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Sample records for central body fat

  1. Volumetric analysis of central body fat accurately predicts incidence of diabetes and hypertension in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibby, Jacob T; Njeru, Dennis K; Cvetko, Steven T; Merrill, Ray M; Bikman, Benjamin T; Gibby, Wendell A

    2015-01-01

    Central adipose tissue is appreciated as a risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a volumetric 3D analysis of central adipose tissue in predicting disease. Full body computerized tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 1225 female (518) and male (707) subjects, aged 18-88. Percent central body fat (%cBF) was determined by quantifying the adipose tissue volume from the dome of the liver to the pubic symphysis. Calcium score was determined from the calcium content of coronary arteries. Relationships between %cBF, BMI, and several cardiometabolic disorders were assessed controlling for age, sex, and race. Higher %cBF was significantly greater for those with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, but not stroke or hypercholesterolemia. Simple anthropometric determination of BMI equally correlated with diabetes and hypertension as central body fat. Calcium scoring significantly correlated with all measurements of cardiovascular health, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and heart disease. Central body fat and BMI equally and highly predict incidence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  3. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  4. Simulated change in body fatness affects Hologic QDR 4500A whole body and central DXA bone measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen M; Mojtahedi, Mina C; Kessinger, Renee B; Misic, Mark M

    2006-01-01

    Changes in body fatness may impact the accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to determine if DXA can accurately assess BMC and BMD with changes in exogenous fat (lard) placed to simulate weight change. Whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), and proximal femur (PF) DXA scans (Hologic QDR 4500A) were performed on 30 elderly (52-83 yr) and 60 young (18-40 yr) individuals (i.e., 45 females and 45 males) of varying body mass index (mean+/-standard deviation: 26.1+/-4.9 kg/m2). When scans were repeated with lard packets (2.54 cm thick, 25.4x17.8 cm, 1 kg), WB BMD decreased 1.1% and 1.6% after chest and thigh packet placement, respectively (p=0.001), PF BMD increased 0.7% (p=0.02) and LS BMD decreased 1.6% (p=0.001) primarily due to a 2.2% reduction in LS BMC (p<0.001). Initial LS BMC and trunk mass were related to error in LS BMC measures due to lard-loading (r=0.64 and 0.45, respectively, p<0.001). We conclude that on average simulated weight change minimally impacts PF bone measures and moderately impacts WB and LS bone measures; however, individual variability in measurement error was noteworthy and may be impacted by body thickness.

  5. The association of total and central body fat with pain, fatigue and the impact of fibromyalgia in women; role of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, V; Castro-Piñero, J; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Álvarez-Gallardo, I C; Estévez-López, F; Delgado-Fernández, M; Carbonell-Baeza, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between estimates of total and central body fat with fibromyalgia pain, fatigue and overall impact has not been fully described. We aimed to assess the individual and combined association of body fat (total and central) with pain, fatigue and the overall impact in fibromyalgia women; and to study the possible mediation role of physical fitness in these associations. A total of 486 fibromyalgia women with a mean (standard deviation) age of 52.2 (8.0) years participated. Pain was measured with self-reported measures and algometry, whereas fatigue with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. The impact of fibromyalgia was measured with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) total score. Total and central body fat were assessed by means of bioelectrical impedance and waist circumference, respectively. The Functional Senior Fitness Test battery and the handgrip strength test were used to assess physical fitness. Total and central body fat were positively associated with pain- and fatigue-related measures and the FIQR total score (β from 0.10 to 0.25; all, p pain (FIQR and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey), general and physical-related fatigue and FIQR total score (all, overall p pain, general fatigue, physical fatigue and reduced activity, and largely mediated (80%) the association of central body fat with the FIQR total score. Physical fitness might potentially explain the association between obesity and fibromyalgia symptoms. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-ba...

  7. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  8. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  9. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...... measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure...... (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls...

  10. Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, W C

    1998-03-01

    The percentage of energy from dietary fat is widely believed to be an important determinant of body fat, and several mechanisms have been proposed to account for such a relation. Comparisons of both diets and the prevalence of obesity between affluent and poor countries have been used to support a causal association, but these contrasts are seriously confounded by differences in physical activity and food availability. Within areas of similar economic development, regional intake of fat and prevalence of obesity have not been positively correlated. Randomized trials are the preferable method to evaluate the effect of dietary fat on adiposity, and are feasible because the number of subjects needed is not large. In short-term trials, a modest reduction in body weight is typically seen in individuals randomly assigned to diets with a lower percentage of energy from fat. However, compensatory mechanisms appear to operate because in trials lasting > or = 1 y, fat consumption within the range of 18-40% of energy appears to have little if any effect on body fatness. Moreover, within the United States, a substantial decline in the percentage of energy from fat consumed during the past two decades has corresponded with a massive increase in obesity. Diets high in fat do not appear to be the primary cause of the high prevalence of excess body fat in our society, and reductions in fat will not be a solution.

  11. Health-related physical fitness is associated with total and central body fat in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tellez, B; Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martín-Matillas, M; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether health-related physical fitness is associated with total and central body fat in preschool children. A total of 403 Spanish children aged 3-5 years (57.8% boys) participated in the study. Health-related physical fitness was measured by the PREFIT battery: the handgrip strength and the standing long-jump tests (muscular strength), the 4 × 10 m shuttle run (speed-agility), the one-leg stance tests (balance) and the PREFIT-20 m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness). Body mass index and waist circumference were used as markers of total and central body fat, respectively. There were significant associations between all health-related physical fitness tests and body mass index (β = 0.280 ± 0.054, β = -0.020 ± 0.006, β = 0.154 ± 0.065 and β = -0.034 ± 0.011 for the handgrip strength, standing long jump, 4 × 10 m shuttle run and PREFIT-20 m shuttle run tests, respectively, all P ≤ 0.019) after adjusting for sex and age. Similarly, there was significant associations of standing long jump (β = -0.072 ± 0.014), 4 × 10 m shuttle run (β = 0.652 ± 0.150) and PREFIT-20 m shuttle run tests (β = -0.102 ± 0.025) with waist circumference (all P ≤ 0.001), except for handgrip strength (β = 0.254 ± 0.145, P = 0.081) and one-leg stance (β = -0.012 ± 0.009, P = 0.156). The present study extends previous findings in older youth. Fitness assessment should be introduced in future epidemiological and intervention studies in preschool children because it seems to be an important factor determining health. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; kg/m2) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P 9 kg/m2) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m2) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women. PMID:22147997

  13. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: Towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymańska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Mela, D.J.; MacDonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid

  14. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymańska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Mela, D.J.; Macdonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid

  15. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: Towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Mela, D.J.; Macdonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136

  16. Central body fat changes in men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing testosterone replacement therapy are modulated by androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Buldreghini, E; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning body composition changes after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In this study, we aimed to clarify this aspect by focussing our attention on male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition often associated with partial or total hypopituitarism. Fourteen men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and undergoing several replacement hormone therapies were evaluated before and after TRT. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-derived body composition measurements, pituitary-dependent hormones and AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism were considered. While testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels increased after TRT, cortisol concentration decreased. No anthropometric or body composition parameters varied significantly, except for abdominal fat decrease. The number of CAG triplets was positively and significantly correlated with this abdominal fat decrease, while the opposite occurred between the latter and Δ-testosterone. No correlation of IGF-1 or cortisol variation (Δ-) with Δ-abdominal fat was found. At multiple linear regression, after correction for Δ-testosterone, the positive association between CAG triplet number and abdominal fat change was confirmed. In male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter length of AR CAG repeat tract is independently associated with a more marked decrease of abdominal fat after TRT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  18. Relationship between physical activity, body fatness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are strong health predictors associated with excessive fatness. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in South African adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with a ...

  19. Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent relationships between objectively measured physical activity and insulin resistance in Portuguese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a school-based, cross-sectional study in 147 randomly selected girls (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 27.8 +/- 9.3% body...... fat) and 161 boys (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 22.0 +/- 9.2% body fat). Physical activity was assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer for 4 days and summarized as time spent sedentary (accelerometer counts vigorous...... (beta-coefficient = 0.001 [95% CI 0.0002-0.002]; P = 0.013). Time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (-0.002 [-0.003 to -0.001]; P = 0.0009) and overall physical activity (-0.001 [-0.008 to 0.003]; P

  20. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation......Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes...... to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  1. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1991-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the cornerstone for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) cause insulin resistance in muscle and liver and increase hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipoprotein production and perhaps decrease hepatic clearance of insulin. It is suggested that the depressing effect of insulin on circulating FFA concentration is dependent on the fraction derived from visceral adipocytes, which have a low responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin. Elevated secretion of cortisol and/or testosterone induces insulin resistance in muscle. This also seems to be the case for low testosterone concentrations in men. In addition, cortisol increases hepatic gluconeogenesis. Cortisol and testosterone have "permissive" effect on adipose lipolysis and therefore amplify lipolytic stimulation; FFA, cortisol, and testosterone thus have powerful combined effects, resulting in insulin resistance and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these factors promoting insulin resistance are active in abdominal visceral obesity, which is closely associated with insulin resistance, NIDDM, and the "metabolic syndrome." In addition, the endocrine aberrations may provide a cause for visceral fat accumulation, probably due to regional differences in steroid-hormone-receptor density. In addition to the increased activity along the adrenocorticosteroid axis, there also seem to be signs of increased activity from the central sympathetic nervous system. These are the established endocrine consequences of hypothalamic arousal in the defeat and defense reactions. There is some evidence that suggests an increased prevalence of psychosocial stress factors is associated with visceral distribution of body fat. Therefore, it is hypothesized that such factors might provide a background not only to a defense reaction and primary hypertension, suggested previously, but also to a defeat reaction, which contributes to an endocrine aberration

  2. DYSREGULATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS INCREASES CENTRAL BODY FAT ACCUMULATION IN MALES AFFECTED BY DIABETES MELLITUS AND LATE-ONSET HYPOGONADISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Colao, Annamaria; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    Functional hypercortisolism (FH) is a condition which occurs in some clinical states, such as major depression, eating disorders, numerous psychiatric conditions, and diabetes mellitus (DM) and which exerts several negative systemic effects. No data exist on the potentially harmful role of FH on body composition. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the influence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation on body composition in men affected by DM-associated late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Fourteen subjects affected by FH (FH-LOH) and 18 subjects not affected (N-LOH) were studied. Clinical, hormonal, and body composition measures were considered. The 2 groups had comparable age and weight. FH-LOH patients had lower levels of total (2 ± 0.27 ng/mL versus 2.31 ± 0.26 ng/mL; P = .003) and free (39.5 ± 6.44 pg/mL versus 46.8 ± 7.23 pg/mL; P = .005) (median, 38.7 [interquartile range, 36.1 to 41.3] pg/mL versus median, 46.1 [interquartile range, 40.4 to 52.7] pg/mL) testosterone compared to N-LOH patients. Abdominal fat amount was greater in FH-LOH than in N-LOH patients, even after adjustment for total testosterone. None of the bivariate correlations between body composition measures and hormonal variables were significant in N-LOH. Conversely, in FH-LOH, cortisol area under the curve (AUC) was found to be positively and significantly correlated with trunk (r = 0.933; P<.001) and abdominal fat (r = 0.852; P<.001) and negatively with lean leg (r = -0.607; P = .021). All of these associations were further confirmed upon linear regression analysis in FH-LOH (respectively, unstandardized β = 10.988 [P<.001]; β = 1.156 [P<.001]; β = -7.675 [P = .021]). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed AUC cortisol as a predictor of trunk and abdominal fat in FH-LOH. Dysregulation of the HPA axis in LOH-associated DM seems to be involved in abdominal fat accumulation.

  3. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...

  4. Androgens, body fat Distribution and Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerradi, Mouna; Dereumetz, Julie; Boulet, Marie-Michèle; Tchernof, André

    2014-12-01

    Androgens are regulators of important adipocyte functions such as adipogenesis, lipid storage, and lipolysis. Through depot-specific impact on the cells of each fat compartment, androgens could modulate body fat distribution patterns in humans. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes to lipid-storing adipocytes in several models including primary cultures of human adipocytes from both men and women. Androgen effects have also been observed on some markers of lipid metabolism such as LPL activity, fatty acid uptake, and lipolysis. Possible depot-specific and sex-specific effects have been observed in some but not all models. Transformation of androgen precursors to active androgens or their inactivation by enzymes that are expressed and functional in adipose tissue may contribute to modulate the local availability of active hormones. These phenomena, along with putative depot-specific interactions with glucocorticoids may contribute to human body fat distribution patterns.

  5. Body fat estimation using bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M G; Crabtree, N J; Shaw, N J; Kirk, J M W

    2007-01-01

    Although childhood obesity is a major problem, routine assessment methods do not reflect fat mass. Body mass index, which is most commonly used, gives an indication of weight for height and not a degree of adiposity. Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were used in a group of obese children to assess body fat. Comparison between DEXA and commercial bioelectrical impedance scales in 46 children showed a highly significant correlation (R = 0.944, p bioelectrical impedance was 2.4 kg lower compared to measurement using DEXA. These bioelectrical scales may prove useful in the management of childhood obesity as they are able to provide important clinical information regarding fat mass and adiposity. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Green tea reduces body fat via upregulation of neprilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, M; Tappenbeck, N; Gembardt, F; Rülke, R; Furkert, J; Melzig, M F; Siems, W-E; Brockmann, G A; Walther, T

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg -1 body weight per day) in the drinking water. In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, PGreen tea reduced food intake. This was paralleled by a selective increase in peripheral (in kidney 17%, in intestine 92%), but not central NEP expression and activity, leading to downregulation of orexigens (like galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.

  7. Body fat, menarche, fitness and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, R E

    1987-08-01

    Many well-trained athletes, ballet dancers and women who diet excessively have secondary or primary amenorrhoea. Less extensive training or weight loss may result in anovulatory menstrual cycles, or a shortened luteal phase. These disruptions of reproductive ability are due to hypothalamic dysfunction, which is correlated with weight loss or excessive leanness. It is proposed that these associations are causal and that the high percentage of body fat (26-28%) in the mature human female may influence reproduction directly. Four mechanisms are known: (i) adipose tissue converts androgens to oestrogen by aromatization. Body fat is thus a significant extragonadal source of oestrogen; (ii) body weight, hence fatness, influences the direction of oestrogen metabolism to more potent or less potent forms; leaner women make more catechol oestrogens, the less potent form; (iii) obese women and young, fat girls have a diminished capacity for oestrogen to bind sex-hormone-binding-globulin; (iv) adipose tissue can store steroid hormones. An indirect mechanism may be signals of abnormal control of temperature and changes in energy metabolism, which accompany excessive leanness. The hypothalamic reproductive dysfunction results in abnormal gonadotrophin secretion: there is an age inappropriate secretory pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), resembling that of prepubertal children. The secretion of LH and the responses to LHRH are reduced in direct correlation with the amount of weight loss. Other evidence from non-athletic and athletic women and mammals is presented in support of the hypothesis that a particular, minimum ratio of fat to lean mass is normally necessary for menarche (approximately 17% fat/body wt) and the maintenance of female reproductive ability (approximately 22% fat/body wt). Nomograms are given for the prediction of these critical weights for height from a fatness index; these weights are useful clinically in the evaluation

  8. Breastfeeding, early nutrition, and adult body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  10. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism

  12. Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass and fat percentage and to examine the relationship between BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and fat percentage as the measurement of obesity among university students.

  13. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maddalena, Chiara; Vodo, Stella; Petroni, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2012-12-01

    An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  15. Body fat assessment by bioelectrical impedance and its correlation with anthropometric indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Araújo, Ma L; Coelho Cabral, P; Kruze Grande de Arruda, I; Siqueira Tavares Falcão, A P; Silva Diniz, A

    2012-01-01

    Since the excess of body fat is associated with higher morbid-mortality rates (mainly in adults), precise, reliable, cost-effective, and broadly applicable methods are necessary for its assessment in population-based studies and in clinical practice. To evaluate the correlation between body fat estimated either by bioelectrical impedance or by the sum of skinfold thicknesses and anthropometric indicators of fat distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted enrolled 348 undergraduate students (median 21 years), from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. 262 of the subjects were women. Mean body fat assessed by bioelectrical impedance was 22.3 ± 6.2% in women and 15.2 ± 4.2% in men. Body fat obtained by the sum of skinfold thicknesses was similar to that assessed by bioelectrical impedance only in men. A strong correlation was observed between body fat assessed by bioelectrical impedance and that assessed by the sum of the skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. Regarding the conicity index, there was a moderate correlation for men and a weak correlation for women. The sum of skinfold thicknesses surrogate of body fat percentage and can be used to assess body fat when BIA is not available in the field. Additional information about central fat distribution can be supply by measuring the waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio.

  16. Body fat percentage of urban South African children: implications for health and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I

    2013-09-01

    To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.

  17. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  18. Body fat content, distribution and blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 50% of subject who had greater body fat content and waist hip ratio had impaired fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerant. Body fat content within the body has significance effects on blood glucose concentration. Consequently, there is a need of increasing awareness about healthy food consumption ...

  19. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  20. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  1. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (T Mi ), maximum (T Ma ), and mean temperatures (T Me ) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which T Me values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as T Ma and T Me of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), T Me of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), T Ma of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and T Mi and T Me of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease T Me , especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R 2 =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Androgen effect on body composition and fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M D

    2000-01-01

    Recognizing the adverse metabolic effects of predominantly visceral body fat distribution associated with low testosterone levels, researchers have investigated the effects of androgen treatment on body fat distribution in men. This presentation reviews the results of research on acute and longer-term effects of treatment with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Methods for investigating these results, including measurement of lipoprotein lipase activity and of radiolabeled fat uptake and turnover, are described and discussed.

  3. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  4. Doppler Bubble Grades After Diving and Relevance of Body Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Vellinga, Tjeerd P. van Rees; Van Dijk, Frank J.; Sterk, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    SCHELLART NAM, VAN REES VELLINGA TP, VAN DIJK FJ, STERK W. Doppler bubble grades after diving and relevance of body fat. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:951-7. Background: From the literature on venous gas embolism (VGE) and decompression sickness (DCS), it remains unclear whether body fat is a

  5. [Effect of different dietary fat intake on blood lipids, body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yantong; Zhuo, Qin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different dietary fat intake on body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats. Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Rats in low fat, normal fat, medium fat and high fat group were fed equal energy diets of low fat diet (5% energy from fat), normal diet (15% energy from fat), medium fat diet (25% energy from fat) and high fat diet (40% energy from fat) respectively. Blood glucose and lipids were analyzed at 0, 5 and 10 weeks. The level of serum adiponectin and leptin was tested at 0 and 10 weeks. At the end of 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the perirenal and periepididymis fat were separated and weighed. The mRNA of adiponectin and leptin in fat tissues were determined by realtime PCR. After the 5 and 10 weeks, the levels of serum triglyceride of rats in medium fat group and high fat group were lower than those in low fat group and normal fat group. At the end of 10 weeks, the expression of adiponectin mRNA in fat tissues in medium fat group was lower than those in low fat group. There were no significant differences among four groups in body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin, and the expression of leptin mRNA in fat tissues. In energy balance status, different dietary fat intake had no effects on body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin in rats.

  6. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, body fat distribution and insulin in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, L; Megia, A; Grande, C; González-Gancedo, P; Pallardo, F

    1995-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones may be involved in determining body fat distribution in men. Recent evidence suggests that insulin may be an important regulator of sex hormones metabolism in men. Few data, however, are available on the relationship of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4), a major secretory product of the adrenal gland, to regional distribution of body fat or to insulin levels in men. We therefore examined the association of DHEA-SO4, total testosterone and free testosterone to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to subscapular-to-triceps ratio (STR) in 34 obese, otherwise healthy men. In addition, we examined the relation between these sex steroid hormones and insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test. DHEA-SO4 was significantly positively related to STR and significantly negatively related to insulin area. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age and obesity. Using multiple linear regression, DHEA-SO4 was independently related to both STR and insulin area. Without claiming any causality in the observed associations, we conclude that, in obese men, high DHEA-SO4 levels are related to centralized adiposity, while low DHEA-SO4 levels are related to hyperinsulinemia.

  8. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  9. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (pbody fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic. PMID:25067962

  11. Genetic Polymorphisms in SOD (rs2070424, rs7880) and CAT (rs7943316, rs1001179) Enzymes Are Associated with Increased Body Fat Percentage and Visceral Fat in an Obese Population from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Hernández-Chávez, Paulina; Romo-Palafox, Inés; Blanco-Melo, Grecia; Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative disturbance is an important factor involved in the etiology of comorbidities associated with obesity. Genetic polymorphisms such as SOD1 -251A>G, SOD2 47 C>T, CAT -21A>T and CAT -262 C>T have been described to alter the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of the present work was to analyze the association of the mentioned SNPs with obesity and their relationship with anthropometric and clinical variables in this group. The study included 416 Mexican women (208 normal weight, NW and 208 subjects with obesity, OB). Dietary intake, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical features were evaluated and then analyzed in function of the genotypes. The mutated carriers (GA+GG) of SOD -251 were significantly higher in the OB group (0.24) compared to the NW group (0.08). The other SNPs showed no differences compared with control group. When comparing carrier mutated subjects with obesity vs. wild-type obese participants with the SNPs SOD1 -251, SOD2 47 and CAT -262, the carriers showed a significantly (p G is associated with obesity independent of the presence of diabetes or dyslipidemia. Mutated obese carries of SOD1 -251, SOD2 47 and CAT -262 are associated with a higher distribution of fat in comparison with obese wild-type carriers. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body fat, sweetness sensitivity, and preference: determining the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Duizer, Lisa; Caldwell, Tristaca

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether body fat is a better measure than body mass index (BMI) for determining the relationship between body size and sweetness perception and preference. Seventy-two women were recruited and separated into two groups. First, BMI was determined and used to classify each woman as either normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²) or overweight (>25.0 kg/m²). Body fat was determined from skinfold sites and used to categorize women into normal (sweetness were evaluated to determine the women's liking for sweetness, and the perceived sweetness of the sample. Women in the overweight BMI and body fat groups had higher sucrose threshold values than did women in the normal groups. When presented with custards of varying sucrose levels, the overweight BMI and body fat groups had a significantly increased liking for sweetness as sucrose concentration increased. Body fat measures were as effective as BMI measures in determining sweetness preference. Future research should be conducted to determine whether body fat and measures, such as waist circumference, can be predictive tools for sweetness preference.

  13. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  15. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  16. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  17. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    ,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...

  18. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  19. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  1. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  2. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  3. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  4. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  5. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF....

  6. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of body composition through direct and indirect methods allows the study of the various components of the human body, becoming the central hub for assessing nutritional status. The objective of the study was to develop equations for predicting body fat% from circumferential body arm, waist and calf and propose percentiles to diagnose the nutritional status of school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years. We selected intentionally (non-probabilistic) 515 children, 261 children and 254 being girls belonging to Program interaction and development of children and adolescents from the State University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Anthropometric variables were evaluated for weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and body circumferences of arm, waist and calf, and the% fat determined by the equation proposed by Boileau, Lohman and Slaughter (1985). Through regression method 2 were generated equations to predict the percentage of fat from the body circumferences, the equations 1 and 2 were validated by cross validation method. The equations showed high predictive values ranging with a R² = 64-69%. In cross validation between the criterion and the regression equation proposed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and there was a high level of agreement to a 95% CI. It is concluded that the proposals are validated and shown as an alternative to assess the percentage of fat in school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years in the region of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  8. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  9. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  10. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    -related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs...

  11. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the ... intensity were the predictors of high BF%. Author Correspondence, e-mail: ... maintenance of weight loss among overweight and obese women [18]. 2. METHODOLOGY.

  12. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  13. Anthropometric predictive equations for percentage body fat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive regression equations (with r2 = 0.931 and 0.945 respectively) that worked better for Nigerian women compared to other existing equations such as Durnin and Wormersley, Siri, Vogel el al, (1984) for the estimation of body fat were obtained. These equations·could be validly used for mass screening exercise in ...

  14. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss of opportunities for investment and hence lower levels of economic development (WHO,. 2006a). It has been ... Measurements. Measurements of weight, height and body fat content were done on each subject. Height and ... 3 days before the test as starvation or diet low in carbohydrate can lead to incorrect test result.

