European Cities. Results from the PHASE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de' Donato, Francesca K; Leone, Michela; Scortichini, Matteo; De Sario, Manuela; Katsouyanni, Klea; Lanki, Timo; Basagaña, Xavier; Ballester, Ferran; Åström, Christofer; Paldy, Anna; Pascal, Mathilde; Gasparrini, Antonio; Menne, Bettina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-12-08

    The European project PHASE aims to evaluate patterns of change in the temperature-mortality relationship and in the number of deaths attributable to heat in nine European cities in two periods, before and after summer 2003 (1996-2002 and 2004-2010). We performed age-specific Poisson regression models separately in the two periods, controlling for seasonality, air pollution and time trends. Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the Relative Risks of daily mortality for increases in mean temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile of the summer distribution for each city. In the recent period, a reduction in the mortality risk associated to heat was observed only in Athens, Rome and Paris, especially among the elderly. Furthermore, in terms of heat-attributable mortality, 985, 787 and 623 fewer deaths were estimated, respectively, in the three cities. In Helsinki and Stockholm, there is a suggestion of increased heat effect. Noteworthy is that an effect of heat was still present in the recent years in all cities, ranging from +11% to +35%. In Europe, considering the warming observed in recent decades and population ageing, effective intervention measures should be promoted across countries, especially targeting vulnerable subgroups of the population with lower adaptive resources.

  16. New Insights from Zinc and Copper Isotopic Compositions into the Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Two Major European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R Ochoa; Strekopytov, S; Amato, F; Querol, X; Reche, C; Weiss, D

    2016-09-20

    This study reports spatial and temporal variability of Zn and Cu isotopes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected in two major European cities with contrasting atmospheric pollution, Barcelona and London. We demonstrate that nontraditional stable isotopes identify source contributions of Zn and Cu and can play a major role in future air quality studies. In Barcelona, samples of fine PM were collected at street level at sites with variable traffic density. The isotopic signatures ranged between -0.13 ± 0.09 and -0.51 ± 0.05‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.04 ± 0.20 and +0.33 ± 0.15‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Copper isotope signatures similar to those of Cu sulfides and Cu/Sb ratios within the range typically found in brake wear suggest that nonexhaust emissions from vehicles are dominant. Negative Zn isotopic signatures characteristic for gaseous emissions from smelting and combustion and large enrichments of Zn and Cd suggest contribution from metallurgical industries. In London, samples of coarse PM collected on the top of a building over 18 months display isotope signatures ranging between +0.03 ± 0.04 and +0.49 ± 0.02‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.37 ± 0.17 and +0.97 ± 0.21‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Heavy Cu isotope signatures (up to +0.97 ± 0.21‰) and higher enrichments and Cu/Sb ratios during winter time indicate important contribution from fossil fuel combustion. The positive δ(66)ZnIRMM signatures are in good agreement with signatures characteristic for ore concentrates used for the production of tires and galvanized materials, suggesting nonexhaust emissions from vehicles as the main source of Zn pollution.

  17. Occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Patil Priyanka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining health and hygiene in cities. They are exposed to road dust and other contaminants while cleaning streets. Exposure of this dust and contaminants irritates respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction. Twenty workers were selected as sample size (10 male and 10 female and 10 individual as control (5 male and 5 female for analysis of occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate analysis which was carried out through Breath-o meter and other occupational health hazards through interview schedule specially designed and developed for this study. The results of the study showed that, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate values were lower in exposed workers (sample population as compared with control group. These workers were exposed to number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (100%, respiratory problems (95%, dermatological problems (90%, headache (75% and gastrointestinal problems (15% during work. It was further observed that theses workers were suffering from allergies (100%, cough and cold (75%, asthma and bronchitis lungs (65%, hearing disorder (50%, malaria and typhoid (25%, fever (15% and vomiting (10% after completion of work. To reduce occupational health hazards in sweepers, they must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments should be encouraged.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-6, Issue-2, Mar-May 2017, Page: 9-18

  18. Assessment of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Tegal City, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Y.; Onishi, T.

    2018-03-01

    One of the adverse impacts of climate change is drought, which occurs more frequently in Tegal city, Indonesia. The application of drought index analysis is useful for drought assessment to consider adaptation and mitigation method in order to deal with climate change. By figuring out the level and duration of the drought. In order to analyze drought in the specific area, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is an index to quantify the rainfall deficit for multiple timescales. In 2015, Indonesia experienced severe drought, which has not been analyzed, yet. Thus, it is important to assess a quantitative evaluation of the drought condition. The study shows that from all deficit periods, the most severe drought in duration and peak took place in 2015, with each drought index as follows: 1 month deficit or SPI-1 (-3.11) in 1985 (-2.51) in 2015, 3 month deficit or SPI-3 (-2.291) in 1995 (-1.82) in 2015, 6 month deficit or SPI-6 (-2.40) in 1997 and (-1.84) in 2015, 9 month deficit or SPI-9 (-1.12) in 2015, 12 month deficit or SPI-12 (-1.19) in 2015. The result underlines the potential that SPI exhibits in drought identification and the use of the rainfall strongly linked to drought relief policy and measure implementation in Tegal city.

  19. The role of fire in the Central European lowlands during the Holocene: what we know so far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Theuerkauf, Martin; Słowiński, Michał; Brauer, Achim

    2017-04-01

    The modern landscape of the Central European lowlands results from the complex interaction between its geological and geomorphological configuration that developed during and after the last glaciation as well as its Holocene vegetation history, climate evolution and human activity. Although also fire is known to play a fundamental role in many ecosystems of the world and to be one of the major tools for anthropogenic land cover change, Holocene paleofire history has only marginally been studied in the area of the Central European lowlands so far. Here, we will present the first attempt to establish a Holocene fire synthesis for the Central European lowlands. In a first step, we aim to reconstruct the regional Holocene fire history by comparing available sedimentary charcoal records from lakes and peatlands of northern Germany, northern Poland and the Baltic countries. We will present the current knowledge on the role of fire during different time windows such as the Neolithic period, the Medieval time and the onset of industrialization. In addition, we will discuss the interaction between fire, human activity, vegetation and climate change during the last 250 years in more detail using high-resolution records of sedimentary charcoal and the fire biomarkers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan from the annually laminated lake sediments of Lake Czechowskie, northern Poland. Teams: CEL synthesis - A. Feurdean, M. Obremska, M. Lamentowicz, K. Marcisz, W. Dörfler, I. Feeser, N. Dräger, F. Ott, T. Giesecke, S. Jahns, L. Shumilovskikh, S. Veski, M. Wieckowska-Lüth, J. Wiethold; Czechowskie fire biomarkers - E.C. Hopmans, L.T. Schreuder, M. Obremska, A. Pieńczewska, O. Blarquez, F. Ott, D. Brykala, S. Schouten

  20. Contagion across and integration of Central and Eastern European stock markets: evidence from intraday data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Kočenda, Evžen

    -, č. 798 (2005), s. 1-30 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : contagion and spillover effects * market integration * European emerging market s Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bus.umich.edu/KresgeLibrary/Collections/WorkingPapers/wdinum.htm

  1. The Interpretation of Circular Priorities to Central European Business Environment with Focus on Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarassy Csaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there was an increase in economic concepts which defined various concepts for the European Union to leave the economic depression behind. The idea of circular economy boomed into the sight of European Union policy makers in the beginning of 2015. The notion introduced a holistic system planning approach for EU development initiatives. This paper introduces the essential background for the interpretation of circular economy and presents the main priorities throughout its implementation. The size of the European Community leaves many opportunities for the reconsideration of circular processes. The study focuses on circular applications in Hungary which substantially differ from the Western-European practice. The different wage and development levels of the member states in some cases might appear as a possibility to extend product life cycles which otherwise would end sooner. The analysis aims to find the reasons for the variant operations and examines how the extended spatial perspective from national levels to the EU level influences the transition to circular economy.

