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Sample records for central african republic

  1. Assessment of the Central African Republic Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents recommendations to assist the promotion of socially and environmentally responsible artisanal mining practices, discusses formalization of the artisanal mining sector, and advises organization into cooperatives in the Central African Republic. Best practices are outlined to improve the working, living, and community conditions of artisanal miners. The mining sector is...

  2. Forest Management and Deforestation in central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    DIMA Francis Auguste Fleury Junior1 , Prof Yi Jing Wu吴宜进2 , DIMA Francis3 , TOUANDIRO Martine3 , MAKI Robert4 , SOMSE MISSILI Francine Chericia5 , DIMA Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nestled in the heart of Africa, Central African Republic is a vast country of 623 000 km2. It has 4.5 million inhabitants, nearly half (49.4) is 18 years and 62% live in rural areas. The country has vast and varied natural resources: A good rainfall, a dense Hydrographic network, rich soil, a basement with significant mining potential, drills and a variety of savannah, a diverse and abundant wildlife. Despite these potentials, economic and socio-health situation continues to deter...

  3. Forest Management and Deforestation in central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA Francis Auguste Fleury Junior1 , Prof Yi Jing Wu吴宜进2 , DIMA Francis3 , TOUANDIRO Martine3 , MAKI Robert4 , SOMSE MISSILI Francine Chericia5 , DIMA Christian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nestled in the heart of Africa, Central African Republic is a vast country of 623 000 km2. It has 4.5 million inhabitants, nearly half (49.4 is 18 years and 62% live in rural areas. The country has vast and varied natural resources: A good rainfall, a dense Hydrographic network, rich soil, a basement with significant mining potential, drills and a variety of savannah, a diverse and abundant wildlife. Despite these potentials, economic and socio-health situation continues to deteriorate, resulting in increased pressure on natural resources and accelerated environmental degradation. In general, from year to year to another biodiversity is declining; watersheds dry up periodically. The scale of poaching and excessive logging result in the drastic reduction of tanks woody species and non-timber, which leads to a large-scale deforestation that leaves room for a gradual desertification.

  4. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  5. Habituation, ecotourism and research for conservation of western gorillas in Central African Republic – Bai Hokou

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    The south-western region of the Central African Republic reminds one of a paradisiacal habitat, harbouring an exceptional faunal diversity: there are forest elephants, forest buffaloes, sitatungas, bongos, several duiker species, two species of forest pigs, and ten primate species besides gorillas and chimpanzees. As a consequence of the tremendous decline of western gorilla populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo due to Ebola outbreaks, the IUCN recently classified western gorillas as “cr...

  6. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in central african republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715. ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  7. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoeck Chantal J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008, 14.3% (2009 and 10.4% (2010 in Central African Republic and 39% (2007 and 34.9% (2009 in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence.

  8. Aid and Assistance China for Development Socio-Economical and Cultural To Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Yougboko Fatime1 , Prof. Weihong 2 , Mr Gniko- Bombo Joseph3 , PhD Balekouzou Augustin4 , PhD Katombosola Brown5 , Master’s Koyassambia Landry Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The Central African Republic like the heart World, through the vicissitudes given its geographical position. Its accession in 1960 to the Maoist movement has been consolidated by the ChinaAfrica Forum held in October 2000 in Beijing. It is in this perspective that President François Bozize, September 10, 2009, appealed to his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao to invest in his country especially in the mining and energy sectors. And President Hu Jintao has responded positively to China...

  9. Ecological and economic impacts of gorilla-based tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blom

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential role of tourism in the funding of protected area management in the Congo Basin. An assessment of the protected areas and gazetted forests of the Central African Republic (CAR) showed that only about one third of the protected areas is more or less effectively managed. Almost all the gazetted forest and the remainder of the protected areas are insufficiently protected from human disturbance, which is mostly in the form of poaching. This example underlines...

  10. The Primate Habituation Programme, Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fuh Neba, Terence; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angélique

    2014-01-01

    Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), including Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (DNNP), are located in SW Central African Republic (CAR) and are managed by the government and WWF. DSPA is CAR’s largest remaining nearly intact forest block and known for its outstanding biodiversity, including most of CAR's gorillas (G. g. gorilla). In 2012, DNNP, and its neighbouring NPs, were designated a World Heritage Site, the Sangha Tri-National complex (TNS) – classified as an exceptional priority area for we...

  11. Tourists, gorillas and guns: integrating conservation and development in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, C

    2009-01-01

    Integrated conservation and development programs (ICDPs) are aimed at addressing both conservation and development issues through the involvement of local communities in the process of wildlife management. Typically this involves providing park-adjacent communities with conservation-related benefits to induce pro-conservation behaviour. The Dzanga-Sangha ICDP Project (DSP), southwest Central African Republic, has coordinated the management of a protected area complex since 1990...

  12. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nangouma, Auguste; Paupy, Christophe; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at the...

  13. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni Carine; Kamgang Basile; Manirakiza Alexandre; Nangouma Auguste; Paupy Christophe; Nakoune Emmanuel; Kazanji Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to id...

  14. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nangouma, Auguste; Paupy, Christophe; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at the...

  15. The European Union as a Security Provider: The Securitization of the Conflict in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Helene; Bak, Camilla; Jensen, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the EU as a provider of security outside the EU. As an example, we chose to analyse, why the EU decided to intervene militarily in the Central African Republic. Our analysis is grounded in a securitization framework and therefore focusses on how the conflict in the Central African Republic has been constructed as a problem within an EU context. To operationalise the analysis we utilised Kingdon’s “Three Stream Model”, which provided a more comprehensive understanding...

  16. Clinical outcome of skin yaws lesions after treatment with benzathinebenzylpenicillin in a pygmy population in Lobaye, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manirakiza Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region. Findings and conclusion The rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that yaws could be controlled in the Central African Republic. Thus, reinforcement of the management of new cases and of contacts is suggested.

  17. Central African Republic Uses Isotopes to Investigate Drinking Water Supply Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central African Republic (about 623 000 km2) is located slightly north of the equator in Central Africa (latitude 2 deg. - 11 deg. N; longitude 14 deg. - 28 deg. E); it has no coastal area (see map). Flat plateau savannas constitute a large part of the country, while hills are found in the northeast and the southwest; a granite plateau also exists in the northeast. The Ubangi and Shari river basins cover most of the country, and feature high flooding possibilities. The majority of the country has a tropical climate and desertification only exists in the northern regions. Bangui, the capital, is located in the Ubangi basin, the main tributary of the northern Congo basin. There are two seasons - a rainy season from May to October and a dry season November to March - with a maximum temperature in February-March of 33-34 deg. C (MET office). Although the Central African Republic receives a large quantity of precipitation annually (ca. 1500 mm per year) and has relatively abundant surface water, distribution is temporarily and geographically concentrated. Moreover, urbanization has led to densification of population in the capital and some other areas. Lacking adequate facilities to deal with these conditions, outflows of untreated sewage, agricultural runoff, effluents from mining areas as well as deforestation and soil erosion have degraded water quality. The majority of the population in Bangui does not have access to drinking water that is assured to be clean. Groundwater has been considered to be a great potential source of potable water in urban areas, but the quality and quantity of groundwater is not well known and its sustainable use is not certain

  18. Distal microbiome composition of habituated western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Dzanga Sangha, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; White, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Nelson, K. E.; Gillis, M.; Torralba, M.; Wilson, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, S1 (2013), s. 72. ISSN 0275-2565. [Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists /36./. 19.06.2013-22.06.2013, San Juan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.22188/pdf

  19. Aid and Assistance China for Development Socio-Economical and Cultural To Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougboko Fatime1 , Prof. Weihong 2 , Mr Gniko- Bombo Joseph3 , PhD Balekouzou Augustin4 , PhD Katombosola Brown5 , Master’s Koyassambia Landry Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Central African Republic like the heart World, through the vicissitudes given its geographical position. Its accession in 1960 to the Maoist movement has been consolidated by the ChinaAfrica Forum held in October 2000 in Beijing. It is in this perspective that President François Bozize, September 10, 2009, appealed to his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao to invest in his country especially in the mining and energy sectors. And President Hu Jintao has responded positively to China's support in the peace process and economic rehabilitation of CAR. Which marks the presence of China at the head of the CAR in these crisis times. But many development projects have been suspended example China National Petroleum Corporation for the seizure of power by the Seleka coalition March 24, 2013. However, CAR continues to rely on the strategic actions of China in the field of new technology for its agro-pastoral development to food self-sufficiency.

  20. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; See, Linda; Karner, Mathias; Álvarez, Mònica; Rogenhofer, Edith; Baraldès-Vallverdú, Carme; Lanusse, Candela; Salse, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Central African Republic is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones’ GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF headquarters or

  1. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; See, Linda; Karner, Mathias; Álvarez, Mònica; Rogenhofer, Edith; Baraldès-Vallverdú, Carme; Lanusse, Candela; Salse, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Central African Republic is one of the world's most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones' GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF headquarters or other

  2. Seroprevalence of measles and natural rubella antibodies among children in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daba Régis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passively acquired maternal antibodies are necessary to protect infants against circulating measles virus until they reach the eligible age of vaccination. Likewise, high levels of population immunity must be achieved and maintained to reduce measles virus transmission. This study was undertaken to (1 assess the presence of maternally acquired measles-specific IgG antibodies among infants less than 9 months of age in Bangui, Central African Republic and (2 determine the immune status of vaccination-age children and the concordance with reported vaccination status. A secondary objective was to describe the presence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the study population. Methods Vaccination history and blood samples were collected from 395 children using blotting paper. Samples were analyzed for the presence of measles-specific IgG antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. Results Measles-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 51.3% of vaccinated children and 27.6% of non-vaccinated children. Maternally derived measles IgG antibodies were present in only 14.8% of infants aged 0-3 months and were absent in all infants aged 4-8 months. The presence of IgG-specific measles antibodies varied among children of vaccination age, from 57.3% for children aged 9 months to 5 years, to 50.6% for children aged 6-9 years and 45.6% for chidren aged 10 years and above. The overall prevalence of rubella-specific IgG was 55.4%, with a high prevalence (87.4% among children over 10 years of age. Conclusion The findings suggest that despite efforts to accelerate measles control by giving a second dose of measles vaccine, a large number of children remain susceptible to measles virus. Further research is required to determine the geographic extent of immunity gaps and the factors that influence immunity to measles virus in the Central African Republic.

  3. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoagouni Carine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to identify potential vectors of YFV and their abundance. Findings Between 2006 and 2010, 5066 mosquitoes belonging to six genera and 43 species were identified. The 20 species of the Aedes genus identified included Ae. aegypti, the main vector of YFV in urban settings, and species found in tropical forests, such as Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. opok. These species were not distributed uniformly in the various sites studied. Thus, the predominant Aedes species was Ae. aegypti in Bangui (90.7 % and Basse-Kotto (42.2 %, Ae. africanus in Ombella-Mpoko (67.4 % and Haute-Kotto (77.8 % and Ae. vittatus in Ouham-Pende (62.2 %. Ae. albopictus was also found in Bangui. The distribution of these dominant species differed significantly according to study site (P Aedes mosquitoes analysed by polymerase chain reaction contained the YFV genome. Conclusion The results indicate a wide diversity of vector species for YFV in the Central African Republic. The establishment of surveillance and vector control programs should take into account the ecological specificity of each species.

  4. Clinical outcome of skin yaws lesions after treatment with benzathinebenzylpenicillin in a pygmy population in Lobaye, Central African Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Manirakiza Alexandre; Boas Susana; Beyam Narcisse; Zadanga Germain; Konamna François; Njuimo Siméon P; Laganier Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region. Findings and conclusion The rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that...

  5. Complete Genome Characterization of the Arumowot Virus (Unclassified Phlebovirus) Isolated from Turdus libonyanus Birds in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Nicolas; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is currently composed of five genera, including Phlebovirus, in which several phleboviruses are associated with human diseases. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized one complete genome of the Arumowot virus (AMTV) isolated in 1978 from Turdus libonyanus, the Kurrichane Thrush, in the Central African Republic (CAR). The genomic segment of the new strain of AMTV isolated in the CAR had 75.4-83.5% sequence similarity and 82-98.4% amino acid similarity to the prototype sequence of AMTV. The different conserved proteins of the small (S) and large (L) segments (Nc, NSP, and RNA polymerase) showed close similarity at the amino acid level, whereas the polyprotein of the medium (M) segment was highly divergent, with 18% and 37.7%, respectively, for the prototype sequence of AMTV and the Odrenisrou virus (ODRV) isolated from Culex (Cx.) albiventris mosquitoes in the Tai forest, Ivory Coast. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the sequence homology analysis and indicated that AMTV-CAR clustered into the Salehabad virus antigenic complex. The two closest viruses were the prototype sequences of AMTV originally isolated from Cx. antennatus mosquitoes and ODRV. These molecular data suggest the need for a deep genetic characterization of the diversity of this viral species to enhance its detection in the Central African region and to understand better its behavior and life cycle so that its potential spread to the human population can be prevented. PMID:26807610

  6. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  7. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of groundwater of the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone formation (Western Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal; Foto, Eric; Backo, Salé; Zoudamba, Narcisse; Basse-Keke, Eric; Nguerekossi, Bruno; Alladin, Oscar; Huneau, Frederic; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Mabingui, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Cretaceous sandstone formations of Carnot-Berbérati (covering an area of 46.000 km2) in the western part of the central African Republic is poorly known. In order to improve the access of local populations to a clean and safe drinking water resource, new investigations have been carried out in order to characterize groundwater in terms of quality, origin, residence time and sustainability. Two sampling campaigns were organized in August 2014 (rainy period) and April 2015 (dry period) on respectively 31 and 43 points including boreholes, wells and river waters. Conventional hydrogeochemical tools in conjunction with isotope hydrology tools were used to evaluate the water types and the anthropogenic fingerprint on groundwater, their recharge processes and the flow organization scheme. Investigations have shown the existence of interesting amounts of groundwater within what seems a single, well hydraulically connected unconfined aquifer of max. 400m thick. Groundwaters are characterized by two main water types: CaMg-HCO3 (for deep boreholes and river waters) and CaMg-ClNO3 (shallow wells). The latter clearly showing the very strong influence of anthropogenic activities (washing, dumps, latrines) in the near vicinity of wells and boreholes used for the drinking water supply. This is also highlighting the total lack of protection zone around the wells and boreholes. Stable isotopes of the water molecule (18O and 2H) are in agreement with a local recharge of groundwater and show a relatively homogeneous composition within the whole aquifer system. Tritium data indicate a modern recharge with a high renewability potential for shallow groundwater but very low tritium levels are observed in the deepest boreholes indicating the probable occurrence of complex flow conditions within the system in some sectors. From these results and because of its extension and storage potential, the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone aquifer appears as a groundwater resource

  8. Emergence of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Central African Republic: genetic characterization

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    Frank Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiotic may consequently select for bacteria resistant to both categories. Genetic mechanisms of resistance may be secondary to a chromosomal mutation located in quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV or to a plasmid acquisition. The insertion sequence ISCR1 is often associated with qnr and may favour its dissemination in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic mechanism of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in the Central African Republic. Findings Among seventeen ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine, pus or stool between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Central African Republic, nine were resistant to ciprofloxacin (seven from community patients and two from hospitalized patients. The ESBL were previously characterized as CTX-M-15 and SHV-12. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs were determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The presence of plasmid-borne ISCR1-qnrA region was determined by PCR and amplicons, if any, were sent for sequencing. Quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase gyrA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced for mutation characterization. We found that all CTX-M-producing strains were resistant to the tested quinolones. All the isolates had the same nucleotide mutation at codon 83 of gyrA. Two Escherichia coli strains with the highest MICs were shown to harbour an ISCR1-qnrA1 sequence. This genetic association might favour dissemination of resistance to quinolone and perhaps other antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae

  9. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas inhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, J.; Votýpka, J.; Todd, A.; Jirků, M.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.; Neel, C.; Modrý, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900. ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Plasmodium spp. * African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.560, year: 2014

  10. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

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    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  11. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  12. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas inhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapua, Mwanahamisi I; Qablan, Moneeb A; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Hůzová, Zuzana; Rádrová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Todd, Angelique; Jirků, Milan; Leendertz, Fabian H; Lukeš, Julius; Neel, Cecile; Modrý, David

    2015-06-01

    African great apes are susceptible to infections with several species of Plasmodium, including the predecessor of Plasmodium falciparum. Little is known about the ecology of these pathogens in gorillas. A total of 131 gorilla fecal samples were collected from Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas to study the diversity and prevalence of Plasmodium species. The effects of sex and age as factors influencing levels of infection with Plasmodium in habituated gorilla groups were assessed. Ninety-five human blood samples from the same locality were also analysed to test for cross-transmission between humans and gorillas. According to a cytB PCR assay 32% of gorilla's fecal samples and 43·1% human individuals were infected with Plasmodium spp. All Laverania species, Plasmodium vivax, and for the first time Plasmodium ovale were identified from gorilla samples. Plasmodium praefalciparum was present only from habituated individuals and P. falciparum was detected from human samples. Although few P. vivax and P. ovale sequences were obtained from gorillas, the evidence for cross-species transmission between humans and gorillas requires more in depth analysis. No association was found between malaria infection and sex, however, younger individuals aged ≤6 years were more susceptible. Switching between two different Plasmodium spp. was observed in three individuals. Prolonged monitoring of Plasmodium infection during various seasons and recording behavioural data is necessary to draw a precise picture about the infection dynamics. PMID:25736484

  13. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094

  14. Observational monitoring of clinical signs during the last stage of habituation in a wild western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F Blake; Todd, Angelique F; Lee, Phyllis; Masi, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Anthropozoonotic disease transmission to great apes is a critical conservation concern, and has raised ethical doubts regarding ape habituation. We monitored over a 3-year period clinical signs within a group of wild western gorillas (G. gorilla) undergoing habituation at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The majority of observations consisted of singular coughs and sneezes among the gorillas. These were the only clinical signs that significantly and positively increased over the years. No changes in the demography of the study group were observed. While clinical signs are not necessarily indicative of 'disease' or other health-related problems, we discuss how long-term records of clinical signs provide useful information when health monitoring, and the importance of the rigid application of preventive disease transmission protocols. PMID:23736676

  15. Seroepidemiology of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambei, W S; Rawago-Mandjiza, D; Gbangbangai, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip. Syphilis was diagnosed with the VDRL and TPHA methods (Omega Diagnostic, UK). The Chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. The study included samples from 551 individuals, 350 (63.52%) of whom were frequent volunteer donors. In all, 132 (23.95%) were infected with at least one pathogen. The overall seroprevalence rate was 8.89% for HBV, 4.72% for HCV, 4.36% for syphilis, and 5.98% for HIV. Eight patients had two concomitant infections, with HIV-HBV the most common combination. Compared to long-term volunteers, first-time donors were more often infected by at least one of the pathogens we screened for, most especially HVB (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 4.22-7.11) and syphilis (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 2.02-7.44). Our findings indicate the high seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donated in Bangui. The most common combined infections were HIV-HBV. The most common risk factor was a family history of HBV infection, and especially, mother-child transmission. PMID:27412978

  16. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sak, B.; Petrželková, K. (Klára Judita); Květoňová, D. (Dana); Mynářová, A.; Shutt, K. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Kalousová, B.; Modrý, D; Benavides, J.; Todd, A; Kváč, M.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel ge...

  17. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas/ninhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African/nRepublic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Todd, A.; Jirků, Milan; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, Julius; Neel, C.; Modrý, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900. ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla * Plasmodium spp. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.560, year: 2014

  18. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. PMID:20806337

  19. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

  20. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Breurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic.All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent's written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases.A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%.Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent

  1. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  2. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  3. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  4. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  5. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  6. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  7. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  8. Foreign policy of the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic in Central Asian region

    OpenAIRE

    Maksut, Kuralay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Soviet Central Asian region (former Soviet Socialist Republics, sharing borders with Afghanistan) in particular, so called “Great Central Asia” or “Eurasian Balkans” according to a superficial Eurasian continent geopolitical importance to global actors. The region has been the center of geopolitical pluralism and multiculturalism, which itself engender the ethnic problems and tension. Many experts are concordant with idea that geo-strategic clarity of Central Asia today has been undersco...

  9. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  10. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selecti

  11. Pattern of skin diseases among Central African refugees in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Fawzi Ismael; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented fur...

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Mbecko, Jean-Robert; Misatou, Pembé; Le Faou, Alain; Frank, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, bla TEM , bla OXA , bla SHV , tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%), 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%), 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%), 4 S.e. Dublin (4%), 4 S.e. Hadar (4%), and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%). Twenty-five (28%) were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%). Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56%) and to five antibiotics (40%). One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains. PMID:26880999

  14. Manganese biogeochemistry in a central Czech Republic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, T.; Shanley, J.B.; Skrivan, P.; Kram, P.; Mihaljevic, M.; Drahota, P.