  15. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factor for osteoporosis. Renee Blaauw, Eisa C. Albertse, Stephen Hough. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the body fat distribution of patients with osteoporosis (GP) with that of an appropriately matched non-GP control group. Design. Case control study. Setting. Department of Endocrinology and ...

  16. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  17. Comparison of body fat percentage and physical performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body fat percentage and physical performance of male national senior and junior karate athletes. Sixteen male karate kumite competitors of the national karate team (senior n = 8; junior n = 8) participated in this study. The tests included both assessment of selected ...

  18. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  19. Fat and female fecundity : prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J C; van Noord, P.A.H.; te Velde, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. SETTING: One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Of 542

  20. Fat and female fecundity : Prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J. C.; Van Noord, Paul A H; te Velde, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-01-01

    Objectives - To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. Design - Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. Setting - One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. Subjects - Of 542

  1. Collapsed fat navigators for brain 3D rigid body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Mathias; Mårtensson, Magnus; Avventi, Enrico; Norbeck, Ola; Skare, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    To acquire high-resolution 3D multi-slab echo planar imaging data without motion artifacts, using collapsed fat navigators. A fat navigator module (collapsed FatNav) was added to a diffusion-weighted 3D multi-slab echo planar imaging (DW 3D-MS EPI) sequence, comprising three orthogonal echo planar imaging readouts to track rigid body head motion in the image domain and performing prospective motion correction. The stability, resolution and accuracy of the navigator were investigated on phantoms and healthy volunteers. The experiments on phantoms and volunteers show that the navigator, depicting projections of the subcutaneous fat in of the head, is capable of correcting for head motion with insignificant bias compared to motion estimates derived from the water-signaling DWI images. Despite that this projection technique implies a non-sparse image appearance, collapsed FatNav data could be highly accelerated with parallel imaging, allowing three orthogonal 2D EPI readouts in about 6ms. By utilizing signal from the leading fat saturation RF pulse of the diffusion sequence, only the readout portion of the navigator needs to be added, resulting in a scan time penalty of only about 5%. Motion can be detected and corrected for with a 5-10Hz update frequency when combined with a sequence like the DW 3D-MS EPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correction of Sunken Upper Eyelids by Anchoring the Central Fat Pad to the Medial Fat Pad during Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Su Jeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany methods have been proposed for the correction of sunken upper eyelids. These methods include surgical treatments, such as micro-fat, dermofat, or fascia-fat grafts, or the use of alloplastic materials. Here, we present our experience of sunken upper eyelid correction involving the simple addition of anchoring the central fat pad to the medial fat pad during upper blepharoplasty.MethodsWe performed 74 cases of upper blepharoplasty with sunken upper eyelid correction between October 2013 and September 2014. The lateral portion of the central fat pad was partially dissected to facilitate anchoring. The medial fat pad was gently exposed and then pulled out to facilitate anchoring. After the rotation of the dissected lateral portion of the central fat pad by 180° to the medial side, it was anchored spreading to the medial fat pad. Photographs taken at 6 months postoperatively were presented to three physicians for objective assessment. Of the 74 patients, 54 patients followed at 6 months postoperatively were included in this retrospective, objective assessment.ResultsSunken eyelids were effectively corrected in 51 of the 54 patients, but 3 had minimal effect because preaponeurotic fat pads had been removed during previous upper blepharoplasty. In addition to correcting sunken eyelids, lateral bulging was corrected and a better definition of the lateral portion of upper lid creases was obtained.ConclusionsAnchoring the central fat pad to the medial fat pad provides an effective means of correcting sunken upper eyelids during upper blepharoplasty.

  3. Relationships and independence of body composition, sex hormones, fat distribution and other cardiovascular risk factors in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, O L; Hassager, C; Christiansen, C

    1993-08-01

    The relationships and independence of body composition, sex hormones, fat distribution and other cardiovascular risk factors were studied in 121 overweight postmenopausal women. Body composition and fat distribution were directly measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); other parameters were waist-to-hip ratio (WTH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, androstenedione (A), oestradiol (E2), and lipids and lipoproteins; cigarette and alcohol consumption were recorded. SHBG was correlated with the fat distribution by DXA and WTH (r = -0.35, P fat mass (r = -0.3, P fat distribution (by DXA and WTH, respectively) (P fat distribution (WTH) and A (r = -0.2 to -0.3, P fat distribution (WTH) and A were independently related to HDL-C (P Fat distribution (WTH) and SHBG were independently related to triglycerides (P fat distribution (by DXA) and E2 were independently associated with total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P fat distribution. Furthermore, atherogenic levels of lipids and lipoproteins were independently related to a central fat distribution, androgenicity and low levels of oestrogens.

  4. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  5. Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J C; Van Noord, P A; te Velde, E R; Habbema, J D; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-02-20

    To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. Of 542 women attending the clinic for artificial insemination for the first time, 500 women were eligible for study. Probability of conception per cycle and number of insemination cycles before pregnancy or stopping treatment. A 0.1 unit increase in waist-hip ratio led to a 30% decrease in probability of conception per cycle (hazard ratio 0.706; 95% confidence interval 0.562 to 0.887) after adjustment for age, fatness, reasons for artificial insemination, cycle length and regularity, smoking, and parity. Increasing age was significantly related to lower fecundity (p fat distribution in women of reproductive age seems to have more impact on fertility than age or obesity.

  6. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Stefanie; Schmidt, Martina E; Vrieling, Alina; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Zaineddin, Aida K; Buck, Katharina; Benner, Axel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Steindorf, Karen

    2012-05-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a woman's body fat distribution shows a BMI-independent association with these breast cancer-related biomarkers. Performing cross-sectional analyses among 1,180 postmenopausal women, we assessed whether associations of surrogates for an abdominal (waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and gluteofemoral (hip circumference) fat distribution with estrone, total and free estradiol, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, and SHBG changed after adjustment for, or stratification by, BMI. All anthropometric measures were positively associated with estrogens and free testosterone, and negatively with SHBG. After adjustment for BMI, associations of free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG with both waist circumference and WHR remained significant, but all initially significant associations with hip circumference were abolished. In stratified analyses, waist circumference and WHR correlated with free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG in women with a BMI fat on these biomarkers may be masked by the already large amount of overall body fat. On the whole, our results indicate that waist circumference and WHR, but not hip circumference, are associated with SHBG and SHBG-related sex hormones (free estradiol and free testosterone) independently of BMI.

  7. Body fat distribution in pre-and post-menopausal women: metabolic and anthropometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Pérez-Llamas, F; Baraza, J C; Garcia-Prieto, M D; Fardy, P S; Tébar, F J; Zamora, S

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with coronary risk although the causality is not well established. To compare body fat distribution and metabolic variables in obese pre- and post- menopausal women. The study was conducted in 55 obese female subjects (22 pre- and 33 post- menopausal) with body mass indices (BMI) from 27 to 35 Kg/m2. Body fat distribution was measured using waist and hip circumference and computerized tomography. Hormones such as estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, as well as plasma lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, apoproteins A and B, were also determined. No significant differences were found between the two groups in BMI, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, triceps, biceps, suprailiac and abdominal skinfolds. Hip circumference, subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area were significantly lower, and waist-hip ratio, visceral area and visceral to subcutaneous area ratios significantly higher in post- menopausal women (P low density lipoprotein, values were significantly higher in the post-menopausal group (P fat distribution changes according to menopausal status, with central obesity more pronounced in post- menopausal women. Metabolic abnormalities are related more to visceral adipose tissue and estrogen plasma levels than to BMI.

  8. Fat and female fecundity prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Noord, van, P.A.H.; Velde, te, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Vrieswijk, B.; Karbaat, J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. SETTING--One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Of 542 women attending the clinic for artificial insemination for the first time, 500 women were eligible for study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Probability of conception per cycle and number of insemination cycl...

  9. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  10. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  11. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  12. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Challenging fat talk: An experimental investigation of reactions to body disparaging conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Baumgardner, Megan; Guo, Cai; Simms, Lea; Abromowitz, Emily

    2017-12-01

    Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability. Results indicated that the challenging fat talk vignette (versus the fat talk vignette) yielded less negative affect and fat talk and was perceived as more socially attractive with a more likeable target character. Baseline body dissatisfaction, baseline fat talk tendencies, and momentary negative affect predicted post-exposure fat talk engagement. Current findings highlight possibilities for implementing feminist language and psychoeducation in fat talk prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  15. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol ® and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  16. Obesity, body fat distribution and sex hormones in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Valdez, R A; Stern, M P; Katz, M S

    1993-11-01

    An unfavourable body fat distribution may cause metabolic abnormalities including diabetes and dyslipidemia. These effects may be mediated by alterations in sex hormones. In women the available data suggest that upper body adiposity is related to increased androgenicity (especially as indicated by low concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin). Few data, however, are available on these relationships in men. We therefore examined the association of total testosterone, free testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index in 178 men from the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The conicity index is equal to the abdominal circumference divided by 0.109 x the square root of (weight/height). The conicity index and WHR were significantly inversely related to DHEA-SO4 and free testosterone. SHBG was only weakly associated with body mass index (r = -0.18, P testosterone remained inversely associated with conicity index (r = -0.21, P fat distribution and increased androgenicity is inverse in contrast to the situation in women.

  17. [Leptin correlates with distribution of fatty tissue and plasma levels of insulin, testosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha in perimenopausal women with increased testosterone level and central location of body fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef; Janczak-Saif, Agnieszka; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of testosterone and fat tissue distribution on the serum leptin levels in perimenopausal women. 93 perimenopausal women without HRT (age: 51.0 +/- 8.8 yrs, FSH: 68.0 +/- 49.4 IU/l, estradiol: 38.3 +/- 37.0 ng/1) were divided into group A - 63 women with serum testosterone level or = 0.6 ng/ml. Each group was later divided according to WHR into subgroup I (AI and BI) (WHR or = 0.8). Basic fasting serum levels of LH, FSH, PRL, estradiol, insulin, hGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, testosterone, DHEAS TNF-alpha and SHBG were measured by RIA kits. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as triglycerides plasma levels were measured. Statistical evaluation was carried out by ANOVA and linear regression. BMI, WHR and plasma DHEAS level were higher in group B vs. group A. The lowest hGH, HDL-cholesterol and the highest TNF-alpha levels were found in group BII. The relations leptin/BMI and leptin/body mass were found in each group. The inverse relation between leptin and IGFBP-1 was found in groups A and B. In group A the inverse relations leptin/HDL-cholesterol and leptin/ DHEAS were observed. In group B the direct leptin/testosterone and inverse leptin/IGF-I relations were found. In group AI the inverse leptin/DHEAS relation remained, while in group AII inverse leptin/HDL-cholesterol relation remained and reverse leptin/IGFBP-1 relation was significant. The direct leptin/testosterone, leptin/WHR and inverse leptin/TNF-alpha links were observed in group BII. The serum leptin level was linked to WHR, serum testosterone, insulin, TNF-alpha levels only in groups of perimenopausal women with such cardiovascular risk factors as high WHR, overweight, high serum TNF-alpha and testosterone levels.

  18. Body fat distribution and its associated factors in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chan Hee; Yuk, Jin Sung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Yi, Kyung Wook; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Shin, Jung-Ho

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the body fat distribution in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the association of those distribution with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles. A total 90 patients with PCOS and 97 women without PCOS (control group) were included in this study. Total body fat, abdominal visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat were determined on abdominal fat computed tomography. Lipid profiles and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), and cortisol were measured in PCOS group. Total body fat and body fat distribution in the PCOS group were not significantly different from the control group in Korean women (P = 0.054, P = 0.761, P = 0.104), but abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio was larger in the PCOS group than the control group (P = 0.047). Not only total body fat and visceral fat, but also subcutaneous fat in the PCOS group had a positive correlation with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, free testosterone, FAI, body mass index, but negative correlation with SHBG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Korean PCOS women had the same body fat distribution as the control group. Subcutaneous fat was also correlated with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles in the Korean PCOS group. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Current and adolescent body fatness and body fat distribution are related to carotid atherosclerosis and large artery stiffness at age 36.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, I.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Seidell, J.C.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Body fat and its distribution are determinants of cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanisms of these adverse effects are poorly understood. We therefore investigated (1) the cross-sectional relationship between estimates of body fatness and its distribution on the one hand and

  20. Eating disorder risk and body dissatisfaction based on muscularity and body fat in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body dissatisfaction and perceptual attractiveness determined with the Bodybuilder Image Grid (BIG). There was a positive correlation (r=.16, pEAT and fat dissatisfaction and a negative correlation (r=-.14, pEAT score indicating that they were at risk for an eating disorder. Males chose a significantly more muscular and leaner body type than what females chose to be attractive. College-aged males may be at risk for eating disorders based on distortions in their perceived ideal body image, both for fat and muscle.

  1. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  2. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  3. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  4. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on central nervous system remyelination in fat-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Elise; Paul, Friedemann; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten H

    2017-01-24

    There is a large body of experimental evidence suggesting that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are capable of modulating immune function. Some studies have shown that these PUFAs might have a beneficial effect in patients suffering form multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This could be due to increased n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In the present study we tested the effect of an endogenously increased n-3 PUFA status on cuprizone-induced CNS demyelination and remyelination in fat-1 mice versus their wild-type (wt) littermates. Fat-1 mice express an n-3 desaturase, which allows them to convert n-6 PUFAs into n-3 PUFAs. CNS lipid profiles in fat-1 mice showed a significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels but similar docosahexaenoic acid levels compared to wt littermates. This was also reflected in significantly higher levels of monohydroxy EPA metabolites such as 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 brain tissue. Feeding fat-1 mice and wt littermates 0.2% cuprizone for 5 weeks caused a similar degree of CNS demyelination in both groups; remyelination was increased in the fat-1 group after a recovery period of 2 weeks. However, at p = 0.07 this difference missed statistical significance. These results indicate that n-3 PUFAs might have a role in promotion of remyelination after toxic injury to CNS oligodendrocytes. This might occur either via modulation of the immune system or via a direct effect on oligodendrocytes or neurons through EPA-derived lipid metabolites such as 18-HEPE.

  5. Central obesity as a clinical marker of adiposopathy; increased visceral adiposity as a surrogate marker for global fat dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is often described as ‘protective’. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is often described as ‘pathologic’. However, both SAT and VAT have protective and pathologic potential, with interdependent biologic functions. Recent findings Most of the body's (excess) energy is stored as fat in SAT. If during positive caloric balance, SAT does not undergo adequate adipogenesis, then excess energy may result in adipocyte hypertrophy, leading to hypoxia, immunopathies, and endocrinopathies. Energy overflow may promote accumulation of pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and myocardial fat, which may directly contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipotoxic free fatty acid delivery to nonadipose body organs (e.g. liver, muscle, and pancreas) may indirectly contribute to CVD by promoting the most common metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice (e.g. high blood sugars, high blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia), all major CVD risk factors. Finally, SAT energy overflow may increase VAT accumulation, which is also associated with increased risk of metabolic diseases and CVD. Summary Increased VAT is a surrogate marker for SAT dysfunction which increases waist circumference, reflecting a shared pathologic process leading to the pathogenic fat accumulation of other fat depots and fatty infiltration of nonadipose body organs. Central obesity is a clinical marker for adiposopathy. PMID:25106000

  6. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  7. [Predictive accuracy of body mass index in estimating body fatness measured by bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fernando; Reyes, Eliana; Rimler, Olga; Rios, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the performance of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity and as a predictor of body fatness in adult Chilean subjects. We conducted a study in 433 women (18-73 years old; BMI: 19.7 to 69.7 kg/m2) and 264 men (18-83 y.; BMI: 19.1 to 54.8 kg/m2). Bioelectrical resistance was measured by impedance method and fat mass percent (FM%) was calculated by fatness-specific equations developed by Segal et al. Obesity was defined as a BMI of at least 30 kg/m2. Increased fatness was defined by the FM% cut-off points of at least 25% for men and at least 30% for women. Sixty-four percent of women and 23.6% of men with BMI below 30 kg/m2 had FM% higher than 30% and 25%, respectively. A value of BMI of 26 kg/m2 in women and 30 kg/m2 in men had the best agreement to the cut-off points of fatness according to sensitivity vs. specificity analysis The following equations were developed to predict individual fatness: women FM% = 0.96 x BMI + 0.154 x age + 1.44 (r2 = 0.75; standard error 3.8%); men FM% = 0.99 x BMI + 0.141 x age - 9.914 (r2 = 0.66; standard error 4.4%). Differences between measured and predicted FM% presented a wide variation, with a range of +/- 2 sd of 7.5% in women and 8.8% in men. The commonly used value of BMI 330 kg/m2 as a cut-off point for obesity does not have adequate sensitivity and specificity for the screening of increased fatness subjects, specially in women. In this study BMI shows a low reliability as a predictor of individual body fatness, particularly in men and in subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2.

  8. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  9. Body Fat Measurements in Singaporean Adults Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Bi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to measure body composition in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the percent body fat (PBF by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP or BOD POD, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and skinfold (SKF in 445 healthy Singaporean adults. We observed that the BOD POD, BIA and SKF estimates of PBF were highly correlated with that from DEXA (as a reference method among Singaporean adults. However, they all underestimated PBF (differences of 3.9% for BOD POD, 5.6% for BIA and 12.5% for SKF. Our results filled a gap in the literature by testing the relationships between DEXA and BOD POD, BIA and SKF in a large sample with a wide range of body mass index (BMI from 16.1 to 37.5 kg/m2 and age from 21 to 69.2 years. The differences of PBF measured by different methods were dependent on age, gender and ethnicity. No significant difference was observed between DEXA and BOD POD in men aged > 40 or in BMI tertile 3. However, the mean difference between DEXA and BOD POD was significant in women. Different measuring methods of estimating PBF therefore must be cautiously interpreted.

  10. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... no effect on the response to vitamin D supplementation....

  11. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal ...

  12. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...... battery. VO2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects...

  13. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Lubree, H.G.; Rege, S.S.; Bhat, D.S.; Raut, K.N.; Panchanadikar, A.S.; Joglekar, C.B.; Naik, S.S.; Shetty, P.; Yudkin, J.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    We studied cardiovascular risk factors in 30 to 50 year old Indian men in three geographical locations (rural, urban slums and urban middle class) in relation to their body fat. A total of 1,222 subjects, selected by stratified random sampling were screened: 39 reported diabetic or hypertensive. Of the remaining subjects 600 were randomly selected for further testing. This is a report 441 men studied (149 rural, 142 slums, 150 urban middle class). The mean age of these men was 38 y rural, 38 y urban slums, 41 y urban middle class, mean BMI 21.0 kg/m 2 , 22.3 kg/m 2 and 24.3 kg/m 2 respectively, mean body fat percent by bio-impedance 20.4%, 22.5% and 30.4% and by Deuterated water was 19.9%, 21.6% and 27.2% respectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (WHO 1985) showed no diabetes in rural subjects, while 4% urban slum dwellers and 10 in urban middle class were diabetic; 9% rural men had IGT, compared to 12% in urban slums and 20% in urban middle class. Hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Bg) was present in 2% rural men, 4% in urban slums and in 10% men in urban middle class. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was 148 mg% in rural, 53 mg% in urban slums and 64 mg% in urban middle class, mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 82 mg%, 95 mg% and 108 mg% respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were strongly related to measures of obesity (body fat % and waist hip ratio). On multivariate analysis 2h plasma glucose (OGTT) concentration and blood pressure were additionally related to geographical location (urban middle class>slums>rural). Our results suggest that urbanisation increases the risk of glucose intolerance and hypertension independent of the body fat percent or its central distribution. This suggests there may he additional environmental factors in the urban environment increasing the risk of diabetes over and above the effect of body fat. (author)

  15. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  16. Fat distribution in non-obese girls with and without precocious pubarche: central adiposity related to insulinaemia and androgenaemia from prepuberty to postmenarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; Ong, Ken; de Zegher, Francis; Marcos, Maria Victoria; del Rio, Luis; Dunger, David B

    2003-03-01

    Precocious pubarche (PP) in girls is associated with hyperinsulinaemia and dyslipidaemia of prepubertal onset, and with ovarian hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction in adolescence, particularly if they also had prenatal growth restraint and postnatal growth acceleration. Hyperinsulinaemia may be the pathogenic key factor, possibly amplified by hyperandrogenaemia. While such PP girls do not have increased body mass index (BMI), we hypothesized that body fat mass and fat distribution may differ between PP girls and matched controls, and may relate to insulin and androgen levels. Sixty-seven PP girls (age range 6.0-18.0 years) and 65 control girls matched for age and pubertal stage (5.9-18.0 years) had height, weight, waist and hip circumferences measured, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of total body fat mass, and fat mass in abdominal and truncal regions. All girls had fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, lipids, testosterone and SHBG levels measured; PP girls also had a standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). Despite no differences in BMI, PP girls had significantly larger waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total fat mass, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat mass, and truncal fat mass vs. controls in each pubertal stage. Overall, fasting insulin levels, free androgen index (FAI) and blood lipid levels were more closely related to central fat than to total body fat mass. In a multiple regression analysis, truncal fat mass was independently related to both fasting insulin (P = 0.009) and FAI (P fat mass was inversely related to birthweight (r = -0.25, P = 0.001). In PP girls, central fat mass was positively related to insulin levels after oGTT (truncal fat vs. 30 min insulin; r = 0.46, P fat mass throughout all pubertal stages, and increased central fat was related to hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia. It remains to be verified whether body composition in PP girls can be normalized by insulin-sensitization and

  17. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF. © 2016 Schnurr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original...... author and source are credited....

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease severity, central fat mass and adinopectin: a close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; DI Renzo, Laura; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Milic, Natasa; DE Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the general population. Overweight is a common condition in patients with NAFLD, and body composition (BC) assessment is useful to evaluate nutritional status and the efficacy of nutritional strategies. A valid tool for assessing BC is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Adiponectin has been shown to be relevant to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of this observational study is to define the relationship between the severity of NAFLD, the central fat mass evaluated by DXA, and the circulating levels of adiponectin. The study was carried out in 31 overweight patients. The degree of liver steatosis was evaluated by ultrasound (US) examination. Anthropometric parameters were measured according to standard methods. Fasting glucose and insulin level were used also to calculate insulin resistance (IR), according to the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was performed to dose fasting serum levels of adiponectin. NAFLD progression was significantly associated with increased central fat (ppractice, can improve the nutritional strategies and follow-up. In the clinical setting adiponectin may represent a potential marker for the staging of NAFLD.