  2. Effects of simulated historical tree litter raking on the understorey vegetation in a central European forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vild, Ondřej; Kalwij, Jesse; Hédl, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2015), s. 569-578 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conservation management * litter raking * species diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2015

  3. Policy issues surrounding processes of centralization and decentralization in European education systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amelsvoort, H.W.C.H.; Scheerens, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    Four levels of authority within the educational decision‐making structure in seven European countries and states for primary and lower secondary education are analyzed. Next, the results of an investigation on loci, domains and modes of decision making are presented, indicating a slightly higher

  4. 1. Vienna central european seminar on particle physics and quantum field theory. Advances in quantum field theory. Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    2004-01-01

    The new seminar series 'Vienna central European seminar on particle physics and quantum field theory' has been created 2004 and is intended to provide interactions between leading researchers and junior physicists. This year 'Advances in quantum field theory' has been chosen as subject and is centred on field theoretic aspects of string dualities. The lectures mainly focus on these aspects of string dualities. Further lectures regarding supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum gravity and noncommutative field theory are presented. The vast field of research concerning string dualities justifies special attention to their effects on field theory. (author)

  5. Diversity and distibution of Braconidae, a family of parasitoid wasps in the Central European peatbogs of South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Belokobylskij, S.; van Achterberg, C.; Monaghan, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 16 (2010), s. 1-21 ISSN 1536-2442 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505; GA AV ČR IAA600070501 Grant - others:European Science Foundation(BE) 1667; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 07-04-00454; EU Synthesys(GB) GB-TAF-2063; EU Synthesys(PL) PL-TAF-3266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Central Europe * Hymenoptera * Braconidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010

  6. Correlation of Helicobacter pylori genotypes with gastric histopathology in the central region of a South-European country

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, N; Donato, MM; Romãozinho, JM; Luxo, C; Cardoso, O; Cipriano, MA; Marinho, C; Fernandes, A; Sofia, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection results from interaction of multiple variables including host, environmental and bacterial-associated virulence factors. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of cagA, cagE, vacA, iceA and babA2 genotypes with gastric histopathology and disease phenotype in the central region of a South-European country. METHODS: This prospective study involved 148 infected patients (110 female; mean age 43.5 ± 13.4...

  7. Climate change and cities: why urban agendas are central to adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Satterthwaite, David

    2007-12-15

    Cities could hold the key to slowing and eventually stopping global warming. Most greenhouse gas emissions are generated from producing the goods and services used by middle- and upper-income urban consumers. Keeping global warming within safe limits demands far more energy-efficient urban buildings and production systems and urban lifestyles that are far less carbon-intensive. It is up to high-income nations — the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions past and present — to show how such a transformation can be combined with high living standards. However, urgent action is also needed in the urban areas of low- and middleincome countries, both through mitigation to curb greenhouse gas emissions, and adaptation to the serious risks that climate change brings.

  8. Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

  9. Preslia: hundred years of exploring central-European flora and vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Kaplan, Zdeněk; Chytrý, M.; Hrouda, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : central Europe * botanical research * flora and vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  10. Differences in body fat and central adiposity between Swedes and European immigrants: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, P H; Lissner, L; Gullberg, B; Berglund, G

    2000-12-01

    Comparative data on ecological differences in body fatness and fat distribution within Europe are sparse. Migration studies may provide information on the impact of environmental factors on body size in different populations. The objective was to investigate differences in adiposity between European immigrants and native Swedes, specifically to examine gender differences and the effect of time since immigration, and to compare two selected immigrant groups with their native countrymen. A cross-sectional analysis of 27,808 adults aged 45 to 73 years participating in the Malmö Diet and Cancer prospective cohort study in Sweden was performed. Percentage body fat (impedance analysis) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were compared between Swedish-born and foreign-born participants. Obesity was 40% more prevalent in non-Swedish Europeans compared with Swedes. Controlling for age, height, smoking, physical activity, and occupation, it was found that women born in the former Yugoslavia, southern Europe, Hungary, and Finland had a significantly higher percentage of body fat, and those from Hungary, Poland, and Germany had more centralized adiposity compared with Swedish women. Men born in the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Denmark had a significantly higher mean percentage of body fat compared with Swedish-born men, whereas Yugoslavian, Finnish, and German men differed significantly in mean WHR. Length of residence in Sweden was inversely associated with central adiposity in immigrants. A comparison between German and Danish immigrants, their respective native populations, and Swedes indicated an intermediate positioning of German immigrants with regard to body mass index and WHR. Differences in general and central adiposity by country of origin appear to remain after migration. Central adiposity seems to be more influenced than fatness per se by time of residency in Sweden.

  11. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  12. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna Krystyna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S.; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  13. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  14. Searching for the best modeling specification for assessing the effects of temperature and humidity on health: a time series analysis in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodopoulou, Sophia; Samoli, Evangelia; Analitis, Antonis; Atkinson, Richard W; de'Donato, Francesca K; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological time series studies suggest daily temperature and humidity are associated with adverse health effects including increased mortality and hospital admissions. However, there is no consensus over which metric or lag best describes the relationships. We investigated which temperature and humidity model specification most adequately predicted mortality in three large European cities. Daily counts of all-cause mortality, minimum, maximum and mean temperature and relative humidity and apparent temperature (a composite measure of ambient and dew point temperature) were assembled for Athens, London, and Rome for 6 years between 1999 and 2005. City-specific Poisson regression models were fitted separately for warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) periods adjusting for seasonality, air pollution, and public holidays. We investigated goodness of model fit for each metric for delayed effects up to 13 days using three model fit criteria: sum of the partial autocorrelation function, AIC, and GCV. No uniformly best index for all cities and seasonal periods was observed. The effects of temperature were uniformly shown to be more prolonged during cold periods and the majority of models suggested separate temperature and humidity variables performed better than apparent temperature in predicting mortality. Our study suggests that the nature of the effects of temperature and humidity on mortality vary between cities for unknown reasons which require further investigation but may relate to city-specific population, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. This may have consequences on epidemiological studies and local temperature-related warning systems.

  15. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  16. Harmonisation of Excise Duties on Energy Products and Electricity in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?cu Simona; Burlacu Valentin; Cojocaru Diana

    2013-01-01

    The field of excise duty taxes focuses on the use of these economic instruments designed by the European law in the context of protecting the environment and public health and to establish a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources. Focusing mainly on deriving and explaining economic impacts of the minimum energy taxes rates corresponding to the EU Directive (2003/96/EC) in CEE countries, this article outlines the degree of harmonisation of excise duty on energy products among th...

  17. A decade of Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC): Credibility, cohesion and vision for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

    2017-02-05

    The Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC), has reached a special milestone as it celebrates its 10th anniversary. Today, an expansive network of proteomics in Central and Eastern Europe stands established to facilitate scientific interactions and collaborations in and around Central and Eastern Europe, as well as with international research institutions worldwide. Currently, when many conferences are struggling to attract participants, CEEPC is thriving in its status and stature as well as expanding by attracting newer member countries. CEEPC's success is driven by mutual respect between scientists sharing interest in proteomics and its applications in multidisciplinary research areas related to biological systems. This effort when interwoven with exciting ambience steeped with culture, and tradition is also a reason why participants enjoy it. CEEPC's careful balance between excellence and cohesion holds the key to its success. It is evident that CEEPC is ready for the next decade of excitement and expectations of multifaceted proteomics in Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, in the era of emerging personalized medicine where treatment selection for each patient is becoming individualized, CEEPC and proteomics is expected to play a significant role moving forward for the benefit of mankind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  19. Technical cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries with special focus on engineering aspects of lifetime optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trampus, P.

    2002-01-01

    A regional Technical Cooperation project for Central and Eastern European countries was established and funded by the IAEA as a response to the region's need. Majority of these countries are now in the process of establishing/strengthening their infrastructure for assessment of structural integrity of primary circuit components for an appropriate level of safety and reliability. Moreover, extension of the operational life of the WWER nuclear power plants (NPPs) became part of the generation strategy in most of these countries. The overall objective of the project is to improve long term integrity of primary circuit components as a fundamental technical prerequisite to ensure plant operation until and beyond the design lifetime. In a series of workshops and technical meetings issues relevant to primary circuit component structural integrity with special regard to operational life optimization have been being addressed. The works under the project are coordinated with the European Commission's integrity related assistance projects, and some of the activities are jointly organized with the WANO Moscow Center. Main conclusions of the central topics are summarized in this paper

  20. Petrology and deformation style of lithospheric mantle beneath the Heldburg Dike swarm (Central Germany) subset of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Hidas, Károly; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Milke, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    The Heldburg Dike swarm is a set of Cenozoic alkali basalt dikes occurring in the central part of Germany at the border between Thuringia and Bavaria. We studied xenoliths from Strauf, Feldstein, Bramberg and from the active quarry in Zeilberg. The peridotites from Strauf, Feldstein and Bramberg have the composition of spinel lherzolite (15), spinel harzburgite (9) and dunite (3). They vary in size from 1.5 cm (Strauf) up to 20 cm (Zeilberg). We distinguish groups (A, A- and B) of peridotites based on different forsterite content in olivine. Group A consists of olivine (89.6 - 91.8 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.93, Al 0.05-0.18 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.87-0.95, Al 0.06-0.26 a pfu) and spinel (Cr# 0.13-0.65, Mg# 0.54-0.78). Clinopyroxene rare earth elements (REE) patterns are S-shaped (Feldstein, Bramberg) or U-shaped (Strauf); spoon-shaped patterns occur occasionally. Trace element (TE) patterns show negative Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Th, U anomalies. The most magnesian clinopyroxene (xenolith 3140, Feldstein) is strongly aluminous and LREE depletedwith weak anomalies in TE patterns. Group A- is contains olivine (88.9-89.5 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.89-0.90, Al 0.10-0.13 a pfu) and clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.92, Al 0.10-0.17 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is increasingly enriched in REEs from Lu to La. TE patterns are similar to those of group A but with less pronounced anomalies. Group B (3 xenoliths only) consists of olivine Fo 86.7-88.9, orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.89, Al 0.07-0.19 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.90, Al 0.10-0.26 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is enriched in LREE, concave upward in Pr. TE patterns are similar to those in group A. One of group B harzburgites contains grains (up to 0.5 mm) of Ca-Mg carbonate located in interstices. The clinopyroxene chemical composition plots away from the melting trend in the MgO-Al2O3 diagram of Upton et al. (2011), suggesting a later addition of the clinopyroxene. The composition of orthopyroxene corresponds to ca. 15

  1. Uniparental genetic heritage of belarusians: encounter of rare middle eastern matrilineages with a central European mitochondrial DNA pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups - a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations - Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively.