    2007-01-01

    Mn biogeochemistry was studied from 1994 to 2003 in a small forested catchment in the central Czech Republic using the watershed mass balance approach together with measurements of internal stores and fluxes. Mn inputs in bulk deposition were relatively constant during a period of sharply decreasing acidic deposition, suggesting that the Mn source was terrestrial, and not from fossil fuel combustion. Mn inputs in bulk deposition and Mn supplied by weathering each averaged 13 mg m-2 year-1 (26 mg m -2 year-1 total input), whereas Mn export in streamwater and groundwater averaged 43 mg m-2 year-1. Thus an additional Mn source is needed to account for 17 mg m-2 year -1. Internal fluxes and pools of Mn were significantly greater than annual inputs and outputs. Throughfall Mn flux was 70 mg m-2 year-1, litterfall Mn flux was 103 mg m-2 year -1, and Mn net uptake by vegetation was 62 mg m-2 year-1. Large pools of labile or potentially labile Mn were present in biomass and surficial soil horizons. Small leakages from these large pools likely supply the additional Mn needed to close the watershed mass balance. This leakage may reflect an adjustment of the ecosystem to recent changes in atmospheric acidity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gemerden, van, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selective logging and shifting cultivation. Assessment of the long-term effects of these land uses on plant species composition will provide elements for the identification of effective conservation measu...

  16. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  17. Central America and the Dominican Republic Regional Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this economic and sector work (ESW) is to support the Republic Forum for potable water and sanitation (FOCARD-APS) member countries in improving the resilience of water supply and sanitation (WSS) services. This report summarizes the findings from seven country-specific assessments carried out in 2013 and 2014 that characterize the national disaster risk management (DRM) and...

  18. African aerosol and trace-gas emissions from the Central-African Bujumbura station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smet, Isabelle; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    We present aerosol and trace-gas retrievals from the new Central-African measurement site of Bujumbura, where a new MAX-DOAS instrument and cimel sun photometer have been operational since late 2013. This is the first time that MAX-DOAS measurements are performed in Central Africa, which are critical to resolve the large uncertainties of satellite observations of trace gases and aerosols over this area. The Bujumbura region is a source of strong biogenic compounds and biomass burning products, and invaluable to study the export of African emissions to the Indian ocean. Using the bePRO radiative transfer tool, we retrieve aerosol optical depths (AODs) and vertical extinction profiles for aerosols and trace gases such as NO2 and HCHO. The AOD retrievals are compared to the co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements and further analysed to investigate seasonal and diurnal cycles in the observed variability or to detect biomass-burning events.For the trace gases NO2 and HCHO, the ground-based MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for tropospheric trace-gas validation of the GOME-2 and OMI satellites. We further discuss the representativity of the site regarding satelitte comparisons and modelling efforts, given its specific orography.

  19. 77 FR 15397 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). Father Christopher Hartley.... Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA) gives notice...

  20. 77 FR 51828 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On December 22, 2011, OTLA... International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. The Office of Trade and Labor...

  1. The face of Ebola: changing frequency of haemorrhage in the West African compared with Eastern-Central African outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Stefano; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Scully, Crispian

    2015-01-01

    Background The West-African (WA) Zaire Ebolavirus disease (EVD) outbreak was characterized by an exceptionally high number of cases and deaths as compared with the Eastern-Central African (ECA) outbreaks. Despite the Zaire Ebolavirus being the most lethal for humans, case-fatality rate, close to 80 % in ECA outbreaks, almost halved to 47 % in Guinea-Liberia-Sierra Leone (WA). Such an improvement was due to the remarkable implementation of international humanitarian aids. Some studies also sug...

  2. Pattern of skin diseases among Central African refugees in Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzi Ismael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented further confirmation of diagnosis. Data was manually analyzed and diagnosis was presented as number and percent using the ICD -10 of the World Health Organization. Results: A total of 366 dermatologic diseases were diagnosed in 361 patients. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases and dermatitis/ eczema were the commonest diagnostic categories (39.9% and 22.45; respectively followed by disorders of skin appendices (15% and infections of skin and subcutaneous tissues (13.1%. Tinea barbae /capitis, ringworm and impetigo are the commonest recorded infections (11.5%, 10.1% and 7.9%; respectively. Miliaria and acne vulgaris were the most frequent disorders of skin appendages. Conclusions: Infectious skin diseases are common among refugees. There are urgent needs for health education and promotion of personal hygiene with adequate sanitation as well as availability of diagnostic tests [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 324-328

  3. Differentiating Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia and Androgenetic Alopecia in African American Men: Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Callender, Valerie D.; Sperling, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss...

  4. Evolutionary model of the oblique rift basins- Central African Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenn-Ming; Cheng, I.-Wen; Wu, Jong-Chang

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of oblique-rifting basin is strongly related with the angle (α) between the trend of rift and that of regional major extensional stress. The main purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of geometry and kinematics of structure and tectono-stratigraphy during basin evolution of Central African Rifts (CAS). In this study, we simulated the formation of oblique-rifting basin with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D) and compared the simulation results with the tectonic settings of a series of basin in CAS. CAS started to develop in Early Cretaceous (130Ma) and lasted until the Late Cretaceous (85Ma-80Ma). The following collision between the African and Eurasian plates imposed compressional stress on CAS and folded the strata in the rift basins. Although the characteristics of rift basin formation remain controversial, palinspastic sections constructed in this study show that, in the Early Cretaceous, the rift basins are mainly characterized by normal faults and half-grabens. In the Late Cretaceous, the morphology of the rift basins was altered by large-scaled tectonic compression with the active Borogop Fault of regional scale. Also, en echelon trend of normal faults in the basins were measured and the angles between the trend with that of the rift axes of each basin were demonstrated, indicating that the development of CAS was affected by the regional extensional stress with a dextral component during the rifting process and, therefore, the rift basins were formed by oblique-rifting. In this study, we simulated the oblique-rifting basin model of various α with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D). The main theory of PFC 3D is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), in which parameters are applied to every particle in the models. We applied forces acting on both sides of rift axis, which α are 45°, 60°, 75° and 90° respectively, to simulate basin formation under oblique-rifting process. The study results of simulation

  5. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Viennois

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye and high (SPOT-5 spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  6. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the lead author accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research...... on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and...

  7. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  8. e-Learning trends in Central Europe: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík Eger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with expert predictions on the development of e-learning in the Czech Republic, a country in Central Europe. The first part of the paper describes the development of e-learning with specific feature in the Czech Republic in relation to the implementation of Information and communication technologies (ICT to schools and the business sector. The second part of the paper presents a survey with selected experts, conducted in the years 2012 and 2013 in the Czech Republic, aiming at identifying the trends of e-learning. Special attention is paid to applying e-learning in the corporate sector. Our survey provides a better understanding of the current and future trends of e-learning to a wide range of stakeholders interested in using e-learning. Understanding the existing and future state of e-learning should be a starting point for further development of any e-learning strategy, in both education and corporate sectors. Therefore, the findings of our survey have important practical implications. The survey also proves that identification of the e-learning trends at the national level is influenced by political, economic, social and technological factors.

  9. The central registries of occupational and medical exposure in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide some insight into the recent situation in the Czech Republic concerning the registration and evaluation of occupational and medical radiation exposures. Since 1993 the creation of the Central (national) Registries of Occupational (CROE) and Medical Exposure (CRME) has been started. One of the main functions of these registries will be to provide statistics to guide policy making on a national basis. Authors give more detailed information on the structure of creating programs and discuss some actual arising problems. (author)

  10. The Development of National Online Networking in the Republic of China--the Role of the National Central Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sharon Chien

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of the national integrated online information network in the Republic of China. Highlights include a history of library and information automation in Taiwan, the coordination efforts of the central government, creation of the Chinese MARC format, and automation under the leadership of the National Central Library.…

  11. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  12. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  13. Noteworthy extensions of known ranges of three African Fruit Bat species (Mammalia, Megachiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1982-01-01

    True Nanonycteris veldkampii (Jentink, 1888) is recorded from the Central African Republic for the first time. The disputed occurrence of Epomops buettikoferi (Matschie, 1899) in Nigeria is confirmed. Rousettus lanosus Thomas, 1906, is added to the faunal list of Sudan.

  14. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  15. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  16. How Far Ahead Does the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey Look?1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Umit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In monetary economics literature, there is an agreement that monetary policy has a lagged effect on inflation. As a result of this agreement, monetary policy reaction functions that include expected inflation, instead of current or lagged inflation, are established. On the other hand, there is uncertainty about how much time monetary policy needs to affect inflation. The purpose of this paper is to estimate empirically how far ahead the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey looks. In other words, the paper examines whether the CBRT takes into consideration 12-month ahead inflation expectations or 24-month ahead inflation expectations while steering interest rates. According to the results of the paper, the CBRT considers 12-month ahead inflation expectations while steering interest rates.

  17. Evolutionary history of the river frog genus Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) reveals extensive diversification in Central African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Thornton R; Castro, Delilah; Behangana, Mathias; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-06-01

    The African river frog genus Amietia is found near rivers and other lentic water sources throughout central, eastern, and southern Africa. Because the genus includes multiple morphologically conservative species, taxonomic studies of river frogs have been relatively limited. We sampled 79 individuals of Amietia from multiple localities in and near the Albertine Rift (AR) of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. We utilized single-gene (16S) and concatenated (12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1) gene-tree analyses and coalescent species-tree analyses to construct phylogenetic trees. Two divergence dating approaches were used in BEAST, including secondary calibration points with 12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1, and a molecular clock with the 12S, 16S, and cyt b genes. All analyses recovered Amietia as monophyletic with strong support, and revealed several well-supported cryptic lineages, which is consistent with other recent phylogeography studies of AR amphibians. Dating estimates were similar, and Amietia diversification is coincident with global cooling and aridification events in the Miocene and Pliocene, respectively. Our results suggest additional taxonomic work is needed to describe multiple new species of AR Amietia, some of which have limited geographic distributions that are likely to be of conservation concern. PMID:27026115

  18. School For The Future - Building a School in South African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Planišček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A team of students and mentors from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Ljubljana joined an international network of architectural schools for the construction of public buildings in developing countries. The network is led by an Austrian foundation called SARCH, Social Sustainable Architecture, from Vienna. The team has designed and built two school premises in the educational complex of Ithuba Community College in Magagula Heights Township, one of the shanty towns in Johannesburg in the Republic of South Africa. The first building was a classroom with a library in 2010, and the second a multipurpose hall in 2011.

  19. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independ...

  20. Seeing Central African forests through their largest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, J.-F.; Barbier, N.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Fayolle, A.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Maniatis, D.; de Haulleville, T.; Baya, F.; Beeckman, H.; Beina, D.; Couteron, P.; Chuyong, G.; Dauby, G.; Doucet, J.-L.; Droissart, V.; Dufrêne, M.; Ewango, C.; Gillet, J. F.; Gonmadje, C. H.; Hart, T.; Kavali, T.; Kenfack, D.; Libalah, M.; Malhi, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Pélissier, R.; Ploton, P.; Serckx, A.; Sonké, B.; Stevart, T.; Thomas, D. W.; de Cannière, C.; Bogaert, J.

    2015-08-01

    Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which are essential to understand, predict and monitor forest functions and composition over large, often poorly accessible territories. Here we show that the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the whole forest can be predicted from a few large trees and that the relationship is proved strikingly stable in 175 1-ha plots investigated across 8 sites spanning Central Africa. We designed a generic model predicting AGB with an error of 14% when based on only 5% of the stems, which points to universality in forest structural properties. For the first time in Africa, we identified some dominant species that disproportionally contribute to forest AGB with 1.5% of recorded species accounting for over 50% of the stock of AGB. Consequently, focusing on large trees and dominant species provides precise information on the whole forest stand. This offers new perspectives for understanding the functioning of tropical forests and opens new doors for the development of innovative monitoring strategies.

  1. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  2. A biomass representative land cover classification for the Democratic Republic of Congo derived from the Forets D'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Altstatt, A. L.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    The FACET forest cover and forest cover loss 2000-2005-2010 data set has been produced by South Dakota State University, the University of Maryland and the Kinshasa-based Observatoire Satellital des Forets D'Afrique Central (OSFAC) with funding from the USAID Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE). The product is now available or being finalized for the DRC, the ROC and Gabon with plans to complete all Congo Basin countries. While FACET provides unprecedented synoptic detail in the extent of Congo Basin forest and the forest cover loss, additional information is required to stratify land cover into types indicative of biomass content. Analysis of the FACET patterns of deforestation, more detailed remote sensing analysis of biophysical attributes within the FACET land cover classes and GIS-derived classes of degradation obtained through variable distance buffers based on relevant literature and ground truth data are combined with the existing FACET classes to produce a ranking of land cover from low biomass to high biomass for the Democratic Republic of Congo. The resulting classification can be used in all Reduced Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) pre-inventory phases when baseline forest cover needs to be known and the location and amount of forest biomass inventory plots needs to be designed. FACET cover loss classes were kept in the classification and can provide the Monitoring, Reporting and Verification tools needed for REDD projects. The project will be demonstrated for the Maringa Lopori Wamba Landscape of the DRC where this work was funded by the African Wildlife Foundation to support the design of a REDD pilot project.

  3. Accounting from a Religious Perspective: A Case of the Central Government Accounting in Islamic Republic of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Badshah; Frode Mellemvik; Konstantin Timoshenko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose¬ - The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the role of religion (Islam) in the development of accounting at the central government in Islamic Republic of Pakistan.Design/methodology/approach – It is an empirical paper that is situated within a social constructionist world view philosophical paradigm and that takes advantage of the descriptive and analytical characteristics of the qualitative case study. Islamic concepts, which are suggestive of Islamic accounting, constit...

  4. Creating of Central Geospatial Database of the Slovak Republic and Procedures of its Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miškolci, M.; Šafář, V.; Šrámková, R.

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the creation of initial three dimensional geodatabase from planning and designing through the determination of technological and manufacturing processes to practical using of Central Geospatial Database (CGD - official name in Slovak language is Centrálna Priestorová Databáza - CPD) and shortly describes procedures of its revision. CGD ensures proper collection, processing, storing, transferring and displaying of digital geospatial information. CGD is used by Ministry of Defense (MoD) for defense and crisis management tasks and by Integrated rescue system. For military personnel CGD is run on MoD intranet, and for other users outside of MoD is transmutated to ZbGIS (Primary Geodatabase of Slovak Republic) and is run on public web site. CGD is a global set of geo-spatial information. CGD is a vector computer model which completely covers entire territory of Slovakia. Seamless CGD is created by digitizing of real world using of photogrammetric stereoscopic methods and measurements of objects properties. Basic vector model of CGD (from photogrammetric processing) is then taken out to the field for inspection and additional gathering of objects properties in the whole area of mapping. Finally real-world objects are spatially modeled as a entities of three-dimensional database. CGD gives us opportunity, to get know the territory complexly in all the three spatial dimensions. Every entity in CGD has recorded the time of collection, which allows the individual to assess the timeliness of information. CGD can be utilized for the purposes of geographical analysis, geo-referencing, cartographic purposes as well as various special-purpose mapping and has the ambition to cover the needs not only the MoD, but to become a reference model for the national geographical infrastructure.

  5. Rhabdochona spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from fishes in the Central African Republic, including three new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2014), s. 157-172. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Globochona * freshwater fish * Barbus * Epiplatys * Marcusenius * Phenacogrammus * Raiamas * Congo River basin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of the elephant schistosome Bivitellobilharzia loxodontae (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) from the Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brant, S. V.; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Loker, E. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 01 (2013), s. 102-107. ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : schistosomes * elephant Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2013

  7. Logging or conservation concession: Exploring conservation and development outcomes in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Sandker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dzanga-Sangha landscape consists of a national park surrounded by production forest. It is subject to an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP. In collaboration with the ICDP personnel, a participatory model was constructed to explore wildlife conservation and industrial logging scenarios for the landscape. Three management options for the landscape′s production forest were modelled: (I ′predatory logging′, exploitation by a logging company characterised by a lack of long-term plans for staying in the landscape, (II sustainable exploitation by a certified logging company, and (III conservation concession with no commercial timber harvesting. The simulation outcomes indicate the extreme difficulties to achieve progress on either conservation or development scenarios. Both logging scenarios give best outcomes for development of the local population. However, the depletion of bushmeat under the predatory logging scenario negatively impacts the population, especially the BaAka pygmy minority who most strongly depend on hunting for their income. The model suggests that conservation and development outcomes are largely determined by the level of economic activity, both inside and outside the landscape. Large investments in the formal sector in the landscape without any measures for protecting wildlife (Scenario I leads to some species going nearly extinct, while investments in the formal sector including conservation measures (Scenario II gives best outcomes for maintaining wildlife populations. The conservation concession at simulated investment levels does not reduce poverty, defined here in terms of monetary income. Neither does it seem capable of maintaining wildlife populations since the landscape is already filled with settlers lacking economic opportunities as alternatives to poaching.

  8. OPV strains circulation in HIV infected infants after National Immunisation Days in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Didier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans are the only host of polioviruses, thus the prospects of global polio eradication look reasonable. However, individuals with immunodeficiencies were shown to excrete vaccine derived poliovirus for long periods of time which led to reluctance to prolong the vaccination campaign for fear of this end result. Therefore, we aimed to assess the duration of excretion of poliovirus after the 2001 National Immunization Days according to Human immunodeficiency virus status. Findings Fifty three children were enrolled. Sequential stool samples were collected in between National Immunisation Days rounds and then every month during one year. Children were classified into 2 groups: no immunodepression (n = 38, immunodepression (n = 15 according to CD4+ lymphocytes cells count. Thirteen poliovirus strains were isolated from 11 children: 5 Human immunodeficiency virus positive and 6 Human immunodeficiency virus negative. None of the children excreted poliovirus for more than 4 weeks. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all strains were of Sabin origin including a unique Polio Sabine Vaccine types 2 and 3 (S2/S3 recombinant. Conclusions From these findings we assume that Human immunodeficiency virus positive children are not a high risk population for long term poliovirus excretion. More powerful studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Multi-level Governance and Security: The Security Sector Reform Process in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    BAGAYOKO-PENONE, Niagalé

    2010-01-01

    Analysing how the SSR process in CAR has been defined and then implemented, this article puts emphasis on the international interactions between institutional actors who may be geographically/territorially situated at different levels of the policy-making process in different places around the world, thus suggesting ways to grasp multi-actor and multi-sited governance. Therefore, it advocates an approach which consists of expanding the agenda of the traditional multi-level governance approach...

  10. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komas Narcisse P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were collected from 411 patients aged 1-87 years, most of whom presented with jaundice, asthenia or signs of uncomplicated malaria, for a transversal study from June 2004 to September 2005. Patients were recruited at 11 health care centres, including two referral hospitals, after they had given informed consent. The diagnosis of HEV was made with a commercial ELISA test to detect IgM and/or IgG antibodies. HEV RNA was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the presence of the viral genome. Results The most frequent clinical signs found were jaundice (93.4%, vomiting (50.7%, hepatalgia (47.4%, hepatomegaly (30.9% and asthenia (26.8%, which are the general clinical signs of hepatic disease. Acute hepatitis E was found in 213 patients (51.8% who were positive for HEV IgM antibodies. The IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence during this outbreak was high (79.5%. The age group 18-34 years was more frequently infected (91.2% than those aged 1-17 (78.0% or over 34 (64.9% (p -6. RT-PCR performed on 127 sera from the 213 IgM-HEV-positive patients was amplified, and the presence of the viral genome was found in 65 samples. Conclusion Although no specific clinical signs exist for hepatitis E infection, people presenting with jaundice, vomiting, hepatalgia, asthenia, hepatomegaly or distended abdomen with no signs of uncomplicated malaria in tropical developing countries should be sent to a laboratory for testing for hepatitis E.