  19. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  20. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  1. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Dastani, Zari; Timpson, Nicholas; Yuan, Xin; Henneman, Peter; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Small, Kerrin; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Frants, Rune; Willemsvan-vanDijk, Ko; Willems, Sara M.; Winkler, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andy; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H. Erich; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, John Brent; Willenborg, Christina; Thompson, John R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Åsa; Hall, Alistair S.; Lee, Jong-Young; Esko, Tõnu; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Ziegler, Andreas; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Groop, Leif; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Langford, Cordelia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Maouche, Seraya; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Basart, Hanneke; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Stark, Klaus; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Hovingh, G. Kees; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Schreiber, Stefan; Ripatti, Samuli; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Reilly, Muredach P.; Collins, Rory; Kathiresan, Sekar; Roberts, Robert; Schunkert, Heribert; Pattaro, Cristian; Köttgen, Anna; Garnaas, Maija; Böger, Carsten A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Smith, Albert V.; Struchalin, Maksim; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chouraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Kolcic, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Endlich, Karlhans; Ernst, Florian; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völzke, Henry; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Giulianini, Franco; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Sala, Cinzia; Metzger, Marie; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Toniolo, Daniela; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Franke, Andre; Rettig, Rainer; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Goessling, Wolfram; Kao, W. H. Linda; de Boer, Ian H.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Kramer, Holly; Arking, Dan E.; Franceschini, Nora; Egan, Josephine; Hernandez, Dena; Reilly, Muredach; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lumley, Thomas; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Haritunians, Talin; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Waterworth, Dawn; Lu, Xiaoning; Leak, Tennille S.; Aasarød, Knut; Skorpen, Frank; Baumert, Jens; Devuyst, Olivier; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Curhan, Gary; Hallan, Stein; Navis, Gerjan; Shlipak, Michael G.; Bull, Shelley B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Kao, W. H. L.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M. E.; Kemp, John P.; Koller, Daniel L.; Minster, Ryan L.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M.; Kaptoge, Stephen K.; Leo, Paul J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J.; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hocking, Lynne J.; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A.; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Svensson, Olle; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D.; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S.; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M.; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M.; Riancho, José A.; Rousseau, François; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Urreizti, Roser; van Hul, Wim; Zarrabeitia, María T.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances M. K.; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A.; Clark, Graeme R.; Cummings, Steven R.; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Graeme; Khaw, Kay-Tee; McCloskey, Eugene; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Prince, Richard L.; Reid, Ian R.; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N.; Sham, Pak Chung; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Wareham, Nick J.; Econs, Michael J.; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Reeve, Jonathan; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Karasik, David; Richards, J. Brent; Brown, Matthew A.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kiel, Douglas P.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Dan; Mihai, Ioana; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Lajer, Maria; Waggott, Daryl; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Godson, Catherine; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Ganna, Andrea; Mora, Samia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Li, Xiaohui; Montasser, May E.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Sidore, Carlo; Surakka, Ida; van den Herik, Evita G.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Asiki, Gershim; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Elliott, Paul; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gravito, Martha L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kim, Eric; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lin, Shih-Yi; Müller, Gabrielle; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Tiret, Laurence; van Pelt, L. Joost; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Willemsen, Gonneke; Young, Elizabeth H.; Bennett, Franklyn; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Feranil, Alan B.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kesäniemi, Antero; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meneton, Pierre; Moilanen, Leena; Price, Jackie F.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Caulfield, Mark; Chasman, Dan; Ehret, Georg; Johnson, Andrew; Johnson, Louise; Larson, Martin; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Reilly, Paul; Palmas, Walter; Psaty, Bruce; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Albert; Snider, Harold; Tobin, Martin; Verwoert, Germaine; Rice, Kenneth M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Pihur, Vasyl; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Launer, Lenore; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Go, Min Jin; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Najjar, Samer; Hadley, David; Connell, John M.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Li, Yali; Young, J. H.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Chaturvedi, Nish; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Howard, Philip; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Weder, Alan B.; Sun, Yan V.; Scott, Laura J.; Peltonen, Leena; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Hilton, Gina; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Stanèáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Laitinen, Jaana; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Laan, Maris; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uda, Manuela; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Larson, Martin G.; Anderson, Carl A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Guo, Qun; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Lee, Sang Hong; Kraft, Peter; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Macgregor, Stuart; Missmer, Stacey A.; Painter, Jodie N.; Roseman, Fenella; Treloar, Susan A.; Wallace, Leanne; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Rehnberg, Emil; Lecoeur, Cecile; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Salo, Perttu; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Esko, Tönu; Chen, Han; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Kang, Hyun Min; Song, Kijoung; An, Ping; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Kong, Augustine; Herder, Christian; Antti, Jula; Miljkovic, Iva; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Province, Michael A.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Körner, Antje; Dupuis, Josée; Cucca, Francesco; Balkau, Beverley; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Hassanali, Neelam; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lowe, Christopher E.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Matise, Tara; Buyske, Steve; Higashio, Julia; Williams, Rasheeda; Nato, Andrew; Ambite, Jose Luis; Manolio, Teri; Hindorff, Lucia; Heiss, Gerardo; Taylor, Kira; Avery, Christy; Graff, Misa; Lin, Danyu; Quibrera, Miguel; Cochran, Barbara; Kao, Linda; Umans, Jason; Cole, Shelley; MacCluer, Jean; Person, Sharina; Pankow, James; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Durda, Peter; Jenny, Nancy; Patsy, Bruce; Arnold, Alice; Buzkova, Petra; Crawford, Dana; Haines, Jonathan; Murdock, Deborah; Glenn, Kim; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Dumitrescu, Logan; Jeff, Janina; Bush, William S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Goodloe, Robert; Wilson, Sarah; Boston, Jonathan; Malinowski, Jennifer; Restrepo, Nicole; Oetjens, Matthew; Fowke, Jay; Zheng, Wei; Spencer, Kylee; Ritchie, Marylyn; Pendergrass, Sarah; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne; Park, Lani; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kolonel, Laurence; Lim, Unhee; Cheng, Iona; Wang, Hansong; Shohet, Ralph; Haiman, Christopher; Stram, Daniel; Henderson, Brian; Monroe, Kristine; Schumacher, Fredrick; Anderson, Garnet; Carlson, Chris; Prentice, Ross; LaCroix, Andrea; Wu, Chunyuan; Carty, Cara; Gong, Jian; Rosse, Stephanie; Young, Alicia; Haessler, Jeff; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Rebecca; Duggan, David; Kuller, Lew; He, Chunyan; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; McArdle, Patick F.; Porcu, Eleonora; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhuang, Wei V.; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Broekmans, Frank J.; Burri, Andrea; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D.; D'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V. Z.; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Ferreli, Liana; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hass, Merli; Heath, Andrew C.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Keyzer, Jules; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S. E.; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Marongiu, Mara; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; Medland, Sarah E.; Melzer, David; Newman, Anne B.; Paré, Guillaume; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Plump, Andrew S.; Pop, Victor J. M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Salumets, Andres; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stacey, Simon N.; Starr, John M.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Tenesa, Albert; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gils, Carla H.; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J. M.; Zgaga, Lina; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M.; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; Murray, Anna; Visser, Jenny A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lin, Peng; McArdle, Patrick F.; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Alavere, Helen; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blackburn, Hannah; Busonero, Fabio; Chen, Wei; Couper, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Eriksson, Johan; Foroud, Tatiana; Geller, Frank; Hernandez, Dena G.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Li, Shengxu; Melbye, Mads; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tyrer, Jonathon; van Meurs, Joyve B. J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Young, Lauren; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boyd, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide

  2. Validity of Three-Dimensional Photonic Scanning Technique for Estimating Percent Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T; Yanai, T; Kawakami, Y

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic scanning (3DPS) was recently developed to measure dimensions of a human body surface. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of body volume measured by 3DPS for estimating the percent body fat (%fat). Design, setting, participants, and measurement: The body volumes were determined by 3DPS in 52 women. The body volume was corrected for residual lung volume. The %fat was estimated from body density and compared with the corresponding reference value determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). No significant difference was found for the mean values of %fat obtained by 3DPS (22.2 ± 7.6%) and DXA (23.5 ± 4.9%). The root mean square error of %fat between 3DPS and reference technique was 6.0%. For each body segment, there was a significant positive correlation between 3DPS- and DXA-values, although the corresponding value for the head was slightly larger in 3DPS than in DXA. Residual lung volume was negatively correlated with the estimated error in %fat. The body volume determined with 3DPS is potentially useful for estimating %fat. A possible strategy for enhancing the measurement accuracy of %fat might be to refine the protocol for preparing the subject's hair prior to scanning and to improve the accuracy in the measurement of residual lung volume.

  3. Validation of the Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat percentage makes it possible for the body fat content of individuals and populations to be determined without the use of costly equipment. However, because the equations were derived using data from a young-adult (18-29 years old) Nigerian population, it is important ...

  4. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (YongMei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); D. Anderson (Denise); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days....... In this population, low daily accumulation of vigorous activity was, already in children aged 8-11 years, associated with more body fat and lower aerobic fitness. A similar relation was not found for daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous activity....

  7. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...

  8. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  9. Clinical usefulness of a new equation for estimating body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Escalada, Javier; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-02-01

    To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from both sexes (67% female) representing a wide range of ages (18-80 years) and adiposity. Additionally, a validation study in a separate cohort (n = 1,149) and a further analysis of the clinical usefulness of this prediction equation regarding its association with cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 634) was carried out. The mean BF% in the cohort of 6,510 subjects determined by air displacement plethysmography was 39.9 ± 10.1%, and the mean BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE was 39.3 ± 8.9% (SE of the estimate, 4.66%). In this group, BF% calculated with the CUN-BAE showed the highest correlation with actual BF% (r = 0.89, P < 0.000001) compared with other anthropometric measures or BF% estimators. Similar agreement was found in the validation sample. Moreover, BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE exhibits, in general, better correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI as well as waist circumference in the subset of 634 subjects. CUN-BAE is an easy-to-apply predictive equation that may be used as a first screening tool in clinical practice. Furthermore, our equation may be a good tool for identifying patients at cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk.

  10. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from observational studies indicates that a high calcium intake may reduce body weight and body fat. However, few randomized trials have been conducted. We examined whether calcium supplementation affects body weight and body fat in young girls and whether a relation exists between habitual calcium intake and body weight and body fat. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 110 young girls. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg Ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo for 1 y. Two groups of girls were selected according to habitual calcium intake from a large group; one group consumed 1000-1304 mg/d (40th-60th percentile; n = 60) and the other group consumed body weight, body fat, and calcium intake were measured at baseline and after 1 y. At baseline a significant negative correlation was observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and percentage of body fat (r = -0.242, P = 0.011). However, calcium supplementation had no effect on height, body weight, or percentage body fat. Habitual dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with body fat, but a low-dose calcium supplement had no effect on body weight, height, or body fat over 1 y in young girls. It is possible that the effect of calcium on body weight is only exerted if it is ingested as part of a meal, or the effect may be due to other ingredients in dairy products, and calcium may simply be a marker for a high dairy intake.

  11. Relationship of body composition with prevalence of osteoporosis in central south Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhifeng; Xu, Kang; Ou, Yangna; Dai, Ruchun; Luo, Xianghang; Liu, Shiping; Su, Xin; Wu, Xiyu; Xie, Hui; Yuan, Lingqing; Liao, Eryuan

    2011-03-01

    To elucidate the relationship between body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in central south Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 954 healthy central southern Chinese postmenopausal women, aged 50-82. Total body, lumbar spine and left femur BMD and total body soft tissue composition were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Among the study population, 578 (60.5%) subjects were without osteoporosis and 376 (39.4%) subjects were osteoporotic. The osteoporotic women were older, shorter and thinner, had an earlier age at menopause, a lower BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) of the total body and at different sites, and had lower body mass and body mass components than the women without osteoporosis. Both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with age at menopause, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and BMD at all sites. Fat mass and lean mass were also inversely correlated with age and years since menopause (Pmenopause and height, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD at the lumbar(1-4) spine, the femoral neck and the total hip. Fat mass was the most significant determinant of BMD at the lumbar(1-4) spine with a higher R(2) change and a partial R(2) compared with that of lean mass, while lean mass had more impact on the total hip values. Either a fat mass below 18.4 kg or a lean mass below 33.9 kg was correlated with a higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine or total hip. In central south Chinese postmenopausal women, both fat mass and lean mass are correlated with BMD at the lumbar spine and hip. Fat mass was the most significant determinant of BMD at the lumbar spine, while lean mass had more impact on the total hip value. Both lower values of fat mass and lean mass are related to a higher prevalence of osteoporosis at either the lumbar spine or the total hip. Thus, it is important to maintain a reasonable body weight to balance bone

  12. Changes in body fat percentage during body weight stable conditions of increased daily protein intake vs. control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    The objective of this study was to examine if increased protein intake vs. control influences body fat percentage during stable body weight. Body composition was assessed before and after a 3-month isoenergetic dietary intervention of 2MJ/d supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual ad libitum energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group (n=12) and an isoenergetic combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group (n=12). Daily protein intake was calculated from a 24h urinary nitrogen. Body composition was measured by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a method that allows for estimation of 4-body compartments (fat and lean; water, bone and rest). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their habitual physical activity. Daily protein intake increased in the protein group during the intervention compared to baseline with +11±14g (Pbody fat percentage showed a significant group×time interaction of decreased body fat percentage of -1.0±1.1% of the protein group vs. 0.1±0.6% of the control group (Pbody fat percentage decreased with unchanged physical activity during 3months of stable body weight. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  14. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat

  15. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  16. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Lipid storage and breakdown is mainly controlled by lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. The aim of this work was to elucidate whether growth hormone mediated loss of adipose tissue involves a concerted action on tissue lipases, and to what degree such events are modulated by dietary...... regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...

  18. Individual contributions of visceral fat and total body fat to subclinical atherosclerosis: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Karin B; den Heijer, Martin; Smit, Johannes W A; Widya, Ralph L; Lamb, Hildo J; de Roos, Albert; Jukema, J Wouter; Rosendaal, Frits R; de Mutsert, Renée

    2015-08-01

    Both overall and abdominal adiposity are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat (TBF) are strongly correlated and previous studies did not make this distinction. We aimed to distinguish individual contributions of TBF, VAT, and the ratio of VAT to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) to subclinical atherosclerosis in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, we assessed VAT and SAT with magnetic resonance imaging, TBF with bio-electrical impendence analysis, and carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) with ultrasound. We performed linear regression analyses of standardized values of TBF, VAT, VAT/SAT with cIMT. We adjusted the models for confounding factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity), and either for VAT or TBF. This analysis included 2451 participants, 53% men with mean (SD) cIMT of 615 (91)μm. After adjustment for confounding factors, the difference in cIMT (95% CI) per SD in VAT was 14 (8,21)μm in men and 18 (13,24)μm in women. After adjustment for TBF, this attenuated to 5 (-3,13)μm in men and 13 (5,20)μm in women. In the full model, differences in cIMT (95% CI) per SD of TBF were 14 (6,22)μm in men and 8 (0,16)μm in women, and per SD of VAT/SAT were 7 (-1,15)μm and 9 (3,16)μm respectively. In this population-based study, VAT contributed beyond overall adiposity to subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in women. This implies a specific role of VAT in the early development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05.Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  20. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Lipid storage and breakdown is mainly controlled by lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. The aim of this work was to elucidate whether growth hormone mediated loss of adipose tissue involves a concerted action on tissue lipases, and to what degree such events are modulated by dietary...... regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...

  1. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios.

  2. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  3. The effect of body fat on basal metabolic rate in adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, J J; Nordøy, E S; Blix, A S

    1999-09-01

    Three adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were fed different daily amounts of capelin (Mallotus villosus), and their body composition determined by use of the tritiated water method at different levels of fattening. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured after 5 days of fasting by indirect calorimetry, and was on average 1.1 W.kg-1 when 45% of body mass (BM) was fat and 2.3 W.kg-1 when body fat was reduced to 13% of BM. This suggests that body fat contributes little to BMR in these animals. It follows, that predictions of BMR on the basis of BM is questionable in seals, in which body fat may change seasonally between 20 and 60% of BM.

  4. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  5. Development of fat tissue and body mass index from infancy to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T

    1996-06-01

    This paper gives a short overview of our recent research on changes in the body mass index (BMI) or in body fat for children studied longitudinally from birth to adulthood. The BMI shows characteristic changes in childhood and adolescence which are different from those known for skeletal growth. A period of loss of BMI from 1 to 6 years is followed by a pubertal spurt which is larger in females than in males. Fat shows a dramatic increase in the 1st year, and velocity is higher for girls than for boys after 3 years of age. At puberty there is a pre-pubertal and a post-pubertal spurt in total body fat or in arm fat and a dip in between. Those heavy or fat as adults have a qualitatively similar pattern of developmental changes, but much more accentuated fluctuations. The analysis relies on new statistical techniques.

  6. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus – a bioelectrical impedance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-01-01

    Background Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. Methods In 2007-9, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Conclusions Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. PMID:24726825

  7. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus - a bioelectrical impedance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. In 2007-2009, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  9. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  10. ltnear carcass measurements as indicators of body fat content in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duiders van totale liggaamsvet in die vark. SUMMARY: This study was undertaken to investigate the suitability of various carcass fat measurements as predictors of total body fat in the pig in order to minimize the time, labour and costs involved in carcas evaluation techniques. A total of 33 Landrace X L,arge White crossbred ...

  11. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  12. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  13. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105) and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. Body fat distribution was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Late postmenopausal women had a higher proportion of body fat than early postmenopausal women. The body fat of the overweight and obese women had a greater tendency to accumulate in the abdomen compared with the normal weight women both in early and late postmenopausal groups. The overweight and obese women had a higher free testosterone (FT) than the normal weight women in early postmenopausal women (Pfat distribution both in early and late postmenopausal groups (P>0.05).The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L) and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all Pfat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  14. Body fat and risk of cardiovascular diseases among the Tamil school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings indicated that most of the Tamil school teachers in Kuala Selangor District having high risk of cardiovascular diseases. They should do regular physical activity and consume balanced diet to reduce the risk of body fat and obesity which cause the cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Obesity, abdominal fat, total ...

  15. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  16. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of Acupuncture Therapy on Visceral Fat Thickness in Simple Central Obesity Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-yan; Yang, Li

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture therapy in decreasing visceral fat thickness(VFT) in patients with simple central obesity. Sixty patients with simple central obesity (syndrome of stomach and intestinal excessive heat) were randomly divided into control and acupuncture groups. Patients of the control group were treated with diet control and physical exercise procedure (basic treatment) for 6 months, and those of the acupuncture group treated with basic treatment combined with acupuncture stimulation of main acupoints Shuifen (CV 9), Yinjiao (CV 7), and bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Huaroumen (ST 24) and bilateral Wailing (ST 26), etc., in combination with electroacupuncture (EA, 50- 100 Hz, 1- 5 mA) of bilateral ST 25, CV 9 and CV 7 for 30 min, once every other day for 3 months. The VFT (1 cm above the umbilicus) was detected by using an ultrasonic diagnosis instrument, and the body mass index (BMI, body weight/height(2)), and waist circumfe-rence (WC) were measured before treatment, 3 and 6 months after the treatment, respectively. Following 3 and 6 months' treatment, the VFT, BMI and WC of both groups were significantly decreased (Pacupuncture group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering VFT [(51.5 ± 6.5) mm vs (48.3 ± 4.7) mm)] and WC [(88.2 ± 3.6)cm vs (85.9 ± 4.3)cm] 6 months' after the treatment (Pacupuncture groups in BMI fowllowing 6 months' treatment [(31.0 ± 4.3) vs (30.1 ± 3.2), P>0.05]. Acupuncture intervention combined with diet control and physical exercise can effectively decrease VFT and WC in simple central obesity patients. VFT is a sensitive and better parameter for evaluating the effect of obesity treatment.

  18. Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Stenholm, S.; Alley, D.E.; Kim, L.J.; Simonsick, E.M.; Kanaya, A.M.; Visser, M.; Houston, D.K.; Nicklas, B.J.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Satterfield, S.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Ferrucci, L.; Harris, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    The protective mechanisms by which some obese individuals escape the detrimental metabolic consequences of obesity are not understood. This study examined differences in body fat distribution and adipocytokines in obese older persons with and without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we examined

  19. Fat Body Cells Are Motile and Actively Migrate to Wounds to Drive Repair and Prevent Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anna; Wood, Will; Martin, Paul

    2018-02-26

    Adipocytes have many functions in various tissues beyond energy storage, including regulating metabolism, growth, and immunity. However, little is known about their role in wound healing. Here we use live imaging of fat body cells, the equivalent of vertebrate adipocytes in Drosophila, to investigate their potential behaviors and functions following skin wounding. We find that pupal fat body cells are not immotile, as previously presumed, but actively migrate to wounds using an unusual adhesion-independent, actomyosin-driven, peristaltic mode of motility. Once at the wound, fat body cells collaborate with hemocytes, Drosophila macrophages, to clear the wound of cell debris; they also tightly seal the epithelial wound gap and locally release antimicrobial peptides to fight wound infection. Thus, fat body cells are motile cells, enabling them to migrate to wounds to undertake several local functions needed to drive wound repair and prevent infections. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The fat body transcriptomes of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, pre- and post- blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Price

    Full Text Available The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding.We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM. 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families.The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding.

  1. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    Full Text Available Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio (WHR, is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA. We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1. Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6 were followed-up (stage 2 in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8; RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN. Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02. In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  2. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  4. [Association between dietary intake, physical activity, socioeconomic factors and body fat percentage among schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avila, Gisele Liliam; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article was to assess the association between dietary intake, physical activity and socioeconomic factors associated with body fat percentage in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. It is a cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 2,481 students from public and private schools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body fat percentage was investigated by measuring triceps and subscapular skin folds. Poisson regression was performed to test the association between excess body fat and independent variables, estimating prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of excess body fat was 23.9%, though there was no significant difference between sex (p = 0.359) and age (p = 0.202). Excess body fat was associated with different factors in 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, namely eating less than three meals a day (OR = 1.62, CI: 1.38 to 1.91) and consumption of high-risk food more than 3 times a day (OR = 0.61 CI: 0.47 to 0.79). No significant difference was observed with physical activity. The high prevalence of excess body fat detected reveals the need for fostering the adoption of healthier behavioral practices (in relation to nutrition and physical activity) by schoolchildren.

  5. Nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescentes with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Cunha, Ana Lúcia Pereira da; Costa, Ana Carolina da; Costa, Roseli de Souza Santos da; Lacerda, Speranza Vieira

    2015-11-01

    assessing the nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Fifty-six (56) 8-18 year old patients were assessed for fat distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, for nutritional status by height/age, and for body mass index to age and dietary intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Approximately 50% of the sample showed adequate nutritional status. Most of it showed inadequate caloric and lipid intake. BMI/age was the nutritional indicator that best showed the increased percentage of trunk fat, android/gynecoidratio and trunk fat/total fat ratio. Patients with Pancreatic Insufficiency and eutrophic individuals showed higher median android/gynecoidratio. Increased abdominal adiposity was evidenced by DXA. The BMI did not identify decreased lean body mass. However, when body mass was high, it was significant for abdominal adiposity. The anthropometric assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis should be associated with body composition and body fat distribution to obtain an earlier malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk factor diagnosis.

  6. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  7. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  8. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  9. DISSECTED SAMPLE JOINTS AS INDICATORS OF BODY FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pigs fed diets I and 3 in the study by Rossouw. (1982) were used as experimental animals in this experi- ment. In addition to the analitical procedures described by Rossouw (1982) the stroulder, midback, loin and ham joints were each physically disected into subcutaneous fat plus rind, muscle and bone components.

  10. Diet and body fat in adolescence and early adulthood: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Abstract Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies. Diet was most commonly assessed by estimating the consumption of food groups (cereals, milk and dairy products and specific foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, soft drinks, fast foods, milk, etc.. Ten studies found a direct association between diet and quantity of body fat. During adolescence, adhering to a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of energy-dense food, fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and soft drinks, as well as low fiber intake, appears to contribute to an increase in body fat in early adulthood. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of unhealthy foods and food groups (higher energy density and lower nutrient content in adolescence is associated with higher quantity of body fat in early adulthood.