  2. City School District Reorganization: An Annotated Bibliography. Centralization and Decentralization in the Government of Metropolitan Areas with Special Emphasis on the Organization, Administration, and Financing of Large-City School Systems. Educational Research Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, E. Brock; Najat, Sandra

    As a guide to educational administrators working in large cities, abstracts of 161 books, pamphlets, papers, and journal articles published between 1924 and 1966 are classified into five categories: (1) Centralization versus decentralization, (2) local government, (3) metropolitan organization, (4) the financing of education, and (5) the…

  3. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  4. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  5. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  6. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  7. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  8. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  9. The impact of macro news and central bank communication on emerging European forex markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-88 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/11/0020 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : exchange rate * macroeconomic news * central bank communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  10. Ecological hybrid speciation in central-European species of Bolboschoenus: genetic and morphological evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píšová, Soňa; Hroudová, Zdenka; Chumová, Zuzana; Fér, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2017), s. 17-39 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * Bolboschoenus * central Europe * speciation * model-based clustering * morfometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  11. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of central-European urban plant communities: effects of alien species and habitat types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeplová, N.; Lososová, Z.; Zelený, D.; Chytrý, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Fajmon, K.; Láníková, Deana; Preislerová, Z.; Řehořek, V.; Tichý, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeophytes * biological invasions * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2015

  13. Family businesses and their anchorages in Central European society in the 19th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavačka, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 1-22 ISSN 1210-6860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19640S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Family Business * Central Europe * 19th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. The European Union’s Military Operation in the Central African Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Norvanto, Elisa; Mandrup, Thomas

    Since the Central African Republic (CAR) gained its independence from France in 1960, the country has been troubled with internal conflicts. The country’s instability is characterised by post-colonial ethnic tensions, poverty, crime, military coups, government corruption and a weak security secto...

  15. Hot Central-European summer of 2013 in a long-term context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 14 (2015), s. 4399-4407 ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : summer of 2013 * climate variability * temperature records * heat waves * effective precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  16. Invasion of central-European habitats by the moss Campylopus introflexus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, E.; Fajmonová, Zuzana; Hájek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 4 (2012), s. 863-886 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Campylopus introflexus * central Europe * invasive species * plant communities * threat * cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  17. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  18. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz; Vonbank, Alexander; Fraunberger, Peter; Riesen, Walter F; Saely, Christoph H

    2015-01-01

    We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students' practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor's and 20 at the master's level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master's course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions.

  19. The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Yevgeny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  20. Seeing the people's Republic of China through the eyes of montesquieu: Why Sino-European collaboration on eco city development suffers from European misinterpretations of "good governance"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Martin); Stout, H. (Helen); Sun, L. (Li)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractChina faces a number of impressive challenges in dealing with climate change: rising energy use, growing emission levels of greenhouse gases, dangerous levels of air pollution over cities and low resilience against flood and drought. Sustainable urbanization has been adopted as a keyword

  1. The energy system of Central and Eastern European Countries: what does the future hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have inherited an energy supply and demand system that was forged by centralized command planning and an administrative-type organization and management mode. The two strongest features of this landscape are without doubt the energy-intensive economic growth and over-investment in the energy sector, that is becoming more and more difficult to sustain in light of declining economic performance. In this context, one of the stakes in the economic transition and reforms is to push for new energy management on both the supply and demand sides. Although the objectives are clear, the ways and means of achieving them are less so, because they depend essentially on the broader economic reform options that are currently in the making

  2. Gesture as the Expresion of the Pascal Mystery in the Central European Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tabor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paschal Mystery is the central reality of the Christianity. This is a series of historical events, presented in the canonical Gospels, in which Jesus from Nazaret was submit to the suffering, death, but was revived and bas ascend 10 the glory. These events was full of meanings and significations. This significations of paschal event has been meditated and analyzed in the Christian text, - in Gospels, in Paul’s Letters, but in the sermon of Fathers of the Church. Meliton of Sardes, Orygenes, Pseudo-Hypolite, and others are known as the interpreters of paschal events. The liturgical texts - Exultet and Victimae Paschali explain the profound sense of the Death and the resurrection of Christ All these works inspired the iconography. This presentation has to review the some works of art in Central Europeand interpretations their theological sense. The gestures will be the key to discovery of meaning.

  3. NATO Nuclear Reductions and the Assurance of Central and Eastern European Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security Between NATO and the Russian Federation, signed in Paris , May 27, 1997, Section IV. Political...in Central Europe,” in Bruno Tertrais, ed., Perspectives on Extended Deterrence, Researches and Documents No. 3 ( Paris : Fondation pour la Rescherche...I. • • • • • • Wrodaw 0 Lo~t Radom L bl’ o u 1n ·= ... 0 Brest 0 Pinsk

  4. Hot Central-European summer of 2013 in a long-term context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 14 (2015), s. 4399-4407 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : summer of 2013 * climate variability * temperature records * heat waves * effective precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4277/abstract

  5. Carcass Production of Cattle Slaughtered at Salatiga City Slaughter House, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowati, E.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Ma'ruf, M. J.; Sutaryo, S.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage of cattle which was slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga, Central Java. The materials used in the study were 156 head of catlle. The sampling used was incidental sampling to identify the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight and carcass weight. The data gathered were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the sex of all the cattle slaughtered were male. The breeds of the cattle were Frisian Holstein Grade (70.51%), Simmental (15.38+3.21), Simmental-Ongole Grade (5.13%), and Limousine-Ongole Grade (5.77%). The average age of the cattle were 2.34 year old, with an average of slaughter weight of 529.34 kg, while the averages of carcass weight were 277.61 kg. The average of carcass percentage was as high as 52.56%. The conclusion of the study was the highest number of breeds of the cattle slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga were young Frisian Holstein, the body weights were included in large frame score, and the carcass percentage were moderate.

  6. A critical reassessment of cultural taxonomies in the Central European Late Palaeolithic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf; Riede, Felix

    2018-01-01

    and economic criteria in the definition of selected groups. We subject three different archaeological taxonomic units, the Bromme culture from Denmark, the Fürstein group from Switzerland and the Atzenhof group from Germany, to particularly detailed scrutiny and highlight that the classificatory criteria used...... European Late Palaeolithic (ca. 12,000–9700 cal BC) has a long research history and many regionally and temporally specific units—groups and cultures—are recognised. In this paper, we examine the complex taxonomic landscape of this period and critically analyse the use of typological, functional...... in their definition are inconsistent across units and most likely unsuitable for circumscribing past sociocultural units. We suggest a comprehensive re-examination of the overarching taxonomic system for the Late Palaeolithic, as well as a re-evaluation of the methodologies used to delineate sociocultural units...

  7. The potential of military training areas for bird conservation in a central European landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušek, Ondřej; Reif, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    European biodiversity has suffered from serious declines during the past few decades, with alterations of land use practices resulting in a loss of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity being a dominant driver. This heterogeneity was maintained by extensive landscape management, which has gradually been replaced by either intensive exploitation or land abandonment. It has been suggested that military training can generate habitat heterogeneity that may support the existence of species of conservation concern, but studies rigorously testing the real importance of military training areas for biodiversity are lacking. Here we address this issue by analyses of two datasets. First, we compared land cover classes between all large military training areas (MTAs) and surrounding control areas (CAs) of the same size in the Czech Republic using multivariate redundancy analysis. We found that the difference in land cover between MTAs and CAs was significant and represented the strongest gradient in land cover classes: from various farmland and artificial habitats typical for CAs to forest and scrubland-grassland mosaic typical for MTAs. Second, we selected one of these areas and compared bird species richness between the MTA and the nearby CA using generalized linear mixed effects models. We found that the number of species of conservation concern was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA. With respect to habitats, bird species richness was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA for open habitats, but not for forest habitats. Our results are thus consistent with the view that military training creates areas that are different from the surrounding landscape in terms of land cover, and that this difference translates to a suitability for species of conservation concern. It is remarkable that the positive influence of military training is confined to open habitats, which are subject to the most intensive military activities and also suffer the highest degree of