  11. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in the Central Part of Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercanoglu, Murat; Boboc, Nicolae; Sirodoev, Igor; Ahmet Temiz, F.; Sirodoev, Ghenadi

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in natural hazard assessments within the scientific community, particularly in the last two decades. In other respect, there is also a dramatically rising trend in the number of natural hazards. Growing population and expansion of settlements and lifelines over hazardous areas have largely increased the impact of natural disasters both in industrialized and developing countries. Furthermore, natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods have dramatic effects on human life, infrastructures, environment, and so on. Landslides, one of the most destructive natural hazards, constitute a major geological hazard throughout the world, like in Turkey and Moldova. There are a lot of regions affected by landslides in Turkey (particularly the West, Middle and East Black Sea Region) and Moldova (e.g.: area between Nisporeni, Calarasi, Balti, Western Rezina District, Codri Hills in Central Moldova etc.), and consequences of landslides are of great importance in the two countries. In the last 50 years' period, only the economic loss due to landslides in Turkey is estimated about 5 billion , and 12.5 % of the whole settlement areas, including big and populated cities, are facing landslide threat. Similar to Turkey, there are about 16000 areas affected by landslides in Moldova. In February-March, 1998 the intensity of landslides in the central part of Moldova, including Chisinau, considerably increased. In total, 357 private households involving 1400 people were affected, 214 houses were destroyed, and 137 were damaged. The total national damage accounted for 44.3 million Lei. At present on Moldavian territory, there are more than 17000 landslides of various types. These landslides are mostly located within Central Moldavian heights, one of the most complicated geomorphologic structure and territory's fragmentation. Among major landslide triggering factors, in addition to natural ones, one should also consider the anthropogenic

  12. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  13. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  14. Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lebamba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical rain forest (TRFO biome is well identified from tropical seasonal forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map should be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection is identified as a cardiovascular risk factor in Central Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo-Mbenza B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,1 Jacqueline Nkondi Nsenga,2 Etienne Mokondjimobe,3 Thierry Gombet,3 Itoua Ngaporo Assori,3 Jean Rosaire Ibara,3 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,3 Dieudonné Ngoma Vangu,4 Simon Mbungu Fuele41Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo; 4Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center, Limete, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the CongoBackground: Helicobacter pylori is now incriminated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.Objective: To examine the importance of H. pylori infection as a cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor.Methods: Two hundred five patients (128 with H. pylori infection [HP-seropositive] and 77 without had a baseline assessment for other potential CVD risk factors and were followed prospectively for 10 years (1999–2008. They were assessed on a monthly basis for the outcomes of carotid plaque, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In the HP-seropositive group, male sex and quartile 4 for IgG anti-H. pylori antibodies (anti-HP Ab were correlated with traditional CVD risk factors, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina pectoris.Results: At the baseline assessment, the levels of carotid intima-media thickness, blood fibrinogen, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and uric acid were higher in H. pylori-infected patients than in the uninfected group. Serum HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in the HP-seropositive group. Men had higher levels of IgG anti-HP Ab, waist circumference, blood pressure, uric acid, and total cholesterol than women. Within the HP-seropositive group, individuals in quartile 4 for IgG anti-HP Ab had higher rates of elevated fibrinogen, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, arterial hypertension, and high total

  16. Organization of central database for implementation of ionizing radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is intended to give an overview of the situation in the Republic of Croatia resulting from passing of the new ionizing radiation protection law. Data collecting organization and records keeping structure will be highlighted in particular, as well as data exchange between individual services involved in ionizing radiation protection. The Radiation Protection Act has been prepared in compliance with the international standards and Croatian regulations governing the ionizing radiation protection field. Its enforcement shall probably commence in October 1999, when the necessary bylaws regulating in detail numerous specific and technical issues of particular importance for ionizing radiation protection implementation are expected to be adopted. Within the Croatian Government, the Ministry of Health is charge of ionizing radiation protection. Such competence is traditional in our country and common throughout the world. This Ministry has authorized three institutions to carry out technical tasks related to the radiation protection, such as radiation sources inspections and personal dosimetry. Such distribution of work demands coordination of all involved institutions, control of their work and records keeping. The Croatian Radiation Protection Institute has been entrusted to coordinate work of these institutions, control their activities, and set up the central national registry of radiation sources and workers, as well as doses received by the staff during their work. Since the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute is a newly established institution, we could freely determine our operational framework. Due to its publicly accessible source code and wide base of users and developers, the best prospective for stability and long-term accessibility is offered by the Linux operating system. For the database development, Oracle RDBMS was used, partly because it is a leading manufacturer of database management systems, and partly because our staff is very familiar

  17. Biology and Yield of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. under Field Conditions of the Czech Republic (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana DOLEŽALOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five rocket (Eruca sativa (L. Mill. varieties and accessions were cultivated under field conditions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe and subsequently studied for variation in morphology and yield. Two cultivation techniques (treatments were tested during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011: directly sown seeds in the field and plantlets cultivated in a glasshouse and later transplanted to the field. There were analysed four morphological parameters of the leaf rosette (leaf shape in outline, leaf margin, leaf apex and leaf colour, marketable yield, nonmarketable parts, and rosette radius. Plants from plantlets transplanted to the field in spring terms (April yielded a substantially higher marketable yield and had a higher rosette radius in contrast to plants from directly sown seeds. Conversely, for the summer terms (late August, September the direct sowing technique produced higher marketable yield in comparison with plantlets treatment. Plants cultivated from directly sowed seeds reached a marketable yield on average from 15 to 60 g per plant while transplanted plants produced on average from 10 to 49 g per plant. It is evident that cultivation of rocket under field conditions of the Czech Republic is possible and provides, when using the appropriate sowing term, more or less stable yields of marketable parts. Details on variation in yield parameters of individual varieties and accessions are presented.

  18. Adapting International Experience to Regulatory Supervision of Legacy Sites in the Central Asian Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines progress being made within the regulatory cooperation programme between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and its sister organizations in the Russian Federation. Experience is drawn from work at nuclear technology legacy sites, such as the sites of temporary storage at Andreeva and Gremikha, and also on the remediation of uranium mining and milling facilities. The planned application of this experience to the enhancement of regulatory supervision in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic is described. Preliminary observations are made concerning how this work might feed into the development of international guidance. (author)

  19. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Staff Report on Common Policies of Member Countries; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the common policies adopted by the members of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The macroeconomic performance was good in 2011 with improved fiscal balances, public investment programs, and higher reserves. However, CEMAC is facing challenges from deep-seated structural problems, including uncoordinated fiscal policy, financial sector weaknesses, and obstacles to growth and competitiveness. The Executive Board recommends monetary policies for fi...

  20. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  1. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  2. Plant mineral concentrations related to foraging preferences of western lowland gorilla in Central African forest clearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsio Sienne, Julia; Buchwald, Rainer; Wittemyer, George

    2014-12-01

    In the Central African rain forest, mineral resources essential to organisms are distributed heterogeneously. Forest clearings, locally known as bais, attract numerous species presumably due to the mineral richness of these sites, though understanding of the factors drawing species to bais remains speculative. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) selectively feed on particular plant species and parts within bais, but studies of such feeding preferences have focused on one site. Here, we compared concentrations of minerals and macronutrients from plants gorillas consumed and those they did not in 16 bais to gain inference regarding drivers of resource selection within bais and bai use. The availability of gorilla feeding plants varied between surveyed bais, with some consumed species occurring only at a few bais. Regardless of bai specific species composition, significantly higher concentrations of Na, K, and Ca were found in consumed plants, and other trace minerals were more common in consumed plants. In contrast, macronutrients appeared to play no major role in feeding plant selectivity with consumed species often having lower concentrations than non-consumed species. We found evidence for seasonal differences in Mg and Na concentrations, but the concentrations of other minerals in consumed plants were consistent across time. These findings provide insight to the drivers of bai visitation by gorillas. The high variation in species across bais may elicit use of multiple bais, but the general increased mineral composition of consumed species across bais suggests metabolic requirements may be met through consumption of a variety of species. PMID:24865332

  3. The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits; The Case of Central and West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Beaugrand; Montfort Mlachila; Boileau Loko

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central and West African countries. The paper develops a simple analytical framework and shows that highly concessional external debt is usually a superior choice to domestic debt in terms of financial costs and risks, even in the face of a probable devaluation. The paper stresses the impor...

  4. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M. Mvitu; Yokobo, E. Cibanda; Phemba, I. Longo; Mokondjimobe, E.; Gombet, T.; Ndembe, D. Kibokela; Mona, D. Tulomba; Masamba, S. Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Background Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these...

  5. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of a Mortality Event among Central African Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth N.; Reed, Patricia; Morgan, David B.; Ondzié, Alain I.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Olson, Sarah H.; Leroy, Eric; Karesh, William B.; Mundry, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 2006–2007 we observed an unusual mortality event among apes in northern Republic of Congo that, although not diagnostically confirmed, we believe to have been a disease outbreak. In 2007–2011 we conducted ape nest surveys in the region, recording 11,835 G. g. gorilla nests (2,262 groups) and 5,548 P. t. troglodytes nests (2,139 groups). We developed a statistical model to determine likely points of origin of the outbreak to help identify variables associated with disease emergence and spread. We modeled disease spread across the study area, using suitable habitat conditions for apes as proxy for local ape densities. Infectious status outputs from that spread model were then used alongside vegetation, temperature, precipitation and human impact factors as explanatory variables in a Generalized Linear Model framework to explain observed 2007–2011 ape nest trends in the region. The best models predicted emergence in the western region of Odzala-Kokoua National Park and north of the last confirmed Ebola virus disease epizootics. Roads were consistently associated with attenuation of modeled virus spread. As disease is amongst the leading threats to great apes, gaining a better understanding of disease transmission dynamics in these species is imperative. Identifying ecological drivers underpinning a disease emergence event and transmission dynamics in apes is critical to creating better predictive models to guide wildlife management, develop potential protective measures for wildlife and to reduce potential zoonotic transmission to humans. The results of our model represent an important step in understanding variables related to great ape disease ecology in Central Africa. PMID:27192424

  6. Logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for Central African tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C J; Poulsen, J R; Malonga, R; Elkan, P W

    2009-10-01

    The management of tropical forest in timber concessions has been proposed as a solution to prevent further biodiversity loss. The effectiveness of this strategy will likely depend on species-specific, population-level responses to logging. We conducted a survey (749 line transects over 3450 km) in logging concessions (1.2 million ha) in the northern Republic of Congo to examine the impact of logging on large mammal populations, including endangered species such as the elephant (Loxodonta africana), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus). When we estimated species abundance without consideration of transect characteristics, species abundances in logged and unlogged forests were not different for most species. When we modeled the data with a hurdle model approach, however, analyzing species presence and conditional abundance separately with generalized additive models and then combining them to calculate the mean species abundance, species abundance varied strongly depending on transect characteristics. The mean species abundance was often related to the distance to unlogged forest, which suggests that intact forest serves as source habitat for several species. The mean species abundance responded nonlinearly to logging history, changing over 30 years as the forest recovered from logging. Finally the distance away from roads, natural forest clearings, and villages also determined the abundance of mammals. Our results suggest that logged forest can extend the conservation estate for many of Central Africa's most threatened species if managed appropriately. In addition to limiting hunting, logging concessions must be large, contain patches of unlogged forest, and include forest with different logging histories. PMID:19453655

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection is identified as a cardiovascular risk factor in Central Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Longo-Mbenza B; Nsenga JN; Mokondjimobe E; Gombet T; Assori IN; Ibara JR; Ellenga-Mbolla B; Vangu DN; Fuele SM

    2012-01-01

    Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,1 Jacqueline Nkondi Nsenga,2 Etienne Mokondjimobe,3 Thierry Gombet,3 Itoua Ngaporo Assori,3 Jean Rosaire Ibara,3 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,3 Dieudonné Ngoma Vangu,4 Simon Mbungu Fuele41Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of t...

  8. The Flat Tax in Central Europe: Slovakia and the Czech Republic in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Ellis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Why and how have Slovakia and the Czech Republic adopted flat tax policies? That is what this paper answers. This is a curious development given that flat tax policies were noticeably absent from the landscape of most of the world, including Eastern Europe. I argue that two simultaneous processes occur that make adoption viable.  First, at the domestic level, the idea of the flat tax is held in esteem by a number of actors, specifically: elite carriers, tax and financial ministers, think tanks and right-wing political parties. They champion this idea to its adoption, or at the least, introduce the flat tax into the policy-making apparatus. Second, at the international level, policy diffusion of the flat tax takes place. In other words, the experience of previous adopters impacts the decisions of future adopters. Examining both cognitive heuristics theory and rational learning I argue that there are “varieties of diffusion” during the diffusion of the flat tax.

  9. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004–2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon’s frog diversity. PMID:27149624

  10. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Hirschfeld

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004-2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon's frog diversity.

  11. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004-2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon's frog diversity. PMID:27149624

  12. HIV-inhibitory michellamine-type dimeric naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids from the Central African liana Ancistrocladus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Steinert, Claudia; Feineis, Doris; Mudogo, Virima; Betzin, Julia; Scheller, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    Five michellamine-type dimeric naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids (NIQs), named michellamines A2, A3, A4, B2, and B3, have been isolated from the root bark of the Central African liana Ancistrocladus congolensisJ. Léonard (Ancistrocladaceae), along with their two known parent compounds, the michellamines A and B, which had so far only been detected in the Cameroonian species Ancistrocladus korupensis. Five monomeric representatives, viz., korupensamine D, ancistrobrevine B, hamatine, 5'-O-demethylhamatine, and 6-O-methylhamatine, already known from related Ancistrocladus species, have likewise been identified. The structure elucidation was achieved by spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and by chemical and chiroptical methods. The michellamines A2, A3, B3, and A4 were evaluated for their cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities at a concentration range of 0-100 μM against the HIV reference strain IIIB/LAI in A3.01 T lymphoblast cell cultures, and their effects were compared to the ones displayed by the known michellamines A and B. Inhibitory activities for HIV replication were monitored for the michellamines A2 (IC50 = 29.6 μM), A3 (IC50 = 15.2 μM), A4 (IC50 = 35.9 μM), and B (IC50 = 20.4 μM). The michellamines A and B3, by contrast, did not inhibit HIV replication. No cytotoxicity was observed. Furthermore, the chemotaxonomic significance of the previously undescribed michellamines is discussed. PMID:27137461

  13. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbetini A. Vondou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  14. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  15. Transport position of the Slovak Republic in Central Europe; 1 : 10 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situation of Slovakia in transport structure of Central Europe is very important. One of its dominant elements is the network of the pan-European multimodal transport corridors identified at the European Transport Conferences of Crete (1994) and Helsinki (1977). Four of the above-mentioned corridors directly concern Slovakia. The Vienna - Bratislava - Gyoer - Budapest space is crucial with regards to transport. (authors)

  16. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  17. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  18. Food retailing in Central Europe and the Baltic Republics: Structure and buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2002-01-01

    When the Berlin Wall crumbled in 1989 and communist regimes all over Eastern Europe subsequently came tumbling down, retailing in Eastern Europe was in a dire state following decades of neglect. In the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe retailing had not been allowed to fulfil the...... central role it plays in modern market economies - i.e., to bridge the gap between the processes of production and consumption - as retailing had only been considered a necessary evil in an otherwise production-oriented plan. Since then much has changed. This article points to some of the changes that...... have occurred in the structure of food retailing in Eastern Europe over the past decade and presents the results of an exploratory study of how food retailers in six Eastern European countries buy fish and cheese....

  19. Comparative status and development trends of central electricity supply technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present situation in the public electricity sector of the FRG with its legal and political constraints, to identify the development trends of the supply technologies for central electricity in regard to their application potential during the forthcoming 10 to 20 years. Summarizing expectations and conclusions are drawn on the foreseeable contribution of the electricity supply sector to the aspired CO2-reductions in the FRG

  20. Relative pollen productivity estimates in the modern agricultural landscape of Central Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, V.; Kozáková, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, JUL 1 (2012), s. 1-12. ISSN 0034-6667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701; GA AV ČR IAAX00050801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : relative pollen productivity estimates * Central Bohemia * moss polsters * pollen-vegetation relationship * relevant source area of pollen Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2012

  1. New fossils from the Paleogene of central Libya illuminate the evolutionary history of endemic African anomaluroid rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Pauline; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-10-01

    Anomaluroid rodents show interesting biogeographic and macroevolutionary patterns, although their fossil record is meager and knowledge of the natural history of extant members of the clade remains inadequate. Living anomaluroids (Anomaluridae) are confined to equatorial parts of western and central Africa, but the oldest known fossil anomaluroid (Pondaungimys) comes from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar. The first appearance of anomaluroids in the African fossil record coincides with the first appearances of hystricognathous rodents and anthropoid primates there. Both of the latter taxa are widely acknowledged to have originated in Asia, suggesting that anomaluroids may show a concordant biogeographic pattern. Here we describe two new taxa of African Paleogene anomaluroids from sites in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. These include a new Eocene species of the nementchamyid genus Kabirmys, which ranks among the oldest African anomaluroids recovered to date, and a new genus and species of Anomaluridae from the early Oligocene, which appears to be closely related to extant Zenkerella, the only living non-volant anomalurid. Phylogenetic analyses incorporating the new Libyan fossils suggest that anomaluroids are not specially related to Zegdoumyidae, which are the only African rodents known to antedate the first appearance of anomaluroids there. The evolution of gliding locomotion in Anomaluridae appears to conflict with traditional assessments of relationships among living anomalurid taxa. If the historically accepted division of Anomaluridae into Anomalurinae (extant and Miocene Anomalurus and Miocene Paranomalurus) and Zenkerellinae (extant and Miocene Zenkerella and extant Idiurus) is correct, then either gliding locomotion evolved independently in Anomalurinae and Idiurus or non-volant Zenkerella evolved from a gliding ancestor. Anatomical data related to gliding in Anomaluridae are more consistent with a nontraditional systematic arrangement, whereby non

  2. First early hominin from central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma, and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25 from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma.

  3. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…

  4. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: A model of continental disruption 1. The Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, S. E.; Fairhead, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A regional compilation of published and unpublished gravity data for Central Africa is presented and reveals the presence of a major rift system, called here, the Central African Rift System. It is proposed that the junction area between the Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra rift arms in Western Sudan forms an incipient intraplate, triple-junction with the as yet unfractured, but domally uplifted and volcanically active, Darfur swell. It is only the Darfur swell that shows any similarities to the uplift and rift history of East Africa. The other two rifts arms are considered to be structurally similar to the early stages of passive margin development and thus reflect more closely the initial processes of continental fragmentation than the structures associated with rifting in East Africa.

  5. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio. Here we show that these five specimens represent a new species, described here as Angraecum lanceolatum. The distinguishing traits include thin lanceolate leaves, convolute distally, with a rhombic lip shape. Dichotomous key to four Central African species of sect. Conchoglossum and a table of the diagnostic characters of the seven related Continental African Angraecum taxa are included here. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Angraecum lanceolatum is provided, using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. PMID:27081350

  6. Cross-hemispheric transport of central African biomass burning pollutants: implications for downwind ozone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant plumes with enhanced concentrations of trace gases and aerosols were observed over the southern coast of West Africa during August 2006 as part of the AMMA wet season field campaign. Plumes were observed both in the mid and upper troposphere. In this study we examined the origin of these pollutant plumes, and their potential to photochemically produce ozone (O3 downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Their possible contribution to the Atlantic O3 maximum is also discussed. Runs using the BOLAM mesoscale model including biomass burning carbon monoxide (CO tracers were used to confirm an origin from central African biomass burning fires. The plumes measured in the mid troposphere (MT had significantly higher pollutant concentrations over West Africa compared to the upper tropospheric (UT plume. The mesoscale model reproduces these differences and the two different pathways for the plumes at different altitudes: transport to the north-east of the fire region, moist convective uplift and transport to West Africa for the upper tropospheric plume versus north-west transport over the Gulf of Guinea for the mid-tropospheric plume. Lower concentrations in the upper troposphere are mainly due to enhanced mixing during upward transport. Model simulations suggest that MT and UT plumes are 16 and 14 days old respectively when measured over West Africa. The ratio of tracer concentrations at 600 hPa and 250 hPa was estimated for 14–15 August in the region of the observed plumes and compares well with the same ratio derived from observed carbon dioxide (CO2 enhancements in both plumes. It is estimated that, for the period 1–15 August, the ratio of Biomass Burning (BB tracer concentration transported in the UT to the ones transported in the MT is 0.6 over West Africa and the equatorial South Atlantic.

    Runs using a photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, initialized with the observations, were used to estimate

  7. Nonblack patients with sickle cell disease have African. beta. sup s gene cluster haplotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Z.R.; Powars, D.R.; Williams, W.D. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA)); Kinney, T.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schroeder, W.A. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1989-05-26

    Of 18 nonblack patients with sickle cell disease, 14 had sickle cell anemia, 2 had hemoglobin SC disease, and 2 had hemoglobin S-{beta}{sup o}-thalassemia. The {beta}{sup s} gene cluster haplotypes that were determined in 7 patients were of African origin and were identified as Central African Republic, Central African Republic minor II, Benin, and Senegal. The haplotype Central African Republic minor II was present on the {beta}{sup o}-thalassemia chromosome in 2 patients. None of 10 patients whose {alpha}-gene status was determined had {alpha}-thalassemia-2. These data strongly support the concept that the {beta}{sup s} gene on chromosome 11 of these individuals is of African origin and that the {alpha}-gene locus on chromosome 16 is of white or native American origin. The clinical severity of the disease in these nonblack patients is appropriate to their haplotype without {alpha}-thalassemia-2 and is comparable with that of black patients. All persons with congenital hemolytic anemia should be examined for the presence of sickle cell disease regardless of physical appearance or ethnic background.