  11. Relationship of body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-gang Wang

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, CRF, blood pressure (BP, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001. However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001. In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

  12. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  13. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  14. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Design and Methods Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n=15 male, n=15 female) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories from fat; n=277 male, n=278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and body composition were routinely measured. Results Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (p=0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P=0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all pbody weight for both sexes (pbody fat (pbody weight. PMID:24942674

  15. Low cardiometabolic risk in Parkinson's disease is independent of nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Cassani, Erica; Barichella, Michela; Spadafranca, Angela; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2012-10-01

    To investigate if the reduced cardiometabolic risk in Parkinson's disease (PD) is independent of nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution. We designed a case-control study comparing 80 non underweight PD patients with 80 controls matched for sex, age and body mass index (BMI). Nutritional assessment included: anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference [WC]), body composition estimated by impedance and biochemistry (fasting glucose, serum lipids and transaminases). The presence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were noted. Compared to controls and independently of gender, PD patients showed lower percentage of body fat (P nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Revisions of rump fat and body scoring indices for deer, elk, and moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Vales, David J.; Irwin, Larry L.; Hall, P. Briggs; Spencer, Rocky D.; Murphie, Shannon L.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Miller, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Because they do not require sacrificing animals, body condition scores (BCS), thickness of rump fat (MAXFAT), and other similar predictors of body fat have advanced estimating nutritional condition of ungulates and their use has proliferated in North America in the last decade. However, initial testing of these predictors was too limited to assess their reliability among diverse habitats, ecotypes, subspecies, and populations across the continent. With data collected from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) during initial model development and data collected subsequently from free-ranging mule deer and elk herds across much of the western United States, we evaluated reliability across a broader range of conditions than were initially available. First, to more rigorously test reliability of the MAXFAT index, we evaluated its robustness across the 3 species, using an allometric scaling function to adjust for differences in animal size. We then evaluated MAXFAT, rump body condition score (rBCS), rLIVINDEX (an arithmetic combination of MAXFAT and rBCS), and our new allometrically scaled rump-fat thickness index using data from 815 free-ranging female Roosevelt and Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. roosevelti and C. e. nelsoni) from 19 populations encompassing 4 geographic regions and 250 free-ranging female mule deer from 7 populations and 2 regions. We tested for effects of subspecies, geographic region, and captive versus free-ranging existence. Rump-fat thickness, when scaled allometrically with body mass, was related to ingesta-free body fat over a 38–522-kg range of body mass (r2 = 0.87; P 12% body fat. This bias translated into a difference between subspecies, because Rocky Mountain elk tended to be fatter than Roosevelt elk in our sample. Effects of observer error with the rBCS also existed for mule deer with moderate to high levels of body fat, and deer body size significantly affected accuracy of the MAXFAT predictor

  18. Negotiating and Navigating my Fat body - feminist autoethnographic encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two years I have been consciously critically engaging with autoethnography as a way of gaining insight into the cultural phenomenon of being a fat woman. Autoethnography is an in-depth and engaged approach which opens up spaces of particular ways of being which have often been colonised by particular discourse in formed by invested situational knowledge. This process has involved me drawing on past journals, memories and re-memory work and present interwoven layers of process and reflection (Ronai 1995. It has been and is challenging, Chatham-Carpenter (2010 writes about the difficulties of being with and exposing vulnerable 'selves' - a self which is still very much part of the present, rather than a neatly contained and managed 'identity'. So part of what I will do in this article is consider the critical process of my feminist autoethnography, interweaving and responding to the literature' in feminist research, feminisms, autoethnography, critical fat studies, and intersectionality.  A key to this exploration is the experience of researching the experiences of being a fat woman, from within a feminist commitment - at some level I want to consider whether and how the experience reflects Averett, Soper's (2011, 371-372 suggestion that "Feminist autoethnography is intended to resist the social and institutional norms that often dictate research. It promotes women's voices and unique experiences".

  19. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  20. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zeng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF and body mass index (BMI for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961, group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381, group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681, and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836. When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45 and 2.06 (1.26-3.35 times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89. Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  1. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  2. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  3. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  4. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  5. Errors in body composition using fan beam DXA due to variation in fat distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M.; Pocock, N. [St Vincents Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Bone Densitometry; Noakes, K. [Princess Alexandria Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Department of Endocrinology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: DXA while primarily developed and used to determine bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC) can also be used to determine body composition. Fan Beam DXA instruments cause inherent magnification of scanned structures which can lead to significant errors in BMC and geometric measures. We have assessed the magnification effect of fan beam DXA on body composition with alteration of fat distribution in a laboratory model. The phantom consisted of an aluminium bar, water bath and 3 different quantities of animal fat. Scans were performed in triplicate using a Lunar Expert and an Hologic QDR 4500. The fat was positioned either at the same height as the aluminium spine or at a height of 28.5 cm. The results presented (mean of 3 scans) are for the Lunar Expert. The fat mass, % fat and total tissue mass were calculated for the fat at baseline and elevated positions. It is concluded that the use of fan beam DXA for body composition may lead to magnification errors secondary to variation in distribution of fat 1 tab.

  6. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, Pbody weight (Pbody composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all indirect

  8. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Changes in regional body fat, lean body mass and body shape in trans persons using cross-sex hormonal therapy: results from a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; de Blok, C J M; Wiepjes, C M; Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Schreiner, T; Fisher, A D; T'Sjoen, G; den Heijer, M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT) in trans persons affects their total body fat and total lean body mass. However, it is unknown how separate body regions are affected and whether these changes alter body shape. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects on body fat and lean body mass in separate body regions and on body shape after one year of CHT. In a multicenter prospective study at university hospitals, 179 male-to-female gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transwomen, and 162 female-to-male gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transmen, were included. All underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measurements before and after one year of CHT. In transwomen, increases in body fat ranged from +18% (95% CI: 13%;23%) in the android region to +42% (95% CI: 37%;46%) in the leg region and +34% (95% CI: 29%;38%) in the gynoid region. In transmen, changes in body fat ranged from -16% (95% CI: -19;-14%) in the leg region and -14% in the gynoid region (95% CI: -16%;-12) to no change in the android region (+1%, 95% CI: -3%;5%). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased in transwomen (-0.03, 95% CI: -0.04;-0.02) mainly due to an increase in hip circumference (+3.2 cm, 95% CI: 2.3;4.0). Transmen have a decrease in hip circumference (-1.9 cm, 95% CI: -3.1;-0.7) resulting in an increase in WHR (+0.01, 95% CI: 0.00;0.02). CHT causes a more feminine body fat distribution and a lower WHR in transwomen and a more masculine body fat distribution with a lower hip circumference in transmen. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Impact of Genetic Variants on the Individual Potential for Body Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed the discovery of obesity-related genetic variants and their functions through genome-wide association studies. Combinations of risk alleles can influence obesity phenotypes with different degrees of effectiveness across various individuals by interacting with environmental factors. We examined the interaction between genetic variation and changes in dietary habits or exercise that influences body fat loss from a large Korean cohort (n = 8840. Out of 673 obesity-related SNPs, a total of 100 SNPs (37 for carbohydrate intake; 19 for fat intake; 44 for total calories intake; 25 for exercise onset identified to have gene-environment interaction effect in generalized linear model were used to calculate genetic risk scores (GRS. Based on the GRS distribution, we divided the population into four levels, namely, “very insensitive”, “insensitive”, “sensitive”, and “very sensitive” for each of the four categories, “carbohydrate intake”, “fat intake”, “total calories intake”, and “exercise”. Overall, the mean body fat loss became larger when the sensitivity level was increased. In conclusion, genetic variants influence the effectiveness of dietary regimes for body fat loss. Based on our findings, we suggest a platform for personalized body fat management by providing the most suitable and effective nutrition or activity plan specific to an individual.

  12. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  13. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author).

  14. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  15. Body weight homeostat that regulates fat mass independently of leptin in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, John-Olov; Hägg, Daniel A.; Schéle, Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Anesten, Fredrik; Bake, Tina; Montelius, Mikael; Bellman, Jakob; Johansson, Maria E.; Cone, Roger D.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Wu, Jianyao; Aleksic, Biljana; Törnqvist, Anna E.; Sjögren, Klara; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Windahl, Sara H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2018-01-01

    Subjects spending much time sitting have increased risk of obesity but the mechanism for the antiobesity effect of standing is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a homeostatic regulation of body weight. We demonstrate that increased loading of rodents, achieved using capsules with different weights implanted in the abdomen or s.c. on the back, reversibly decreases the biological body weight via reduced food intake. Importantly, loading relieves diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. The identified homeostat for body weight regulates body fat mass independently of fat-derived leptin, revealing two independent negative feedback systems for fat mass regulation. It is known that osteocytes can sense changes in bone strain. In this study, the body weight-reducing effect of increased loading was lost in mice depleted of osteocytes. We propose that increased body weight activates a sensor dependent on osteocytes of the weight-bearing bones. This induces an afferent signal, which reduces body weight. These findings demonstrate a leptin-independent body weight homeostat (“gravitostat”) that regulates fat mass. PMID:29279372

  16. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  17. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body...

  18. To Be Fat or Thin? Social Representations of the Body among Adolescent Female Students in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…

  19. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    suggest that genetic variants influencing body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women independently on the effect on WHR. The stronger effect of the GRSwomen implies heterogenic effects of the WHRadjBMI variants on weight loss. A strong effect of rs1358980-T in the VEGFA locus suggests......BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability...... to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi...

  20. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  1. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F(2) mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F(2) mice either...... a very-high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet and measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL x diet interaction effects. Here we describe development...... for body composition traits that were significant at the genome-wide 0.05 level, likely representing nine distinct loci after accounting for pleiotropic effects. QTL x diet and/or gender interactions were present at 15 of these QTL, indicating that such interactions play a significant role in defining...

  2. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  3. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  4. The prevalence of low back pain and associations with body fatness, fat distribution and height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Schouten, J S; Lean, M.E.J.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of low back pain symptoms with waist circumference, height, waist to hip ratio and body mass index, and to test the interactions between (1) waist circumference and height, and (2) waist to hip ratio and body mass index. SETTING: Cross-sectional study set in

  5. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFA) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the interrelationships between body fat, sex and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, non-diabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0–56.0 % body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: 1) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass and total FFA Ra (µmol·min−1); 2) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=−0.806; P<0.001); 4) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; 5) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects. PMID:19629053

  6. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  7. Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L Y; Fang, Y J; Guo, X Y

    2011-04-01

    1. Unlike mammals, uricotelic species, such as the duck, cannot synthesise endogenous arginine (Arg). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-Arg supplementation might regulate body fat deposition in ducks without affecting their fast growth rate. 2. A total of 160 21-d-old male and female White Pekin ducks were assigned randomly to two treatments: a non-supplemented control and supplementation at 10 g/kg L-Arg of a maize and soybean meal-based diet. 3. The 3-week feeding trial showed that the addition of L-Arg had no significant effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain by 5·2 %, breast muscle weight relative to live body weight by 9·9%, carcase crude protein content by 9·2%, ether extract content in breast muscle by 11·9%. Arg supplementation significantly decreased skin with fat and abdominal fat pad contents by 7·6% and 4·9% respectively and the ether extract content of carcase by 7·2%. 4. The results of this study indicate that a diet with 10 g/kg supplemental L-Arg could reduce the fat deposition of carcase and abdominal adipose cell size (diameter and volume), enhance intramuscular fat in breast muscles, as well as increase muscle and protein gain. The decreased fat depot in the carcase may be attributed to a reduction of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity.

  8. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high......-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 levels are increased and partially related to body fat distribution in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Cynthia Melissa; de Almeida, Juliana Severo; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; Aguiar, Luiza Barreto S; Siciliano, Priscila O; Carvalho, Denise P; Godoy-Matos, Amelio F

    2017-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP4) is an enzyme responsible for glucagon-like peptide-1 inactivation and plays an important role in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate DPP4 levels in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) and correlate it with body fat distribution. Fourteen patients with FPLD2 were selected to participate in this study and matched to a healthy control group (n = 8). All participants had anthropometrical data registered. Body adiposity index (BAI) was used to evaluate fat distribution in this population. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Biochemical exams, including DPP4 levels, were performed in all individuals. Despite the same body mass index, lipodystrophic patients had a significant lower hip (median 92.0 vs 94.5; p = 0.028), HDL cholesterol (42.6 ± 10.4 vs 66.1 ± 16.0; p correlation was found between DPP4 levels and percentage of total body fat (r = 0.86; p = 0.0025) and android fat (r = 0.78; p = 0.014). Patients with FPLD2 exhibit an increase in DDP4 levels in comparison to a healthy control group. The increase in the levels of this enzyme does not seem to be related to the diagnosis of diabetes and might be associated with an increase in central fat (estimated using BAI and measured using DXA). These results might be used to reinforce the concept that DDP4 is an adipokine related to central fat distribution.

  10. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    , body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  11. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND DYNAMICS OF ACCUMULATION OF FAT IN BODY CAVITY OF THE CASPIAN SEA GREY MULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Adueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches fatness of grey mullets during their reproductive cycle. It was established that in spring fat depot is practically absent in grey mullets body-cavity. In summer accumulation of energy substances takes place. In August most of the examined fish had fatness of 2-3 points, but in September the number of fish with minimal fatness increases. Large content of fat in the body-cavity of grey mullets (female is found in the prime of ovogenesis. In the IV stage of ma-turity, when intensive trophoplasmic growth of acolytes takes place, fatness sharply decreases and grey mullets come to the prespawning period practically with waste fat depot. Accumulation of lipids in muscular tissue of grey mullets as against fat depot in body-cavity takes place independently of maturation of ovary. 

  12. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome......-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P ... adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms....

  13. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical...... activity seems to accentuate the effect of FTO rs9939609 on body fat accumulation....

  14. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state.Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress neuronal activity in the hypothalamic appetite centers. Differential

  15. Differential Effects of Two Fermentable Carbohydrates on Central Appetite Regulation and Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal

  16. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  17. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Tordecilla, Alejandra; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; Cobo-Mejía, Elisa Andrea; Castellanos-Vega, Rocío del Pilar; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles. PMID:28902162

  18. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  19. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  20. Centralized Networks to Generate Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Radulescu, Ovidiu; Morozov, Ivan; Weber, Andres

    2017-12-14

    We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another. Simulations show that this model allows us to simulate complicated motions consisting of many different dynamical primitives. We also use the model for learning human body motion from markers' trajectories. We find that center frequencies can be learned from a small number of markers and can be transferred to other markers, such that our technique seems to be capable of correcting for missing information resulting from sparse control marker settings.

  1. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    to 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...

  2. Longitudinal associations between television in the bedroom and body fatness in a UK cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heilmann, A; Rouxel, P; Fitzsimons, E; Kelly, Y; Watt, R G

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal associations between screen-based media use (television (TV) and computer hours, having a TV in the bedroom) and body fatness among UK children. METHODS: Participants were 12 556 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study who were followed from age 7 to age 11 years. Associations were assessed between screen-based media use and the following outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and overweight. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, having a ...

  3. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  4. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance and indicators of body fat and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p19 The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between bioelectric impedance and adiposity and elevated cardiovascular risk indicators, and its effectiveness for detecting appropriate nutritional status, according to the Body Mass Index. A Cross-sectional study. The sample included 900 subjects, both males and females, with ages ranging from 11 to 17 years. Nutritional status was determined according to both Body Mass Index and relative body fat, estimated by bioelectric impedance. For both sexes, bioelectric impedance was signifi cantly correlated (p< 0.05 with all adiposity and cardiovascular risk indicators. Furthermore, it exhibited high specifi city for indicating nutritional status. It can be concluded that bioelectric impedance is a useful tool for body composition assessment. It can also be concluded that in young populations, care musty be taken when choosing equations to estimate relative body fat.

  6. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  7. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  8. Body fat content, fat distribution and adipocytokine production and their correlation with fertility markers in young adult men and women conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; De Schepper, J; Roelants, M; Tournaye, H; Bonduelle, M; Provyn, S

    2018-02-15

    Differences in body fat content during childhood and adolescence have been described in offspring conceived by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, data on body fat and its distribution as well as on adipocytokine production in young adults conceived by ICSI are nonexistent. We investigated if young adult men and women conceived by ICSI have a normal body fat patterning and adipocytokine production. Cohort study. One hundred twenty-seven young adults conceived by ICSI and 138 peers born after spontaneous conception. Anthropometric parameters (skinfold thickness, hip and waist circumferences), dual X-ray absorptiometry (whole body and regional) measurements and adipocytokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were analysed in relation to fertility markers (serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B). While at age 18 years, a normal body fat distribution and normal leptin and adiponectin production was found in both male and female ICSI offspring, young men conceived by ICSI had a higher peripheral fat deposition in comparison with spontaneously conceived peers. No correlation between AMH and inhibin B with leptin or adiponectin was observed. While men conceived by ICSI, but not women, had a higher peripheral fat deposition, body fat distribution as well as mean levels of adipocytokines were not affected by the mode of conception. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  10. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  13. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  14. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  15. Relationship between some indicators of reproductive history, body fatness and the menopausal transition in Hungarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2015-10-22

    This paper analyzed the relationship between some indicators of reproductive history and body fatness in relation to the timing of the menopause transition in Hungarian women using survival analysis after controlling for birth cohort. Data on menstruation and reproductive history were collected during the personal interviews in a sample of 1932 women (aged 35+ years). Menarcheal age, the length of menstrual cycles and menstrual bleedings, regularity of menstrual cycles, number of gestations, lactation, the ever use of contraceptives, menopausal status and age at menopause were used as indicators of reproductive history. The body fat fraction was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body fatness was also estimated by dividing women into obese and non-obese categories (considering body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio). Survival analyses were used to analyze the relationship between the indicators of reproductive history and body fatness during the menopausal transition. Only the menarcheal age among the investigated reproductive life characteristics showed secular changes in the studied decades in Hungary; the mean age at menarche decreased by approximately 2.5 months per decade from the 1920s until the 1970s. Ever use of hormonal contraceptives, a relatively long cycle length in the perimenopausal transition and higher parity were all related with lower risk of early menopause. Later menarcheal age, normal length of menstrual cycle or bleeding in the climacterium, irregular bleeding pattern and postmenopausal status were associated with a higher amount of body fatness, while never use of contraceptives, regular menstruation, postmenopausal status and relatively early menopause were associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity. This report confirms that age of menarche is not significantly predictive of age at menopause but prior use of oral contraceptives, longer mean cycle length and smaller number of gestations all are. In addition, age of

  16. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...

  17. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  19. Interrelationships between weight loss, body fat distribution and sex hormones in pre- and postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, E; Zamboni, M; De Pergola, G; Armellini, F; Zivelonghi, A; Bergamo-Andreis, I A; Giorgino, R; Bosello, O

    1997-05-01

    Relationships between regional body fat distribution and sex hormones as well as changes in sex hormones after weight loss were evaluated. All subjects were hospitalized in the Institute of Internal Medicine of the University of Verona. Twenty-six premenopausal (age 33.7 +/- 10.2 years) and 15 postmenopausal (age 57.9 +/- 5.9 years) obese women. Body weight, body-mass index, waist and hip circumferences, visceral fat by computed tomography and sex hormones were evaluated before and after 4 weeks on a very low energy diet. Body-mass index was higher in pre-than in postmenopausal women, although the difference was not significant. Total and free testosterone were significantly higher in the pre- than in the postmenopausal group (P testosterone (r = -0.65; P testosterone (r = -0.54; P fat and total testosterone (r = -0.41; P testosterone and visceral fat encountered both in the subject group as a whole and in premenopausal women was no longer significant, whilst a significant negative association between visceral fat and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (r = -0.56; P testosterone, free testosterone and androstenedione levels, whilst menopausal status was the most powerful predictor of FSH and LH levels. Changes in hormones after VLED were analysed separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the hormones changed significantly after VLED in the postmenopausal group, except for FSH values. LH, free testosterone and urinary cortisol excretion values decreased significantly after VLED in the premenopausal group. Our data show that age, to a greater extent than visceral fat, seems to be negatively associated with steroid sex hormones. Weight loss seems to be associated with changes in sex hormones only in premenopausal women.

  20. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  1. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Camilla M; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207) of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively), gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept that the effects of maternal BMI and a number of BMI

  2. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  3. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the body fat of school adolescents and to compare the performance of triceps SFT with Bioelectrical impedance method in the detection of overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) among the subjects. Methods: The study was cross sectional; involving secondary school students within Sokoto metropolis.

  5. Influence of 12-week jogging on body fat and serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriola, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the influence of different levels of distance running on percent body fat and serum lipids in untrained male University students (n = 40) with a mean age of 24.1 years. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 10) in each group): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (1.6 km joggers), Group 3 (3.2 km joggers) and Group 4 (4.8 km joggers). Subjects in the exercise groups jogged the prescribed distances three times a week for 12 weeks at about 85 percent of maximal heart rate. Percent body fat, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were estimated before and after the training programme. In comparison with control group, exercise groups showed statistically significant (p less than .05) decrease of body fat values (1.6 km joggers 6%; 3.2 km joggers 5.33%; 3.2 km joggers 11%; 4.8 km joggers 9.42%). However, Newman-Keul's post hoc analysis showed a significant (p less than .05) reduction in serum triglyceride only in 3.2 km joggers. This was attributed to the high pre-training level of serum triglyceride in the group. Cholesterol values showed insignificant changes. It was concluded that moderate physical activities of different intensities have lowering effects on body fat and serum lipids. Images p13-a PMID:6722418

  6. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... as obese. Conclusion: Triceps SFT remain a fair surrogate for the assessment of adiposity, the component of over- weight that leads to pathology. Key words: Skin fold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, body fat, obesity, adolescents. Introduction. Nutrition transition is increasingly evident in middle.

  7. The Relationship between Endogenous Androgens and Body Fat Distribution in Early and Late Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (?5 years since menopause, n?=?105) and a late group (?10 years since menopause, n?=?107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI

  8. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  9. To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the most significant contributor of worsening of autonomic functions in PM females and regular exercise can improve these parameters significantly. KEY WORDS: Autonomic functions, blood lipids, body fat, menopause. INTRODUCTION ..... gradual reduction of overall fluctuation in autonomic input to the heart as well as ...

  10. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  11. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  12. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; de Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; McKenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P <5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  13. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  14. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  15. Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. Testicular recrudescence commenced in autumn (April), reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn ...

  16. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  17. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  18. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M; Bjørnsbo, Kirsten S; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...

  19. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...

  20. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis | Blaauw | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the body fat distribution of patients with osteoporosis (GP) with that of an appropriately matched non-GP control group. Design: Case control study. Setting: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tygerberg Hospital. Participants: A total of 56 patients with histologicatly ...

  1. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly

  2. Changes in composition of triacylglycerols in the fat body of bumblebee males during their lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroš, Pavel; Cvačka, Josef; Hanus, Robert; Kindl, Jiří; Kofroňová, Edita; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 863-871 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bombus terrestris * bombus lucorum * fat body * lipids * LC/APCI-MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.129, year: 2011

  3. Obesity and body fat distribution : ethnic differences and the role of socio-economic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K; Bos, Griët; Baan, Caroline A; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates differences in overweight and body fat distribution between Turkish and Moroccan migrants and the ethnic Dutch population, and the contribution of socio-economic status to their higher obesity prevalence. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a general health

  4. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...

  5. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  6. Body fat mass of exclusively breastfed infants born to overweight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Badger, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    Although there is evidence that maternal prepregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)] ≥30) results in elevated risk of obesity in the offspring later in life, maternal prepregnancy overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) has not been clearly demonstrated as a risk factor for the future development of obesity in the offspring. Our objective was to determine if body composition differs between infants born to lean or overweight breastfeeding women. Body composition (PeaPod, COSMED USA, Inc) and anthropometric outcomes were measured in 65 infants born to lean mothers (n=46) (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) or overweight mothers (n=19) (BMI 25 to 29.9) between 2006 and 2007. Maternal body composition (BodPod, COSMED USA, Inc) was also measured. Body fat mass was higher in infants born to overweight mothers compared with infants born to lean mothers at age 2 weeks and 3 months (11.9% vs 15.3% and 24.1% vs 26.8%, respectively; Pweight gain and birth weight, body fat mass was significantly greater only at age 2 weeks. Infants of overweight mothers have greater body fat mass in the neonatal period compared with infants of lean mothers, suggesting that maternal overweight may predispose fetal metabolism to favor fat storage. Although our data suggest that this effect is short lived, future studies are needed to investigate children beyond the infancy period to test if body composition is greater in offspring of overweight women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Newborn Body Fat: Associations with Maternal Metabolic State and Placental Size

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Camilla M.; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and pla...

  8. Validity of anthropometric procedures to estimate body density and body fat percent in military men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez-Añez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the validity of the Katch e McArdle’s equation (1973,which uses the circumferences of the arm, forearm and abdominal to estimate the body density and the procedure of Cohen (1986 which uses the circumferences of the neck and abdominal to estimate the body fat percent (%F in military men. Therefore data from 50 military men, with mean age of 20.26 ± 2.04 years serving in Santa Maria, RS, was collected. The circumferences were measured according with Katch e McArdle (1973 and Cohen (1986 procedures. The body density measured (Dm obtained under water weighting was used as criteria and its mean value was 1.0706 ± 0.0100 g/ml. The residual lung volume was estimated using the Goldman’s e Becklake’s equation (1959. The %F was obtained with the Siri’s equation (1961 and its mean value was 12.70 ± 4.71%. The validation criterion suggested by Lohman (1992 was followed. The analysis of the results indicated that the procedure developed by Cohen (1986 has concurrent validity to estimate %F in military men or in other samples with similar characteristics with standard error of estimate of 3.45%. . RESUMO Através deste estudo objetivou-se verificar a validade: da equação de Katch e McArdle (1973 que envolve os perímetros do braço, antebraço e abdômen, para estimar a densidade corporal; e, o procedimento de Cohen (1986 que envolve os perímetros do pescoço e abdômen, para estimar o % de gordura (%G; para militares. Para tanto, coletou-se os dados de 50 militares masculinos, com idade média de 20,26 ± 2,04 anos, lotados na cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Mensurou-se os perímetros conforme procedimentos de Katch e McArdle (1973 e Cohen (1986. Utilizou-se a densidade corporal mensurada (Dm através da pesagem hidrostática como critério de validação, cujo valor médio foi de 1,0706 ± 0,0100 g/ml. Estimou-se o volume residual pela equação de Goldman e Becklake (1959. O %G derivado da Dm estimou

  9. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  10. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... women. Adjusted for BMI, age and Inuit heritage waist circumference decreased with Westernization (among women), while hip circumference did not change. The differences were particularly pronounced for migrants compared with residents of Greenland. CONCLUSION: BMI and central fat patterning decrease...... with Westernization among Greenland Inuit women contrary to most studies of migrants. The changes were less prominent among men. This suggests a reduced cardiovascular risk profile with Westernization among Greenland Inuit....