  8. Change in attendance of stadiums in European leagues resulting from change in the number of clubs in cities: estimation with double difference method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya A. Andreeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the external effects of the emergence of a new football club in European cities. Methods statistical methods regression analysis double difference method generalization and typologization methods. Results the article examines the problems of ensuring competition in the football market in the context of club matches attendance. The scientific researches are analyzed which cover the issues of economic theories application to the problems in the sports sphere. It is concluded that a different economic approach is required in the countries with a low level of private capital in football since the main power there belongs not to the clubs but to the regional governments. The article also introduces the concept of external effects for the football market. To assess their impact on competition in football the analysis of all European football Championships since the early 1990s till today was carried out. Basis on the performed analysis the types of the cities representatives in the highest football divisions are defined supercompetitive leagues leagues with centripetal competition leagues with distributed competition and noncompetitive leagues. Basing on the assessment of clubs configuration changes in different leagues a number of hypotheses were formulated about the impact of configuration changes on the attendance of matches. The assessment is conducted by the method of double difference of the external effects of the clubs configuration changes in the cities of France Italy Hungary and Greece. Scientific novelty the concept of external effect in the economics of football is applied to the assessment of attendance the external effect of the change in the number of clubs in a city was formulated and evaluated a typology of leagues according to the degree of competitiveness was introduced based on the analysis of data for the period of twenty years. Practical significance the basic results can be used for making decisions on the

  9. A CO2-saving-based methodology to measure the impact of the SUMP in European Cities: Application to the City of Burgos

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, José María; Gonzalo, Hernán; Velasco, Lara; López Lambas, María Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Urban mobility in Europe is always a responsibility of the municipalities which propose measures to reduce CO2 emissions in terms of mobility aimed at reducing individual private transport (car). The European Commission's Action Plan on Urban Mobility calls for an increase in the take-up of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in Europe. SUMPs aim to create a sustainable urban transport system. Europe has got some long term initiatives and has been using some evaluation procedures, many of them t...

  10. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  11. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  12. Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferezliev Angel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria. The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

  13. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  14. A view on ''On-the-Job Training'' in the central and eastern European countries, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The G-24 Training Working Group visited the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEESs), Russia and Ukraine in the course of 1993/94, in order to define priorities for further financial support by the Donor Countries. As a result, it appeared that Nuclear Training needed strong improvements since it is mainly based on OJT (On the Job Training), not SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) oriented and relying essentially on the line supervisor of the trainee. Recommendations were provided to support a SAT based approach development and to provide adequate equipment. In view of the importance of OJT in the training courses, and that probably for some more years, a specific effort should be made in better defining the goals and objectives of the OJT and its coherent integration in the overall training system. In addition, the OJT ''instructors'' have to be trained in the specific teaching skills required to successfully run OJT. (author). 3 figs

  15. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  16. The extraordinary windstorm of 7 December 1868 in the Czech Lands and its central European context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Szabó, Péter; Stucki, P.; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, O.; Valášek, H.; Melo, M.; Suchánková, Silvie; Dolák, Lukáš; Chromá, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, S1 (2017), s. 14-29 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-19831S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : windstorm of 7 December 1868 * documentary data * Twentieth Century Reanalysis * meteorological situation * damage * forestry * Czech Lands * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences; Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  17. The economic recovery in the Central and Eastern European EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena GURGU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the recession in 2008-09, the economies of the eight EU countries in central and Eastern Europe outside the euro area (CEE are recovering gradually, albeit with significant differences across countries. The expansion in economic activity is currently being driven primarily by exports as domestic demand remains subdued. Those countries that accumulated relatively more substantial internal and external imbalances before the financial crisis suffered more severe contractions in output during the crisis, and most of them face a more sluggish economic recovery.

  18. Sediment of a Central European Mountain Lake Implies an Extraterrestrial Impact at the Younger Dryas Onset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, D.; Kletetschka, G.; Hrubá, J.; Nábělek, L.; Procházka, V.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Bobek, Přemysl; Hořická, Zuzana; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Takáč, M.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, S1 (2017), A373-A373, č. článku 6230. ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /80./. 23.07.2017-28.07.2017, Santa Fe] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Younger Dryas * Extraterrestrial Impact * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A); DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  19. Ecological restoration of Central European mining sites: a summary of a multi-site analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, K.; Rehounkova, K.; Rehounek, J.; Konvalinkova, P. [University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    Sites disturbed by mining were surveyed in the Czech Republic, central Europe. The sites included spoil heaps from coal mining, sand and gravel pits, extracted peatlands and stone quarries. The following main conclusions emerged: I) potential for spontaneous succession to be used in restoration projects is between 95 and 100% of the total area disturbed; ii) mining sites, if mining is properly designed and then the sites are left to spontaneous succession, often act as refugia for endangered and retreating organisms, and may contribute substantially to local biodiversity.

  20. Labour Market Trends and Problems in the EU’s Central and Eastern European Member States: Is Flexicurity the Answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Funk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between

  1. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  2. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  3. Age assessment based on third molar mineralisation : An epidemiological-radiological study on a Central-European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Elisabeth; Robold, Matthias; Proff, Peter; Kirschneck, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The method published in 1973 by Demirjian et al. to assess age based on the mineralisation stage of permanent teeth is standard practice in forensic and orthodontic diagnostics. From age 14 onwards, however, this method is only applicable to third molars. No current epidemiological data on third molar mineralisation are available for Caucasian Central-Europeans. Thus, a method for assessing age in this population based on third molar mineralisation is presented, taking into account possible topographic and gender-specific differences. The study included 486 Caucasian Central-European orthodontic patients (9-24 years) with unaffected dental development. In an anonymized, randomized, and blinded manner, one orthopantomogram of each patient at either start, mid or end of treatment was visually analysed regarding the mineralisation stage of the third molars according to the method by Demirjian et al. Corresponding topographic and gender-specific point scores were determined and added to form a dental maturity score. Prediction equations for age assessment were derived by linear regression analysis with chronological age and checked for reliability within the study population. Mineralisation of the lower third molars was slower than mineralisation of the upper third molars, whereas no jaw-side-specific differences were detected. Gender-specific differences were relatively small, but girls reached mineralisation stage C earlier than boys, whereas boys showed an accelerated mineralisation between the ages of 15 and 16. The global equation generated by regression analysis (age = -1.103 + 0.268 × dental maturity score 18 + 28 + 38 + 48) is sufficiently accurate and reliable for clinical use. Age assessment only based on either maxilla or mandible also shows good prognostic reliability.

  4. Comparative care and outcomes for acute coronary syndromes in Central and Eastern European Transitional countries: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser G D; Brogan, Richard A; Alabas, Oras; Laut, Kristina G; Quinn, Tom; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Gale, Chris P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare quality of care and outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Central and Eastern European Transitional (CEET) countries. This was a review of original ACS articles in CEET countries from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Embase databases published in English from November 2003 to February 2014. Seventeen manuscripts fulfilled the search criteria. Of 19 CEET countries studied, there were no published ACS management or outcome data for four countries. In-hospital mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ranged from 6.3% in the Czech Republic to 15.3% in Latvia. In-hospital mortality for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ranged from 3.0% in Poland to 20.7% in Romania. For STEMI, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ranged from 1.0% to over 92.0%, fibrinolytic therapy from 0.0% to 49.6%, and no reperfusion therapy from 7.0% to 63.0%. Many CEET countries do not have published ACS care and outcomes data. Of those that do, there is evidence for substantial geographical variation in early mortality. Wide variation in emergency reperfusion strategies for STEMI suggests that acute cardiac care is likely to be modifiable and if addressed could reduce mortality from ACS in CEET countries. The collection of ACS care and outcomes data across Europe must be prioritised. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  5. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  6. TuBaFrost 5: multifunctional central database application for a European tumor bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, M; Teodorovic, I; Morente, M M; Jaminé, D; Passioukov, A; Lejeune, S; Therasse, P; Dinjens, W N M; Oosterhuis, J W; Lam, K H; Oomen, M H A; Spatz, A; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Mager, R; Kerr, D; Pezzella, F; van de Vijver, M; van Boven, H; Alonso, S; Kerjaschki, D; Pammer, J; Lopez-Guerrero, J A; Llombart Bosch, A; Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; van Veen, E-B; van Damme, B; Riegman, P H J

    2006-12-01

    Developing a tissue bank database has become more than just logically arranging data in tables combined with a search engine. Current demand for high quality samples and data, and the ever-changing legal and ethical regulations mean that the application must reflect TuBaFrost rules and protocols for the collection, exchange and use of tissue. To ensure continuation and extension of the TuBaFrost European tissue bank, the custodianship of the samples, and hence the decision over whether to issue samples to requestors, remains with the local collecting centre. The database application described in this article has been developed to facilitate this open structure virtual tissue bank model serving a large group. It encompasses many key tasks, without the requirement for personnel, hence minimising operational costs. The Internet-accessible database application enables search, selection and request submission for requestors, whereas collectors can upload and edit their collection. Communication between requestor and involved collectors is started with automatically generated e-mails.