  8. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  9. Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janatová, M.; Albrechtová, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Dolejská, M.; Papoušek, I.; Masaříková, M.; Čížek, A.; Todd, A.; Shutt, K.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Modrý, David; Literák, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, 3-4 (2014), s. 422-431. ISSN 0378-1135 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ESBL * PMQR * Enterobacteriaceae * Resistance * Gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  10. Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janatová, M.; Albrechtová, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Dolejská, M.; Papoušek, I.; Masaříková, M.; Čížek, A.; Todd, A.; Shutt, K.; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Modrý, D.; Literák, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, 3-4 (2014), s. 422-431. ISSN 0378-1135. [Symposium on Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and the Environment /5./. Ghent, 30.06.2013-03.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ESBL * PMQR * Enterobacteriaceae * Resistance * Gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  11. "We ourselves, we are part of the functioning": the ICC, victims, and civil society in the Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Glasius

    2009-01-01

    As a new justice institution, the International Criminal Court needs to gain legitimacy not just with states, but also in civil society, both at the global level and in the societies in which it intervenes. This article, based on interviews, NGO documents, newspaper articles, and participatory obser

  12. Global justice meets local civil society: the International Criminal Court’s investigation in the Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Glasius

    2008-01-01

    As a new justice institution, the International Criminal Court (ICC) needs to gain legitimacy not just with states but also in civil society, both at the global level and in the societies in which it intervenes. This article, based on interviews, NGO documents, newspaper articles, and participatory

  13. Eliciting community knowledge about uses of trees through participatory rural appraisal methods: Examples from Cameroon and the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Vabi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, development-oriented scientists have focused attention on improving methodological approaches for generating information from the village communities with whom they work. Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) and

  14. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    OpenAIRE

    Freeborn, Patrick H.; Wooster, Martin J.; Gareth Roberts; Weidong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work e...

  15. Clinical aspects and usefulness of indirect absorbed immunofluorescence for diagnosis of yaws in Central Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, P. M.; Gonzalez, J. P.; Martin, M H; Georges-Courbot, M C; Palisson, M J; Georges, A J

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of yaws in 533 pygmies from the Central African Republic was surveyed. It appeared that there is still an impressive incidence of yaws in pygmy children who have poor hygiene. Laboratory investigations showed that the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay is often negative during the first stage of the disease, while the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test is positive and, thus, more sensitive.

  16. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Methods Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, an...

  17. Preliminary investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism and association with morphometric traits in West African Dwarf goats in north central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmojeed Yakubu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic pool of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats using haemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, as well as the association of some morphological traits with the Hb variants. Blood samples were collected from a total of 104 mature goats of both sexes belonging to the WAD breed in north central Nigeria. The red cell lysates were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific staining procedure to reveal the band patterns of haemoglobin. Three co-dominant alleles, causing the presence of three genotypes (AA, AB and AC were detected among individual goats. The frequencies of the A, B and C alleles were 0.69, 0.30 and 0.01, respectively. The corresponding genotype frequencies for AA, AB and AC in the goat population were 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The discrepancy between the observed and the expected genotype number was significant (P0.05 by Hb variants. There is a need for further study encompassing more number of goats covering larger areas, use of DNA markers and their relationship with economic traits as well as performance study for detailed understanding of breed characteristics, conservation and genetic improvement of WAD goats in north central Nigeria.

  18. Recovery of conservation values in Central African rain forest after logging and shifting cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Shu, G.N.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary forests in Central Africa are increasing in importance for biodiversity conservation as old growth forests outside the few protected areas are disappearing rapidly. We examined vegetation recovery in a lowland rain forest area in Cameroon based on a detailed botanical survey of old growth

  19. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Seniors with Psychiatric Morbidity - Example from Central Moravia, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Luzny; Lubica Jurickova

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) comprises emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. Elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity was not monitored in the Czech Republic at all, despite the literature shows mental morbidity as one of the important risk factor for developing elder abuse and neglect. Methods: We designed comparative cross sectional study comprising 305 seniors hospitalized in Mental Hospital Krome...

  20. Atmospheric Station Kresin u Pacova, Czech Republic - a central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, Vlastimil; Hošková, K.; Michálek, J.; Prošek, P.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Sedlák, Pavel; Váňa, Milan; Veselik, P.; Vodička, Petr; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2014. "192-1". [EMS Annual Meeting, 14th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 10th. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : atmospheric station Křešín * Czech Republic * greenhouse gases * Aerosol-climate model * air quality Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality; DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (UCHP-M)

  1. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lebamba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical evergreen to semi-evergreen forest (TRFO biome is well identified from semi-deciduous forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map must be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  2. Soil does not explain monodominance in a Central African tropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Peh, KS-H; Lloyd, J; C. A. Quesada; S. L. Lewis; Sonké, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical propertie...

  3. Comparative phylogeography of eight herbs and lianas (Marantaceae in central African rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C. Ley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation history in tropical Africa is still to date hardly known and the drivers of population differentiation and speciation processes are little documented. It has often been postulated that population fragmentations following climate changes have played a key role in shaping the geographic distribution patterns of genetic diversity and in driving speciation. Here we analyzed phylogeographic patterns (chloroplast-DNA sequences within and between eight (sister species of widespread rainforest herbs and lianas from four genera of Marantaceae (Halopegia, Haumania, Marantochloa, Megaphrynium, searching for concordant patterns across species and concordance with the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis. Using 1146 plastid DNA sequences sampled across African tropical lowland rainforest, particularly in the Lower Guinean (LG phytogeographic region, we analyzed intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic diversity, endemism and distinctiveness. Intraspecific patterns of haplotype diversity were concordant among most species as well as with the species-level diversity pattern of Marantaceae. Highest values were found in the hilly areas of Cameroon and Gabon. However, the spatial distribution of endemic haplotypes, an indicator for refuge areas in general, was not congruent across species. Each proposed refuge exhibited high values of endemism for one or a few species indicating their potential role as area of retraction for the respective species only. Thus evolutionary histories seem to be diverse across species. In fact, areas of high diversity might have been both refuge and/or crossing zone of recolonization routes i.e. secondary contact zone.We hypothesize that retraction of species into one or the other refuge happened by chance depending on the species´ distribution range at the time of climate deterioration. The idiosyncratic patterns found in Marantaceae species are similar to those found among tropical tree species, especially in southern LG.

  4. Diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in central Africa, by the polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Penchenier, Laurent; Simo, G.; Grébaut, Pascal; Nkinin, S.; Laveissière, Claude; Herder, Stéphane

    2000-01-01

    During a mass screening of sleeping sickness conducted in 1998 and 1999, and involving 27,932 persons in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, we tested the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on whole blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis due to #Trypanosoma brucei gambiense$. The 1858 samples obtained were from 4 groups : 155 infected patients, 1432 serological suspects detected by the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT), 222 negative controls living in th...

  5. The representation of love among Brazilians, Russians and Central Africans: A comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Koyanongo E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50), Russia (50), and Central Africa (50) (age range 21–60; M = 34). We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova) and the “Directed...

  6. Disciplinary capture and epistemological obstacles to interdisciplinary research: Lessons from central African conservation disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, Evelyn

    2016-04-01

    Complex environmental problems require well-researched policies that integrate knowledge from both the natural and social sciences. Epistemic differences can impede interdisciplinary collaboration, as shown by debates between conservation biologists and anthropologists who are working to preserve biological diversity and support economic development in central Africa. Disciplinary differences with regard to 1) facts, 2) rigor, 3) causal explanation, and 4) research goals reinforce each other, such that early decisions about how to define concepts or which methods to adopt may tilt research design and data interpretation toward one discipline's epistemological framework. If one of the contributing fields imposes a solution to an epistemic problem, this sets the stage for what I call disciplinary capture. Avoiding disciplinary capture requires clear communication between collaborators, but beyond this it also requires that collaborators craft research questions and innovate research designs which are different from the inherited epistemological frameworks of contributing disciplines. PMID:26651422

  7. Soil does not explain monodominance in a Central African tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin S-H Peh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical properties in this monodominant forest are significantly different from the adjacent mixed forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled top soil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm and subsoil (150-200 cm using an augur in 6 × 1 ha areas of intact central Africa forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart, all chosen to be topographically homogeneous. Analysis--subjected to Bonferroni correction procedure--revealed no significant differences between the monodominant and mixed forests in terms of soil texture, median particle size, bulk density, pH, carbon (C content, nitrogen (N content, C:N ratio, C:total NaOH-extractable P ratio and concentrations of labile phosphorous (P, inorganic NaOH-extractable P, total NaOH-extractable P, aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium and zinc. Prior to Bonferroni correction procedure, there was a significant lower level of silicon concentration found in the monodominant than mixed forest deep soil; and a significant lower level of nickel concentration in the monodominant than mixed forest top soil. Nevertheless, these were likely to be the results of multiple tests of significance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not provide clear evidence of soil mediation for the location of monodominant forests in relation to adjacent mixed forests. It is also likely that G

  8. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black mov...

  9. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the level of compliance at the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) regional level and provides recommendations to improve compliance. The assessment focuses on the regional Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML-CLT) framework and its conformity with international standard. The paper reviews the institutional framework, laws, regulations, guidelines, and other requirements, and the regulatory and other systems i...

  10. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  11. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Mvitu M; Longo-Mbenza B; Tulomba D; Nge A

    2012-01-01

    Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications....

  12. Crustal rheology and depth distribution of earthquakes: Insights from the central and southern East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaric, Julie; Déverchère, Jacques; Petit, Carole; Perrot, Julie; Le Gall, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The seismicity depth distribution in the central and southern East African Rift System (EARS) is investigated using available catalogs from local, regional and global networks. We select well-determined events and make a re-assessment of these catalogs, including a relocation of 40 events and, where necessary, a declustering. About 560 events are finally used for determining foci depth distribution within 6 areas of the EARS. Assuming that short-term deformation expressed by seismicity reflects the long-term mechanical properties of the lithosphere, we build yield strength envelopes from seismicity depth distribution. Using brittle and ductile laws, we predict the strength percentage spaced every 5 km (or sometimes 2 km) in the crust, for a given composition and a specific geotherm, and constrain it with the relative abundance of seismicity. Results of this modeling indicate significant local and regional variations of the thermo-mechanical properties of the lithosphere which are broadly consistent with previous studies based on independent modelings. In order to explain relatively deep earthquakes, a highly resistant, mafic lower crust is generally required. We also find evidence for changes in the strength magnitude and in the depth of the brittle-ductile transitions which are clearly correlated to tectonic provinces, characterized by contrasted thermal gradients and basement types. A clear N-S increase and deepening of the peak strength level is evidenced along the eastern branch of the EARS, following a consistent southward migration of rifting since ~ 8 Ma. We also detect the presence of a decoupling layer in the Kenya rift, which suggests persisting influences of the deep crustal structures (Archaean and Proterozoic) on the behavior of the extending crust. More generally, our results suggest that seismicity peaks and cut-off depths may provide good proxies for bracketing the brittle-ductile transitions within the continental crust.

  13. Rift Valley fever in Central Africa: Serological evidence and virus antigen detection in cattle in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the disease status within the cattle population in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a survey was carried out using two investigation strategies, i.e. 1) anti - RVF virus (RVFV) Ig G antibodies (Abs) detection, and 2) virus detection. Five provinces were selected due to their high bovine exploitation activity. 962 sera samples randomly collected in 26 locations from the 5 mentioned provinces were tested exploiting the recombinant N protein indirect ELISA (I - ELISA) for antibodies detection and prevalence estimate and for virus detection, two diagnostic methods were exploited: a) - virus antigen (Ag) detection in tissues using the immunoperoxidase (IMP) staining with Avidin Biotin Complex (ABC) technique and, b) -virus cDNA detection using RT- PCR. Only some tissues from syndromically suspected cases from one location with the highest prevalence (20%) were analysed for virus detection. The structural, nucleo . capsid (N) protein that the small segment (S) of the RVFV genome encodes with forms the key antigen targeted in all the 3 diagnostic methods. As a matter of fact, N protein is the most immunocompetent and most expressed protein of RVFV; it is also the highest conserved protein amongst members of the Bunyaviridae family

  14. A central ecological information system for the monitoring of the conditions of the air quality in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central ecology-information system (CEIS) is made up of a distributed network of several categories of autonomous, automatic measuring stations which would carry out a continuous monitoring and registering of all ecological parameters necessary for the assessment of the air quality on the territory of this country. When in regular use, the central ecological system would make the precessing of received data possible in order to make a timely and efficient intervention possible by the authorized authorities, all for a total control and management of the air quality on the territory of Macedonia. (author). 8 ills

  15. Global Health Security: The Lessons from the West African Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic and MERS Outbreak in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in the Republic of Korea have given huge impacts in different aspects. Health security is no more a new coinage. Global health security became more realistic in its practical application. In the perspective of global health, it will be helpful to peruse lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and MERS outbreak in Korea. PMID:27429901

  16. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  17. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  18. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and its chance for survival in Central Europe: the case of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, Jaroslav; Koubek, Petr; Bufka, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2002), s. 362-366. ISSN 1392-1657. [Baltic Theriological Conference /5./. Birštonas, 15.04.2002-18.04.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Lynx lynx * central Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  19. Oak (Quercus spp.) response to climate differs more among sites than among species in central Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, Michal; Čermák, P.; Prokop, O.; Žid, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Kolář, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, - (2016), s. 55-65. ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0265; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * oak * precipitation * temperature * tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2014

  20. Correlation of Pragian (Early Devonian) conodont successions from the Barrandian area (Czech Republic) and the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.

    Hefei : Nanjing Institute of Geology and palaeontology, 2006 - (Qun, Y.; Yongdong, W.; Weldon, E.). s. 367-368 ISBN 7-312-01956-0. [International Palaeontological Congress. 17.06.2006-21.06.2006, Beijing] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Pragian * Conodont correlation * Barrandian * Spanish Central Pyrenees Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Diversity and distibution of Braconidae, a family of parasitoid wasps in the Central European peatbogs of South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Belokobylskij, S.; van Achterberg, C.; Monaghan, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 16 (2010), s. 1-21. ISSN 1536-2442 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505; GA AV ČR IAA600070501 Grant ostatní: European Science Foundation(BE) 1667; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 07-04-00454; EU Synthesys(GB) GB-TAF-2063; EU Synthesys(PL) PL-TAF-3266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Central Europe * Hymenoptera * Braconidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010

  2. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  3. Elimination of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in central part of the People’s Republic of China: analysis and prediction based on modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Five provinces in central People’s Republic of China (P.R. China have successfully reduced the burden of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in the last 7 years. The results of the Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (APCME that com- menced in 2010 are analysed against the background of the progress reached by the national malaria control programme (NMEP that was launched in 2006. We examined the epidemiological changes in the number of autochthonous cases over time and discuss the feasibility of achieving the goal of malaria elimination by 2020. There was a total decline of 34,320 malaria cases between 2006 and 2012 arriving at an average annual incidence of 0.04 per 10,000 people by 2012. At the same time, the number of counties reporting autochthonous cases declined from 290 to 19. Spatial autocorrelation and Bayesian modelling were used to evaluate the datasets and predict the spatio-temporal pattern in the near future. The former approach showed that spatial clusters of P. vivax malaria existed in the study region during the study period, while the risk prediction map generated by the Bayesian model indicates that only sporadic malaria cases will appear during in the future. The results suggest that the initial NMEP approach and the follow-up APCME strategy have played a key role in reducing the threat of malaria in central P.R. China. However, to achieve the goal of malaria elimination by the end of the current decade, interven- tion plans must be adjusted with attention paid to those endemic counties still at risk according to the prediction map.

  4. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  5. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Balci

    2010-12-01

    galement envoyé des milliers de migrants turcs dans le cadre de plusieurs projets missionnaires. Amenée à s’enraciner dans ses villes d’expatriation en Asie centrale, cette migration turque a déjà très nettement marqué de son empreinte l’islam de ces pays, plus particulièrement au Turkménistan, au Kazakhstan et au Kirghizstan qui ont d’excellentes relations politiques avec la Turquie. Ainsi, bon nombre de nouvelles élites religieuses dans ces pays ont été formées dans le cadre de la coopération avec les mouvements missionnaires turcs et leurs disciples qui ont immigré en Asie centrale. S’inscrivant en marge de la politique officielle turque de coopération en matière religieuse avec les pays d’Asie centrale, les migrants turcs n’en rendent pas moins un grand service à la diplomatie d’Ankara dans la région en l’aidant indirectement à se constituer une sphère d’influence dans cet espace turcophone qui occupe une place notable dans la nouvelle politique extérieure de la Turquie.With the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, a wave of migrants left Turkey for the newly independent Turkish-speaking Central Asian republics with which the country had strong cultural ties – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As a result of this multiform movement, an important religious message travelled in both directions, but especially from Turkey to the main Central Asian cities. This article focuses on this message. Turkish migrants, who were often missionaries, used commerce and cooperation initiatives in education as two main tools to re-Islamise Central Asia. For many Turkish Islamic movements, it was important to bring this region back into the fold after over 70 years of domination by a Soviet government with a strongly anti-religious policy. As part of this proselytizing, four key Turkish Islamic movements became visible in Central Asia. The largest was undoubtedly that founded by Said Nursi, whose disciples were

  6. Safety Assessment Of The Centralized Storage Facility For Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources In United Republic Of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRS are no longer in use, they are declared as disused, and they are transferred to the central radioactive management facility (CRMF) belonging to Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (regulatory body) and managed as radioactive waste. In order to reduce the risk associated with disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), the first priority would be to bring them to appropriate controls under the regulatory body. When DSRS are safely managed, regulatory body need to make assessment of the likelihood and potential impact of incidents, accidents and hazards for proper management plan. The paper applies Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assessing and allocating weights and priorities for solving the problem of mult criteria consideration for management plan. Using pairwise comparisons, the relative importance of one criterion over another can be expressed. The method allows decision makers to provide judgments about the relative importance of each criterion and to estimate radiological risk by using expert's judgments or probability of occurrence. AHP is the step by step manner where the resulting priorities are shown and the possible inconsistencies are determined. The Information provided by experts helps to rank hazards according to probability of occurrence, potential impact and mitigation cost. The strength of the AHP method lies in its ability to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative data in decision making. AHP present a powerful tool for weighting and prioritizing hazards in terms of occurrence probability. However, AHP also has some weak points. AHP requires data based on experience, knowledge and judgment which are subjective for each decision-maker

  7. The system for centralized inventory keeping and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report explains the concept adopted by the former GDR. The system based at Morsleben, for centralized inventory keeping and management of radioactive waste is explained, refewing to the amounts of waste accrued, storage and transport of waste drums, classification and preparation of waste forms, and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the Morsleben repository. The report includes information on the management of special waste and spent fuel elements which cannot be stored at the Morsleben site. Most of the radioactive waste produced in the former GDR has been stored since 1979 at the Morsleben site. The waste came from the nuclear power plants (Greifswald, Rheinsberg), and from installations and institutes applying or producing radionuclides - so-called APR waste - (e.g. from the institutes at Rossendorf and Berlin-Buch, and from about 1300 other waste producers). The waste was accepted as or processed to solid waste forms, liquid waste, sealed radiation sources, and special waste; the ultimate storage techniques applied are packing of drums, backfilling, solidification of liquid waste and disposal in boreholes. Up to the end of the year 1989, the Morsleben repository received about 14000 m3 of radioactive waste (about 40% solid waste, and about 60% liquid waste). (orig.)

  8. An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: Explanatory note for the 1:4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, J. P.; Toteu, S. F.; Deschamps, Y.; Feybesse, J. L.; Lerouge, C.; Cocherie, A.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; Moloto-A-Kenguemba, G.; Kampunzu, H. A. B.; Nicol, N.; Duguey, E.; Leistel, J. M.; Saint-Martin, M.; Ralay, F.; Heinry, C.; Bouchot, V.; Doumnang Mbaigane, J. C.; Kanda Kula, V.; Chene, F.; Monthel, J.; Boutin, P.; Cailteux, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper is prepared within the frameworks of IGCP Project 470 and the associated BRGM scientific project "Africa 1999-2004" to accompany the 1:4,000,000 scale map "Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa, presented at the 20th Colloquium of African Geology in Orleans in June 2004. It incorporates geological and metallogenic data from eight countries in Central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea and Zambia). The map is a harmonised and geo-referenced preliminary map, based on a GIS at 1:2,000,000 scale, and focusses on the spatial and temporal distribution of selected major deposits.

  9. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  10. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Silva; Farida Alshamali; Paula Silva; Carla Carrilho; Flávio Mandlate; Maria Jesus Trovoada; Viktor Černý; Luísa Pereira; Pedro Soares

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/C...