  12. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  13. Experiences of Health Related Lifestyles in High Body Fat but Non-obese Female College Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the lifestyles of non-obese female college students with high body fat (HBF). Methods The interview data were collected from 18 female students [body mass index (BMI)

  14. Divergent effects of central melanocortin signalling on fat and sucrose preference in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Keogh, Julia M; Henning, Elana; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kelway, Sarah; Trowse, Victoria M; Subramanian, Naresh; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Fletcher, Paul C; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2016-10-04

    Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R)-expressing neurons modulate food intake and preference in rodents but their role in human food preference is unknown. Here we show that compared with lean and weight-matched controls, MC4R deficient individuals exhibited a markedly increased preference for high fat, but a significantly reduced preference for high sucrose food. These effects mirror those in Mc4r null rodents and provide evidence for a central molecular circuit influencing human macronutrient preference.

  15. Divergent effects of central melanocortin signalling on fat and sucrose preference in humans

    OpenAIRE

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kelway, Sarah; Trowse, Victoria M.; Subramanian, Naresh; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Fletcher, Paul C.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R)-expressing neurons modulate food intake and preference in rodents but their role in human food preference is unknown. Here we show that compared with lean and weight-matched controls, MC4R deficient individuals exhibited a markedly increased preference for high fat, but a significantly reduced preference for high sucrose food. These effects mirror those in Mc4r null rodents and provide evidence for a central molecular circuit influencing human macronutrient pref...

  16. Seasonal Dynamics in the Chemistry and Structure of the Fat Bodies of Bumblebee Queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Votavová

    Full Text Available Insects' fat bodies are responsible for nutrient storage and for a significant part of intermediary metabolism. Thus, it can be expected that the structure and content of the fat body will adaptively change, if an insect is going through different life stages. Bumblebee queens belong to such insects as they dramatically change their physiology several times over their lives in relation to their solitary overwintering, independent colony foundation stage, and during the colony life-cycle ending in the senescent stage. Here, we report on changes in the ultrastructure and lipid composition of the peripheral fat body of Bombus terrestris queens in relation to seasonal changes in the queens' activity. Six life stages are defined and evaluated in particular: pharate, callow, before and after hibernation, egg-laying, and senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fat body contained two main cell types-adipocytes and oenocytes. Only adipocytes reveal important changes related to the life phase, and mostly the ration between inclusion and cytoplasm volume varies among particular stages. Both electron microscopy and chemical analyses of lipids highlighted seasonal variability in the quantity of the stored lipids, which peaked prior to hibernation. Triacylglycerols appeared to be the main energy source during hibernation, while the amount of glycogen before and after hibernation remained unchanged. In addition, we observed that the representation of some fatty acids within the triacylglycerols change during the queen's life. Last but not least, we show that fat body cell membranes do not undergo substantial changes concerning phospholipid composition in relation to overwintering. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cold-adaptation strategy of bumblebee queens is more likely to be based on polyol accumulation than on the restructuring of lipid membranes.

  17. Evaluation of stored body fat in nuisance-killed Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Makoto; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated the stored body fat of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) killed as nuisances in Gifu and Fukushima prefectures, Japan, during 2005-2007. We employed femur marrow fat (FMF), modified kidney fat index (mKFI), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) as indices for quantitative evaluation. We examined the basic characteristics of these indices, such as seasonality, age and sex dependency, and the quantitative relationship among them. mKFI and ASF increased towards the beginning of the denning period (December), while FMF was relatively stable throughout the sampling period (July-December). In cubs, all indices showed significantly lower values than in the older age classes. There seemed to be a catabolizing order between FMF and mKFI, but not between mKFI and ASF. We also evaluated the yearly change in the indices, and discussed its relevance to the incidence of bear intrusion into human residential areas. Bears nuisance-killed in summer (July-September) 2006 had a significantly larger amount of stored body fat than those killed in summer 2007, although the number of nuisance kills was larger in 2006 than in 2007. This suggests that poor nutritional condition is not a direct cause of bear intrusion.

  18. Effects of fitness, fatness, and age on men's responses to whole body cooling in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, G M; Brotherhood, J R; Hendrie, A L; Jeffery, S E

    1991-12-01

    Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the influence of 12 white men's fitness (aerobic capacity 44-58 ml O2.min-1.kg fat-free mass-1), fatness (mean skin-fold thickness 5-20 mm, body fat content 15-36%), and age (26-52 yr) on their thermal, metabolic, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to 2 h of whole body cooling, nude, in air at 10 degrees C. Fitter men had slower heart rates, and fatter men had higher blood pressures. Fitness had no effect (P greater than 0.39) on any measured response to cold. Fatness was associated (P less than 0.01) with reduced heat loss, heat production, and mean skin temperature; unchanged heat debt; and increased tissue insulation. Age had the opposite effects. When the confounding effects of fatness were held constant by multiple regression, older men responded to cold as though they were 1 mm of skinfold thickness leaner for each 3-4 yr of age. We conclude that aging, even between the relatively youthful ages of 26 and 52 yr, is accompanied by a progressive weakening of the vasoconstrictor response to cold.

  19. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  20. Skinfold thicknesses method to analyse body fat in hemodialysis patients: comparison with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane O Leal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status is a major determinant of the outcome of hemodialysis (HD patients. While protein wasting is associated with morbidity and mortality, high fat mass and central adiposity is also observed in HD population and, related to metabolic disorders. Therefore, body composition assessment is a key point to provide adequate nutritional care to these patients. In this way, practical and reliable indicators of body composition are needed for clinical purposes. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of anthropometry as an alternative to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, considered the reference method to evaluate body fat in HD patients. Thirty-nine HD patients (52.7±11.3 years, 24 men, BMI, 23.7±4.0 kg/m2, urea clearance (Kt/Vsp of 1.47±0.22 and 64.1±46.1 months on HD were studied. Percentage of body fat (%BF was performed by DXA scans (Prodigy Advanc Plus, Lunar Corp, Madison, WI, USA and anthropometry (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses after a HD session. Body density was calculated using the formula of Durnin and Womersley (1974 and the %BF was calculated by Siri´s equation (Siri, 1961. The reference values for %BF were considered (Lohman et al., 1991. The mean of %BF assessed by anthopometry and DXA was 25.2±6.9% and 26.8±8.3% for men and 32.8±6.3% and 31.5±8.7% for women, respectively. The most of HD patients presented high %BF (≥25% for men and ≥32% for women: 59.0% by anthropometry and 56.4% by DXA. The paired analysis showed that the %BF assessment was not different when evaluated by anthropometry or DXA methods (p=0.6. The kappa coefficient between DXA and anthropometry was 0.42 (p<0.0001, which is considered as good correlation between two methods. In conclusion, the simple method of skinfold thicknesses is reliable to assess body fat in HD patients when compared to DXA.

  1. Association of nutrition in early life with body fat and serum leptin at adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Maillot, M; Deheeger, M; Souberbielle, J C; Péneau, S; Hercberg, S

    2013-08-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that experiences during early life could have long-term health consequences. However, the role of early nutrition in programming obesity and leptin resistance is still poorly understood. We aimed at determining whether nutritional intakes in early life are associated with body composition and hormonal status at 20 years. Healthy infants participating in the two-decade-long prospective ELANCE (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants) study were examined at 10 months and 2 years. At 20 years, weight, height, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum leptin concentration were recorded in 73 subjects still participating in the follow-up. In adjusted linear regression models, an increase by 100 kcal in energy intake at 2 years was associated with higher subscapular skinfold thickness (β=6.4% SF, 95% confidence interval 2.53-10.30, P=0.002) and higher FFM (0.50 kg, 0.06-0.95, P=0.03) at 20 years. An increase by 1% energy from fat at 2 years was associated with lower subscapular skinfold thickness (-2.3% SF, -4.41 to -0.18, P=0.03), lower FM (-0.31 kg, -0.60 to -0.01, P=0.04) and lower serum leptin concentration (-0.21 μg l(-1), -0.39 to -0.03, P=0.02) at 20 years. Low-fat intake in early life was negatively associated with body fat (particularly at the trunk site) and serum leptin concentration at 20 years, suggesting that early low-fat intake could increase the susceptibility to develop overweight and leptin resistance at later ages. These findings substantiate current recommendations against restricting fat intake in early life and open new directions for investigating the origin of obesity.

  2. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  3. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Sun General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran [Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health College of Midicin, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  4. Validating Body Fat Assessment by Bioelectric Impedance Spectroscopy in Taiwanese Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Paik Seong; Chen, Chang Hsu; Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Jeng, Yachung; Hu, Chun Yu; Chiu, Li Shu; Chang, Hui-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is becoming increasingly common in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with inflammation and increased mortality. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and variability of the bioimpedance device in measuring body fat in Taiwanese dialysis patients. Cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-two adult patients receiving HD in a single hospital in Taiwan. We compared the results of fat mass (FM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy device (Body composition monitor, BCM). FM measured by BCM was calculated by subtracting fat-free mass (FFM) from body mass assuming fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73 or the proprietary prediction equations from the BCM model. Assessment of whole-body composition showed that percentage FM measured using the 2 techniques was highly correlated when using the BCM model or estimating from total body water using constant (0.73) hydration (r = 0.87, P < .001). There was no evident difference in measurement between patients gender. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement of percentage of FM (t = 3.82; P < .001). In female patients, it was found that BCM significantly underestimated mean FM as compared to DEXA. However, the mean differences of the estimates between the methods were small (0.35 ± 3.00 kg) and with Bland-Altman plot the limits of agreements were -5.5 to 6.2 kg (P = .40) for FM in female patients. Using DEXA as the reference test, BCM is a valid tool for the assessment of total body fat in HD patients. Hence, it may provide a more accessible tool for early detection of changes in body composition in these high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung; Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  6. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  7. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy for body fat sensing in neonates: quantitative analysis by GAMOS simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Fatin Hamimi; Jones, Peter W; McEwan, Alistair L

    2017-01-11

    Under-nutrition in neonates is closely linked to low body fat percentage. Undernourished neonates are exposed to immediate mortality as well as unwanted health impacts in their later life including obesity and hypertension. One potential low cost approach for obtaining direct measurements of body fat is near-infrared (NIR) interactance. The aims of this study were to model the effect of varying volume fractions of melanin and water in skin over NIR spectra, and to define sensitivity of NIR reflection on changes of thickness of subcutaneous fat. GAMOS simulations were used to develop two single fat layer models and four complete skin models over a range of skin colour (only for four skin models) and hydration within a spectrum of 800-1100 nm. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat was set from 1 to 15 mm in 1 mm intervals in each model. Varying volume fractions of water in skin resulted minimal changes of NIR intensity at ranges of wavelengths from 890 to 940 nm and from 1010 to 1100 nm. Variation of the melanin volume in skin meanwhile was found to strongly influence the NIR intensity and sensitivity. The NIR sensitivities and NIR intensity over thickness of fat decreased from the Caucasian skin to African skin throughout the range of wavelengths. For the relationship between the NIR reflection and the thickness of subcutaneous fat, logarithmic relationship was obtained. The minimal changes of NIR intensity values at wavelengths within the ranges from 890 to 940 nm and from 1010 to 1100 nm to variation of volume fractions of water suggests that wavelengths within those two ranges are considered for use in measurement of body fat to solve the variation of hydration in neonates. The stronger influence of skin colour on NIR shows that the melanin effect needs to be corrected by an independent measurement or by a modeling approach. The logarithmic response obtained with higher sensitivity at the lower range of thickness of fat suggests that implementation of NIRS

  9. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to define an excess of body fat: evaluation in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, M; Talamonti, M; Perino, F; Servoli, S; Giordano, D; Chimenti, S; De Simone, C; Peris, K

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that obesity is closely associated with psoriasis. However, data on body composition are lacking in psoriasis. The purpose of this study were to investigate the body composition in psoriasis patients using bioelectrical impedance analysis and to correlate the bioelectrical impedance data with disease severity and laboratory parameters. Anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed on patients with psoriasis, naïve to any systemic treatment, who attended the outpatient clinics of two University centers. Data of 164 adult patients were analyzed. Compared to men, women had several significantly higher bioelectrical impedance parameters including reactance, fat mass% and adipose tissue%. The values of adipose tissue were positively correlated only with patients age (p = .021) and age at disease onset (p = .0006), but not with disease severity. In addition, we observed that the use of BMI cutoffs allowed to categorize 36.7% of women and 19.2% of men as obese, while fat mass% showed that 53.3% of women and 48.1% of men were obese. In our study, psoriasis is been associated with a high fat mass%. We suggest that screening for body fat distribution in psoriatic patients might be useful to identify early obesity-related disease.

  11. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-10-01

    Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.

  12. Television watching, videogames, and excess of body fat in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, J Pablo; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Moreno, Luis A; Wärnberg, Julia; Redondo, Carlos; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado, Manuel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel; Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the individual association of sedentary behaviors with the risk of overweight and excess body fat (overfat) in adolescents. A representative sample (1960 subjects, 1012 males, age 13-18.5 y) of Spanish adolescents was studied within the framework of the Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional de los Adolescentes (AVENA) study. Television (TV) watching, videogame and computer usage, doing homework, and the way students got to school, physical activity, and socioeconomic status were analyzed. Anthropometrics were measured to describe overweight (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for body mass index) and overfat (body fat percentage >85th percentile). When all subjects were considered as an entire group, the overweight risk increased by 15.8% (P videogame usage, respectively (both Ps videogame usage (P videogames during the weekend.

  13. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Czeisler, Charles A; Keating, Leigh; Yee, Karen; Barger, Laura K; Garaulet, Marta; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2017-11-01

    Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour. Objective: This study examined the relations between the timing of food consumption relative to clock hour and endogenous circadian time, content of food intake, and body composition. Design: We enrolled 110 participants, aged 18-22 y, in a 30-d cross-sectional study to document sleep and circadian behaviors within their regular daily routines. We used a time-stamped-picture mobile phone application to record all food intake across 7 consecutive days during a participant's regular daily routines and assessed their body composition and timing of melatonin release during an in-laboratory assessment. Results: Nonlean individuals (high body fat) consumed most of their calories 1.1 h closer to melatonin onset, which heralds the beginning of the biological night, than did lean individuals (low body fat) (log-rank P = 0.009). In contrast, there were no differences between lean and nonlean individuals in the clock hour of food consumption ( P = 0.72). Multiple regression analysis showed that the timing of food intake relative to melatonin onset was significantly associated with the percentage of body fat and body mass index (both P food intake, caloric amount, meal macronutrient composition, activity or exercise level, or sleep duration and either of these body composition measures (all P > 0.72). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the consumption of food during the circadian evening and/or night, independent of more traditional risk factors such as amount or content of food intake and activity level, plays an important role in body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  14. Endurance exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Carter, Emma E.; Kemp, Graham J.; Thompson, Campbell H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter A.; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 1088–1096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency. PMID:21632846

  15. Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J S; Laymon, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the thermal transfer characteristics of the skin in relation to body composition as assessed by the ability of water immersion and hot and cold packs with different thicknesses of towels layers to heat or cool deep tissue. Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine the interrelationships between body fat content and muscle temperature after immersion of the limb in water or the application of hot and cold packs. In the first series of experiments, subjects immersed their lower body in water at 42, 37, 34, 27, 24 and 0 degrees C for 20 minutes. Muscle temperature was measured in the skin above and in the belly of the quadriceps and medial gastrocnemius muscles by a thermistor on the skin and one implanted with a 20-gauge needle 25 mm below and perpendicular to the skin. To see the effect of circulation, a series was conducted with the circulation occluded. In the second series, hot or cold packs were used with different thicknesses of towel layers. The muscle temperature after immersion in water approached that of the packs within approximately 20 minutes. In contrast, when hot and cold packs were used with various thickness of towels ranging from 2 to 10 mm in thickness, the change in muscle temperature was much less and it was still changing at the end of a 20 minute period. Subjects with high body fat changed their deep tissue temperatures much more slowly with a time constant nearly double that of the thin subjects with all modalities. Even after water immersion, if the body fat exceeded 25% of the subject's weight, 20 min of immersion was not enough to either warm the muscle or cool it down substantially. Cold packs and hot packs were very ineffective in changing muscle temperature under these same conditions. Body fat plays a major role, as did limb blood flow in controlling the movement of heat across the limb.

  16. Impact of body fat distribution on neoadjuvant chemotherapy outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Sangai, Takafumi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Junta; Hayama, Shouko; Ishigami, Emi; Masuda, Takahito; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is known to decrease the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) against breast cancer; however, the relationship between actual body composition and NAC outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of body composition on NAC outcomes. A total of 172 advanced breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition parameters including abdominal circumference (AC), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle area (SMA) were calculated using computed tomography volume-analyzing software. VFA/SFA ratio was used to evaluate visceral obesity. The associations of body composition parameters with pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival were analyzed. AC, SFA, and VFA were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (all P < 0.05; r = 0.82, r = 0.71, and r = 0.78, respectively). AC, SFA, and VFA increased significantly and SMA decreased significantly after menopause (all P < 0.05). VFA/SFA ratio increased significantly after menopause, even though BMI remained unchanged. Body composition parameters were not associated with pCR. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was significantly worse in the high VFA group than in the low VFA group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the high VFA group, postmenopausal patients had significantly shorter DDFS than premenopausal patients (P < 0.05). VFA was independently associated with DDFS in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High visceral fat is associated with worse NAC outcomes in breast cancer patients, especially postmenopausal patients. Interventions targeting visceral fat accumulation will likely improve NAC outcomes

  17. Low energy availability and low body fat of female gymnasts before an international competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M R G; Paiva, T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate dietary intake and body composition of elite rhythmic gymnastics (RG) athletes prior to a competition event. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (18.7 ± 2.9 years old) of high performance level, with 36.6 ± 7.6 h of training/week were evaluated in order to collect training and competition data, medical and gynaecological history, detailed dietary intake and body composition before an international competition. The majority of the participants (n = 40; 59.7%) had already menstruated, but age of menarche was delayed (15.3 ± 1.3 years) and all revealed menstrual irregularities. Gymnasts' body mass (48.4 ± 4.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 17.4 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were below the normal for age, and height (1.66 ± 0.05 m) was normal or even slightly above normal for age. Body fat was 9.0 ± 2.0% with no significant differences between age strata. Gymnasts exhibited low energy availability (EA; 31.5 ± 11.9 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day). The average carbohydrate and protein intakes were 5.1 ± 2.3 g/kg/day and 1.6 ± 04 g/kg/day, which correspond to 51.4 ± 7.2% and 16.9 ± 3.4% of total energy intakes, respectively; average fat contribution was 33.0 ± 5.3%. Low intakes of pantothenic acid, folate and vitamins D, E and K and of minerals, including calcium, iron and magnesium were reported. Intakes of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamins A, B-6, B-12, C and manganese and zinc were above-adequate (P < 0.05). Low EA, low body fat and micronutrient deficiencies are common among RG.

  18. Genetic, sex, and diet effects on body weight and obesity in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Asja; Schmitt, Armin O; Aksu, Soner; Schlote, Werner; Neuschl, Christina; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2006-11-27

    Mouse lines long-term selected for high fatness offer the possibility to identify individual genes involved in the development of obesity. The Berlin Fat Mouse (BFM) line has been selected for low protein content and afterward for high fatness. Three Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) lines, which are derivates of the selection line BFM and an unselected control line (C57BL/6; B6) were systematically phenotyped between 3 and 20 wk. The body weights and body compositions were measured on a weekly basis. We demonstrated that the BFMI lines dispose of more body weight, body fat mass, and body lean mass than the control line B6 because of a better feed efficiency in these lines. In contrast to other growth-selected mouse lines, the BFMI lines exhibited a general increase in body fat mass but only a marginal increase in body lean mass. The three BFMI lines also showed line- and sex-specific patterns and varied in their response to high-fat diet. The phenotypic differences between the BFMI lines can be traced back to different sets of fixed alleles contributing to fat accumulation and diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the genetically related BFMI lines are novel models to study the genetic as well as the nutritional aspects of obesity.

  19. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo In Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in adult populations.MethodsA total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010. Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsThe odds ratios (ORs for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001.ConclusionThe relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance.

  20. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitani Michio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg, GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%, neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055% and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081% significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat

  1. Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, G F; Iwaniec, U T; Turner, R T; Rosen, C J; Widrick, J J

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass. Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=8-10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30-50 Hz (6 mm peak to peak) for 30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The vibration intervention consisted of six 5-min cycles with a 1-min break between cycles. There were significant body composition differences between the whole-body vibration and the control group. The whole-body vibration group weighed approximately 10% less (mean+/-s.d.; 207+/-10 vs 222+/-15 g, P<0.03) and had less body fat (20.8+/-3.8 vs 26.8+/-5.9 g, P<0.05), a lower percentage of body fat (10.2+/-1.7 vs 12+/-2.0%, P<0.05), and lower serum leptin levels (1.06+/-0.45 vs 2.27+/-0.57 ng ml(-1), P<0.01) than the age-matched controls. No differences were observed for total lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) mass or function. Regional high-resolution dual-energy X-ray absoptiometry scans of the lumbar spine (L1-4) revealed that the whole-body vibration group had significantly greater BMC (0.33+/-0.05 vs 0.26+/-0.03 g, P<0.01) and BMD (0.21+/-0.01 vs 0.19+/-0.01 g cm(-2), P<0.01) than the control group. No differences between the groups were observed in the amount of food consumed. These findings show that whole-body vibration reduced body fat accumulation and serum leptin without affecting whole body BMC, BMD or lean mass. However, the increase in vertebral BMC and BMD suggests that vibration may have resulted in local increases in bone mass and density. Also, whole-body vibration did not affect muscle function or food consumption.

  2. Effect of HIV infection on body composition and fat distribution in Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Zheng Lin; Cohen, Mardge; Binagwaho, Agnes; Kotler, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association of HIV infection with body weight and composition in Rwandan women. Body weight and composition, the latter determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and by anthropometry, were compared in 620 HIV-positive and 211 HIV-negative participants. Associations of HIV with body composition were assessed, and t tests compared the groups. HIV-positive women were younger (-7.0 years, P < .001) and shorter (-2.1 cm, P < .001). Mean body weight, body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were similar. Mean fat-free mass was 2.5% greater in HIV-negative participants, and 19% of HIV-positive group had BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) versus 26% of the HIV-negative group (P < .05). CD4 counts and body composition were not associated. Malnutrition was common in this cohort of Rwandan women. However, HIV infection was not associated with nutritional status. Factors other than malnutrition may influence quality-of-life outcomes in HIV-infected Rwandan women. Initiatives to improve nutritional status should be population-wide and not restricted to the HIV-infected population.

  3. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  4. Mathematical model for body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a specific mathematical model to estimate the body fat percentage (BF% of children with cerebral palsy, based on a Brazilian population of patients with this condition. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study included 63 Caucasian children with cerebral palsy, both males and females, aged between three and ten-years-old. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and skinfold thickness. Total body mass (TBM and skinfolds thickness from: triceps (Tr, biceps (Bi, Suprailiac (Si, medium thigh (Th, abdominal (Ab, medial calf (Ca and subscapular (Se were collected. Fat mass (FM was estimated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (gold standard. Results The model was built from multivariate linear regression; FM was set as a dependent variable and other anthropometric variables, age and sex, were set as independent variables. The final model was established as F%=((0.433xTBM + 0.063xTh + 0.167xSi - 6.768 ÷ TBM × 100, the R2 value was 0.950, R2adjusted=0.948 and the standard error of estimate was 1.039 kg. Conclusion This method was shown to be valid to estimate body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy. Also, the measurement of skinfolds on both sides of the body showed good results in this modelling.