  7. Morphology and ecological characteristics of Sparganium × longifolium (Typhaceae in the Central part of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Belyakov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing impact of anthropogenic factors and climate change affect the growth of a number of taxa of hybrid nature. These taxa are widespread among various taxonomic groups of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. The genus Sparganium L. В is not an exception. In that regard, the aim of this study is to conduct biomorphological investigation of Sparganium × longifolium Turcz. ex Ledeb., evaluate qualitative and quantitative criteria for the hybrid similarities and differences with its parental species, as well as to analyze data on its habitat characteristics. Samples were collected in 2014–2016 from waterbodies in European Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl oblasts. In the study on biomorphology of S. × longifolium we used live and fixed materials, as well as herbarium funds of IBIW, MXA and MW. To establish and specify taxonomic features of the hybrid under study, indicating to its similarity with a certain ancestral species, our data on the morphology and ecology of S. emersum Rehm. and S. gramineum Georgi. are used. During field studies, the type of water object where the hybrid was detected, ecological characteristics of its habitat (type of soil, depth, water temperature and pH are determined; the list of taxa which enter into the cenosis composition is compiled. The biomorphological investigation of S. × longifolium shows that by life form this hybrid, as well as its parental species, is a vegetative-mobile evidently-polycentric annual or biennial plant of vegetative origin with a racemose root system. The following should be attributed to the characteristic features justifying the hybrid origin of S. × longifolium: 1 a wider, slightly carinated lamina (as in S. emersum; 2 a branched inflorescence (as in S. gramineum; 3 the lower covering leaf of inflorescence, often exceeding the total length of the latter; 4 fruits with a straight (as in S. emersum as well as bent (as in S. gramineum style. Interestingly, some populations of S.

  8. Impact of GDP Information Technology in Developing of Regional Central Business (Case 50 Airports IT City Development in Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, Joko; Sukoco, Agus; Ikhsan Setiawan, M.; Suhermin; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia a great number of populations and demand of air transportation services keep increasing by the year in line with the increasing of population and welfare its people. Need for telematics solutions to support goods transport and distribution in cities is mainly due to the complexity of the processes taking place in urban transport systems and the importance of the optimisation of transport operations via ensuring adequate availability of linear and point infrastructure, while reducing the adverse impacts of the transport system on the environment. Efficient infrastructure supports economic growth, improves quality of life, and it is important for national security. Impact of GDP Information Technology in developing of Regional Central Business especially SME Business, are very large correlations and very significant supported by Passenger Arrival and Departure, Baggage Loaded and Unloaded, Cargo Loaded and Unloaded, Separated regional asset, Grant, Capital Expenditure, Investment of Regional Gov., GDP Agriculture-Forestry-Fishing, GDP Manufacturing, GDP Electricity-Gas, GDP Water supply- Sewerage-Waste Management-Remediation Activities, GDP Financial-Insurance Activities, GDP Business Activities, GDP Public Administration and Defense-Compulsory Social Security, GDP Education and GDP Other Services Activities

  9. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  11. CLO-PLA: a database of clonal and bud-bank traits of the Central European flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimešová, Jitka; Danihelka, Jiří; Chrtek, Jindřich; de Bello, Francesco; Herben, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    This dataset presents comprehensive and easy-to-use information on 29 functional traits of clonal growth, bud banks, and lifespan of members of the Central European flora. The source data were compiled from a number of published sources (see the reference file) and the authors' own observations or studies. In total, 2,909 species are included (2,745 herbs and 164 woody species), out of which 1,532 (i.e., 52.7% of total) are classified as possessing clonal growth organs (1,480, i.e., 53.9%, if woody plants are excluded). This provides a unique, and largely unexplored, set of traits of clonal growth that can be used in studies on comparative plant ecology, plant evolution, community assembly, and ecosystem functioning across the large flora of Central Europe. It can be directly imported into a number of programs and packages that perform trait-based and phylogenetic analyses aimed to answer a variety of open and pressing ecological questions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Coman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  13. Central European Acer- and Salicaceae-feeding aphids of the genus Stomaphis (Insecta: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) -separate species or populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Lukasz; Mróz, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In Europe, there are three aphid species of the genus Stomaphis Walker that feed on trees in the genus Acer and one that feeds on trees in the family Salicaceae. Although these species are considered morphologically distinct, their uncertain host specificity and variation in morphological features has led to misidentifications or questionable attribution of subspecies status. The aim of the present study was to clarify the identity of the Central European representatives on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses. Our study is based on 42 samples from Central Europe and Northern Italy. Mitochondrial markers COXI and COXII were used to determine the molecular identity of the specimens studied. Our molecular analyses revealed the existence of three clades (two on Acer, one on Salicaceae) as defined by both molecular markers. Morphological analysis showed a broad range of variability of the key morphological features in all three clades. Despite significant differences in the mean values of morphometric traits, their range of variability strongly overlapped. Samples from COXI clades on Acer showed two different patterns of geographical distribution. Host specificity is recognized only at the level of host plant genera (Acer) and family (Salicaceae), excluding the possibility of the existence of separate subspecies on single host plant species.

  14. Temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon in a highly polluted European city: Apportionment of potential sources and the effect of meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucbel, Marek; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Švédová, Barbora; Raclavská, Helena; Raclavský, Konstantin; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon - a primary component of particulate matter emitted from an incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, and biofuels - has been found to have a detrimental effect on human health and the environment. Since black carbon emissions data are not readily available, no measures are implemented to reduce black carbon emissions. The temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon concentrations were evaluated during 2012-2014. The data were collected in the highly polluted European city - Ostrava, Czech Republic, surrounded by major highways and large industries. Significantly higher black carbon concentrations were obtained in Ostrava, relative to other European cities and the magnitude was equivalent to the magnitude of black carbon concentrations measured in Poland and China. The data were categorized to heating and non-heating seasons based on the periodic pattern of daily and monthly average concentrations of black carbon. A higher black carbon concentration was obtained during heating season than non-heating season and was primarily associated with an increase in residential coal burning and meteorological parameters. The concentration of black carbon was found to be negatively correlated with temperature and wind speed, and positively correlated with the relative humidity. Other black carbon sources potentially included emissions from vehicle exhaust and the local steel-producing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  16. The Impact of International Financial Crisis on Bank Performance in Eastern and Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin-Marius Andrieș

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the determinants of bank profitability in 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, in the period between 2004 and 2013. We proxy the profitability of banks with more commonly used ratio: the return on assets (ROA, computed as a ratio of the net profit to the total bank assets. We used multiple regression with bank specific variables, banking industry variables and macroeconomic variables. Moreover, we added a global financial crisis dummy to highlight the crisis impact on asset return. OLS is the main estimation method, but we also used difference-in-difference in order to test if the crisis impact was amplified or diminished by the bank specific characteristics. The evidence shows significant differences between the profit levels of the CEEC banks. Our results are in line with the empirical literature. The impact of the international financial crisis on ROA was negative and statistically significant, as expected. The second part of the analysis we separate the banks sample in three categories: banks with high capital adequacy, large banks by total assets and foreign-owned banks. Our findings show that the three selected variables both amplified and decreased the crisis effect.

  17. Survey of otolaryngology services in Ukraine and neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, M M; Wagner, R; Fishchuk, R; Fagan, J J

    2017-11-01

    The present humanitarian crisis in Ukraine is putting strains on its healthcare system. This study aimed to assess services and training in otolaryngology, audiology and speech therapy in Ukraine and its geographical neighbours. Survey study of 327 otolaryngologists from 19 countries. Fifty-six otolaryngologists (17 per cent) from 15 countries responded. Numbers of otolaryngologists varied from 3.6 to 12.3 per 100 000 population (Ukraine = 7.8). Numbers of audiologists varied from 0, in Ukraine, to 2.8 per 100 000, in Slovakia, and numbers of speech therapists varied from 0, in Bulgaria, to 4.0 per 100 000, in Slovenia (Ukraine = 0.1). Ukraine lacks newborn and school hearing screening, good availability of otological drills and microscopes, and a cochlear implant programme. There is wide variation in otolaryngology services in Central and Eastern Europe. All countries surveyed had more otolaryngologists per capita than the UK, but availability of audiology and speech and language therapy is poor. Further research on otolaryngology health outcomes in the region will guide service improvement.

  18. Dissecting the genetic architecture of frost tolerance in Central European winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Korzun, Viktor; Kollers, Sonja; Schachschneider, Ralf; Zeng, Jian; Fernando, Rohan; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Reif, Jochen C

    2013-11-01

    Abiotic stress tolerance in plants is pivotal to increase yield stability, but its genetic basis is still poorly understood. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of frost tolerance, this work evaluated a large mapping population of 1739 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines and hybrids adapted to Central Europe in field trials in Germany and fingerprinted the lines with a 9000 single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Additive effects prevailed over dominance effects. A two-dimensional genome scan revealed the presence of epistatic effects. Genome-wide association mapping in combination with a robust cross-validation strategy identified one frost tolerance locus with a major effect located on chromosome 5B. This locus was not in linkage disequilibrium with the known frost loci Fr-B1 and Fr-B2. The use of the detected diagnostic markers on chromosome 5B, however, does not allow prediction of frost tolerance with high accuracy. Application of genome-wide selection approaches that take into account also loci with small effect sizes considerably improved prediction of the genetic variation of frost tolerance in wheat. The developed prediction model is valuable for improving frost tolerance because this trait displays a wide variation in occurrence across years and is therefore a difficult target for conventional phenotypic selection.