  11. Impact of anthropogenic and climatic changes on biomass and diversity of the Central African forests, from local to global scale: original methods for new results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Frédéric; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Picard, Nicolas; Rossi, Vivien

    2014-05-01

    Forests of the Congo Basin, the second most important remaining block of tropical moist forest in the world, are facing increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Understanding the biomass and diversity dynamics under these pressures is one major challenge for African nations and international communities. This talk aims to present original methods to model, infer, and predict growth, biomass and diversity of Central African forests, as well as new results on the impacts of global change on those forests, at various scales. With respect to methods, we will present theoretical frameworks allowing (i) to model growth processes in species-rich ecosystems like tropical rain forests, (ii) to take into account uncertainties in biomass estimation. In terms of results, we will highlight at a local scale, how human activities as well as climatic variations would impact (i) the composition and diversity of forests, (ii) the dynamics of biomass and growth processes. At a global scale, we will demonstrate how environmental filtering controls the above ground biomass. The number of studies are currently increasing over the Congo Basin through several research projects led by our team (CoForTips, DynAfFor) and contributing to various international organization's programs (Cifor, FAO, Comifac, Ofac).

  12. Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpor, Zdeněk

    Los Angeles : Sage , 2012 - (Juergensmeyer, M.; Roof, W.), s. 275 ISBN 9780761927297 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Republic * religion * sociology of religion Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  13. Vegetation response to the "African Humid Period" termination in Central Cameroon (7° N – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Servant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pollen sequence from the Lake Mbalang (7°19´ N, 13°44´ E, 1110 m a.s.l. located on the eastern Adamawa plateau, in Central Cameroon, is presented in this paper to analyze the Holocene African Humid Period (AHP termination and related vegetation changes at 7° N in tropical Africa, completing an important transect for exploring shifts in the northern margin of the African Monsoon. This sequence, spanning the last 7000 cal yr BP, shows that the vegetation response to this transitional climatic period was marked by significant successional changes within the broad context of long-term aridification. Semi-deciduous/sub-montane forest retreat in this area is initially registered as early as ca. 6100 cal yr BP and modern savannah was definitely established at ca. 3000 cal yr BP and stabilized at ca. 2400 cal yr BP; but a slight forest regeneration episode is observed between ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 cal yr BP. In this area with modern high rainfall, increasing in the length of the dry season during the AHP termination linked to a contraction of the northern margin of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ from ca. 6100 cal yr BP onward, probably associated with decreasing in cloud cover and/or fog frequency, has primarily controlled vegetation dynamics and above all the disappearance of the forested environment on the Adamawa plateau. Compared to previous studies undertaken in northern tropical and Central Africa, this work clearly shows that the response of vegetation to transitional periods between climatic extremes such as the AHP termination might be different in timing, mode and amplitude according to the regional climate of the study sites, but also according to the stability of vegetation before and during these climatic transitions.

  14. Representation of African Heritage in Trinidad Carnival

    OpenAIRE

    三吉, 美加

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the cultural representation of African Trinidadian or African creole in Trinidad Carnival. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is the most ethnically and culturally diverse society in the East Caribbean. This diversity comprises of 40 percent of East Indians, 40 percent of Africans, and 20 percent of mixed race such as Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, and Europeans. In the course of making tourism a national agenda, Carnival has gained commercial values, diversifying particip...

  15. Modern long-range atmospheric dust transport over the Czech Republic - the case of North African dust load in spring 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadimová, Leona; Hladil, Jindřich; Skála, Roman; Strnad, L.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Fridrichová, Michaela

    Olomouc: Palacký University, 2014 - (Bábek, O.; Matys Grygar, T.; Uličný, D.). s. 15-15 ISBN 978-80-244-4098-9. [Central European Meeting of Sedimentary Geology : an international conference. 09.06.2014-13.06.2014, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/2351; GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : atmospheric dust * geology * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Petříčekite, CuSe2, a New Member of the Marcasite Group from the Předbořice Deposit, Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Bindi; Hans-Jürgen Förster; Günter Grundmann; Frank N. Keutsch; Chris J. Stanley

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The attached file is the published version of the article. Petříčekite, ideally CuSe2, is a new mineral from the Předbořice deposit, Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic. It occurs as rare inclusions, up to 150 μm across, in large eucairite gr...

  17. Evolution of the East African Rift System With Special Emphasis on the Central Rift of Kenya: A new Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East African rift system has been of immense interest to geoscientist since its first account was given by Gregory (1896). Several recent views have followed, showing continuing interest in its evolution Baker et al. 19971; Baker et al. 1972; Baker and Wohlenberg 1971; McConnell 1972; Nyabok 1983; Williams and Truckle 1980; Williams, MacDonald and Leat 1983). This interest is being refueled by modern views which are emerging from our better understanding of plate tectonic processes. The major tectonic events took place during the Miocene and late Pliocene with the attendant volcanism which continued into the late Pleistocene. The late Pleistocene volcanism provided the heat source for the long on-going geothermal activity in the rift zone

  18. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants

  19. Climatic scenarios for the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvová, J.; Nemešová, Ivana

    Budapešť : Eötvös Lorand University, 1995, s. 41-49. - (963 463 042 1). [Workshop on regional climate change in Central-East Europe. Budapešť (HU), 28.11.1994-30.11.1994] Grant ostatní: EPA (CZ-US) Czech Republic`s Country Study Keywords : climate change

  20. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Clinical and computed tomography findings in predicting in-hospital mortality in Central Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lelo Tshikwela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH constitutes now 52% of all strokes. Despite of its deadly pattern, locally there is no clinical grading scale for ICH-related mortality prediction. The first objective of this study was to develop a risk stratification scale (Kinshasa ICH score by assessing the strength of independent predictors and their association with in-hospital 30-day mortality. The second objective of the study was to create a specific local and African model for ICH prognosis. Materials and Methods: Age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, smoking, alcohol intake, and neuroimaging data from CT scan (ICH volume, Midline shift of patients admitted with primary ICH and follow-upped in 33 hospitals of Kinshasa, DR Congo, from 2005 to 2008, were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 185 adults and known hypertensive patients (140 men and 45 women were examined. 30-day mortality rate was 35% (n=65. ICH volume>25 mL (OR=8 95% CI: 3.1-20.2; P 7 mm, a consequence of ICH volume, was also a significant predictor of mortality. The Kinshasa ICH score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: Presence of coma coded 2 (2 × 2 = 4, absence of coma coded 1 (1 × 2 = 2, ICH volume>25 mL coded 2 (2 × 2=4, ICH volume of ≤25 mL coded 1(1 × 2=2, left hemispheric site of ICH coded 2 (2 × 1=2, and right hemispheric site of hemorrhage coded 1(1 × 1 = 1. All patients with Kinshasa ICH score ≤7 survived and the patients with a score >7 died. In considering sex influence (Model 3, points were allowed as follows: Presence of coma (2 × 3 = 6, absence of coma (1 × 3 = 3, men (2 × 2 = 4, women (1 × 2 = 2, midline shift ≤7 mm (1 × 3 = 3, and midline shift >7 mm (2 × 3 = 6. Patients who died had the Kinshasa ICH score ≥16. Conclusion: In this study, the Kinshasa ICH score seems to be an accurate method for distinguishing those ICH patients who need continuous and special management

  1. Peacebuilding as A Strategy To Address the Security-Development Nexus in Fragile States: A Case Study on the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Samzun, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores how the practice of peacebuilding is used in fragile states to address national and international issues of development and security. It begins by examining the policy and academic theories on the concepts of ‘fragile states’, ‘the security-development nexus’ since 1945, and ‘peacebuilding’. The study observes that the three concepts are closely linked and reinforcing. They each emerged at the end of the Cold War, and have since gained increased attention from the ...

  2. Availability of antimalarial drugs and evaluation of the attitude and practices for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in bangui, central african republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manirakiza, Alexandre; Njuimo, Siméon Pierre; Le Faou, Alain; Malvy, Denis; Millet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    National malaria management policy is based upon the availability of effective and affordable antimalarial drugs. This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases in Bangui, an area with multidrug-resistant parasites, at a time preceding implementation of a new therapeutic policy relying on the artemisinin derivative combined treatment artemether-lumefantrine. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Bangui city to assess availability of antimalarial drugs and the performances of health workers in the management of uncomplicated malaria. Availability of drugs was recorded in all drugs wholesalers (n = 3), all pharmacies in health facilities (n = 14), private drugstores (n = 15), and in 60 non-official drug shops randomly chosen in the city. Despite a limited efficacy at the time of the survey, chloroquine remained widely available in the official and nonofficial markets. Artemisinin derivatives used in monotherapy or in combination were commonly sold. In health care facilities, 93% of the uncomplicated malaria cases were treated in the absence of any laboratory confirmation and the officially recommended treatment, amodiaquine-sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, was seldom prescribed. Thus, the national guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria are not followed by health professionals in Bangui. Its use should be implemented while a control of importation of drug has to be reinforced. PMID:20339579

  3. Non-specific Patterns of Vector, Host, and Avian Malaria Parasite Associations in a Central African Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njabo, Kevin Y; Cornel, Anthony J.; Bonneaud, Camille; Toffelmier, Erin; Sehgal, R.N.M.; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Russell, Andrew F.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasites use vertebrate hosts for asexual multiplication and Culicidae mosquitoes for sexual and asexual development, yet the literature on avian malaria remains biased towards examining the asexual stages of the life cycle in birds. To fully understand parasite evolution and mechanism of malaria transmission, knowledge of all three components of the vector-host-parasite system is essential. Little is known about avian parasite-vector associations in African rainforests where numerous species of birds are infected with avian haemosporidians of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Here we applied high resolution melt qPCR-based techniques and nested PCR to examine the occurrence and diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of haemosporidian parasites in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across 12 sites in Cameroon. In all, 3134 mosquitoes representing 27 species were screened. Mosquitoes belonging to four genera (Aedes, Coquillettidia, Culex, and Mansonia) were infected with twenty-two parasite lineages (18 Plasmodium spp. and 4 Haemoproteus spp.). Presence of Plasmodium sporozoites in salivary glands of Coquillettidia aurites further established these mosquitoes as likely vectors. Occurrence of parasite lineages differed significantly among genera, as well as their probability of being infected with malaria across species and sites. Approximately one-third of these lineages were previously detected in other avian host species from the region, indicating that vertebrate host sharing is a common feature and that avian Plasmodium spp. vector breadth does not always accompany vertebrate-host breadth. This study suggests extensive invertebrate host shifts in mosquito-parasite interactions and that avian Plasmodium species are most likely not tightly coevolved with vector species. PMID:21134011

  4. Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovec, Jiří

    New York: Oxford University Press, 2012 - (Baker, D.), s. 138-161. (Oxford Library of Psychology ). ISBN 9780195366556 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Czech Republic * history of psychology * psychology of personality * developmental psychology * health psychology * methodology of psychological research Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 78-85. ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12082/abstract

  6. Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2014), s. 92-103. ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12043/abstract

  7. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic – a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, Pavel; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    Vol. 12. Göttingen: Copernicus GmbH, 2015, s. 79-83. ISSN 1992-0628. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /10./. Praha (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : air quality * atmospheric station Křešín * greenhouse gases * Czech Republic * aerosols Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.adv-sci-res.net/12/79/2015/asr-12-79-2015.pdf

  8. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  9. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model where crustal accretion is accompanied by slab retreat and lithospheric mantle

  10. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  11. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  12. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: a model of continental disruption 2. The Darfur domal uplift and associated Cainozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, P. M.; Fairhead, J. D.; Stuart, G. W.

    1983-05-01

    Gravity studies of the Darfur uplift, Western Sudan, show it to be associated with a circular negative Bouguer anomaly, 50 mGal in amplitude and 700 km across. A three-dimensional model interpretation of the Darfur anomaly, using constraints deduced from geophysical studies of similar but more evolved Kenya and Ethiopia domes, suggests either a low-density laccolithic body at mid-lithospheric depth (~ 60 km) or a thinned lithosphere with emplacement at high level of low-density asthenospheric material. The regional setting of the Darfur uplift is described in terms of it being an integral part of the Central African Rift System which is shown to be broadly equivalent to the early to middle Miocene stage in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Comparisons between these rift systems suggest that extensional tectonics and passive rifting, resulting in the subsiding sedimentary rift basins associated with the Ngaoundere, Abu Gabra, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, are more typical of the early stage development of passive continental margins than the active domal uplift and development of rifted features associated with the Darfur, Kenya and Ethiopia domes.

  13. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae from West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Evans

    Full Text Available African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups.

  14. Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in the Czech Republic for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  15. Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    The population of the Dominican Republic was estimated at 6.4 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. The infant mortality rate is 96/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years. The literacy level is 68%. The gross domestic product (GDP) in the Dominican Republic in 1986 was US$5.59 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 1.3% and a per capita GDP of $873. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 45%; industry and commerce, 21% services, 14%; and government, 20%. The Dominican economy entered a recovery period in 1986, and expenditures were cut to create savings for a massive public investment program. This fiscal spending has created a domestically-led growth of the Dominican economy and increased purchasing power among the poor. However, it remains for the government to come to terms with fiscal and monetary imbalances so that a more sustainable, noninflationary growth of the Dominican economy is ensured. Since 1966, the Dominican Republic has been a representative democracy whose national powers are divided among independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. PMID:12177938

  16. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  17. Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Extremes in Central Europe: A Case Study in a Rural Area in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Stojanov; Barbora Duží; Tomáš Daněk; Daniel Němec; David Procházka

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to analyse households’ adaptation measures to the impacts of repeated extreme weather events, specifically floods, which belong amongst the most serious manifestation of ongoing climate change in Europe. The case study focuses on a rural area in the north-east part of the Czech Republic, in the catchment basin of the Bečva River. A total of 605 households were addressed within the framework of the questionnaire survey. On the basis of the conducted resea...

  18. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic – a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Sedlák, Pavel; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, Vlastimil; Vodička, Petr; Trusina, Jan

    Vol. 12. Göttingen: Copernicus GmbH, 2015, s. 79-83. ISSN 1992-0628. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /10./. Praha (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : air quality * atmospheric station Křešín * greenhouse gases * Czech Republic * aerosols Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality ; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M)

  19. Enrichment of Logging Gaps with a High Conservation Value Species (Pericopsis elata in a Central African Moist Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To achieve long-term sustainability, there is a need for enrichment methods combining low cost and high species performance. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Pericopsis elata seedlings in enriched logging gaps in Cameroon. Over five years; the survival and size of each seedling was monitored in 27 logging gaps that were either left without maintenance or cleared. Gaps were relatively small with an average total area of 155 m2. We found that planted seedlings of P. elata performed well in logging gaps. Even without any maintenance 61% of the planted seedlings survived after five years with an average annual diameter increment of 0.28 cm. P. elata appeared to be a good candidate species for enrichment in logging gaps. We demonstrated that the seedlings of P. elata tolerated a wide range of soil conditions but that their performance was strongly influenced by light availability (gap clearance, suggesting potentially improved performance of P. elata in high light environments such as in plantation or larger gaps.

  20. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented. PMID:26490448

  1. Geochronology of the Birim Supergroup of the West African craton in the Wa-Bolé region of west-central Ghana: Implications for the stratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, G. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Siegfried, H. P.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Birim rocks of the West African craton comprise belts of greenschist- to amphibolite-grade gneiss and schist, and subparallel basins of greenschist-grade phyllite of volcaniclastic and epiclastic origin, which were intruded by igneous rocks. The granitoids intruded between 2213 and 2060 Ma and overlap with the volcaniclastic units dated between 2211 and 2064 Ma. The simultaneous occurrence of the magmatic events and irregular distribution of the rock ages hamper the formulation of a stratigraphic succession. SHRIMP spot analyses were done on older cores, crystals and rims from 23 rocks from the Bolé-Wa region in west-central Ghana. The crystallization ages range from 2195 to 2118 Ma, the inherited ages from 2876 to 2130 Ma, and metamorphic ages from 2114 to 2090 Ma. Aided by metamorphic, structural and chemical studies an older geotectonic cycle (2195-2150 Ma), containing the Dole and Guropie Suite and Bolé Group, was established. These units were subjected to several orthogonal and shear deformation events. These events were followed by the contemporaneous Sawla calc-alkaline monzonitic plutonism (2132-2126 Ma) and deposition of the epiclastic Maluwe Group (2137-2125 Ma) of calc-alkaline felsic to tholeiitic volcanic origin. Deformation of the basin beds was succeeded by the intrusion of the Tanina Suite granitoids of 2122-2120 Ma, which, themselves, were deformed prior to 2119 Ma. At 2118 Ma syenite and gabbro intruded along conjugate extension fractures. The gabbro and syenite of the Wakawaka Suite were only affected by three events of brittle strike-slip faulting. The first had significant displacement along NNE- to NE-directed shear zones, while the latter only formed conjugate joint systems with limited transport. Palaeo- to Neoarchaean cores, the oldest yet reported in the Baoulé Mossi domain, are restricted to the gneissic Dole Suite biotite granites. The presence of Dole-, Guropie-, Sawla-, and Tanina-aged older cores and grains in younger rocks

  2. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  3. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  4. New constraints on the Pan-African tectonics and the role of the Mwembeshi Zone in Central Zambia: Deformation style and timing of two orthogonal shortening events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Kalin; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith; Charlesworth, Guy; Rankin, William; Frei, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    In Central Zambia the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Late Neoproterozoic - Cambrian Pan-African Orogen: the NE-convex Lufilian Arc and the E-W trending Zambezi Belt whose distinct features emphasize the role of the zone as a regional structural and metamorphic boundary. North of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within the low metamorphic grade Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks, and represents the largest Pan-African intrusion in Southern Africa. The granitoids and their host-rocks were affected by two deformation events. During the D1 deformation of E-W shortening, two high-strained zones developed in the batholith. To the NE, the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) is a ~3 km wide NW-striking subvertical sinistral strike-slip shear zone. To the SW, a ~2.5 km wide N-S trending subvertical pure-shear Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) formed. In both structures, the granitoids show a smooth transition from weakly deformed rocks to porphyroclastic mylonites. Microstructural analysis defined them as medium metamorphic grade zones, deforming the granitoids at temperatures between 500 and 550°C. The lower greenschist facies metamorphism in the country rocks indicates that the deformation occurred during the cooling of the granitoids. D1 in the metasedimentary rocks east of the Hook batholith formed tight, upright folds with subvertical axial-planar cleavage and NNW-SSE trending axis consistent with the E-W shortening. U-Pb zircon geochronology and cross-cutting relationships between granites bracket D1 deformation between 549 ± 2 Ma and 541 ± 3 Ma in the NZ and in the SE part of the batholith. In the ITZ, the 533 ± 3 Ma age on a deformed granite indicates prolonged E-W shortening during granite emplacement and cooling history. D2 represents a stage of N-S shortening. Airborne geophysical data revealed bending of the N-S trending ITZ and rotation to the east. The D1 structures in the granitoids are cut by D2 north-vergent thrusts and subvertical NW trending

  5. Late Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810 skeletons from the Czech Republic (central Europe; their pathological cranial features and injuries resulting from intraspecific fights, conflicts with hyenas, and attacks on cave bears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedrich C G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The world’s first mounted "skeletons" of the Late Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810 from the Sloup Cave hyena and cave bear den in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic, central Europe are compilations that have used bones from several different individuals. These skeletons are described and compared with the most complete known skeleton in Europe from a single individual, a lioness skeleton from the hyena den site at the Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic. Pathological features such as rib fractures and brain-case damage in these specimens, and also in other skulls from the Zoolithen Cave (Germany that were used for comparison, are indicative of intraspecific fights, fights with Ice Age spotted hyenas, and possibly also of fights with cave bears. In contrast, other skulls from the Perick and Zoolithen caves in Germany and the Urșilor Cave in Romania exhibit post mortem damage in the form of bites and fractures probably caused either by hyena scavenging or by lion cannibalism. In the Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave a young and brain-damaged lioness appears to have died (or possibly been killed by hyenas within the hyena prey-storage den. In the cave bear dominated bone-rich Sloup and Zoolithen caves of central Europe it appears that lions may have actively hunted cave bears, mainly during their hibernation. Bears may have occasionally injured or even killed predating lions, but in contrast to hyenas, the bears were herbivorous and so did not feed on the lion carcasses. The articulated lion skeletons found in cave bear dens deep within caves scattered across Europe (such as those from the Sloup, Zoolithen and Urșilor caves can therefore now be explained as being the result of lions being killed during predation on cave bears, either by the cave bears defending themselves or as a result of interspecific fights.

  6. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  7. Supervision of Central African Economic and Monetary Community medical market%浅谈中非经济与货币共同体的医药市场监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉迪; 蒋倩; 平其能

    2009-01-01

    目的:为走近中国与中非药品市场交流和中非经济与货币共同体(CEMAC)创建药品共同监管市场提供参考.方法:主要通过文献分析的研究手段,分析中非经济与货币共同体药品市场的现状、目前的形势,并提出了CEMAC在医药市场监管中存在的问题,通过分析提出了完善医药市场的方法.结论:要实现中非药品市场的共同监管,应立足中非各国国情,建立中非共同市场以实现共同监管,同时提供中国关心中非药品市场交流的企业和专家参考文件的目的.%Objective To provide references for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community to set up common medical market.Methods Current situation and problems existing in the Centrat African Economic and Monetary Community were analyzed by literature analysis.Methods of improving the medical market were proposed.Conclusion Central African national conditions should be based on to achieve the common supervision of CEMAC.We should set up the Central African Common Market in order to achieve the purpose of co-regulation.