  5. Comparison between body fat measurements obtained by portable ultrasound and caliper in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Ripka, W L; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the Portable Ultra Sound (US) measuring technique to the skinfold measuring technique (SF) to estimate body fat percentage (%F) in young adults. Sixty military were evaluated, all males, divided in two groups: Group 1 (normal) composed by 30 military with Body Mass Index (BMI) until 24.99 kg/m(2) and Group 2 (overweight) composed by 30 military with BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Weight, height, skinfolds and ultrasound were measured in 9 points (triceps, subscapular, biceps, chest, medium axillary, abdominal, suprailiac, thigh and calf). Body fat average values obtained by skinfold thickness and ultrasound measurements were 13.25 ± 6.32 % and 12.73 ± 5.95 % respectively. Despite significant differences in measurements of each anatomical site, it was possible to verify that the total final body fat percentage calculated by both techniques did not present significant differences and that overweight group presented greater similarity between the values obtained using caliper and ultrasound equipment.

  6. Resveratrol-Induced Effects on Body Fat Differ Depending on Feeding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; González, Marcela; Portillo, María P

    2017-11-29

    Science constantly seeks to identify new molecules that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against obesity and its co-morbidities. Among them, polyphenols represent a group of molecules of increasing interest. One of the most widely studied polyphenols is resveratrol ( trans -3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), which has been proposed as an "energy restriction mimetic" because it can exert energy restriction-like effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of resveratrol on obesity under different feeding conditions, such as overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction, in animals and humans. The vast majority of the studies reported have addressed the administration of resveratrol to animals alongside an obesogenic diet. Under these experimental conditions usually a decreased body weight amount was found. To date, studies that focus on the effects of resveratrol under normal feeding or energy restriction conditions in animals and humans are scarcer. In these studies no changes in body fat were reported. After analyzing the results obtained under overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction conditions, it can be stated that resveratrol is useful in reducing body fat accumulation, and thus preventing obesity. Nevertheless, for ethical reasons, these results have been obtained in animals. By contrast, there are no evidences showing the usefulness of this phenolic compound in reducing previously accumulated body fat. Consequently, as of yet, there is not scientific support for proposing resveratrol as a new anti-obesity treatment tool.

  7. Body fat composition and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Emine; Uçok, Kağan; Akgün, Lütfi; Köken, Gülengül; Sahin, Figen Kir; Arioz, Dagistan Tolga; Baş, Orhan

    2008-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the distribution and accumulation of body fat in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the association between androgen levels, insulin resistance and fat distribution. Thirty-one PCOS women and 29 age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were evaluated in terms of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness determined with a skinfold caliper and body composition analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood samples were obtained for determination of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, 17beta-estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, basal prolactin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, insulin and glucose levels. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by fasting glucose/insulin ratio and free androgen index (FAI) was calculated as 100 x testosterone/SHBG. Differences between means were analyzed by Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney U test according to distribution of the data. Correlation analysis was performed between the body fat distribution and parameters concerning insulin resistance and androgens. FAI was significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the control group (p = 0.001). Fasting insulin was significantly higher and fasting glucose/insulin ratio was significantly lower in the PCOS group vs. controls (p = 0.03 and 0.001, respectively). There was significantly less subcutaneous adipose tissue in the controls than the PCOS women at the triceps (p = 0.04) and subscapular region (p = 0.04). Waist-to-hip ratio of PCOS women was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p = 0.04). Upper-half type body fat distribution is linked with PCOS, high free testosterone levels and insulin resistance.

  8. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  9. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  10. Oral sensitivity to oleic acid is associated with fat intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell S J

    2011-12-01

    Taste sensitivity to fatty acids influences food ingestion and may regulate fat intake and body weight status. Fatty acids are detected via homologous receptors within the mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where attenuated sensitivity may be associated with greater fat intake and BMI. This study aimed to extend observations surrounding fatty acid taste, specifically the types of foods consumed and dietary behaviours that may be associated with fatty acid taste sensitivity. 51 subjects (41 female; BMI, 21.4 ± 0.46 kg/m², age, 20 ± 0.52 yrs, 10 male; BMI, 23.6 ± 1.4 kg/m², age, 22 ± 1 yrs) were screened for oral sensitivity to oleic acid (3.8 mM) using triplicate sensory evaluations, and classified as hypersensitive; (3/3 correct identifications), or hyposensitive, (sensory-matched custards made with 0, 2, 6, 10% oil), recent diet (4-day diet record) and food habits and behaviours (food habits and behaviours questionnaire) were also established. 75% (n = 38) of subjects were classified as hyposensitive to oleic acid and these subjects differed from those who were classified as hypersensitive. Hyposensitive subjects consumed significantly more energy, fat, saturated fat, fatty foods (butter, meat, dairy), had greater BMI and were less perceptive of small changes in the fat content of custard (all P butter, meat, dairy, and increasing BMI. 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  12. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Musalek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  13. Dietary egg-white protein increases body protein mass and reduces body fat mass through an acceleration of hepatic β-oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao

    2017-09-01

    Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.

  14. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio

    2017-09-21

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ± 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% was measured by BIA-BF% and by BAI-BF%. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BAI-BF% and BF% assessed by BIA-BF%, while controlling for potential confounders. The concordance between the BF% measured by both methods was obtained with a paired sample t -test, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plot analysis. Overall, the correlation between BF% obtained by BIA-BF% and estimated by BAI-BF% was r = 0.885, p adults with overweight/obesity, the BAI presents low agreement with BF% measured by BIA-BF%; therefore, we conclude that BIA-BF% is not accurate in either sex when body fat percentage levels are low or high. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings in different ethnic groups.

  15. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douchi, T; Yoshimitsu, N; Nagata, Y

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects were 67 women with PCOS (mean age +/- standard deviation, 28.8 +/- 6.6 years). Baseline characteristics included age and height. Trunk-leg fat ratio and trunk-leg muscle ratio were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured with radioimmunoassays. Relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution were investigated using Pearson and partial correlation tests. Serum testosterone levels were positively correlated with trunk-leg fat ratio (r = 0.398, P fat ratio (r = -0.360, P testosterone levels were still correlated with trunk-leg fat ratio (r = 0.500, P fat ratio was still correlated with trunk-leg muscle ratio, after adjusting for age, height, and serum testosterone levels. Based on these results, we concluded that higher serum testosterone levels may contribute to the upper body fat distribution and peripheral muscle mass distribution. In addition, peripheral muscle mass distribution may also contribute to the upper body fat distribution.

  17. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r 2 ) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r 2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ortiz-Hernández

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n = 398 and the validation sample (n = 203. The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf, and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Results: Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r2 equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls in all age groups, low standard errors (SE ≤ 3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls, and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p > 0.050. Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. Conclusions: The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations.

  19. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  20. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  1. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    ) by allometric scaling (mL/min/kg(0.71) ), whereas no relationships were detected for VO(2PEAK) scaled to fat-free mass (FFM) (mL/min/FFM). Person correlation coefficients for boys were 0.26, -0.38, -0.19 and -0.01 NS and for girls 0.33, -0.42, -0.21 and -0.03 NS, respectively. Significant differences in VO(2......AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ) and body fat in young children on a population-based level. METHODS: Participants were 586 children (311 boys and 275 girls) aged 6.8±0.4 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. VO......(2PEAK) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated from skinfold measurements. RESULTS:  Significant relationships existed between BF% and absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (mL/min), VO(2PEAK) scaled by body weight (mL/min/kg) and VO(2PEAK...

  2. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex Sf; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor Va; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John Rb; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco Jc; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter Eh; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin Na; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth Jf; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  3. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  4. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segatto Aline Francielle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA. Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA, in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female, aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS.

  5. Differentially expressed genes in the fat body of Bombyx mori in response to phoxim insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Z Y; Li, F C; Wang, B B; Xu, K Z; Ni, M; Zhang, H; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an economically important insect. However, poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. The fat body is the major tissue involved in detoxification and produces antimicrobial peptides and regulates hormones. In this study, a microarray system comprising 22,987 oligonucluotide 70-mer probes was employed to examine differentially expressed genes in the fat body of B. mori exposed to phoxim insecticide. The results showed that a total of 774 genes were differentially expressed upon phoxim exposure, including 500 up-regulated genes and 274 down-regulated genes. The expression levels of eight detoxification-related genes were up-regulated upon phoxim exposure, including six cytochrome P450s and two glutathione-S-transferases. It was firstly found that eight antimicrobial peptide genes were down-regulated, which might provide important references for studying the larvae of B. mori become more susceptible to microbial infections after phoxim treatment. In addition, we firstly detected the expression level of metamorphosis-related genes after phoxim exposure, which may lead to impacted reproduction. Our results may facilitate the overall understanding of the molecular mechanism of multiple pathways following exposure to phoxim insecticide in the fat body of B. mori. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  7. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  8. Importance of dietary advice, nutritional supplements and compliance for maintaining body weight and body fat after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengstrom, Y; Wahren, L K; Grodzinsky, E

    2009-08-01

    Poor nutritional status amongst elderly individuals with hip fractures is well documented. Studies have suggested that 30-50 % of patients admitted to orthopaedic departments suffer from protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). An 6 month intervention study. The study was conducted in Sweden between February 2005 and October 2006. Elderly patients with hip fractures (n=32). Evaluation of compliance with individual nutritional support and whether body weight and body fat (BF) could be maintained after six months. Evaluation of possible effects of nutritional supplements and dietary advice after hip fracture on BMI, BF, and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Overall compliance with supplement intake was 73%. After six months, BMI was unchanged. Women's BF had decreased (P body weight/day. Three groups could be identified: one group with increased body weight and BF, one with loss of body weight and BF, and one with increased body weight together with increased TBW and loss of BF. PARTICIPANTS who consumed 0-1 supplements daily lost more weight than those who consumed 2 supplements daily. There was a positive difference (p= body water (TBW). MNA values for women changed in a positive direction.

  9. Macronutrient Intake-Associated FGF21 Genotype Modifies Effects of Weight-Loss Diets on 2-Year Changes of Central Adiposity and Body Composition: The POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Smith, Steven R; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is involved in the regulation of energy balance and adipose metabolism. Our previous genome-wide association study identified genetic variants in the FGF21 region associated with macronutrient intake preference. We investigated whether the FGF21 genotype modified effects of weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on changes in adiposity in a 2-year randomized diet intervention trial. We genotyped FGF21 rs838147 in 715 overweight or obese individuals who were assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient contents. A DEXA scan was performed to evaluate body composition. We observed a significant interaction between the FGF21 genotype and carbohydrate/fat intake on 2-year changes in waist circumference (WC), percentage of total fat mass, and percentage of trunk fat (P = 0.049, P = 0.001, and P = 0.003 for interaction, respectively). In response to the low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing C allele of rs838147 was marginally associated with less reduction in WC (P = 0.08) and significantly associated with less reduction of total fat mass (P = 0.01) and trunk fat (P = 0.02). Opposite genetic associations with these outcomes were observed among the high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet group; carrying the C allele was associated with a greater reduction of WC, total body fat mass, and trunk fat. Our data suggest that FGF21 genotypes may interact with dietary carbohydrate/fat intake on changes in central adiposity and body fat composition. A low-calorie, high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet was beneficial for overweight or obese individuals carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing allele of the FGF21 variant to improve body composition and abdominal obesity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Replication study of 15 recently published Loci for body fat distribution in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kikuko; Kitamoto, Aya; Kitamoto, Takuya; Mizusawa, Seiho; Teranishi, Hajime; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakata, Yoshio; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Ochi, Hidenori; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kamohara, Seika; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kotani, Kazuaki; Itoh, Naoto; Mineo, Ikuo; Wada, Jun; Yoneda, Masato; Nakajima, Atsushi; Funahashi, Tohru; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Katsuto; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Ueno, Takato; Chayama, Kazuaki; Hamaguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Kentaro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sakata, Toshiie; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Sekine, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation plays an integral role in morbidity and mortality rates by increasing the risk of developing metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. New genetic loci associated with fat distribution, measured by waist-hip ratios and computed tomography (CT), have recently been identified by genome-wide association studies in European-descent populations. This study used CT to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that confer susceptibility to fat distribution are associated with visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) in the Japanese population. We measured the VFAs and SFAs of 1424 obese Japanese subjects (BMI≥25 kg/m(2), 635 men and 789 women) that were genotyped at 15 SNPs, namely, TBX15 rs984222, DNM3 rs1011731, LYPLAL1 rs4846567, GRB14 rs10195252, NISCH rs6784615, ADAMTS9 rs6795735, CPEB4 rs6861681, LY86 rs1294421, VEGFA rs6905288, RSPO3 rs9491696, NFE2L3 rs1055144, ITPR2 rs718314, HOXC13 rs1443512, ZNRF3 rs4823006 and THNSL2 rs1659258. The G-allele of LYPLAL1 rs4846567 was borderline associated with an increased ratio of VFA to SFA (V/S ratio; p= 0.0020). LYPLAL1 rs4846567 had a stronger effect on the V/S ratio in women (p= 0.0078) than in men (p= 0.12); however, neither result was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. NISCH rs6784615 was nominally associated with increased VFA (p=0.040) and V/S ratio (p= 0.020). The other SNPs analyzed were not significantly associated with body mass index (BMI), VFA, or SFA. Our results suggest that LYPLAL1 rs4846567 and NISCH rs6784615 may influence fat distribution in the Japanese population.

  11. Plasma steroids, body composition, and fat distribution: effects of age, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihong; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Tchernof, André; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-03-05

    Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program. In the sedentary state, 270 men (29% Blacks) and 304 women (34% Blacks) from the HERITAGE Family Study were available. Among them, 242 men and 238 women completed a 20-week fully standardized exercise program. Fourteen steroid hormones and SHBG concentrations were assayed in a fasted state and were compared for their associations with adiposity in men and women and in response to the exercise program. Covariates adjusted for in partial correlation analysis were age, ancestry, menopause status (women), and oral contraceptives/hormone replacement treatment status (women) at baseline, as well as baseline value of the trait for the training response. Differences among normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects were also considered. Statistical significance was set at P testosterone (TESTO) were negatively associated with fat mass and abdominal fat (P fat-free mass in men or women, but was significantly associated with % fat-free mass in men. No association was detected between baseline steroid hormone levels and changes in adiposity traits in response to 20 weeks of exercise. In men, low DHT, OHPROG, SHBG, and TESTO were associated with higher adiposity and abdominal and visceral fat. A similar adiposity profile was observed in women with low SHBG.

  12. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  13. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by usi...

  14. Protein content and electrophoretic profile of fat body and ovary extracts from workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner T. Paes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier, 1836 develop their ovaries and lay eggs, therefore the production of vitellogenin is expected. In electrophoretic profiles only fat body extracts from nurse workers and ovary extracts from newly-emerged workers show protein with molecular mass similar to vitellogenin. However, an increase in the protein content was detected in forager fat body. This increase was attributed to storage of vitellogenin or other proteins in the previous phase and not discharged into the hemolymph or to an effect of the increased titre of juvenile hormone in this phase of worker life over the fat body functioning.

  15. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob; Schmidt, E B; Obel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures...... circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates...

  16. Effect of Raised Body Fat on Vitamin D, Leptin and Bone Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S. S.; Alam, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate leptin, vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in individuals with high fat mass, and to assess any correlation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Aga Khan University, Karachi, from August 2012 to July 2014, and comprised healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18-60 years. Body fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the participants were classified as: Group A (15-21.9); Group B (22-27.9); and Group C (>28). Bone mineral density was calculated by ultrasound bone densitometer (T-score between +1 and -1 considered normal). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the levels of vitamin D and leptin. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 male subjects participated in this study, with each of the 3 groups having 44(33.3 percent). Despite all groups having low Vitamin D, a marked decrease was observed in group C compared to groups A and B (p <0.018). Bone mineral density T-score was <-1; total calcium was within normal range in all three groups. Serum leptin was raised in Group C compared to group A and B (p=0.03). Body fat percentage was negatively associated with vitamin D (p=0.004; r = -0.351), while it was positively correlated with leptin (p =0.038; r = 0.256). Conclusion: Excess of body fat percentage led to decreased vitamin D and raised leptin. However, bone mineral density and calcium levels were within normal range, suggesting that other factors might have played a role in maintaining bone mass in obese individuals, such as leptin. (author)

  17. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Effect of Distinct Lifestyle Interventions on Mobilization of Fat Storage Pools: CENTRAL Magnetic Resonance Imaging Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Zelicha, Hila; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tsaban, Gal; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Komy, Oded; Wolak, Arik; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Bilitzky, Avital; Sarusi, Benjamin; Goshen, Eyal; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2018-03-13

    We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. We performed an 18-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to isocaloric low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28 g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA; 80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership). Overall primary outcome was body fat redistribution, and the main specific end point was visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We further followed the dynamics of different fat depots (deep and superficial subcutaneous, liver, pericardial, muscle, pancreas, and renal sinus) by magnetic resonance imaging. Of 278 participants (age, 48 years, 89% men, body mass index, 30.8 kg/m 2 ), 86% completed the trial with good adherence. The low-fat group preferentially decreased reported fat intake (-21.0% versus -11.5% for the MED/LC; P carbohydrates intake (-39.5% versus -21.3% for the low-fat group; P weight loss was indifferent, exercise attenuated the waist circumference rebound with the greatest effect in the MED/LC PA+ group ( P fats declines were higher than pancreatic and femur intermuscular fats (1% to 2%) loss. Independent of weight loss, PA + with either diet had a significantly greater effect on decreasing VAT (mean of difference, -6.67cm 2 ; 95% confidence interval, -14.8 to -0.45) compared with PA - . The MED/LC diet was superior to the low-fat diet in decreasing intrahepatic, intrapericardial, and pancreatic fats ( P fats were not differentially altered by lifestyle interventions but by weight loss per se. In multivariate models further adjusted for weight loss, losing VAT or intrahepatic fat was independently associated with improved lipid profile, losing deep subcutaneous adipose tissue with improved insulin sensitivity, and losing superficial subcutaneous adipose

  19. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    bioelectrical impedance data. Int. J. Obes., 26, 1596-1609. Daniel, J.A., Sizer, P.S., and Latman, N.S., 2005: Evaluation of body composition methods and...underwater weighing, water or air displacement, electrical impedance or conductivity, skinfold measurements, circumferences, ultrasound, magnetic...2000: Human body composition: In vivo methods. Physiological Reviews, 80, 649- 680. Friedl, K.E., 2004: Can you be large and not obese ? The

  20. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Maffetone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world’s most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.

  1. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  2. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  3. The Effects of Usual Intervention Versus Usual Intervention Plus Knowledge of Measured Resting Energy Expenditure on Body Weight and Body Fat in Active Duty Air Force Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    ...: 25.2-36.2, enrolled in a Weight and Body Fat Management program Statistical Analysis: Descriptives, 2-sample t-tests, multiple linear regression, and ANOVA for mean differences between groups and time...

  4. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna K. Schrijvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  5. Do body mass index and fat volume influence vocal quality, phonatory range, and aerodynamics in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsties, Ben; Verfaillie, Rudi; Roy, Nelson; Maryn, Youri

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the impact of body weight and body fat volume on selected parameters of vocal quality, phonatory range, and aerodynamics in females. Based on measurements of body mass index in combination with body fat volume, 29 normophonic female subjects were classified as normal weight, underweight, and obese. Voice quality was investigated via auditory-perceptual ratings of breathiness, roughness, and overall dysphonia severity, via various acoustic measures and a multiparametric index. Phonatory range performance was examined using selected measures of the voice range profile and speech range profile. Measures of vocally relevant aerodynamics included vital capacity (i.e., VC), expected VC, phonation quotient, and maximum phonation time (i.e., MPT). Significant differences between the three weight groups were found across several measures of intensity, VC, MPT, and shimmer. As compared to the other groups, significantly higher values of maximum and minimum intensity levels, as well as sound pressure level during habitual running speech were observed for the obese group (all p-valuesrange performance.

  6. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  7. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  8. Comparison of body fat using various bioelectrical impedance analyzers in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: At present, the portfolio of devices using the bioelectrical impedance (BIA method is continuously expanding as a result of the wide use of this method in the field as measurements by this method are fast and staff training is simple and reasonably priced. Nonetheless, the problem is that despite using the same method, bioimpedance analyzers can differ in many parameters. They use different electric current frequencies, a different number of electrodes and the electric current may be conducted through different parts of the body.Objective: The main objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the differences of values of the analysis of the body fat of university students measured by BIA analyzers that differ in the applied electric current frequency, number of electrodes and flow of the electric current through the individual body parts.Methods: The research included 125 participants (70 male and 55 female. The measurements were taken by the following analyzers: Tanita 418 MA, InBody 720, InBody R20 and Omron BF 300.Results: The differences in the mean values of the body fat representation between the used analyzers in men ranged from 0.1 to 3.4% and from 0.0 to 2.4 kg, in women from 0.5 to 6.5% and from 0.4 to 3.8 kg in relation to the used analyzer.Conclusions: In men with regular physical activity, the values measured by InBody R20 were statistically and practically different. The analyzer measured higher values that other analyzers. In women, there were statistically and practically significant differences in the values measured by Omron BF 300. This analyzer measured lower values than other analyzers.

  9. Impact of body fat percentage change on future diabetes in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxue; Lin, Ziwei; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the work was to determine the effect of body fat change on risk of diabetes in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) population. A total of 1,857 NGT subjects were included and followed up for an average period of 44.57 months. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjects were grouped based on the BF% and/or body mass index (BMI) state. Among all subjects, 28 developed diabetes after follow-up. Compared with subjects with stable normal BF% (control), subjects who became obesity at follow-up were defects in insulin secretion and had a higher risk of developing diabetes (7.102, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.740-28.993), while no difference in diabetic risk could be viewed between subjects with abnormal BF% at baseline but normal at the end of follow-up and control subjects after adjustment of confounding factors. Moreover, compared with those keeping normal BF% and BMI both at baseline and follow-up, subjects who had normal BMI at baseline and follow-up, but abnormal BF% at baseline or/and follow-up still had a higher risk to develop diabetes (4.790, 95% CI 1.061-21.621), while those with normal BF% at baseline and follow-up, but abnormal BMI at baseline or/and follow-up had not. Subjects from normal BF% at baseline to obese at follow-up are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Maintaining normal body fat is more relevant than BMI in preventing diabetes. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(12):947-955, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  11. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.

  12. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  13. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  14. The relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index in overweight and obese individuals in an urban african setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadas O. Akindele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI, should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2% in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9% had low BF% while 291 (18.5% had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3% were underweight while 271 (17.3% were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01. The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association.

  15. [Assessment of body fat in physically active young people: anthropometry vs bioimpedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portao, J; Bescós, R; Irurtia, A; Cacciatori, E; Vallejo, L

    2009-01-01

    To assess the level of agreement between the anthropometrical method and several bioimpedance (BIA) devices to estimate the fat mass in a group of physically active young people. 55 students of Physical Activity Sciences and Sports of the INEFC of Barcelona; 29 men (age: 24.7 +/- 4.7 years; BMI: 23.4 +/- 1.8) and 26 women (age: 22.9 +/- 3.5; BMI: 21.5 +/- 1.9). All of them voluntarily gave their informed consent. Anthropometrical assessment was done according to the International Society for the Advancement Kinanthropometry (ISAK) protocol, the fat % was calculated by the Siri's equation and was compared with that obtained by 4 different BIA devices: Biospace Inbody 720, Tanita BC400, Tanita TBF-521, and Omron BF-300. To assess the level of agreement of the results, the interclass correlation coefficient and the Bland Aldman method were used. The estimated fat mass, in men, by the anthropometrical method was 7 +/- 2.2 kg. The results by the BIA systems were: 7.4 +/- 3 kg; 5.6 +/- 2.2 kg; 5.7 +/- 2.5 kg, and 7.4 +/- 3 kg for Biospace Inbody 720, Tanita BC400, Tanita TBF521, and Omron BF300, respectively. In women, the results were 10.4 +/- 2.7 kg of fat mass by means of the anthropometrical method and 10.3 +/- 2.9 kg, 11 +/- 3.3 kg, 11.5 +/- 3.0 kg, and 10 +/- 2.9 kg for Biospace Inbody 720, Tanita BC400, Tanita TBF521, and Omron BF300, respectively. In the male group, the level of agreement between anthropometrics and BIA devices was moderate-poor, whereas in women there was a good correlation between both techniques for estimating the body fat when the Biospace Inbody 720 and Tanita BC400 devices were used.