  19. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  20. Review of Research into Enterprise Bankruptcy Prediction in Selected Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Prusak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the first studies on forecasting bankruptcy date to the early 20th century. In Central and Eastern Europe, due to, among other factors, the geopolitical situation and the introduced economic system, this issue became the subject of researcher interest only in the 1990s. Therefore, it is worthwhile to analyze whether these countries conduct bankruptcy risk assessments and what their level of advancement is. The main objective of the article is the review and assessment of the level of advancement of bankruptcy prediction research in countries of the former Eastern Bloc, in comparison to the latest global research trends in this area. For this purpose, the method of analyzing scientific literature was applied. The publications chosen as the basis for the research were mainly based on information from the Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases during the period Q4 2016–Q3 2017. According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first such large-scale study involving the countries of the former Eastern Bloc—which includes the following states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria, and Belarus. The results show that the most advanced research in this area is conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Estonia, Russia, and Hungary. Belarus Bulgaria and Latvia are on the other end. In the remaining countries, traditional approaches to predicting business insolvency are generally used.

  1. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  2. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  3. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  4. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  5. COST Action TU1206 "SUB-URBAN - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes; Lawrence, David; van der Meulen, Michiel; Mielby, Susie; Hay, David; Scanlon, Ray; Campenhout, Ignace; Taugs, Renate; Eriksson, Ingelov

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urbanisation is the focus of SUB-URBAN, a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities. This aims to transform relationships between experts who develop urban subsurface geoscience knowledge - principally national Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs), and those who can most benefit from it - urban decision makers, planners, practitioners and the wider research community. Under COST's Transport and Urban Development Domain, SUB-URBAN has established a network of GSOs and other researchers in over 20 countries, to draw together and evaluate collective urban geoscience research in 3D/4D characterisation, prediction and visualisation. Knowledge exchange between researchers and City-partners within 'SUB-URBAN' is already facilitating new city-scale subsurface projects, and is developing a tool-box of good-practice guidance, decision-support tools, and cost-effective methodologies that are appropriate to local needs and circumstances. These are intended to act as catalysts in the transformation of relationships between geoscientists and urban decision-makers more generally. As a result, the importance of the urban sub-surface in the sustainable development of our cities will be better appreciated, and the conflicting demands currently placed on it will be acknowledged, and resolved appropriately. Existing city-scale 3D/4D model exemplars are being developed by partners in the UK (Glasgow, London), Germany (Hamburg) and France (Paris). These draw on extensive ground investigation (10s-100s of thousands of boreholes) and other data. Model linkage enables prediction of groundwater, heat, SuDS, and engineering properties. Combined subsurface and above-ground (CityGML, BIMs) models are in preparation. These models will provide valuable tools for more holistic urban planning; identifying subsurface opportunities and saving costs by reducing uncertainty in

  6. The Competitiveness of Settlements with SPAS in Some Central European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Bakucz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers two topics which are, broadly, inseparable. The first has as its main target the competitiveness of Spa Tourism in two Regions of Hungary - in settlements with different characteristics; the second, recognising the need for a new way to measure competitiveness in the sector, deals with the creation of a new competitiveness index. The benefits of virtually all forms of Tourism - economic or social – are well enough known to need no repetition. This is especially true of such fields as Spa or Health Tourism, in which there is a natural trend towards longer stays and higher expenditure by visitors. For a relatively poor country such as Hungary – weak in natural resources apart from agricultural land – the basic presence of a generous supply of easily accessible thermal or medicinal water below a huge proportion of its surface area (70% is a remarkable gift. Nevertheless, many factors are to be studied if a rational, sustainable development policy is to be elaborated by public and private interests. There are many spas – settlements with thermal or medicinal waters (or both - spread across Hungary, and their variety is extraordinary. There are huge differences in terms of size, visitor numbers, accommodation facilities, overnights, leisure or treatment facilities and location – that is, their closeness to favourable population areas (domestic or foreign. The critical decisions on investment and development need comprehensive data on all factors of all locations. The essential issue is competitiveness: in Central Europe, where spas have a great tradition and history (e.g., Germany, Austria and today’s Czech Republic, does or can Hungary offer a product which will sell? There are numerous factors and as many bases on which to judge. In 2013 a team from the Faculty of Business and Economics at Pécs University - supported by Hungary’s National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA – embarked on a study of the

  7. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  8. Family-friendly policy in Central European countries [Polityka rodzinna w krajach Europy Środkowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław ZDULSKI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic changes in Central Europe which started in the 80s of the 20th century began to resemble the changes which were noticed earlier in the countries of Western Europe. Fertility gradually decreased, sometimes even below the simple reproduction rate, the number of marriages dropped and the age when they were made was changing. The model of the family underwent transformations which caused changes in family structures. What followed was a fast change from the so called traditional reproduction to modern reproduction. Demographers are looking for the causes of the above mentioned changes in the influence of economic factors and changes the world view. They also emphasised the need for a family-friendly policy. An important influence on the type of policy of a given country is tradition, the implemented socio-economic policy (e.g., conservative, liberal, the economic situation and public opinion. In a narrower sense it is defined as benefits and services for people with children and single parents. Such an approach means the readiness and constant support in the form of financial transfers made to the families, tax relief for families with children, maternity leaves, the creation and maintenance of institutions which offer child care and family law. In a broad sense, familyfriendly policy covers all areas of social policy which can potentially have an influence on the good of the family (subsidies towards children’s travel costs, education, safety, housing, etc.. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in the field of demography which took place after 1989 and their effects on families, as well as the policies implemented in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in order to increase reproduction and the number of marriages.

  9. A Climate Information Portal for Copernicus: a central portal for European climate services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckes, Martin; Swart, Rob; Thysse, Peter; Som de Cerff, Wim; Groot, Annemarie; Bennett, Victoria; Costa, Luis; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Callaghan, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing a demonstration portal for the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). This project is one of a suite of FP7 research activities which are administratively independent of Copernicus, focussed on creating the technical and scientific building blocks needed for the service. It is to be expected that at EGU 2015 there will be many presentations describing portals delivering new and innovative ranges of services. It would be unwise to seek to replace all this creative activity with a single portal -- instead CLIPC is designing a portal to make distributed resources more accessible through flexible discovery systems. CLIPC needs to deliver more than a directory of resources: resources need to be presented in common protocols so that users can access multiple datasets. More information about the project objectives is available at www.clipc.eu. The gulf between the climate science communities and the end user communities is a central challenge being addressed in the project. It is important to understand that there is significant diversity and multiple communication barriers within these two sets of communities as well as between them. The CLIPC services must presentation will provide a review of progress towards this ambitious goal, through a discussion of user requirements activities, an overview of the proposed architecture, work on assessing and adjusting model biasses, and a discussion of the climate impact indicators which will be provided through the portal. When looking at the usability of data for the various users, CLIPC will implement a set of services functioning as a "knowledge base" supplying information to users about the data, including definitions of terminology used, quality of datasets, versioning, and user annotations.

  10. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  11. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  12. The Minimum Impact House : Applications of the Frankfurt Prototype for sustainable building in Cities of the European Rhine Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.; Curiel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Minimum Impact House in Frankfurt am Main is a sustainable solution for low cost living within city centers - a prototype typology with minimal footprint, built on a leftover urban space. The planning process itself became part of a scientific study. The ecological advantages of building in the

  13. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion...

  14. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  15. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, E; Laulu, M S [Department of Applied Science, Auckland Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Mitchelson, E [Department of Nursing, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Plank, L [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2002-07-01

    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  16. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Ludlow, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Randall, Scott; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and knowledge, the mutual critical reflection

  17. Associations between ultrafine and fine particles and mortality in five central European cities - Results from the UFIREG study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanzinger, S.; Schneider, A.; Breitner, S.; Staffoggia, M.; Erzen, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Pastorková, Anna; Bastian, S.; Cyrys, J.; Zscheppang, A.; Kolodnitská, T.; Peters, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, mar (2016), s. 44-52 ISSN 0160-4120 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : particulate air-pollution * american- heart -association * epidemiologic time-series * cardiovascular-disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 7.088, year: 2016

  18. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  19. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantificatio...... during the past 30 years caused an increase in flood exposure that is comparable to what is expected in the RCP4.5 (+2°C) climate scenario.......In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantification...