  8. High-pressure whiteschists from the Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Central Hoggar, Algeria): A record of Pan-African oceanic subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjerid, Zouhir; Godard, Gaston; Ouzegane, Khadidja

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Sérouènout Terrane, Central Hoggar, Algeria) comprises mainly a high-pressure Neoproterozoic metamorphic formation consisting of talc-kyanite-quartz whiteschists, chlorite schists, marbles, sulphide ores, partially serpentinized peridotites and partially amphibolitized eclogites, and reminiscent of an ophiolitic mélange that was metamorphosed and strongly deformed under eclogite-facies conditions. Major and trace elements indicate that the whiteschists underwent intense hydrothermal alteration, with Mg enrichment and leaching of alkalis and Ca, prior to high-pressure metamorphism. The main talc-kyanite-quartz paragenesis is stable within a large multivariant P-T field extending from high-P amphibolite to eclogite facies; the Tschermak substitution in talc marginally constrains peak pressure conditions to P > 11 kbar and 600 eclogites record a similar P-T evolution: after the eclogite-facies metamorphic peak, they underwent partial amphibolitization and a subsequent high-temperature overprint under granulite-facies conditions that led to partial dehydration. The Ti-N-Eggoleh series is interpreted as the product of the thermal alteration of oceanic rocks that were subducted prior to the continental collision that formed the West Gondwana orogenic belt during the Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny. The decompression associated with the early phase of exhumation was followed by an important increase in temperature towards granulite-facies conditions, possibly determined by the intrusion of abundant mafic rocks in this region due to delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The Ti-N-Eggoleh area and its high-pressure meta-ophiolitic series apparently belong to the Sérouènout Terrane, which stretches along the eastern margin of the Western Gondwana orogenic belt and consists mainly of oceanic metasediments; they are possibly markers of an ancient, yet unidentified, subduction and suture zone.

  9. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  10. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  11. Grasshoppers, crickets (Orthoptera and earwigs (Dermaptera of Tovačov gravel pit (central Moravia, Czech Republic: New locality for several thermophilous species in anthropogenic secondary habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnka Filip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of Orthoptera and earwigs was conducted in Tovačov gravel pit in 2014. We have recorded 18 species of Orthoptera and 3 species of earwigs. The most significant recorded species are Cepero’s ground-hopper (Tetrix ceperoi, pygmy mole cricket (Xya variegata, Italian tree cricket (Oecanthus pellucens and riparian earwig (Labidura riparia. Tovačov gravel pit poses the northernmost locality of T. ceperoi and X. variegata in the Czech Republic and the northernmost known locality in Moravia for O. pellucens. For the L. riparia, we present a founding from Tovačov together with another finding from Olomouc vicinity, which is currently the northernmost locality within Moravia. Our findings display recent spatial expansion of some thermophilous species. Moreover, we emphasize importance of (post-industrial areas as secondary habitats for specialised endangered species.

  12. Petroleum source rocks of western and central Africa : the examples of the marine Tarfaya Basin, Morocco and the continental Congo Basin, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Sachse, Victoria Frederike

    2011-01-01

    This study comprises newly collected organic geochemical and petrological data on quality, quantity, maturity as well as the depositional environment of various organic matter-rich stratigraphic units in Morocco and the Central Congo Basin, DRC. In addition, 1D modeling was carried out for one locality in northern Morocco (Aït Moussa) and for two wells from the Central Congo Basin to obtain information on burial thermal and maturation history. For the Aït Moussa model, specific bulk kinetic p...

  13. Nuclear science in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo, like all other countries interested in science and its applications, has become aware of the close relation which is developing between cultural, technical, economic and social progress in the world community and the establishment of a concerted scientific policy. The Congo possesses a TRIGA Mkl reactor, the first reactor to have gone into operation on the African continent. This reactor has many uses and has been put at the disposal of the other African countries. Various experimental research projects on the irradiation and activation of samples are in progress in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The radioisotopes produced are mainly used in national laboratories. (author)

  14. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  15. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  16. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  17. Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Extremes in Central Europe: A Case Study in a Rural Area in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stojanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to analyse households’ adaptation measures to the impacts of repeated extreme weather events, specifically floods, which belong amongst the most serious manifestation of ongoing climate change in Europe. The case study focuses on a rural area in the north-east part of the Czech Republic, in the catchment basin of the Bečva River. A total of 605 households were addressed within the framework of the questionnaire survey. On the basis of the conducted research, we determined that the total amount of adaptation measures adopted by those dwelling in residential homes within the investigated catchment area was relatively low. In contrast, however, one of the most important adaptation measures—house elevation—was applied by 46.94% of the houses (up to 1 m and by 21.16% houses (elevated more than 1 m respectively. We also found that the amount and scope of adaptation measures realized by households were influenced by certain socio-demographic factors of the inhabitants. The most statistically significant factors included households with more residents or families with more children living in the household, as well as those with a higher level of education. Flood experience, the level of damage, and individual flood risk perception also played an important role.

  18. Influence of Pastoralists' Sociocultural Activities on Tsetse-Trypanosome-Cattle Reservoir Interface: The Risk of Human African Trypanosomiasis in North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Kabir, J

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists that influenced on the tsetse-trypanosome-cattle reservoir interface thereby predisposing them to HAT in Niger State, North-central Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey of adult pastoral herders, aged 30 years and above, and conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered on the pastoralists nested in 96 cattle herds with questions focused on pastoralists' socio-cultural activities and behavioral practices related to HAT risk. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to describe the obtained data. A total of 384 pastoralists participated, with mean age of 49.6  ± 10.76 SD years. Male respondents constituted 86.7% of gender, while pastoralists of age group 40-49 years constituted 35.4% of respondents. About 59.4% of the pastoralists had knowledge about HAT and its symptoms and only 33.9% of them believed that cattle served as reservoir of HAT trypanosome. Knowledge/belief levels of the pastoralists about African trypanosomiasis occurrence in humans and animals were statistically significant. Males were four times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.42, 9.52); age group 60-69 was also four times more likely to be exposed (OR = 3.59; 95% CI: 1.56, 8.28); and nomadic pastoralists were two times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.14). All cultural practices significantly influenced exposure to HAT with extensive husbandry system three times more likely to predisposed pastoralists to HAT (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.65, 6.24). Socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists influenced exposure to HAT risk and, therefore, there is a need to sensitize them to bring changes to their socio-cultural practices and perceptions to achieve effective and long term sustainable HAT control. Elimination strategies of parasites in animals and vectors should be considered to avoid reintroduction

  19. The response of macroinvertebrate community taxa and functional groups to pollution along a heavily impacted river in Central Europe (Bilina River, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Jurajda, Pavel; Schmitt-Jansen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2012), s. 180-199. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : community analysis * functional community * taxonomic community * multiple pollution * multi-stress * macroinvertebrates * Central Europe * lower mountain river * EU-WFD Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  20. An integrated rock-magnetic and geochemical approach to loess/paleosol sequences from Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic): Implications for the Upper Pleistocene paleoenvironment in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, J.; Hambach, U.; Lisá, Lenka; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Horáček, I.; Meszner, S.; Knésl, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 418, 15 January (2015), s. 344-358. ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : loess/paleosols sequences * rock-magnetism * geochemical proxies * Upper Pleistocene * paleoclimate * Central Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DD - Geochemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2014

  1. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  2. Financial and Fiscal Instruments for Catastrophe Risk Management : Addressing Losses From Flood Hazards In Central Europe (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Pollner, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses the large flood exposures of Central Europe and proposes efficient financial and risk transfer mechanisms to mitigate fiscal losses from natural catastrophes.. The report is primarily addressed to the governments of the region which should build into their fiscal planning, the necessary contingent funding mechanisms, based on their exposures. While there exist pan-Eur...

  3. Universities in Central Europe - Crossroads of scholars from all over the world, 29 September 2011 - 1 October 2011, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbáňová, Soňa; Sekyrková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2012), s. 103-104. ISSN 1600-0498. [Universities in Central Europe - Crossroads of scholars from all over the world. Praha, 29.09.2011-01.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : history of science * mobility of scientists * Albert Einstein Subject RIV: AB - History

  4. Impact of forest wildlife activity on oribatid mite communities (Acari:Oribatida) in deciduous forests of the Křivoklátsko PLA, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Josef

    České Budějovice: Biology Centre ASCR , v.v , Institute of Soil Biology, 2007. s. 65. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /9./. 17.04.2007-20.04.2007, České Budějovice] Institutional research pla n: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : forest wildlife activity * oribatid mite communities * Křivoklátsko PLA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic deba

  6. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  7. Second workshop of participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP project on monitoring of pollution in the marine environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2 - first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop of Participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP Project on Monitoring of Pollution in the Marine Environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2) was attended by 29 participants from 10 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroun, Congo and Gabon). Levels of metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum components in marine biota were discussed in seven scientific reports which were presented by the participating scientists (Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, The Gambia, ghana and Cameroun). Three of the presented reports were on organochlorines and four dealt with trace metal levels in marine organisms. The Representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviewed the results obtained during the data quality assurance intercalibration exercises carried out in the region during the first phase. The result received are still within acceptable range. However, there seems to be a trend for values to be higher than the range of finally certified concentrations. Considering that most results were clearly better in the second exercise, after equipment service, part of the earlier deviation might be attributed to instrument malfunctions. These results can be regarded as fairly encouraging for the future development in the West and Central African marine pollution monitoring programme. Refs, tabs

  8. Dreissig Jahre Volksrepublik Polen. Aus den Thesen des Zentralkomitees der Polnischen Vereinigten Arbeiterpartei (Thirty years of the People's Republic of Poland. From the Theses of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Offers an overview of the development of the teaching of Russian in the People's Republic of Poland since its introduction in 1945 and the support of the periodical "Jezyk Rosyjski" (Russian Language) in the attainment of the goals set by the Ministry of Popular Education of the People's Republic of Poland. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  10. Central collecting and evaluating of major accidents and near-miss-events in the Federal Republic of Germany--results, experiences, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Hans-Joachim; Wiese, Norbert

    2004-07-26

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state of the art requirements in process safety. To improve this input by a systematic way in the FRG, a central body for collecting and evaluating major accident (ZEMA) was established in 1993. ZEMA is part of the Federal Environmental Agency. All events which are to be notified due to the German Regulation on Major Accidents (Stoerfall-Verordnung) are centrally collected, analysed (deducing lessons learnt) and documented by ZEMA. The bureau is also responsible for the dissemination of the lessons learnt to all stake holders. This work is done in co-operation with the German Major-Accident Hazard Commission (Stoerfallkommission) and other international bodies like European MAHB. At the time being, over 375 events from 1980 to 2002 are registered in Germany. For each event, a separate data sheet is published in annual reports, first started in 1993. All information is also available at http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/zema/. A summary evaluation on the events from 1993 to 1999 is presented and some basic lessons learnt are shown. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of maintenance, detailed knowledge of chemical properties, human factor issues and the role of safety organisation especially connected with subcontractors. The German notification system is described in detail and some experience with the system is reported. Keeping in mind that collecting reports from notified major accidents is only a small amount compared with all the events which might be interesting to learn from, the German Major-Accident Hazard Commission has established a separate body, the subcommittee 'Incident Evaluation', which is in charge with collecting and evaluating of minor and near-miss events. Since 1994, a concept for the registration and evaluation of those non-notifiable events was developed. From 2000 on, the concept has been put into operation. Its main elements are: - reporting of

  11. Central collecting and evaluating of major accidents and near-miss-events in the Federal Republic of Germany--results, experiences, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state of the art requirements in process safety. To improve this input by a systematic way in the FRG, a central body for collecting and evaluating major accident (ZEMA) was established in 1993. ZEMA is part of the Federal Environmental Agency. All events which are to be notified due to the German Regulation on Major Accidents (Stoerfall-Verordnung) are centrally collected, analysed (deducing lessons learnt) and documented by ZEMA. The bureau is also responsible for the dissemination of the lessons learnt to all stake holders. This work is done in co-operation with the German Major-Accident Hazard Commission (Stoerfallkommission) and other international bodies like European MAHB. At the time being, over 375 events from 1980 to 2002 are registered in Germany. For each event, a separate data sheet is published in annual reports, first started in 1993. All information is also available at http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/zema/. A summary evaluation on the events from 1993 to 1999 is presented and some basic lessons learnt are shown. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of maintenance, detailed knowledge of chemical properties, human factor issues and the role of safety organisation especially connected with subcontractors. The German notification system is described in detail and some experience with the system is reported. Keeping in mind that collecting reports from notified major accidents is only a small amount compared with all the events which might be interesting to learn from, the German Major-Accident Hazard Commission has established a separate body, the subcommittee 'Incident Evaluation', which is in charge with collecting and evaluating of minor and near-miss events. Since 1994, a concept for the registration and evaluation of those non-notifiable events was developed. From 2000 on, the concept has been put into operation. Its main elements are: - reporting of the

  12. Phylogeny of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid species flock and its relationship to the Central and East African haplochromine cichlid fish fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel; Baric, Sanja; Verheyen, Erik; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the East African Great Lakes, harbors the ecologically, morphologically, and behaviorally most complex of all assemblages of cichlid Fishes, consisting of about 200 described species. The evolutionary old age of the cichlid assemblage, its extreme degree of morphological differentiation, the lack of species with intermediate morphologies, and the rapidity of lineage formation havemade evolutionary reconstruction difficult. The number and origin of seeding lineag...

  13. Urban and rural infant-feeding practices and health in early medieval Central Europe (9th-10th Century, Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupová, Sylva; Herrscher, Estelle; Velemínský, Petr; Cabut, Sandrine; Poláček, Lumír; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    In the Central European context, the 9th and 10th centuries are well known for rapid cultural and societal changes concerning the development of the economic and political structures of states as well as the adoption of Christianity. A bioarchaeological study based on a subadult skeletal series was conducted to tackle the impact of these changes on infant and young child feeding practices and, consequently, their health in both urban and rural populations. Data on growth and frequency of nonspecific stress indicators of a subadult group aged 0-6 years were analyzed. A subsample of 41 individuals was selected for nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses, applying an intra-individual sampling strategy (bone vs. tooth). The isotopic results attest to a mosaic of food behaviors. In the urban sample, some children may have been weaned during their second year of life, while some others may have still been consuming breast milk substantially up to 4-5 years of age. By contrast, data from the rural sample show more homogeneity, with a gradual cessation of breastfeeding starting after the age of 2 years. Several factors are suggested which may have been responsible for applied weaning strategies. There is no evidence that observed weaning strategies affected the level of biological stress which the urban subadult population had to face compared with the rural subadult population. PMID:25256815

  14. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  15. Kyrgyz Republic : Overview of Climate Change Activities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This overview of climate change activities in the Kyrgyz Republic is part of a series of country notes for five Central Asian countries that summarize climate portfolio in a number of sectors, namely agriculture, forestry, water, health, energy, and transport. Recognizing the nature and significance of climate change contribution to an increase in disaster risk, the note also looks into th...

  16. Superposition de la tectonique éburnéenne et panafricaine dans les granitoïdes de la bordure nord du craton ouest africain, boutonniére de Zenaga, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc(Pan-african overprint on Eburnian granitoids at the northern boundary of the West African Craton, Zenaga Inlier, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennih, N.; Laduron, D.; Greiling, R. O.; Errami, E.; de Wall, H.; Boutaleb, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Zenaga Inlier shows a comprehensive record of the Eburnian and Pan-African Orogenies. The Eburnian is characterised by high-temperature regional metamorphism and complex magmatism. The early (Azguemerzi) granodiorite has an isotopic mantle signature and was emplaced diapirically during the Eburnian Orogeny causing local thermal metamorphism. The foliation observed in this granitoid is a result of the interference between its primary syn-emplacement foliation and the regional foliation under amphibolite-facies conditions. The northern part of Zenaga has been intruded by the leucocratic granites of Tazenakht. These granites are cut by mylonites and phyllonites, corresponding to the Pan-African shear zones and accompanied with sub-greenschist-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African Orogeny. The deformation was the result of a regional sinistral transpressive event. This study in the northern part of the West African Craton shows the superposition of the Pan-African on the Eburnian Orogeny and the presence of a major fault in the Anti-Atlas.

  17. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  18. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  19. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  20. Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Bou-Habib, Chadi; Kebede, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    The high level of exports and their product and market concentration exposes the Democratic Republic of Congo to the economic fluctuations of the country's trade partners. This paper uses the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development trade data set to analyze the Democratic Republic of Congo's export patterns for the period 1960-2014. The data confirm that the country's exports re...

  1. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Blattner; Dennis C Polley; Frank Ferritto; Elston, Dirk M

    2013-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  2. Late Stone Age human remains from Ishango (Democratic Republic of Congo): New insights on Late Pleistocene modern human diversity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, I; Brooks, A; Ribot, I; Cornelissen, E; Semal, P

    2016-07-01

    Although questions of modern human origins and dispersal are subject to intense research within and outside Africa, the processes of modern human diversification during the Late Pleistocene are most often discussed within the context of recent human genetic data. This situation is due largely to the dearth of human fossil remains dating to the final Pleistocene in Africa and their almost total absence from West and Central Africa, thus limiting our perception of modern human diversification within Africa before the Holocene. Here, we present a morphometric comparative analysis of the earliest Late Pleistocene modern human remains from the Central African site of Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The early Late Stone Age layer (eLSA) of this site, dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (25-20 Ky), contains more than one hundred fragmentary human remains. The exceptional associated archaeological context suggests these remains derived from a community of hunter-fisher-gatherers exhibiting complex social and cognitive behaviors including substantial reliance on aquatic resources, development of fishing technology, possible mathematical notations and repetitive use of space, likely on a seasonal basis. Comparisons with large samples of Late Pleistocene and early Holocene modern human fossils from Africa and Eurasia show that the Ishango human remains exhibit distinctive characteristics and a higher phenotypic diversity in contrast to recent African populations. In many aspects, as is true for the inner ear conformation, these eLSA human remains have more affinities with Middle to early Late Pleistocene fossils worldwide than with extant local African populations. In addition, cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones are consistent with archaeological evidence suggesting reduced terrestrial mobility resulting from greater investment in and use of aquatic resources. Our results on the Ishango human remains provide insights into past African modern

  3. Isolation and identification of African horsesickness virus from naturally infected dogs in Upper Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, S.A.; Dardiri, A. H.; Awad, F. I.; A. M. Soliman; M.M Amin

    1981-01-01

    African horsesickness virus was isolated from blood samples of street dogs in Aswan Province in Arab Republic of Egypt. Of six isolated "dog strain" African horsesickness viruses, three viruses designated D2, D6 and D10 have been identified as type 9 African horsesickness virus. Methods of isolation, tissue culture adaptation, serological indentification and typing are described. Horses experimentally infected with dog viruses showed febrile reaction and characteristic clinical and pathologic...

  4. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  5. Phanerozoic geological evolution of Northern and Central Africa: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, R.; Bosworth, W.; Thierry, J.; Delplanque, A.

    2005-10-01

    West African Craton (end Early Cambrian) and during the polyphased Hercynian-Variscan Orogeny that extended the final closure of the Paleotethys Ocean and resulted in the formation of the Maghrebian and Mauritanides belts. Only gentle deformation affected central and northeastern African during the Paleozoic, the latter remaining a passive margin of the Paleotethys Ocean up to the Early Permian when the development of the Neotethys initiated along the Eastern Mediterranean Basins. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequence similarly consists of a succession of eustatically and tectonically controlled depositional cycles. Through time, progressive southwards shift of the basin margins occurred, related to the opening of the Neotethys Ocean and to the transgressions resulting from warming of the global climate and associated rise of the global sea level. The Guinean-Nigerian Shield, the Hoggar, Tibesti-Central Cyrenaica, Nubia, western Saudi Arabia, Central African Republic, and other long-lived arches delimited the principal basins. The main tectonic events were the polyphased extension, inversion, and folding of the northern African-Arabian shelf margin resulting in the development of the Alpine Maghrebian and Syrian Arc belts, rifting and drifting along the Central Atlantic, Somali Basins, and Gulf of Aden-Red Sea domains, inversion of the Murzuq-Djado Basin, and rifting and partial inversion along the Central African Rift System. Two major compressional events occurred in the Late Santonian and early Late Eocene. The former entailed folding and strike-slip faulting along the northeastern African-northern Arabian margin (Syrian Arc) and the Central African Fold Belt System (from Benue to Ogaden), and thrusting in Oman. The latter ("Pyrenean-Atlasic") resulted in folding, thrusting, and local metamorphism of the northern African-Arabian plate margin, and rejuvenation of intra-plate fault zones. Minor or more localized compressional deformations took place in the end

  6. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  7. New species of African Plume moths (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V; Ustjuzhanina, A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes four new Pterophoridae species from Africa (Zambia, Tanzania and the Republic of South African): Platyptilia junkeri Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov., Pselnophorus huntii Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov., Pselnophorus tanzanicus Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov., Merrifieldia aurea Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. PMID:26249061

  8. Enriched asthenosphere melting beneath the nascent North African margin: trace element and Nd isotope evidence in middle-late Triassic alkali basalts from central Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Lustrino, Michele; Romano, Vanessa; Tranchina, Annunziata; Villa, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    During the dismembering of the Pangea supercontinent, middle-late Triassic sub-volcanic alkaline rocks were emplaced in central Sicily. These rocks have an alkali basaltic composition and show OIB-like incompatible element patterns in primitive mantle-normalized diagrams (e.g., enrichments in HFSE and LREE coupled with high HFSE/LILE ratios), as well as slightly positive \\varepsilon_{Nd} values. Only subtle effects of crustal contamination at shallow depths emerge from geochemical data. These characteristics are very different compared with the Permian calcalkaline magmas from elsewhere in SW Europe still carrying the geochemical signature of modifications related to the Variscan orogeny. The mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic compositions of the investigated samples from central Sicily are also different from the coeval shoshonitic volcano-plutonic formations of Southern Alps (Dolomites). The incompatible element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are consistent with low-degree partial melting of a moderately depleted asthenospheric mantle source, with a negligible involvement of the thinned continental crust. The studied alkaline basalts represent the only known evidence of a segment of the Triassic rift system associated with early Pangea breakup in central Sicily. The close similarity of the central Sicily Triassic alkali basalts with coeval basalts emplaced along former orogenic sutures across the peri-Mediterranean area suggests a common origin related, at least partly, to asthenospheric passive upwelling following the tectonic collapse of the Variscan Belt. These rocks provide new constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution, magma source evolution and geodynamic meaning of the widespread Permo-Triassic basic magmatism developed after the end of the Variscan Orogeny in southwestern Europe.