  16. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height 2 ) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI-FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. We restricted analyses to 4-12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height 5 ) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m - 2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m - 2 ; PAfricans, requiring negative BMI adjustments for Black African children. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (PAfricans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children.

  18. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan T Ho-Pham

    Full Text Available The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI in the Vietnamese population.The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr who were randomly selected from the general population in Ho Chi Minh City. Lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM were measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500. PBF was derived as FM over body weight.Based on BMI ≥30, the prevalence of obesity was 1.1% and 1.3% for men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25 was ~24% and ~19% in men and women, respectively. Based on the quadratic relationship between BMI and PBF, the approximate PBF corresponding to the BMI threshold of 30 (obese was 30.5 in men and 41 in women. Using the criteria of PBF >30 in men and PBF >40 in women, approximately 15% of men and women were considered obese.These data suggest that body mass index underestimates the prevalence of obesity. We suggest that a PBF >30 in men or PBF >40 in women is used as criteria for the diagnosis of obesity in Vietnamese adults. Using these criteria, 15% of Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City was considered obese.

  19. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  20. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Effects of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on body weight, body fat area and body fat-related markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Toyoda, Masao; Kimura, Moritugu; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Eitaro; Kuriyama, Yusuke; Miyatake, Han; Abe, Makiko; Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of six-month liraglutide treatment on body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat and related markers in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 59 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with liraglutide (0.3 mg/day for ≥1 week and then 0.6 mg/day for ≥1 week, gradually increasing the dose to 0.9 mg/day) for six months. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, the fasting blood glucose level, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, hepatic and renal CT values and the associated markers proinsulin, adiponectin and pentraxin (PTX) 3 were measured. The study included one treatment-naïve patient, 10 patients who were switched from oral antidiabetic drugs and 35 patients who were switched from insulin therapy. At six months after treatment, the preprandial blood glucose levels were higher (148.8±40.5 mg/dL) than the baseline values (130.8±36.7, pbody weight, BMI and abdominal circumference were lower, and the liver/kidney CT ratio improved significantly from 1.64±0.44 at baseline to 1.78±0.42. An analysis of the patients who were not pretreated with insulin resistance ameliorators showed that six months of liraglutide treatment significantly decreased the subcutaneous but not visceral fat areas, significantly decreased the serum adiponectin levels and significantly increased the serum PTX3 levels. In addition to its glucose-lowering effects, liraglutide exhibits weight loss promotion actions, reducing subcutaneous fat areas in particular. The weight and total fat area reduction properties of liraglutide are likely to be beneficial when this medication is used in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin.

  2. [Effect of different post-weaning dietary compositions on body fat content and hormone-sensitive lipase gene expression in rats fed with high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Zhao, Li-Jun; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2006-09-01

    To study the effects of different postweaning dietary compositions on body fat content and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats weaned on 24 days were randomly divided into A, B, C, D groups and were fed on high carbohydrate, high protein, high unsaturated fatty acid and high saturated fatty acid diet respectively. After 3 weeks, all rats were assigned to basic diet for two weeks, then rats from A group were randomly divided into A1 and A2 subgroups. A1 subgroup was fed on basic diet continuously. A2 subgroup and B, C and D groups were assigned to high-fat diet for six weeks. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of different treatments to detect body weight, body fat content and blood glucose level. RT-PCR was used to determine the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase in white adipose tissue. Body weight, body fat content and blood glucose level in C group were significantly lower than those in A2 subgroup on 11 weeks (P subgroup (P blood glucose level was higher than A2 subgroup on 11 weeks (P > 0.05). The body weight in D group was significantly lower than that in A2 subgroup (P blood glucose level were not significantly lower than A2 subgroup on 11 weeks (P > 0.05). The expression of HSL in B2 and C group was higher on 9 weeks and 11 weeks respectively. The HSL mRNA levels in all groups on 3 weeks were similar to that on 11 weeks. Feeding on high unsaturated-fatty acid diet after weaning may significantly reduce the body weight, body fat content, improve the abnormal blood glucose level in rats induced by high-fat diet. It was suggested that the high unsaturated-fatty acid diet can be reasonable for weaned rats and gene expression regulation may be involved in programming later obesity by early nutrition.

  3. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  4. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future.

  5. Associations Between Body Fat Percentage and Fitness among Police Officers: A Statewide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Ma, Claudia C; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-03-01

    Police work is generally sedentary although there may be situations that require physical endurance and strength, such as foot chases and arresting suspects. Factors such as excessive body fat can impede an officer's physical ability to deal with such occurrences. Our objective was to examine associations between officers' body fat percentage (BF%) and performance on a standardized fitness protocol. Data were obtained from fitness screening among 1,826 male and 115 female officers in a large US police agency. The screening consisted of a 2.4-km run, push-ups, sit-ups, and sit-and-reach test. Sex-specific body fat percentages were estimated from skinfold thickness measured using calipers. Linear regression models were used to examine unadjusted and adjusted mean scores of fitness tests across BF% tertiles. The prevalence of overall fitness was 4.3 times greater in male officers and 3.6 times greater in female officers having the lowest BF% tertile compared with the highest tertile (30.3% vs 7.1% and 46.0% vs 12.8%, respectively). BF% was linearly and positively associated with the time of 2.4-km run ( p   sit-ups ( p   sit-and-reach ( p   sit-and-reach ( p  = 0.122). Associations were independent of age, race/ethnicity, rank, and duty station. Overall, BF% was inversely associated with fitness levels in male and female officers. Future longitudinal studies should be initiated to explore the potentially causal relationship between BF% and fitness in law enforcement officers.

  6. Association of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand with Body Fat Distribution as Assessed by Dual X-Rays Absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cervellati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low chronic inflammation mediated by cytokine release is considered a major pathogenic mechanism accounting for the higher risk of cardiovascular disease in the overweight/obese population. In this context, although the existence of a possible interaction between soluble tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL and quantity and localization, of adiposity in the body has been hypothesized, no studies have yet investigated this link by radiologic techniques able to assess directly fat mass (FM in different body regions. To address this issue, we assessed body fat distribution by dual X-rays absorptiometry (DXA in a sample of 103 women and investigated the possible association between the derived adiposity measures and serum TRAIL concentration. The level of TRAIL showed a positive and independent correlation with arms FM (P<0.05, trunk FM (P<0.001 and trunk FM% (P<0.05, total FM and total FM% (P<0.001 for both, and an inverse association with legs FM% (P<0.05. Only trunk FM retained a significant correlation (P<0.05 with TRAIL after adjusting for all the other indices of regional adiposity. In conclusion, from our study it emerged a significant and independent association of serum TRAIL levels with overall, and, mainly, central adiposity. Further studies are needed to longitudinally investigate the cause-effect relationship between change in body fat distribution and TRAIL.

  7. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  8. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and DNA methylation markers associated with central obesity and regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Milagro, Fermín I; Cuervo, Marta; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    Visceral fat is strongly associated with the development of specific obesity-related metabolic alterations. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the development of obesity and visceral adiposity. The aims of this review are to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to central obesity and to summarize the main findings on DNA methylation and obesity. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted to identify genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and gene-diet interaction studies related to central obesity, and, in addition, studies that analyzed DNA methylation in relation to body weight regulation. A total of 8 genome-wide association studies and 9 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies reported numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with central obesity. Ten studies analyzed gene-diet interactions and central obesity, while 2 epigenome-wide association studies analyzed DNA methylation patterns and obesity. Nine studies investigated the relationship between DNA methylation and weight loss, excess body weight, or adiposity outcomes. Given the development of new sequencing and omics technologies, significantly more knowledge on genomics and epigenomics of obesity and body fat distribution will emerge in the near future. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  9. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Yudkin, J.S.; Shetty, P.S.; Kurpad, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- α); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in the 3

  10. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  11. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  12. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  13. Fast fat suppression RF pulse train with insensitivity to B1 inhomogeneity for body imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki

    2012-02-01

    In higher-field magnetic resonance imaging scanners, a spectrally selective fat saturation radiofrequency (RF) pulse does not work well because B(1) inhomogeneity increases. An adiabatic 180° pulse is used to improve nonuniform fat suppression, but requires inversion recovery time. Therefore, a new RF pulse that achieves flip angles near 90° and is B(1) insensitive has been developed. The pulse consists of three sinc-shaped RF pulses with different flip angles and with different time intervals between each RF pulse. Using the Bloch equations, we analyzed the optimal combination of flip angles. Experimental results demonstrated that M(z) was maintained at less than 0.05 M(0) for a B(1) inhomogeneity of ±35%. The optimal net flip angles was adjusted to 95° by varying the time interval between RF pulses. The pulse duration was 77 ms, which is less than half of the 170-ms inversion recovery time required for the adiabatic pulse. We demonstrated excellent fat suppression for body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Body mass and fat mass in refractory asthma: an observational 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafadhel, Mona; Singapuri, Amisha; Terry, Sarah; Hargadon, Beverley; Monteiro, William; Green, Ruth H; Bradding, Peter H; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D; Brightling, Christopher E

    2010-01-01

    Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ), body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r = 0.9, P < .001). FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r = 0.3, P = .01). After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV(1) change (r = -0.3, P = .03), but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  15. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  16. Bingeing, self-restriction, and increased body weight in rats with limited access to a sweet-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-09-01

    Prior research has shown that fasting alternated with a diet of standard rodent chow and a 10% sucrose solution produces bingeing on the sucrose, but animals remain at normal body weight. The present study investigated whether restricted access to a highly palatable combination of sugar and fat, without food deprivation, would instigate binge eating and also increase body weight. Male rats were maintained for 25 days on one of four diets: (i) sweet-fat chow for 2 h/day followed by ad libitum standard chow, (ii) 2-h sweet-fat chow only 3 days/week and access to standard chow the rest of the time, (iii) ad libitum sweet-fat chow, or (iv) ad libitum standard chow. Both groups with 2-h access to the sweet-fat chow exhibited bingeing behavior, as defined by excessively large meals. The body weight of these animals increased due to large meals and then decreased between binges as a result of self-restricted intake of standard chow following binges. However, despite these fluctuations in body weight, the group with 2-h access to sweet-fat chow every day gained significantly more weight than the control group with standard chow available ad libitum. These findings may have implications for the body weight fluctuations associated with binge-eating disorder, as well as the relationship between binge eating and the obesity epidemic.

  17. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort.

  18. Reducing effect of calcium in combination with magnesium and lactulose on body fat mass in middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Nobuo; Asano, Yuzou; Ochi, Hiroshi; Abe, Fumiaki; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Kudou, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that adequate calcium intake decreases body fat and appropriate intakes of magnesium suppress the development of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, lactulose increases the absorption of calcium and magnesium. An optimal combination of calcium, magnesium and lactulose may therefore reduce body fat mass. An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the body fat-reducing effects of a test food containing 300 mg calcium, 150 mg magnesium, and 4.0 g lactulose. Body composition parameters and blood hormone and urine mineral concentrations were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Whole-body fat mass was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Seventy-six middle-aged Japanese women (47.5±4.7 years) were randomized to the intake group (n=48) or the non-intake control group (n=28). At 12 months the difference in body fat mass change between the two groups (intake group - control group) was -0.8 kg (95% CI: -1.5 - 0.0 kg, p=0.046), although there were no differences in anthropometric data between the two groups. Body fat percentage at 12 months tended to be lower in the intake group, but the difference was not significant (p=0.09). These findings may suggest that calcium in combination with magnesium and lactulose can reduce body fat mass in middle-aged Japanese women. However, the contribution of magnesium and lactulose are unclear in this study. Further studies are needed to clarify these contributions.

  19. Diet quality as measured by the Diet Quality Index-International is associated with prospective changes in body fat among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Maximova, Katerina; Ekwaru, John Paul; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Henderson, Mélanie; Paradis, Gilles; Tremblay, Angelo; Veugelers, Paul

    2017-02-01

    To quantify the association of dietary quality with prospective changes in adiposity. Children participating in the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth) study underwent examination at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Dietary quality was assessed by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQII) using three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls at baseline. The DQII has four main categories: dietary adequacy, variety, moderation and overall balance. Fat mass index (FMI; [fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), central FMI (CFMI; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), percentage body fat (%BF; [total fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) and percentage central BF (%CBF; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Children were selected from schools in the greater Montreal, Sherbrooke and Quebec City metropolitan areas between 2005 and 2008, Quebec, Canada. A total of 546 children aged 8-10 years, including 244 girls and 302 boys. Regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity and Tanner stage revealed that every 10-unit improvement in overall DQII score was associated with lower gain in CFMI (β=-0·08; 95 % CI -0·17, -0·003) and %BF (β=-0·55; 95 % CI -1·08, -0·02). Each unit improvement in dietary adequacy score was associated with lower gain in FMI (β=-0·05; 95 % CI -0·08, -0·008), CFMI (β=-0·03; 95 % CI -0·05, -0·007), %BF (β=-0·15; 95 % CI -0·28, -0·03) and %CBF (β=-0·09; 95 % CI -0·15, -0·02). Promotion of dietary quality and adequacy may reduce weight gain in childhood and prevent chronic diseases later in life.

  20. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  2. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis. (author)

  3. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  4. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  5. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher

  6. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01, 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism.

  7. Influences of weight, body fat patterning and nutrition on the management of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P; Bringer, J; Renard, E; Boulet, F; Clouet, S; Jaffiol, C

    1997-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is defined as the association of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation in women without specific underlying diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands. PCOS is also associated with a metabolic disturbance (insulin resistance). The nature of the complex interrelation of obesity, insulin resistance and endocrine abnormalities in PCOS remains unresolved. However, several studies link obesity, body fat distribution and nutritional habitus with the hormonal and metabolic profiles of PCOS. Moreover, intervention studies have suggested that reducing weight and/or hyperinsulinaemia either by diet alone or by a combination of diet and drugs improves hirsutism, fertility and the hormonal and metabolic profiles of PCOS. In fact, the evaluation of nutritional factors in PCOS is helpful for the screening of metabolic abnormalities and the management of women with PCOS. A point of particular interest in the management of PCOS is that the choice of contraception remains difficult in these high cardiovascular risk women. The impact of pills with ethinyl oestradiol on weight, body fat distribution and carbohydrate metabolism in women with PCOS has not been thoroughly evaluated. The lack of prospective studies to evaluate long-term metabolic and cardiovascular tolerance necessitates care and the assessment of other hormonal possibilities.

  8. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:24789992

  9. Changes in the fat body during the post-embryonic development of the predator Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascini, T V; Albeny, D S; Ramalho-Ortigão, M; Vilela, E F; Serrão, J E; Martins, G F

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have focused on understanding the biochemistry and morphology of the fat body of the hematophagous mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In contrast, few studies, if any, have focused on morphological characters of the fat body in other mosquitoes, especially non-hematophagous taxa such as the culicid Toxorhynchites. Larvae of Toxorhynchites prey upon the larvae of other mosquito species and are used in vector mosquito control. We investigated aspects of the fat body trophocytes, including the morphometric analyses of the lipid droplets, protein granules and nuclei, during Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) post-embryonic development. Following the body weight increase from larval stage L2 to L4, the size of lipid droplets within the trophocytes also increase, and are likely the result of lipogenesis. Lipid droplets decrease in size during L4 to the female pupal stage and increase once again during the period from newly-emerged to mature adult females. Protein granules are observed for the first time in female pupae, and their appearance might be related to protein storage during metamorphosis. The size of the nucleus of trophocytes also increases during larval development, followed by a decrease during metamorphosis and an additional increase as adult female ages. In conclusion, the morphology of the fat body of T. theobaldi changes according to the developmental stage. Our study provides for the first time important insights into T. theobaldi fat body development and contributes to understand this species biology.

  10. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat. PMID:20393230

  11. Higher insulin and higher body fat via leptin are associated with disadvantageous decisions in the Iowa gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Douglas C; Piaggi, Paolo; Burkholder, Joushua E; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2016-12-01

    Elevated body mass index and post-prandial state are associated with disadvantageous choices on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Whether physiological factors including percent body fat, and peripheral glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, are associated with IGT performance is unknown. In196 healthy adults without diabetes, we measured body fat by DXA scan, glucose, insulin and leptin (n=138) concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test and IGT performance after a standardized meal. Glucose was not associated with IGT performance. Disadvantageous IGT performance was associated with higher percent body fat (r=-0.16, p=0.03), 30-min insulin concentrations (insulin 30 , r=-0.27, presponsible for the percent body fat effect on IGT performance. Even adjusted for age, sex, race, and education, insulin 30 (b=-46.5, p=0.03) and leptin 30 (b=-50.9, p=0.03) concentrations remained independently associated with IGT performance and interacted together such that higher leptin 30 blunted effects of higher insulin 30 (b=23.8, p=0.048). These findings may indicate an internal metabolic signature of energy availability (higher body fat, insulin, and leptin levels) associated with disadvantageous IGT performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Optimal cutoffs of percentage body fat for predicting obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Park, Hye Soon; Park, Mira; Kim, Hyeoijin; Kim, Chan

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular disease. The diagnosis of obesity is crucial to treating and preventing obesity-related medical problems. The objective was to determine optimal percentage body fat cutoffs in Korean adults for predicting obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors. We evaluated the body composition and prevalence of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, in 41,088 Korean adults aged 18-92 y. The optimal percentage body fat cutoffs for Korean adults were determined. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of overweight and obesity were estimated by logistic regression. The first cutoffs in men and women were 17% and 32% body fat, respectively; the second cutoffs were 21% and 37% body fat, respectively. The percentages of obese men and women were 41.8% and 15.9%, respectively. The adjusted OR of at least one risk factor for overweight or obesity in men was 2.22 (95% CI: 2.07, 2.38) or 4.05 (95% CI: 3.78, 4.33). The adjusted OR for women was 1.95 (95% CI: 1.79, 2.07; P disease and its risk factors is higher in Korean men than in Korean women. The cutoffs are useful for providing adequate guidelines for treating and preventing cardiovascular disease. This was the first study to determine cutoffs of percentage body fat for Korean adults.

  13. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  14. Mammillary Body and Fornix Injury in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Lee, Kwanoo; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is accompanied by reduced ventilatory sensitivity to CO2 and O2, respiratory drive failure during sleep, impaired autonomic, fluid, and food absorption regulation, and affective and cognitive deficits, including memory deficiencies. The deficits likely derive from neural injury, reflected as structural damage and impaired functional brain responses to ventilatory and autonomic challenges. Brain structures playing essential memory roles, including the hippocampus and anterior thalamus, are damaged in CCHS. Other memory formation circuitry, the fornix and mammillary bodies, have not been evaluated. We collected two high-resolution T1-weighted image series from 14 CCHS and 31 control subjects, using a 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Image series were averaged and reoriented a standard template; areas containing the mammillary bodies and fornices were over sampled, and body volumes and fornix cross-sectional areas were calculated and compared between groups. Both left and right mammillary body volumes and fornix cross-sectional areas were significantly reduced in CCHS over control subjects, controlling for age, gender, and intracranial volume. Damage to these structures may contribute to memory deficiencies found in CCHS. Hypoxic processes, together with diminished neuroprotection from micronutrient deficiencies secondary to fluid and dietary absorption issues, may contribute to the injury. PMID:19581831

  15. Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Arnold, Melina; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Bamia, Christina; Kampman, Ellen; Leitzmann, Michael; Romieu, Isabelle; Kee, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Background:We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect

  16. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  17. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  18. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMIchanges in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  19. Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-G Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

  20. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  1. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  2. Attention to fat- and thin-related words in body-satisfied and body-dissatisfied women before and after thin model priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah N Tobin

    Full Text Available Understanding the cognitive processes underlying body dissatisfaction provides important information on the development and perpetuation of eating pathology. Previous research suggests that body-dissatisfied women process weight-related information differently than body-satisfied women, but the precise nature of these processing differences is not yet understood. In this study, eye-gaze tracking was used to measure attention to weight-related words in body-dissatisfied (n = 40 and body-satisfied (n = 38 women, before and after exposure to images of thin fashion models. Participants viewed 8-second displays containing fat-related, thin-related, and neutral words while their eye fixations were tracked and recorded. Based on previous research and theory, we predicted that body-dissatisfied women would attend to fat-related words more than body-satisfied women and would attend to thin-related words less. It was also predicted that exposure to thin model images would increase self-rated body dissatisfaction and heighten group differences in attention. The results indicated that body-dissatisfied women attended to both fat- and thin-related words more than body-satisfied women and that exposure to thin models did not increase this effect. Implications for cognitive models of eating disorders are discussed.

  3. Comparison of MRI-assessed body fat content between lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and matched controls: less visceral fat with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfing, Jacoba G; Stassen, Chrit M; van Haard, Paul M M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder. However, PCOS has a strong resemblance to the metabolic syndrome, including preponderance of visceral fat deposition. The aim of this study is to compare fat distribution between lean women with PCOS and controls matched for body composition but with regular menstrual cycles and proven fertility. METHODS In this prospective cross-sectional study in a fertility outpatient clinic, 10 Caucasian women with PCOS and 10 controls, all with a BMI between 19 and 25 kg/m(2), were included. Fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), hormonal levels and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) variables were assessed and fat content and ovarian volume determinations were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple axial cross-sections were calculated. RESULTS The age of the PCOS and control groups were [mean (SD)] 28.2 years (2.6) versus 33.7 years (2.3) P fat compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Lean women with PCOS have higher MRI-determined ovarian volumes and less visceral fat content when compared with control women.

  4. Onset of puberty, menstrual frequency, and body fat in elite rhythmic gymnasts compared with normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klentrou, P; Plyley, M

    2003-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of delayed menarche and abnormal menstrual patterns, as well as the association of menstrual status with physical training in elite rhythmic gymnasts from Greece and Canada. Fifteen Greek (mean (SEM) age 14.5 (0.2) years) and 30 Canadian (mean (SEM) age 14.7 (0.4) years) rhythmic gymnasts were surveyed for age at menarche, menstrual frequency, and training profile, and measured for height, weight, and percentage body fat (%BF). Seventy eight healthy adolescents served as country specific non-active controls: 38 Greek non-athletes (mean (SEM) age 14.5 (0.1) years) and 40 Canadian non-athletes (mean (SEM) 14.2 (0.1) years). Of the Greek gymnasts, 79% had not yet menstruated compared with 34% of the Canadian gymnasts. Menarche was significantly (prhythmic gymnasts (composite mean 13.8 (0.3) years, n = 45) compared with the controls (composite mean 12.5 (0.1) years, n = 78). There was no significant difference between Greek and Canadian gymnasts for the age at menarche (14.2 (0.3) v 13.6 (1.2) years respectively). Menstrual irregularities were reported in 78% (61% oligomenorrhoeic and 17% amenorrhoeic) of the menarcheal athletes. Menarcheal gymnasts were found to be significantly (pgymnasts. Overall, the mean %BF of the gymnasts was significantly lower (prhythmic gymnasts. Premenarcheal gymnasts train more often and for longer, and have a lower body mass index and less body fat, than menarcheal gymnasts. Prospective studies are needed to explore further these and other factors associated with delayed menarche and menstrual irregularities in female athletes.