  20. The impact of heat waves on mortality in 9 European cities: results from the EuroHEAT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippoliti, Daniela; Michelozzi, Paola; Marino, Claudia; de'Donato, Francesca; Menne, Bettina; Katsouyanni, Klea; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Analitis, Antonis; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Paldy, Anna; Atkinson, Richard; Kovats, Sari; Bisanti, Luigi; Schneider, Alexandra; Lefranc, Agnès; Iñiguez, Carmen; Perucci, Carlo A

    2010-07-16

    The present study aimed at developing a standardized heat wave definition to estimate and compare the impact on mortality by gender, age and death causes in Europe during summers 1990-2004 and 2003, separately, accounting for heat wave duration and intensity. Heat waves were defined considering both maximum apparent temperature and minimum temperature and classified by intensity, duration and timing during summer. The effect was estimated as percent increase in daily mortality during heat wave days compared to non heat wave days in people over 65 years. City specific and pooled estimates by gender, age and cause of death were calculated. The effect of heat waves showed great geographical heterogeneity among cities. Considering all years, except 2003, the increase in mortality during heat wave days ranged from + 7.6% in Munich to + 33.6% in Milan. The increase was up to 3-times greater during episodes of long duration and high intensity. Pooled results showed a greater impact in Mediterranean (+ 21.8% for total mortality) than in North Continental (+ 12.4%) cities. The highest effect was observed for respiratory diseases and among women aged 75-84 years. In 2003 the highest impact was observed in cities where heat wave episode was characterized by unusual meteorological conditions. Climate change scenarios indicate that extreme events are expected to increase in the future even in regions where heat waves are not frequent. Considering our results prevention programs should specifically target the elderly, women and those suffering from chronic respiratory disorders, thus reducing the impact on mortality.

  1. The impact of heat waves on mortality in 9 European cities: results from the EuroHEAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisanti Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at developing a standardized heat wave definition to estimate and compare the impact on mortality by gender, age and death causes in Europe during summers 1990-2004 and 2003, separately, accounting for heat wave duration and intensity. Methods Heat waves were defined considering both maximum apparent temperature and minimum temperature and classified by intensity, duration and timing during summer. The effect was estimated as percent increase in daily mortality during heat wave days compared to non heat wave days in people over 65 years. City specific and pooled estimates by gender, age and cause of death were calculated. Results The effect of heat waves showed great geographical heterogeneity among cities. Considering all years, except 2003, the increase in mortality during heat wave days ranged from + 7.6% in Munich to + 33.6% in Milan. The increase was up to 3-times greater during episodes of long duration and high intensity. Pooled results showed a greater impact in Mediterranean (+ 21.8% for total mortality than in North Continental (+ 12.4% cities. The highest effect was observed for respiratory diseases and among women aged 75-84 years. In 2003 the highest impact was observed in cities where heat wave episode was characterized by unusual meteorological conditions. Conclusions Climate change scenarios indicate that extreme events are expected to increase in the future even in regions where heat waves are not frequent. Considering our results prevention programs should specifically target the elderly, women and those suffering from chronic respiratory disorders, thus reducing the impact on mortality.

  2. The Multiplier Effect of the Gandoriah Beach Marine Tourism to the Coastal Community of Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Mazidah, Nurnaini; Nugroho, Firman; Bathara, Lamun

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted on March 25, 2016 until 11 April 2016 which is placed in Gandoriah Beach, Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province. This study aims to identify economic activities and socio-cultural as the impact of the presence of marine tourism and determine the impact of tourism activities on the beach Gandoriah to the economy of coastal communities. The method used in this research is survey method. There are 64 respondents, that consist ...

  3. Determinants of Capital Integration among Strategic Alliance Members in the Retail Sector: Evidence from Central and Southeast European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Butigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of firms requires continuous search for new and a restructuring of the existing competitive advantages. These can come either from firms’ internal factors or from cooperation with the environment. Cooperation among firms commonly takes place through the formation of strategic alliances. However, such form of cooperation presents only one stage in the integration of business entities. In the long run, strategic alliances can cease to exist or transform into a higher form of association based on capital integration. The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of capital integration among strategic alliance member firms in retail sectors of several Central and Southeast European countries. Overall, the obtained findings suggest that business entities engage in integration with the aim of reaching hidden knowledge and skills, accessing distribution and supply channels, and developing new products and services. Integration is also driven with the aim of risk diversification and possible better market positioning, achieving the economies of scale, and improving organization and marketing. The opportunistic behavior of partners and limited managerial control represent its strongest barriers.

  4. Central and Eastern European countries between the 16+1 platform and Chinese OBOR - One Belt, One Road - Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cornel Dumitrescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the projects and the initiatives of the Central and Eastern European countries that have been finalised, are in progress or will be developed in the near future with the help of the existing or future financial instruments specific to the 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road complex program. For our research we selected four countries, namely: Poland, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, the group being relevant from the perspective of the transportation corridors connected to the ”One Belt, One Road” initiative: (1 - Piraeus, Skopje, Belgrade, Budapest, Western Europe; (2 - Suez Canal, Constanta and then Danube, Western Europe, or through Moldova towards Ukraine and Poland; (3 – Constanta, through the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and then the corridors mentioned at the previous point. We based our analysis on the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China-CEEC think-tank network and the literature in the field.

  5. Changing prevalence patterns in endoscopic and histological diagnosis of gastritis? Data from a cross-sectional Central European multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

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    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  7. Properly pricing country risk: a model for pricing long-term fundamental risk applied to central and eastern European countries

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    Debora Revoltella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector has used proxies such as sovereign credit ratings, spreads on sovereign bonds and spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDS to gauge country risk, even though these measures are pricing the risk of default of government bonds, which is different from the risks facing private participants in cross-border financing. Under normal market conditions, the CDS spreads are a very useful source of information on country risk. However, the recent crisis has shown that the CDS spreads might lead to some underpricing or overpricing of fundamentals in the case of excessively low or excessively high risk aversion. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of country risk that extracts the volatile, short-term market sentiment component from the sover eign CDS spread in order to improve its reliability in periods of market distress. We show that adverse market sentiment was a key driver of the sharp increase in sovereign CDS spreads of central and eastern European (CEE countries during the most severe phase of the crisis. We also show that our measure of country risk sheds some light on the observed stability of cross-border bank flows to CEE banks during the crisis.

  8. Access to Strong Opioid Analgesics in the Context of Legal and Regulatory Barriers in Eleven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B; Scholten, Willem K; Jünger, Saskia; Medic, Dr Rer; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2018-04-06

    In 2011-2013, >95% of the global opioid analgesics consumption occurred in three regions, accounting for 15% of the world population. Despite abundant literature on barriers to access, little is known on the correlation between actual access to opioid analgesics and barriers to access, including legal and regulatory barriers. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and barriers to access in national legislation and regulations in 11 central and eastern European countries that participated in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. Two variables were contrasted to assess their correlation: the country level of access to strong opioid analgesics indicated by the Adequacy of Consumption Measure (ACM) and the number of potential legal and regulatory barriers identified by an external review of legislation and regulations. A linear correlation was evaluated using a squared linear correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the correlation between the ACM and the number of potential barriers produces an R 2 value of 0.023 and a correlation plot trend line gradient of -0.075, indicating no correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and the number of potential barriers in national legislation and regulations in the countries studied. No correlation was found, which indicates that other factors besides potential legal and regulatory barriers play a critical role in withholding prescribers and patients essential pain medication in the studied countries. More research is needed toward better understanding of the complex interplay of factors that determine access to strong opioid analgesics.

  9. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  10. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  11. On the occurrence of cyclones with low central pressures in the Atlantic-European area from 1930 to 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinke, H.

    1992-01-01

    Large natural disasters increased dramatically in the last three decades, both with regard to number and damage scale. Large storm events contribute considerably to this. In the context of climate changes it is of interest whether the frequency and/or the regional and temporal distribution of storm cyclones of the temperate latitudes are also subject to specific changes. The definition of storm cyclones with the aid of weather maps which served as basis of investigation is only possible with considerable time expenditure. All low-pressure areas with central pressures equal to, or less than 990 hPa were therefore included in the investigation. The wind velocities were not analyzed. The investigation area covers the area from the 60th degree of easter longitude to the 60th degree of western longitude and from the 30th degree of northern latitude to the North Pole. It comprises the hole of the European mainland as well as large parts of the North Atlantic. The period of 1930 to 1991 is considered. (orig./KW) [de

  12. The Aspects of Managing Risks in Connection with the Internationalization of Smes from Selected Central European Countries

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    Martina Toulová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient domestic demand and increasing competition force small and medium‑sized enterprises (SMEs to engage in internationalization process and enter to foreign markets. This process, however, carries risks that should be appropriate managed. In order to identify similarities and differences in the approach of SMEs from selected Central European countries towards managing these risks and find out whether perception of risks differ based on domestic country of the SMEs, questionnaire survey among Czech, Slovak, German, Austrian and Poland SMEs was performed in 2014. It was found that more Austrian and German SMEs, compared to Czech, Slovak and Polish SMEs, do not apply any method of risk analysis but are more focused on some form of protection in international operations. As the most common form was identified payment in advance. It was also found that Austrian and German SMEs prefer to use bank products rather that conclude long‑term contracts or verify the credibility of their foreign business partners used by Czech, Slovak and Poland SMEs. Based on statistical testing, significant differences appeared in risk perception of SMEs from different countries. Especially perception of market risks, transportation risks and risk of natural disasters.