  9. A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting: The case of the Pan-African Hook Batholith in Central Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. Occasionally, sodic granitoids have been documented. Compositions were driven to more differentiated products by fractional crystallization, while Sr-Nd isotopes exclude crustal assimilation during crystallization. Recent new U-Pb age data constrain most of the felsic magmatism between 550 and 540 Ma. Scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, testify to periodic input of mantle material, and, in some cases, to interaction with metasomatizing fluids. Crystallization ages on mafic rocks span from 570 to 520 Ma, thus indicating that they were contemporaneous with the major granitic intrusion, which was the result of a number of successive felsic batches, eventually forming a coalescing batholith. Highly radiogenic Pb isotopic values attest to the radiogenic character of the rocks. Such an anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, perhaps as result of metasomatizing fluids. Enrichment in Th-U of large portions of the crust along this part of the margin of the Congo Craton is suggested. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support the interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressure of magmatism. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was emplaced at shallow crustal depths. This study further supports the idea that A-type granites, commonly considered to be restricted to anorogenic or extension-related environments, can also occur in compressional regimes.

  10. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Maganga, G. D.; Kapetshi, J.; Berthet, N; Ilunga, B. K.; Kabange, F.; Kingebeni, P. M.; Mondonge, V; Muyembe, J. J. T.; Bertherat, E; Briand, S.; Cabore, J; Epelboin, A.; Formenty, P.; Kobinger, G; Gonzalez-Angulo, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The seventh reported outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the equatorial African country of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began on July 26, 2014, as another large EVD epidemic continued to spread in West Africa. Simultaneous reports of EVD in equatorial and West Africa raised the question of whether the two outbreaks were linked. METHODS We obtained data from patients in the DRC, using the standard World Health Organization clinical-investigation form for viral hemorrh...

  11. The Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepec, J.; Lízal, Lubomír; Ušlakar, A.; Homar, A.; Lotrič, J.

    Ljubljana: Časnik Finance , 2012 - (Prašnikar, J.), s. 309-325 ISBN 978-961-6541-41-1 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Czech Republic * capital and labor markets * firms' indebtedness Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Czech Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1999-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on the Czech Republic discusses issues relating to the enterprise sector and corporate governance. This includes an overview and assessment of enterprise performance along with a discussion of the concept of corporate governance and its application in the Czech Republic, including how corporate governance practices compare in an international context. The paper discusses issues related to financial sector performance and restructuring. It also takes stock of banking...

  13. Migration groups in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uherek, Zdeněk

    Bratislava: The Institute for Sociology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2015 - (Falťan, Ľ.), s. 222-231 ISBN 978-80-85544-88-6. [Cross-border migration and its implications for the Central European Area. Bratislava (SK), 05.11.2014-07.11.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : migration * Czech Republic * Social Anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Petříčekite, CuSe2, a New Member of the Marcasite Group from the Předbořice Deposit, Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Petříčekite, ideally CuSe2, is a new mineral from the Předbořice deposit, Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic. It occurs as rare inclusions, up to 150 μm across, in large eucairite grains closely associated with athabascaite/klockmannite and unknown selenide phases. Petříčekite is opaque with a metallic luster and shows a black streak. It is brittle; the Vickers hardness (VHN15 is 33 kg/mm2 (range: 28–40 kg/mm2 (Mohs hardness of ~2–2½. In reflected light, petříčekite is pale blue grey to pale pinkish, weakly pleochroic and weakly bireflectant from slightly blue-grey to slightly pinkish-grey. Under crossed polars, it is anisotropic with light grey-blue to light pink rotation tints. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance percentages for the four COM (Commission on Ore Mineralogy wavelengths (Rmin and Rmax are 42.35, 41.8 (470 nm, 42.0, 42.2 (546 nm, 41.9, 42.35 (589 nm and 42.05, 42.85 (650 nm, respectively. Petříčekite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, with a = 4.918(2 Å; b = 6.001(2 Å; c = 3.670(1 Å; V = 108.31(1 Å3; Z = 2. The crystal structure (R1 = 0.0336 for 159 reflections with I > 2σ(I belongs to the marcasite-type structure. It consists of edge-sharing chains of CuSe6 octahedra parallel to [001] linked by sharing Se2 dimers. The Se–Se bonds are all parallel to (001. The five strongest powder-diffraction lines (d in Å (I/I0 (hkl are: 2.938 (70 (101; 2.639 (100 (111; 2.563 (85 (120; 1.935 (70 (211; 1.834 (30 (002. The mean of nine electron-microprobe analyses on the crystal used for the structural study gave Ag 0.22(13, Cu 15.39(15, Hg 0.01(3, Pb 0.03(2, Fe 12.18(10, Pd 0.11(4, S 0.09(1, Se 71.61(29 and total 99.64(41 wt %, corresponding on the basis of a total of three atoms, to (Cu0.53Fe0.48Σ1.01(Se1.98S0.01Σ1.99. Additional crystals exhibiting higher Cu contents (up to 0.74 a.p.f.u. were also investigated. The new mineral has been approved by the IMA-NMNC Commission (2015-111 and named after V

  15. Transvalued species in an African forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, Melissa J; Hardin, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    We combined ethnographic investigations with repeated ecological transect surveys in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic, to elucidate consequences of intensifying mixed use of forests. We devised a framework for transvaluation of wildlife species, which means the valuing of species on the basis of their ecological, economic, and symbolic roles in human lives. We measured responses to hunting, tourism, and conservation of two transvalued species in RDS: elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Our methods included collecting data on encounter rates and habitat use on line transects. We recorded cross-cultural variation in ideas about and interactions with these species during participant observation of hunting and tourism encounters and ethnographic interviews with hunters, conservation staff, researchers, and tourists. Ecologically, gorillas used human-modified landscapes successfully, and elephants were more vulnerable than gorillas to hunting. Economically, tourism and encounters with elephants and gorillas generated revenues and other benefits for local participants. Symbolically, transvaluation of species seemed to undergird competing institutions of forest management that could prove unsustainable. Nevertheless, transvaluation may also offer alternatives to existing social hierarchies, thereby integrating local and transnational support for conservation measures. The study of transvaluation requires attention to transnational flows of ideas and resources because they influence transspecies interactions. Cross-disciplinary in nature, transvalution of species addresses the political and economic challenges to conservation because it recognizes the varied human communities that shape the survival of wildlife in a given site. Transvaluation of species could foster more socially inclusive management and monitoring approaches attuned to competing economic demands, specific species behaviors, and human

  16. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  17. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. PMID:26577954

  18. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Destructive winds in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsova, D.

    2009-09-01

    Strong destructive winds in central Europe occurs as a consequence of high pressure gradient, crossing fronts or summer thunderstorms. Contribution summarize three recent destructive wind storms Kyrril, Emma and Johanna that affected the Czech Republic in last three years. All of them were caused by high pressure gradient between low in north and high in south of Europe. Some other historical events in the Czech Republic (Sumava Mts. In 1870) and in Slovakia (1965, Tatry 2004) are also introduced. Evaluation of number of days with wind gust (equal or higher than 60 km per hour, 17 m/s respectively) for period of 1980 to 2004 was done for selected stations in the Czech Republic. Results proved increase of wind gust days in lowlands 250 - 450 a.s.l. with significance on 95 %. Subjectively also the stress on meteorologist - forecaster from media has increased after Kyrril significantly both in demand on frequency and amount of information as well as in the timeliness of the media awareness. Keyworlds: destructive winds, wind gust, Czech Republic

  20. African swine fever virus serodiagnosis: a general review with a focus on the analyses of African serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Carolina; Gómez-Sebastian, Silvia; Moreno, Noelia; Nuñez, María C; Mulumba-Mfumu, Leopold K; Quembo, Carlos J; Heath, Livio; Etter, Eric M C; Jori, Ferran; Escribano, Jose M; Blanco, Esther

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease that causes heavy mortality in domestic pigs. At present there is no vaccine against ASF, and eradication in countries where the disease is endemic is based only on competent diagnosis programs and the sacrifice of infected animals. Due to the presence of natural attenuated strains, certain infection conditions may result in reduced mortality. In these situations, the disease can be diagnosed by detection of specific antibodies. The use of classical and validated diagnosis assays, such as ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence or Immunoblotting, allowed the eradication of ASF in the Iberian Peninsula in the 1990s. However, given that conventional tests include the use of antigens obtained from ASF virus (ASFV)-infected cells, they have several disadvantages, such as difficulties to achieve standardization and also the risks associated with the manipulation of live virus. Such drawbacks have led to the development of alternative and more robust systems for the production of ASFV antigens for use in anti-ASFV antibody detection systems. In the present review, we provide an update on current knowledge about antigen targets for ASFV serodiagnosis, the significant progress made in recombinant antigen production, and the refinement of ASF serological diagnostic assays. Moreover, we describe the accuracy of an ELISA developed for the serodiagnosis of ASFV in Africa. This assay is based on a novel p30 recombinant protein (p30r) obtained from an Eastern African viral isolate (Morara strain), which shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with the Georgia virus isolate. That study included the analyses of 587 field sera collected from domestic pigs and warthogs in Senegal (West Africa), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Central Africa), Mozambique (South-East Africa), and South Africa. The results revealed that the novel p30r-based ELISA allows the accurate detection of antibodies against ASFV, independently of the

  1. A Decade Long, Multi-Scale Map Comparison of Fire Regime Parameters Derived from Three Publically Available Satellite-Based Fire Products: A Case Study in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Freeborn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although it is assumed that satellite-derived descriptions of fire activity will differ depending on the dataset selected for analysis, as of yet, the effects of failed and false detections at the pixel level and on an instantaneous basis have not been propagated through space and time to determine their cumulative impact on the characterization of individual fire regime parameters. Here we perform the first ever decade long, multi-scale map comparison of fire chronologies and fire seasonality derived from three publicly available satellite-based fire products: the MODIS active fire product (MCD14ML, the ATSR nighttime World Fire Atlas (WFA, and the MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1. Results indicate that: (i the agreement between fire chronologies derived from two dissimilar satellite products improves as fire pixels are aggregated into coarser grid cells, but diminishes as the number of years included in the time series increases; and (ii all three datasets provide distinctly different portraits of the onset, peak, and duration of the fire season regardless of the map resolution. Differences in regional, long-term fire regime parameters derived from the three datasets are attributed to the unique capability of each sensor and detection algorithm to recognize geographical gradients, seasonal oscillations, decadal trends, and interannual variability in active fire characteristics and burned area patterns. Since different satellite sensors and detection algorithm strategies are sensitive to different types of fires, we demonstrate that disagreements in fire regime maps derived from dissimilar satellite-based fire products can be used as an advantage to highlight spatial and temporal transitions in landscape fire activity. Given access to multiple, publically available datasets, we caution against describing fire regimes using a single satellite-based active fire or burned area product.

  2. Influence of food availability on the diet and activity budget of two western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups of differing size in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Neba, Terence Fuh; Donati, Giuseppe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    Variation in food availability, body size and group size are known to influence primate diet and activity budgets. Here we report how seasonal food availability shapes the diet and activity patterns of two habituated western lowland gorilla (WLG) groups of differing size. WLGs are ripe fruit opportunists, showing dietary flexibility when preferred foods are scarce. However, as fruit can be rare/ patchily distributed, as intra-group feeding competition increases with group size, access to indi...

  3. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Květoňová, Dana; Mynářová, A.; Shutt, K. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Kalousová, B.; Modrý, David; Benavides, J.; Todd, A.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71840. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : impenetrable national-park * free-ranging gorilla s * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * zoonotic transmission * disease risks * Uganda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia Infections in Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Different Stages of Habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kvetonova, Dana; Mynarova, Anna; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Pomajbikova, Katerina; Kalousova, Barbora; Modry, David; Benavides, Julio; Todd, Angelique; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. Aims To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potent...

  5. A Decade Long, Multi-Scale Map Comparison of Fire Regime Parameters Derived from Three Publically Available Satellite-Based Fire Products: A Case Study in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Freeborn, Patrick H.; Cochrane, Mark A.; Martin J. Wooster

    2014-01-01

    Although it is assumed that satellite-derived descriptions of fire activity will differ depending on the dataset selected for analysis, as of yet, the effects of failed and false detections at the pixel level and on an instantaneous basis have not been propagated through space and time to determine their cumulative impact on the characterization of individual fire regime parameters. Here we perform the first ever decade long, multi-scale map comparison of fire chronologies and fire seasonalit...

  6. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C.; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A.; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957

  7. Occupational radiation exposure in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (authors)

  8. Validation of models using Chernobyl fallout data from the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Scenario CB. First report of the VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group is an international forum for the testing and comparison of model predictions. The emphasis is on evaluating transfer from the environment to human via all pathways which are relevant in the environment being considered. This document is the first report of the Group and contains the results of the first test exercise on the validation of multiple pathways assessment models using Chernobyl fallout data obtained from the Central Bohemia (CB) region of the Czech Republic (Scenario CB). The report includes the following three appendixes: Documentation and evaluation of model validation data used in scenario CB (3 papers), Description of models used in scenario CB (1 paper), Individual evaluations of model predictions for scenario CB (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Sociology - Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Illner, Michal

    Berlin a Budapešť : GESIS, 2002 - (Kaase, M.; Sparschuh, V.; Wenninger, A.), s. 405-424 ISBN 3-8206-0139-2 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : sociology * Czech republic * State of the discipline Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  10. Czech republic (national report)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    Warszawa: Centrum Stosunków Miedzynarodowych, 2006 - (Podolski, A.; Jaron, P.), s. 25-47 ISBN 83-88216-99-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : European Union * Czech republic * Fundamental Rights Agency Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  11. Country report - Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašková, Hana; Křížková, Alena

    Vídeň : Austrian East and Southeastern Europe Institute, 2000, s. 51-58. [Frauenpolitik und/versus Familienpolitik. Vídeň (AT), 26.11.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : gender * survey * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  12. Czech Republic, tourism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauer, M.; Frantál, Bohumil

    1. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Jafar, J.; Honggen, H.) ISBN 978-3-319-01383-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : tourism * Czech Republic * sustainability Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-01669-6_439-1

  13. NEAP - National Environmental Action Plan (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Macedonia, like other Central and East European countries in transition, has started the process of reform towards a market economy. As a part of the economic development program, the Republic of Macedonia is shaping its environmental polices and identifying priority actions to protect human health and the environment and to utilize its natural resources in a sustainable manner. These polices and actions are consistent with the 'Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe' (EAP), the document adopted at the Ministerial Conference in Lucerne in 1993. In meeting the goals towards protecting the environment, The Government of the Republic of Macedonia has prepared the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) with the support of the World Bank group. The Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment was the key agency involved in the preparation of the NEAP. The NEAP highlights the environmental problems and recommends actions related to policy, institutions and priority investments. (author)

  14. Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Public Wage Bill

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Restraining the growing wage bill expenditures while enhancing the performance of the public sector remains one of the government's major development priorities. Wage bill levels in the Kyrgyz Republic are high compared to the majority of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, constituting almost one third of government expenditures. Over the last few years, the government has undertaken...

  15. Neutron activation analysis of ivory of African elephants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to 80 samples from various African countries and 81 samples from the Kruger National Park in the Republic of South Africa. Twelve elements such as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, Sr, and Zn, were determined in all samples. The factor scores of each sample were calculated from those elemental concentrations for the first and second factors to clarify the differences of samples from various African countries with those from Kruger Park. The results were compared with those by stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N). (author)

  16. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  17. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  18. THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN IN THE REGIONAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Niiatbekov, Vafo; Dodikhudoev, Khurshed

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and the formation of the newly independent states in Central Asia have revived the rest of the world's interest in this region. Its countries were viewed primarily through the prism of their relations with the leading world and regional nations, particularly with Russia, China, Iran, and Turkey, without giving interstate contacts in this region their due attention. However, it is the regional problems of the Central Asian republics that have largely determined...

  19. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all the...

  20. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  1. Egyptian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs

  2. Kyrgyz Republic : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Kyrgyz Republic joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment s...

  3. Azerbaijan Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Azerbaijan Republic reports that the government has made substantial progress in dealing with energy-related subsidies. The domestic market for oil products has been tightly regulated by the government since Azerbaijan gained independence. Azerbaijan is largely self-sufficient in oil products because of its substantial endowment of exhaustible mineral deposits and existing refining capacity. Although Azerbaijan is self-sufficient in oil products, it needs to impo...

  4. Czech Republic [2011

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, 7-8 (2011), s. 948-954. ISSN 0304-4130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/10/0584 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2011.02017.x/full

  5. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  6. Heat flow and heat production in Zambia: evidence for lithospheric thinning in central Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.S.; Pollack, H.N.

    1977-08-03

    Heat-flow results from eleven widely spaced sites in central and western regions of the Republic of Zambia range between 54 and 76 mW m/sup -2/. Ten of the sites are located in late Precambrian (Katangan) metasediments or Kibaran age basement, while one site is located in Karroo age sandstone. Compared to the global mean of 39 +- 7 (sd) mW m/sup -2/ for Precambrian provinces elsewhere, these heat-flow results are anomalously high by some 25 mW m/sup -2/. Heat-production measurements on borehole core samples indicate that enhanced radioactivity of an enriched surface zone can account for only half of the observed anomaly. The remaining anomalous heat flow must have a deeper source, and can be interpreted as a flux from the asthenosphere, providing the overlying lithosphere has been thinned to less than 60 km. Such an interpretation supports the existence of an incipient arm of the East African rift system trending southwest from Lake Tanganyika into the central African plateau.

  7. Linkages of Biodiversity and Canopy Lidar Metrics in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N. T.; Horning, N.; Morgan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest dense humid forest in the world, and one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs on Earth. With 60% of the forest currently under logging concessions, the Congo basin is poised to undergo extensive land use change. Increases in bushmeat trade, resulting from extensification of logging roads, have already been well documented. From a quantitative standpoint, little is known of the structure of these forests, how logging affects forest biomass or functioning, and how canopy habitat heterogeneity relates to animal species richness or diversity. Here we document, using random forest and MaxEnt, how information from GLAS lidar metrics, ALOS-PalSAR and Landsat imagery, combined with field observations of great ape nest locations ( figure 1) and vegetation types, can be merged to create a map of gorilla and chimpanzee habitat in a region spanning Cameroon, the Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic. From an initial selection of 48 variables we found the most important for mapping habitat suitability were a combination of PalSAR backscatter, NDVI image texture. Landsat ETM+ top of the atmosphere reflectance and principle component images. While NDVI from ETM+bands was an important predictor of gorilla and chimpanzee nest presence, species-specific differences in habitat use were also identified. Tree canopy height from GLAS was the most important variable predicting chimpanzee nesting habitat, while Landsat ETM+ bands were most important for gorilla nesting habitat. These preliminary results indicate merging field observations with satellite imagery promises to significantly improve our understanding of ape habitat-use at the landscape scale.ombining GLAS lidar metrics, ALOS-PalSAR and Landsat imager with field observations of great ape nest locations for habitat mapping in C. Africa

  8. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  9. AFRICAN LITERATURE REFLECTS TWO MAJOR INFLUENCES; TRADITIONAL CULTURE AND COLONIAL EXPERIENCE.