  5. Response to Blood Meal in the Fat Body of Anopheles stephensi Using Quantitative Proteomics: Toward New Vector Control Strategies Against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Mohanty, Ajeet Kumar; Sreenivasamurthy, Sreelakshmi K; Dey, Gourav; Advani, Jayshree; Pinto, Sneha M; Kumar, Ashwani; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-09-01

    Malaria remains a grand challenge for disruptive innovation in global health therapeutics and diagnostics. Anopheles stephensi is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. Vector and transmission control are key focus areas in the fight against malaria, a field of postgenomics research where proteomics can play a substantive role. Moreover, to identify novel strategies to control the vector population, it is necessary to understand the vector life processes at a global and molecular scale. In this context, fat body is a vital organ required for vitellogenesis, vector immunity, vector physiology, and vector-parasite interaction. Given its central role in energy metabolism, vitellogenesis, and immune function, the proteome profile of the fat body and the impact of blood meal (BM) ingestion on the protein abundances of this vital organ have not been investigated so far. Therefore, using a proteomics approach, we identified the proteins expressed in the fat body of An. stephensi and their differential expression in response to BM ingestion. In all, we identified 3,218 proteins in the fat body using high-resolution mass spectrometry, of which 483 were found to be differentially expressed in response to the BM ingestion. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins underscored their role in amino acid metabolism, vitellogenesis, lipid transport, signal peptide processing, mosquito immunity, and oxidation-reduction processes. Interestingly, we identified five novel genes, which were found to be differentially expressed upon BM ingestion. Proteins that exhibited altered expression in the present study are potential targets for vector control strategies and development of transmission blocking vaccines in the fight against malaria.

  6. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leslie H; Slentz, Cris A; Bateman, Lori A; Shields, A Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W; Bales, Connie W; Houmard, Joseph A; Kraus, William E

    2012-12-15

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweight or obese adults who were randomized to one of three 8-mo exercise protocols: 1) RT: resistance training, 2) AT: aerobic training, and 3) AT/RT: aerobic and resistance training (combination of AT and RT). Primary outcomes included total body mass, fat mass, and lean body mass. The AT and AT/RT groups reduced total body mass and fat mass more than RT (P body mass more than AT (P body mass reductions over AT alone. Balancing time commitments against health benefits, it appears that AT is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass and body mass, while a program including RT is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged, overweight/obese individuals.

  7. A proteomic view on the developmental transfer of homologous 30 kDa lipoproteins from peripheral fat body to perivisceral fat body via hemolymph in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakkianathan Britto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A group of abundant proteins of ~30 kDa is synthesized in silkworm larval peripheral fat body (PPFB tissues and transported into the open circulatory system (hemolymph in a time-depended fashion to be eventually stored as granules in the pupal perivisceral fat body (PVFB tissues for adult development during the non-feeding stage. These proteins have been shown to act anti-apoptotic besides being assigned roles in embryogenesis and defense. However, detailed protein structural information for individual PPFB and PVFB tissues during larval and pupal developmental stages is still missing. Gel electrophoresis and chromatography were used to separate the 30 kDa proteins from both PPFB and PVFB as well as hemolymph total proteomes. Mass spectrometry (MS was employed to elucidate individual protein sequences. Furthermore, 30 kDa proteins were purified and biochemically characterized. Results One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1/2D-PAGE was used to visualize the relative changes of abundance of the 30 kDa proteins in PPFB and PVFB as well as hemolymph from day 1 of V instar larval stage to day 6 of pupal stage. Their concentrations were markedly increased in hemolymph and PVFB up to the first two days of pupal development and these proteins were consumed during development of the adult insect. Typically, three protein bands were observed (~29, 30, 31 kDa in 1D-PAGE, which were subjected to MS-based protein identification along with spots excised from 2D-gels run for those proteomes. Gas phase fragmentation was used to generate peptide sequence information, which was matched to the available nucleotide data pool of more than ten highly homologous insect 30 kDa lipoproteins. Phylogenetic and similarity analyses of those sequences were performed to assist in the assignment of experimentally identified peptides to known sequences. Lipoproteins LP1 to LP5 and L301/302 could be matched to peptides extracted from all bands

  8. Validity of Four-Compartment Model Body Fat In Physically Active Men And Women When Using DXA For Body Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Bishop, Phillip A; Kliszczewicz, Brian M; Park, Kyung-Shin; Williford, Henry N

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) compare body volume (BV) estimated from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to BV from a criterion underwater weighing (UWW) with simultaneous residual lung volume (RLV), and 2) compare four-compartment (4C) model body fat percentage (BF%) values when deriving BV via DXA (4C DXA ) and UWW (4C UWW ) in physically active men and women. One hundred twenty-two adults (62 men and 60 women) who self-reported physical activity levels of at least 1,000 MET·min·wk -1 volunteered to participate (age = 22 ± 5 years). DXA BV was determined with the recent equation from Smith-Ryan et al. while criterion BV was determined from UWW with simultaneous RLV. The mean BV values for DXA were not significant compared with UWW in women (p = .80; constant error [CE] = 0.0L), but were significantly higher in the entire sample and men (both p women (p = .56; CE = -0.3%), but were significantly higher in the entire sample and men (both p men and women. However, due to the SEEs and 95% LOAs, the current study recommends using UWW with simultaneous RLV for BV in a criterion 4C model when high individual accuracy is desired.

  9. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  10. Association of bioavailable, free, and total testosterone with insulin resistance: influence of sex hormone-binding globulin and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Elaine C; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J

    2004-04-01

    Previous reports of an association between low testosterone levels and diabetes risk were often confounded by covariation of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone measurements. Measurements of bioavailable and free testosterone, more reliable indexes of biologically active testosterone, were examined for their associations with markers of insulin resistance and body fat measures in 221 middle-aged nondiabetic men. Bioavailable and free testosterone were calculated from the concentrations of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin, and they were not significantly correlated with SHBG (r = 0.07-0.1). In contrast, total testosterone correlated significantly with SHBG (r = 0.63). We evaluated the relationship between these measures of circulating testosterone and markers for insulin resistance (i.e., fasting insulin, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) as well as total body fat (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) and abdominal fat distribution (assessed by single-slice computed tomography [CT]). Bioavailable, free, and total testosterone and SHBG all correlated significantly with fasting insulin (age-adjusted r = -0.15 [P = 0.03], -0.14 [P = 0.03], -0.32 [P fat measures (r = -0.17 [P = 0.008] to -0.44 [P testosterone were significantly associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.20 [P = 0.003] to -0.21 [P = 0.002]). In multivariate analysis, bioavailable or free testosterone was significantly and inversely associated with insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR, but this was not independent of total body or abdominal fat. SHBG was a significant determinant of insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR, independent of body fat. The associations between total testosterone and insulin resistance were confounded by SHBG. The inverse association between testosterone and insulin resistance, independent of SHBG, was mediated through body fat.

  11. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.

  12. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  13. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  14. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  15. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity.

  16. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Relationship of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and body fat to concentrations of plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merians, D R; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Phelps, J; Woods, P D; Superko, R

    1985-06-01

    To investigate the relationship of exercise and oral contraceptive use to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a cross-sectional study was designed to compare lipid levels in 96 exercising and non-exercising women who used or did not use oral contraceptives. Exercisers had significantly lower plasma triglyceride concentrations and low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios than non-exercisers after adjustment for differences in pill type distribution between groups. Women using progestin-dominant pills had significantly lower plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations and significantly higher low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios compared with women using estrogen/progestin-balanced pills. As body fat was significantly associated with both pill type and physical activity, it is unclear how much of these lipoprotein differences were due to body fat, exercise, or pill use. Regular physical activity together with reduced body fat partially compensated for plasma lipoprotein differences associated with oral contraceptive use.

  18. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. Evidence Acquisition: We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. Evidence Synthesis: The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Conclusions: Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22238401

  19. Effects of different types of exercise on body composition and fat distribution in HIV-infected patients: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malita, Florin M; Karelis, Antony D; Toma, Emil; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi

    2005-04-01

    HIV infection and its treatment is associated with unfavourable metabolic and morphological abnormalities. These metabolic abnormalities, particularly alterations in body composition and fat distribution, may increase the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic complications, as well as reduce functional independence and lower self-esteem. Thus there is an urgent need to develop interventions intended to manage secondary side effects of HIV or antiretroviral therapy-related complications. In poly-treated patients, nonpharmacological interventions are a logical first step. Exercise training in particular may help alleviate some of the metabolic adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy by favourably altering body composition and patterns of body fat distribution. Studies have shown that exercise training, particularly aerobic training, can help reduce total body and visceral fat, as well as normalizing lipid profiles in HIV-infected patients. The results for resistance training, however, are less conclusive. Knowledge of the use of resistance and aerobic training and its attendant effects on insulin resistance and adipocytokines may represent an effective nonpharmacologic means for treating metabolic complications of HIV-infected persons who are receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. In this brief review we examine the effects of aerobic and resistance training on body composition, body fat distribution, and selected metabolic outcomes.

  20. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (pcholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (pcholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  1. Facets of impulsivity interactively predict body fat and binge eating in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Platte, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Impulsivity has been positively linked to overeating and obesity, but findings are inconsistent. Studies using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) show that measures of overeating appear to be most consistently associated with scores on the subscale attentional impulsivity in both non-clinical and clinical samples. Additionally, individuals with binge-eating behaviors may have elevated scores on the subscale motor impulsivity. In the current study, young women (N = 133) completed the short form of the BIS (BIS-15), the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire, and height, weight and body composition were measured. Regression analyses showed that attentional and motor impulsivity positively predicted binge eating and general eating pathology, while non-planning impulsivity negatively predicted these variables. Moreover, attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted percent body fat, and the number of subjective and objective binge episodes. Results show that only specific aspects of trait impulsivity (attentional and motor impulsivity) are positively associated with body mass and binge eating. Non-planning impulsivity appears to be unrelated or even inversely related to those variables, at least in female students. Elevated levels of attentional impulsivity in conjunction with high motor impulsivity may be a risk factor for overweight and clinically relevant binge eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncovering the FUTREX-6100XL prediction equation for the percentage body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Zacharias G; Balaska, Dimitra; Zafiropulos, Vassilis

    2012-10-01

    Based on the near infra-red (NIR) interactance method, the FUTREX company has developed a series of instruments, for the estimation of the body fat percentage (%BF). %BF is estimated through prediction equations incorporated in the instruments, which for the newest models (FUTREX-6100XL and FUTREX-6100A/ZL) are proprietary and they are not published anywhere. This missing knowledge may lead to several misunderstandings and confusion and degrades those instruments to 'black boxes'. The present work uncovers and presents the prediction equation of FUTREX-6100/XL and discusses the contribution of each term of that equation to the %BF. Furthermore, this study presents the method used, which can be used to uncover equations incorporated in other instruments. This method is based on the idea of firstly uncovering the dependence of the equation on each parameter separately and then combining those dependencies to uncover the unknown equation.

  3. Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length Is Associated With Body Fat and Serum SHBG in Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longer androgen receptor gene CAG trinucleotide repeats, AR (CAG)n, have been associated with reduced sensitivity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro as well as in humans. Furthermore, short AR (CAG)n have been associated with premature adrenarche. Objective: The aim of the study...... was to evaluate associations between the AR (CAG)n polymorphism and development of pubic hair, levels of androgens, and body fat content in healthy boys. Methods: A longitudinal study of 78 healthy boys (age 6.2-12.4 years at inclusion) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study was conducted with clinical examinations...... accumulation and serum SHBG concentrations indicate that this genetic polymorphism may influence the androgen-dependent fine-tuning of metabolic and reproductive factors at a young age....

  4. Comparison of the effects of swimming and Tai Chi Chuan on body fat composition in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tung-Yang; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Lau, Yiu-Chung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Wong, Alice M K

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of fat and substantial loss of muscle mass are common phenomena in the elderly. In this study, we observed the effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and swimming, two exercises suitable for elderly people, on the percentage body fat and fat distribution by measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness and body composition. Subjects were divided into three groups: regular swimmers (n = 20), regular TCC practitioners (n = 32), and age-matched control subjects (n = 31). Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness was taken using a Lange skinfold caliper at the chests, abdomens, and thighs in the men, and the triceps, suprailium, and thighs in the women. Mid-arm circumference (MAC) was measured on the non-dominant upper arm using fiberglass tape. Body composition was analyzed using the Inbody 3.0 logo, a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. No significant differences were found between the three test groups in relation to total body adiposity and arm muscle circumference in the men and women. There was significantly less subcutaneous adipose tissue at the abdomen (p = 0.011) and thigh (p < 0.001) of TCC-group men and at the thighs (p < 0.001) of the swimming group compared with the control group. In women, only the thigh skinfold (p = 0.002) showed a decrease in the TCC group compared with the control group. Swimming and TCC may not decrease total fat adiposity in elderly men and women, however, they may change body fat distribution due to certain muscle group usage. The differences observed in the effects of exercise on body fat distribution between elderly women and men may be gender-related.

  5. Functional genomics of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae midguts and fat bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bearfield Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae is a significant coniferous forest pest in western North America. It relies on aggregation pheromones to colonize hosts. Its three major pheromone components, trans-verbenol, exo-brevicomin, and frontalin, are thought to arise via different metabolic pathways, but the enzymes involved have not been identified or characterized. We produced ESTs from male and female midguts and associated fat bodies and used custom oligonucleotide microarrays to study gene expression patterns and thereby made preliminary identification of pheromone-biosynthetic genes. Results Clones from two un-normalized cDNA libraries were directionally sequenced from the 5' end to yield 11,775 ESTs following sequence cleansing. The average read length was 550 nt. The ESTs clustered into 1,201 contigs and 2,833 singlets (4,034 tentative unique genes. The ESTs are broadly distributed among GO functional groups, suggesting they reflect a broad spectrum of the transcriptome. Among the most represented genes are representatives of sugar-digesting enzymes and members of an apparently Scolytid-specific gene family of unknown function. Custom NimbleGen 4-plex arrays representing the 4,034 tentative unique genes were queried with RNA from eleven different biological states representing larvae, pupae, and midguts and associated fat bodies of unfed or fed adults. Quantitative (Real-Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the microarray data accurately reflect expression levels in the different samples. Candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terminal steps of biosynthetic pathways for exo-brevicomin and frontalin were tentatively identified. Conclusions These EST and microarray data are the first publicly-available functional genomics resources for this devastating forestry pest.

  6. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  7. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing acc...... to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood.......This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing...

  8. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  9. Bioelectrical impedance for measuring percentage body fat in young persons with Down syndrome: validation with dual-energy absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Sarah J; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-11-01

    Children with Down syndrome have an increased prevalence of obesity, although there is little work describing body composition in this population. The aims of this study were to accurately measure body fat in children with Down syndrome and to identify which existing algorithm best predicts percentage body fat in this population. Seventy children with Down syndrome had anthropometric, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data collected to calculate percentage body fat (PBF). Pearson correlations were carried out to assess the relationships of various methods for measuring body fat and Bland-Altman plots to assess systematic error. Mean PBF was 30.5% for girls and 22.5% for boys. A total of 38% of girls and 23% of boys were obese according to international criteria. PBF as determined by DXA correlated well with PBF by BIA in both girls and boys (r = 0.91 and 0.89, respectively, p obesity in children with Down syndrome. BIA can be used to accurately determine adiposity in this population. We recommend the use of the Schaeffer algorithm for calculation of PBF in children with Down syndrome. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Comparison of lumbar force between pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents: interference of physical growth, body fat and lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Seabra Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare performance in the lumbar force test in pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents by controlling the interference of physical growth, body fat, screen time and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 933 adolescents (492 girls aged 14-19 from the city of São José, Brazil. Lumbar strength was assessed using the isometric lumbar extension test proposed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology. Sexual maturation was classified according to Tanner’s criteria. Physical growth variables (age, body weight, stature, BMI, body fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds, sedentary behavior based on screen time and overall physical activity were controlled in the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Post-pubertal boys presented higher lumbar force compared to pubertal ones only when interference of BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity was controlled. Pubertal girls presented higher lumbar force compared to post-pubertal ones, both when controlling the analysis for the studied variables and when not controlled by them. Conclusion: BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity interfere in the difference in lumbar strength of boys, in which post-pubertal boys presented better performance in lumbar force compared to pubertal ones. Regardless of interference or not of these variables, pubertal girls presented better performance in lumbar force when compared to post-pubertal ones.

  11. Percentiles of body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia): the FUPRECOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Cardozo, Germán D; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of body composition is a fundamental part of nutritional status assessment. The objective of this study was to establish body fat percentiles by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia) who were part of the FUPRECOL study (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Niños y Adolescentes Colombianos - Association between prehensile force and early signs of cardiovascular risk in Colombian children and adolescents). This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 5850 students aged 9-17.9 years old from Bogotá (Colombia). Body fat percentage was measured using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance (Tanita®, BF-689), by age and gender. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured, and sexual maturity was self-staged. Percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97) and centile curves were estimated using the LMS method (L [BoxCox curve], M [median curve] and S [variation coefficient curve]), by age and gender. Subjects included were 2526 children and 3324 adolescents. Body fat percentages and centile curves by age and gender were established. For most age groups, values resulted higher among girls than boys. Participants with values above P90 were considered to have a high cardiovascular risk due to excess fat (boys > 23.428.3, girls > 31.0-34.1). Body fat percentage percentiles measured using bioelectrical impedance by age and gender are presented here and may be used as reference to assess nutritional status and to predict cardiovascular risk due to excess fat at an early age. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. Dairy food consumption and body weight and fatness studied longitudinally over the adolescent period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S M; Bandini, L G; Cyr, H; Colclough-Douglas, S; Naumova, E; Must, A

    2003-09-01

    Although research suggests that adolescents, particularly girls, may avoid dairy products due to concerns that these foods are 'fattening,' the longitudinal relation between consumption of dairy foods and relative weight status during adolescence has not been explored. Using data from the MIT Growth and Development Study, a longitudinal study designed to assess the metabolic, dietary, and behavioral factors that predict changes in body composition with growth and development in girls during the adolescent period, the current analysis was undertaken to examine the relation of dairy food intake with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF). A total of 196 nonobese premenarcheal girls 8-12 y old were enrolled between 1990 and 1993. Girls were followed until 4 y postmenarche. At each annual follow-up visit, data were collected on %BF by BIA, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and dietary intake (assessed by FFQ). The present analysis is limited to the 178 girls who have at least three annual visits and who have valid anthropometric and food frequency data. In all, 1198 individual measurements were analyzed. At study entry, participants had a mean (s.d.) BMI z-score of -0.27 (0.89), a mean (s.d.) %BF of 23.4 (4.7), and obtained 19.9% (9.2) of daily calories from dairy foods. Linear mixed effects modeling indicated no relationship between BMI z-score or %BF and measures of dairy food or calcium consumption. Avoidance of dairy foods due to a possible association with relative body weight is not supported by these findings. We find no evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with BMI z-score or %BF during adolescence, but further research specifically designed to address this question is needed.

  13. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

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    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.

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    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-10-14

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women's Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case-control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20-75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher waist and hip circumferences were associated with increased pre-menopausal breast cancer risk, while general obesity was associated with decreased risk of ER-/PR- tumors. Larger studies are needed to confirm findings and to evaluate the impact of obesity on breast cancer subtypes.

  15. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

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    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  16. Fine Mapping of the Body Fat QTL on Human Chromosome 1q43.

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    Brahim Aissani

    Full Text Available Evidence for linkage and association of obesity-related quantitative traits to chromosome 1q43 has been reported in the Quebec Family Study (QFS and in populations of Caribbean Hispanic ancestries yet no specific candidate locus has been replicated to date.Using a set of 1,902 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 525 African American (AA and 391 European American (EA women enrolled in the NIEHS uterine fibroid study (NIEHS-UFS, we generated a fine association map for the body mass index (BMI across a 2.3 megabase-long interval delimited by RGS7 (regulator of G-protein signaling 7 and PLD5 (Phospholipase D, member 5. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to the data to evaluate the association in race-stratified analyses and meta-analysis.The strongest associations were observed in a recessive genetic model and peaked in the 3' end of RGS7 at intronic rs261802 variant in the AA group (p = 1.0 x 10-4 and in meta-analysis of AA and EA samples (p = 9.0 x 10-5. In the EA group, moderate associations peaked at rs6429264 (p = 2.0 x 10-3 in the 2 Kb upstream sequence of RGS7. In the reference populations for the European ancestry in the 1,000 genomes project, rs6429264 occurs in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.94 with rs1341467, the strongest candidate SNP for total body fat in QFS that failed genotyping in the present study. Additionally we report moderate associations at the 3' end of PLD5 in meta-analysis (3.2 x 10-4 ≤ p ≤ 5.8 x 10-4.We report replication data suggesting that RGS7, a gene abundantly expressed in the brain, might be a putative body fat QTL on human chromosome 1q43. Future genetic and functional studies are required to substantiate our observations and to potentially link them to the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with the RGS7 region.

  17. Effect of Body Fat Distribution on Pulmonary Functions in Young Healthy Obese Students

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    Sowmya Timmanna Koraddi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. WHO defines obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI ≥30 2 Kg/m . Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the world and has effects on different body systems. Main is the impact on respiratory function. Aim & Objectives: We have aimed to study the gender difference in obesity induced changes on pulmonary functions and determine adiposity marker which best predicts the pulmonary function in young adult obese individuals and age-matched non-obese young adult subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional 2 study was conducted on obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m male (n=32 and female (n=18 students aged 18-25 years and compared with age matched non-obese (BMI 2 18.5–24.99 Kg/m male (n=23 and female subjects (n=27 as controls. Weight(kg, Height(cm, Body -2 Mass Index(BMI, kgm , Waist Circumference(WC, cm, Waist to Hip Ratio(WHR,Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, L, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV , L/min, 1 FEV , FEF (L/sec, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 1% 25-75% (PEFR, L/min and Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP, mm Hg were recorded. Results: Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate and Respiratory Rate were significantly higher in obese students when compared to their respective controls. We observed highly significant reduction in PEFR (p<0.001 and MEP (p<0.001 in both obese male and female groups compared to controls. FEV was 1% significantly lower in obese female students. Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, WHR and WC were significant predictors of PEFR. BMI was only the significant predictor of MEP. WHtR and WHR were best predictors of FVC, FEF and FEV . 25-75% 1 Conclusion: Obesity and pattern of fat distribution have independent effect on pulmonary function.

  18. Novel equations to predict body fat percentage of Brazilian professional soccer players: A case study

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    Luiz Fernando Novack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed classical and developed novel mathematical models to predict body fat percentage (%BF in professional soccer players from the South Brazilian region using skinfold thicknesses measurement. Skinfolds of thirty one male professional soccer players (age of 21.48 ± 3.38 years, body mass of 79.05 ± 9.48 kg and height of 181.97 ± 8.11 cm were introduced into eight mathematical models from the literature for the prediction of %BF; these results were then compared to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The classical equations were able to account from 65% to 79% of the variation of %BF in DXA. Statistical differences between most of the classical equations (seven of the eight classic equations and DXA were found, rendering their widespread use in this population useless. We developed three new equations for prediction of %BF with skinfolds from: axils, abdomen, thighs and calves. Theses equations accounted for 86.5% of the variation in %BF obtained with DXA.

  19. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents

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    Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9–19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A, Tanita TBF-543 (Model B, Tanita BC-545 (Model C, and InBody 520 (Model D. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used as the criterion measurement. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  20. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  1. Relationship of life style choices on body fat mass in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; ullah Shaikh, Saif; Syed, Sadiqa; Shakeel, Nayyab

    2010-01-01

    Healthy diets and regular, adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout entire life course. Accumulation of fat occurs whenever energy consumed by food and drinks exceeds that which can be utilised by an individual's metabolism and physical activity. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of lifestyle characteristics of a representative segment of medical students in terms of fast food preferences and participation in physical activity with respect to Body Mass Index (BMI). This cross-sectional study was carried out in Physiology Department, Bahria University Medical & Dental College, Karachi on 192 students of 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Body Mass index of students was calculated. They were classified into 4 groups with BMI or = 25 respectively. A life style questionnaire, based on preferences for healthy/unhealthy food, dietary habits and participation in physical activity was filled. Most of medical students (65%) had BMI less than 23. It was because of selection of healthy dietary pattern with nutritious food (p < 0.09) and participation in outdoor games (p < 0.03). Males who had high BMI showed a tendency to daily intake of fast food (p < 0.03). Walking in both the sexes had a positive impact in maintaining normal BMI (p = Males < 0.04, females < 0.001). Obesity can be prevented by innovative approaches, easiest of which is to promote active life styles with intake of healthy diet and involvement in physical activity.