  13. The European City in the Age of Globalisation La ville européenne à l'ère de la globalisation

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    Robert Musil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper identifies a gap between two meaningful fields of research in urban geography : the first, old-established and reinforced by the European integration process, asks for recent and future trends, primarily on intra-urban development of cities on the European scale. The second focuses on inter-urban relations on a global scale, inspired by global city theories established since early 1990s. As a consequence of this research gap, a research agenda has been formulated with the aim to deliver the missing links between these two fields. Therein, three methodological improvements are put forward : first, more research has to be done to prove the widely accepted thesis of an existing link between global integration and internal urban structure. Second, the role of specific national politics for the production of a global city has to be examined – such as the type of welfare-regime or the impact of historical political structures. Finally, global city research should seriously consider the territorial arrangements that impinge upon the development of global cities on a national and a European scale.Cet article conceptuel identifie un écart entre deux grands domaines de recherche en géographie urbaine : le premier, établi de longue date et renforcé par le processus d'intégration européen, se concentre principalement sur les tendances récentes ou à venir en matière de développement intra-urbain à l'échelle européenne. Le second pose la question des relations inter-urbaines à l'échelle globale, née des théories sur la Ville Globale échafaudées depuis le début des années 1990. Au vu de cette lacune, un programme de recherche a été mis en place afin de fournir les chaînons manquants entre ces deux domaines. A cet égard, trois améliorations méthodologiques sont proposées : la première est la nécessité d'accroître le volume des recherches pour prouver la thèse largement admise d'un lien entre int

  14. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  15. Central Banking and the Crisis. A Comparison of the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank Measures, and the ECB’s Changing Role in the EU Economic Governance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Roman Czubala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank (ECB has received a lot of criticism for its too little, too late performance to ease market pressures during the economic crisis. At the same time, the ECB and the Federal Reserve (FED have managed the new economic realities that have emerged in the international context differently. Despite the criticisms, the European Central Bank is the European Union institution that has assumed more control due to the new model of economic governance of the EU. Why did the Federal Reserve act so nimbly and quickly to calm the markets, while the ECB was so cautious in managing monetary policy? The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis of the management of interest rates and other monetary policy measures undertaken by the Central Bank and the Federal Reserve during the economic crisis, as well as to understand the changes in the context of the ECB and the emergence of its authority within the European Union’s economic governance model since 2011. Thus, in order to carry out a scrupulous exposition, we will also limit the time frame of this study to the 2007-2014 period.

  16. Comparison of External Exposure of Central and Eastern-European States as a Factor Threatening Financial Security of Their Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Redo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern-European countries are strongly linked to the international economic and financial systems, which results in their dependence on foreign capital and on the upturn in the global markets. This situation also makes them vulnerable to external shocks. Resilience of the economies of CEE countries was additionally diminished by their relatively quick and uncompromising opening up to the process of globalization and European integration. All the economies subject to scrutiny have quite a substantial external debt level (reaching 55–139% of GDP, their net international investment position is quite strongly in the negative (constituting 25–71% of GDP. They are also characterized by high level of foreign liabilities (85–350% of GDP, a significant degree of trade openness (export and import of goods and services amounting to 41–94% of GDP, considerable rate of foreign liquid portfolio investments (even as much as 32% of GDP. Another common feature is the strong financial support received from the EU budget, with CEE countries being its net beneficiaries (with the accumulated value of funds received from the EU budget in 2004–2015 at the level of 21–42% of GDP. It should be borne in mind that Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Slovenia and Slovakia are members of the Eurozone, i.e. operate an international currency, which improves their creditworthiness and augments the trust of the global markets. What seems not without significance for investors is the fact that the IMF classified these five CEE countries – as well as the Czech Republic – as advanced economies. In light of the above, it should be stated that the Polish economy is characterized by a relatively strong external exposure relative to the creditworthiness the country boasts. This exposure increases Poland’s vulnerability to shocks and makes it less immune thereto. These circumstances partially explain the higher estimation of the risk premium for investments in

  17. Characteristics and Source Analysis of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM10 in a Typical Mining City, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 61 PM10 samples in Huangshi (HS, Central China, were collected every sixth day from April 2012 to March 2013 and were analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs by ion chromatography. The sum of three major ions (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for 75.8% of the total WSIIs on average. The results of a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis show that, except for Na+ (p > 0.05, the other ions present a distinctly seasonal variation with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05. The minimum concentrations of all ions were found in summer, while the maximum values presented in autumn (for Ca2+ and winter (for Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, K+, NH4+, Mg2+. Based on the highest ratio of Cl−/Na+ (3.02 and the highest concentration of K (4.37 μg·m−3, Ba (0.37 μg·m−3, and Sr (0.07 μg·m−3 in February 2013, it can be concluded that firework powders have aggravated the haze weather during the Spring Festival of 2013. The micro-equivalent concentrations of cations and anions were calculated and the comparisons between the calculated and measured NH4+ concentrations were conducted. The results illustrate that aerosol particles in HS are acidic and there may exist some other cationic ions not detected in this study. An obvious positive correlation and good linear regression among WSIIs suggest that the chemical forms in HS aerosols show a great variety of combinations, such as NH4NO3, NH4HSO4, (NH42SO4, NH4Cl, KCl, KNO3, NaCl, NaNO3, Ca(NO32, CaSO4, MgCl2, Mg(NO32, and MgSO4. The WSIIs have large positive correlation and linear regression with the elements, suggesting that WSIIs in mining cities are strongly influenced by element constituents. Principal component analysis implies that WSIIs in PM10 are probably from three sources. NH4+, Mg2+, NO3−, K and K+, Cl− and Cl, SO42−, and S accounted for 46.9% of the total variances, suggesting likely anthropogenic sources, especially coal combustion, vehicular exhaust, and

  18. Legislating child restraint usage -Its effect on self-reported child restraint use rates in a central city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Ravindran, Karthik; Guse, Clare E

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effect of the newly enacted child passenger safety law, Wisconsin Act 106, on self-report of proper restraint usage of children in Milwaukee's central city population. A prospective, non-randomized study design was used. The settings used were (a) a pediatric urban health center, and (b) two Women, Infants and Children offices in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Participants included 11,566 surveys collected over 18 months that spanned the pre-legislation and post-legislation time periods from February 2006 through August 2008. The study set out to assess appropriate child passenger restraint. The results showed that the changes in adjusted proper restraint usage rates for infants between the pre-law, grace period, and post-fine periods were 94%, 94%, and 94% respectively. For children 1-3years old, the adjusted proper usage rates were 65%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. And for children 4-7years old, the rates were 43%, 44% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant increase in premature booster seat use in children who should have been restrained in a rear- or forward-facing car seat (10% pre-law, 12% grace period, 20% post-fine; padvertising and marketing to the correct age group, ease of installation, and mechanisms to prevent incorrect safety strap and harness placement. To ensure accurate and consistent use on every trip, car seat manufacturers must ensure that best practice recommendations for use as well as age, weight, and height be clearly specified on each child restraint. The authors support the United States Department of Transportation's new consumer program that will assist caregivers in identifying the child seat that will fit in their vehicle. In addition, due to the increase in premature graduation of children into belt-positioning booster seats noted as a result of legislation, promoting and marketing booster seat use for children less than 40 pounds should not be accepted. Child passenger safety technicians must continue to promote best

  19. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB, one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR. After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX and non-exhaust (NEX contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m−3 (16–32 % to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m−3 (15–36 % to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics in PM2.5 (37–82 % but also in PM10 (40–71 %, mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB contributions vary widely, from 14–24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to  <  2 % in BCN-UB. In PM2.5, BB is the second most important source in MLN-UB (21 % and in POR-TR (18 %, the third one in FI-UB (21 % and ATH-SUB (11 %, but is again negligible (< 2 % in BCN-UB. This large variability among cities is mostly due to the degree of penetration of biomass for residential heating. In Barcelona natural gas is very well supplied across the city and is used as fuel in 96 % of

  20. Pilgrimages to the museums of the new age: appropriating European industrial museums in New York City (1927–1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jaume Sastre-Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How did industrial museums cross the Atlantic? When the first American museums of science and industry were created in the 1920s, they looked to Europe in order to import what was seen at that time as a burgeoning cultural institution. In this article, I look at this process of appropriation through an analysis of the changing perceptions of European industrial museums as expressed in the reports, surveys and books written by the curators, directors and trustees of the New York Museum of Science and Industry. I will pay particular attention to the 1927 film Museums of the New Age, documenting the main national industrial museums in Europe, and to a 1937 report on the techniques of display at the Palais de la Découverte. I will argue that their contrasting assessment of European industrial museums, which in only ten years ceased to be seen as cathedrals of a new age to become old-fashioned storehouses, is symptomatic of the significant transformation of museums of science and industry as cultural institutions during the 1930s in the United States.