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Deokule

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study that African literature reflects two major influences: traditional culture and colonial experience. It also focuses on how the African literature epitomizes the encounter between Africa and Europe, the racial relations between whites and the blacks but Negritude Movement writers contribute significantly to the process of the emergence of ‘Africa for the Africans’. The central concern of African literature is the conflict between the African communal val...

  10. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  11. Comparison of bauxites from Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and Suriname

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and natural radioactivity measurements were used to determine 32 elements in three NIST bauxite SRMs from Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and Suriname, and the data related to the concentrations in 25 Jamaican bauxite soil samples. The SRMs from Jamaica and the Dominican Republic fit the profile of typical bauxitic soils from Central Jamaica, and the observed similar high values of Cd suggest that these bauxites may have similar origins. Except for Al, the bauxite from Suriname exhibits a very different elemental profile. (author)

  12. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  13. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  14. In vitro susceptibility to quinine and microsatellite variations of the Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (Pfnhe-1 gene: the absence of association in clinical isolates from the Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Christophe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is still recommended as an effective therapy for severe cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the parasite has developed resistance to the drug in some cases. Investigations into the genetic basis for quinine resistance (QNR suggest that QNR is complex and involves several genes, with either an additive or a pairwise effect. The results obtained when assessing one of these genes, the plasmodial Na+/H+ exchanger, Pfnhe-1, were found to depend upon the geographic origin of the parasite strain. Most of the associations identified have been made in Asian strains; in contrast, in African strains, the influence of Pfnhe on QNR is not apparent. However, a recent study carried out in Kenya did show a significant association between a Pfnhe polymorphism and QNR. As genetic differences may exist across the African continent, more field data are needed to determine if this association exists in other African regions. In the present study, association between Pfnhe and QNR is investigated in a series of isolates from central Africa. Methods The sequence analysis of the polymorphisms at the Pfnhe-1 ms4760 microsatellite and the evaluation of in vitro quinine susceptibility (by isotopic assay were conducted in 74 P. falciparum isolates from the Republic of Congo. Results Polymorphisms in the number of DNNND or NHNDNHNNDDD repeats in the Pfnhe-1 ms4760 microsatellite were not associated with quinine susceptibility. Conclusions The polymorphism in the microsatellite ms4760 in Pfnhe-1 that cannot be used to monitor quinine response in the regions of the Republic of Congo, where the isolates came from. This finding suggests that there exists a genetic background associated with geographic area for the association that will prevent the use of Pfnhe as a molecular marker for QNR. The contribution of Pfnhe to the in vitro response to quinine remains to be assessed in other regions, including in countries with different levels of

  15. Korea, Republic of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Korea started its nuclear activities when it joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957. In 1958 the Atomic Energy Law was enacted and the government established the Office of Atomic Energy in 1959. Its first research reactor was made critical in 1962, and commercial NPP operation began in 1978. From the middle of 1980s, The Republic of Korea launched its self-reliance programme for nuclear power, developing its own reactors, OPR-1000, which are in operation, and APR-1400 which is under construction. Han-Yang University and Seoul National University opened nuclear engineering courses in 1958 and 1959 respectively. Since then, the number of universities offering nuclear engineering courses increased gradually, amounting to seven. The universities have supplied key manpower for the Korean nuclear power programmes. In parallel, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) opened its Nuclear Training Centre in 1967, to support manpower development for the nuclear power programmes. Along with the progress of power programmes, a number of training centres have been created specializing in nuclear power operation, nuclear power maintenance, nuclear safety, etc. Nuclear human resource development in the Republic of Korea began with the establishment of a nuclear engineering department in two universities in the late 1950s. Then, the government awarded scholarships to more than 200 scientists for their study of nuclear energy abroad (1958-1962), as seeds for the future development of nuclear technology. In the 1960s, Korean nuclear education and training dealt with basic nuclear technology such as the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation protection. In the 1970s, education and training was oriented to basic nuclear power technology using the TRIGA Mark II research reactor at KAERI for personnel from the nuclear power project. This was expanded to include education and training in conventional fossil fuel power plants, and oversee on

  16. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism of central European lithospheric mantle: evidence from elemental and Li isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths, Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Magna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1925-1956. ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Central European lithospheric mantle * geochemistry * geothermometry * Li isotopes * spinel peridotite xenoliths Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2014

  17. Investment Climate in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The World Bank Group’s investment climate project conducted a survey of foreign investors in the Kyrgyz Republic - both those currently operating and those that have terminated their operations for various reasons. The purpose of the survey was to assess selected aspects of the investment policy and legal environment in place in the Kyrgyz Republic, so as to determine whether the current r...

  18. Corporal Punishment in Schools and Fundamental Human Rights: A South African Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Justus

    In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…

  19. Czech Republic [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety indicators can provide valuable information concerning long-term safety of deep geological repository. Therefore, the research focused on safety indicators forms a part of the Czech deep disposal programme. It is supposed that around 3,720 t of spent nuclear fuel will be produced in the Czech Republic. The concept of deep disposal is based on granitic host rock using bentonites as buffer/backfill material. Brief geology of the Czech Republic is presented in the article. Three main sources were used for collection of reference data on concentration and fluxes of natural radionuclides - Geofond (hydrogeological objects), State Office for Nuclear Safety (potable water monitoring system - radionuclides) and Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (groundwater and surface water quality system). Large dataset was collected demonstrating existence of many rock bodies with radioactive element concentration above average values. This phenomenon also generally results in higher content of radionuclides in groundwater, radon in air and finally in radiation exposure of population (3.67 mSv/year). Extraordinary concentration of radioactivity is illustrated at the example of Joachimstahl radon spa waters (units of kBq/l). The most portion of data are available in a form of gross alpha and beta activities; data about individual radionuclides are much rare. Relevant data about past uranium production are specified. Finally, information about legislatively-determined limits of radionuclides in building materials and potable water are presented. (author)

  20. The role of mid-range universities in knowledge transfer: the case of non-metropolitan regions in Central and Eastern Europe (examples from Hungary and the Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Zoltán; Ptáček, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the specific role of mid-range universities in knowledge transfer and explores the knowledge flows from these mid-range universities facing a number of extra constraints in transitional Central Eastern European (CEE) regions. Mid-range universities, very often located outside of the metropolitan regions, represent the keystones of regional innovation systems for the less developed regions where the “density of contacts” is much lower and possible spillovers emerge more sp...

  1. Inventory of African desert dust events in the north-central Iberian Peninsula in 2003-2014 based on sun-photometer-AERONET and particulate-mass-EMEP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachorro, Victoria E.; Burgos, Maria A.; Mateos, David; Toledano, Carlos; Bennouna, Yasmine; Torres, Benjamín; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Herguedas, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    A reliable identification of desert dust (DD) episodes over north-central Spain is carried out based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) columnar aerosol sun photometer (aerosol optical depth, AOD, and Ångström exponent, α) and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) surface particulate-mass concentration (PMx, x = 10, 2.5, and 2.5-10 µm) as the main core data. The impact of DD on background aerosol conditions is detectable by means of aerosol load thresholds and complementary information provided by HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) air mass back trajectories, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images, forecast aerosol models, and synoptic maps, which have been carefully reviewed by a human observer for each day included in the DD inventory. This identification method allows the detection of low and moderate DD intrusions and also of mixtures of mineral dust with other aerosol types by means of the analysis of α. During the period studied (2003-2014), a total of 152 DD episodes composed of 418 days are identified. Overall, this means ˜ 13 episodes and ˜ 35 days per year with DD intrusion, representing 9.5 % days year-1. During the identified DD intrusions, 19 daily exceedances over 50 µg m-3 are reported at the surface. The occurrence of DD event days during the year peaks in March and June, with a marked minimum in April and lowest occurrence in winter. A large interannual variability is observed showing a statistically significant temporal decreasing trend of ˜ 3 days year-1. The DD impact on the aerosol climatology is addressed by evaluating the DD contribution in magnitude and percent (in brackets) for AOD, PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5 - 10, obtaining mean values of 0.015 (11.5 %), 1.3 µg m-3 (11.8 %), 0.55 µg m-3 (8.5 %) and 0.79 µg m-3 (16.1 %), respectively. Annual cycles of the DD contribution for AOD and PM10 present two maxima - one in summer (0.03 and 2.4 µg m-3 for AOD in

  2. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    ICT results was found only in areas with an L. loa Mf prevalence above 15%. In contrast, there was no association between ICT positivity and M. perstans prevalence (Spearman's rho = - 0.200; p = 0.747 and Mf density (Odds ratio = 1.8; 95%CI: 0.8-4.2; p = 0.192.This study has confirmed the strong association between the ICT positivity and L. loa intensity (Mf/ml of blood at the individual level. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that ICT positivity is strongly associated with high L. loa prevalence. These results suggest that the main confounding factor for positive ICT test card results are high levels of L. loa. The findings may indicate that W. bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution.

  3. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    The Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon represents the largest volume of plutonic rocks or granitoids massif of the Western Cameroonian Domain. It is made up dominantly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite and lesser granite which are locally more or less deformed, and composed of varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, hornblende, sphene, magnetite, apatite and zircon. Major and trace element compositions of fifteen rock samples of granitoids (Djourdé granodiorite, Sinassi quartz diorite and orthogneisses groups) indicate that investigated rocks from the Sinassi Batholith are characterized by medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous I-type signature. In addition, their chondrite- and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are strongly fractionated ((La/Yb)N = 2.96-61.40) and show respectively enrichment in LREE relative to HREE and enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE with moderate to slight negative Nb-Ta, Ti and Eu anomalies consistent with a continental magmatic arc setting related to a subduction zone. Geothermobarometric calculations using hornblende-plagioclase thermometry and aluminum-in-hornblende barometry on eleven rock samples indicate that plutons from Sinassi Batholith were emplaced at average temperatures and pressures ranging between 698 and 720 °C and 4.06-5.82 kbar (Djourdé granitoids), 698-728 °C and 4.04-5.34 kbar (Sinassi granitoids) and 667-670 and 4.23-4.76 kbar (orthogneisses group) respectively. The average emplacement depths estimates for the investigated granitoids is constrained at ca 16-18 km, indicating that at least 16 km of crustal rocks of the Sinassi Batholith must have been eroded or uplifted at approximately exhumation rates of 0.08-0.10 mm/year. Regardless of their Th/U ratios, geochronological results highlight three main events characterizing the Neoproterozoic tectonomagmatic evolution within the Sinassi Batholith

  4. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  5. Influence of New Product of Economic Crops Ushered in Central plains in the Republic of China on Farmers,Rural Area and Agriculture ——Taking Henan as an Example%民国前后中原地区经济作物新品种的引进对“三农”的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志军

    2011-01-01

    In the republic of China,American cotton,American tobacco,and American peanut are gradually introduced to the central plains,which also become the main crops.The new products increased the economic income of farmer,promoted the transformation of the economic crops production from self-sufficientcy to commercialization.However,The blind planting changed the plant structure,and then caused an abnormal development in agriculture.%民国前后,中原地区引进了美棉、美种烤烟、美国花生,并逐渐成为种植的主体。经济作物新品种的引进及推广,客观上增加了农民的经济收入,促进了经济作物生产由自给自足向商品化转变。但由于种植的盲目性,改变了该地区相对均衡的农业种植结构,又导致区域农业经济畸形发展。

  6. Nuclear power in Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power in Czech and Slovak Republics has been described. Nuclear power plants contribute 28% to the whole energy production (12.1 TWh in Czech republic and 11.7 in Slovak Republic). The Czech and Slovak Republics' nuclear power generation programme assumes to build in these Republics further nuclear power stations with higher efficiency and better safety parameters. 12 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, B; Socolovschi, C.; Tshilolo, L.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2008, 12 Amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (Manis gigantea). Two Haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (Onotragus leche). A total of 111 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 Ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 C. felts fleas, and 5 Tri...

  8. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  9. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  10. THE ROLE OF MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS: THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE AS AN EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. J. Van Dyk

    2011-01-01

    This article is an interdisciplinary publication focusing on the role anddevelopment of military psychology in the South African context. Peacekeepingoperations and the results of the first and fifth deployment of the South AfricanNational Defence Force (SANDF) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) areused as background to illustrate the relevance of military psychology in suchoperations. Peacekeeping operations involve military and often civilian personnel.The nature of peacekeeping oper...

  11. Sawmilling in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bomba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of sawmilling over the area of the Czech Republic from the invention of the waterwheel drive until the present day. This survey is based on the writings of various Czech authors who were engaged, or still are, in this subject. The two most common types of machines in water-driven sawmills were both used at that time: the single-blade vertical frame saw and, less often, the horizontal saw. The development of the steam engine drive can be traced to the second half of the 19th century, while electric power generation with a dynamo was first introduced to some mills at the turn of the 20th century. During the 19th century, a new sawing machine was developed: a multi-blade frame saw with all-metal construction. As it turned out, this type of machine dominated the entire 20th century. In the year 1918, an independent Czechoslovakia was established, and sawmilling, just like other branches of industry, thrived in the new environment. Alas, the favorable conditions for development were impaired by World War II, and soon after that by nationalization and an imposed, centrally-planned economy. In the period 1945 – 1948, during overall nationalization, most sawmills were either closed or converted to other operations. The timber industry was not classified as an important sector and was therefore one to be reduced. Compared with the number of sawmill units in 1925, there was a sharp drop of 80% in the early 1950s, and as much as 90% in 1986. Nevertheless, the velvet revolution in 1989 restored freedom of enterprise and Czechoslovakian traditions. Wood processing experienced an outstanding revival and restructuring of the entire industry.

  12. Military cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the books part called 'the military co-operation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa', the authors report that the African National Congress was able to prove the existence of a long atomic co-operation between the Federal Republic and South Africa: with knowledge and support of the Federal Government, the Society for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe and the STEAG, Essen, have given the separation nozzle method used for uranium enrichment to South Africa. Thus, it is said, the Federal Republic is helping a regime to possess this dreadful weapon which might use it for tis surrival. Scientists of German nationality have been working in leading positions in the war research in South Africa. (HSCH)

  13. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  14. Simulation results of aboveground woody biomass and leaf litterfall for African tropical forest with a global terrestrial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weirdt, Marjolein; Maignan, Fabienne; Peylin, Philippe; Poulter, Benjamin; Moreau, Inès; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Steppe, Kathy; Verbeeck, Hans

    2014-05-01

    The response of tropical forest vegetation to global climate change could be central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tropical forests are believed to annually process approximately six times as much carbon via photosynthesis and respiration as humans emit from fossil fuel use. Of all tropical forests worldwide, the role of African tropical forest is not very well known and both the quantity as well as the dynamics of tropical forest carbon stocks and fluxes are very poorly quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Furthermore, African tropical forest spatial carbon stocks patterns as measured in the field are not as well represented by the global biogeochemical models as they are for temperate forests. In this study, a first simulation for the African tropical forest with the process based global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE was done. In this work, ORCHIDEE included deep soils, seasonal leaf litterfall and phosphorus availability mechanisms for tropical evergreen forests included. The ORCHIDEE model run outputs are evaluated against reported field inventories, investigating seasonal variations in leaf litterfall and spatial variation in aboveground woody biomass. A comparison between modeled and measured leaf litterfall was made at a semi-deciduous Equatorial rainforest site in the Republic of Congo at the Biosphere reserve Dimonika south of Gabon. Also, simulated woody aboveground biomass was compared against site-level field inventories and satellite-based estimates based on a combination of MODIS imagery with field inventory data from Uganda, DRC and Cameroon. First comparison results seem promising and show that the radiation driven leaf litterfall model results correspond well with the field inventories and that the mean of the modelled aboveground woody biomass matches the available field inventory observations but there is still a need for more ground data to evaluate the model outcome over a large region like

  15. Computer Crime and Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Glykner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with computer crime in Czech Republic considering the legal point of view. It makes the reader familiar with development of cyber crime in the world and especially in Czech Republic. It deeply describes czech legal framework of fighting computer crime and its international context. This description contains examples of particular crimes and articles of law that apply to them. The paper also describes institutions that are engaged in combating this crime. Afterwards ...

  16. Activity of 137Cs in mushrooms from Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Slovak Republic during the year 2001 are presented. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs measured was 966 Bq/kg, for Suillus luteus from Senica. Mushrooms belonging to Boletaceae which grow in Central Europe are not only bio-indicators of the environmental contamination with radiocesium, but might also represent depending on their actual radiocesium contamination - some risk factor if consumed too extensively. (authors)

  17. Geothermal resources in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Macedonia is situated in the central part of the Balcan Peninsula and covers a surface of 25. 713 km2 Its territory is found in one of the most significant geothermal zones in this part of Balkans. The earths crust in this region suffers poli phase structural deformations, which as a result gives different structural features. The geothermal explorations in the Republic of Macedonia intensively started to conduct after 1970, after the first effects of the energy crisis. As a result of these explorations, more than 50 springs of mineral and thermo mineral waters with a total yield of more than 1.400 I./sec. And proved exploitation reservoirs of more than 1.000 I./sec. with temperatures higher than the medium year seasons hesitations for this part of the Earth in the boundaries of 20-75oC with significant quantities of geothermal energy. This paper will shortly present the available geothermal resources and classification, according the type of geothermal energy, hydro geothermal, lithogeothermal and according the way of transport of the geothermal energy, convective and conductive systems. The next will present short descriptions of the resources, the degree of exploitation and the prognosis dimensions of the reservoirs. (Original)

  18. The system for centralized inventory keeping and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the former German Democratic Republic. Der Stand des Systems der zentralen Erfassung und Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in der ehemaligen DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beise, E.; Mielke, H.G.; Mueller, W.; Oppermann, U.

    1991-01-01

    The report explains the concept adopted by the former GDR. The system based at Morsleben, for centralized inventory keeping and management of radioactive waste is explained, refewing to the amounts of waste accrued, storage and transport of waste drums, classification and preparation of waste forms, and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the Morsleben repository. The report includes information on the management of special waste and spent fuel elements which cannot be stored at the Morsleben site. Most of the radioactive waste produced in the former GDR has been stored since 1979 at the Morsleben site. The waste came from the nuclear power plants (Greifswald, Rheinsberg), and from installations and institutes applying or producing radionuclides - so-called APR waste - (e.g. from the institutes at Rossendorf and Berlin-Buch, and from about 1300 other waste producers). The waste was accepted as or processed to solid waste forms, liquid waste, sealed radiation sources, and special waste; the ultimate storage techniques applied are packing of drums, backfilling, solidification of liquid waste and disposal in boreholes. Up to the end of the year 1989, the Morsleben repository received about 14000 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste (about 40% solid waste, and about 60% liquid waste). (orig.).

  19. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  20. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  1. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  2. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Fatimah

    2006-10-01

    found in ethnic groups from West or West Central Africa than those found in eastern or southern Africa. Fewer than 14% of the African-American mtDNA sequences matched sequences from only West Africa or only West Central Africa. Conclusion Our database of sub-Saharan mtDNA sequences includes the most common haplotypes that are shared among ethnic groups from multiple regions of Africa. These common haplotypes have been found in half of all sub-Saharan Africans. More than 60% of the remaining haplotypes differ from the common haplotypes at a single nucleotide position in the HVS-I region, and they are likely to occur at varying frequencies within sub-Saharan Africa. However, the finding that 40% of the African-American mtDNAs analyzed had no match in the database indicates that only a small fraction of the total number of African haplotypes has been identified. In addition, the finding that fewer than 10% of African-American mtDNAs matched mtDNA sequences from a single African region suggests that few African Americans might be able to trace their mtDNA lineages to a particular region of Africa, and even fewer will be able to trace their mtDNA to a single ethnic group. However, no firm conclusions should be made until a much larger database is available. It is clear, however, that when identical mtDNA haplotypes are shared among many ethnic groups from different parts of Africa, it is impossible to determine which single ethnic group was the source of a particular maternal ancestor based on the mtDNA sequence.

  3. Pholcid spiders from the Lower Guinean region of Central Africa: an overview, with descriptions of seven new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about Central African pholcids. Central Africa is here defined as the area between 10°N and 7°S and between 6°E and 18°E, including mainly the Lower Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, most of Cameroon and Congo Republic, and parts of the neighboring countries. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 79 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Seven species are newly described: Anansus kamwai sp. nov., Leptopholcus gabonicus sp. nov., Ninetis faro sp. nov., Pholcus punu sp. nov., P. rawiriae sp. nov., Spermophora abibae sp. nov., and S. awalai sp. nov. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 17 new country records. Distribution and diversity patterns are compared with data on West and East Africa. While West Africa contains a similar set of genera it is significantly less diverse than Central Africa. East Africa is taxonomically more distinct. It has similar levels of diversity as Central Africa, but appears to be less undersampled.

  4. CENTRAL ASIA: ECONOMIC COOPERATION POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...

  5. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  6. 48 CFR 52.225-23 - Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods-Buy American Act-Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy..., Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, East Timor..., Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary,...

  7. Taking up the cudgels against gay rights? Trends and trajectories in African Christian theologies on homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, Adriaan S; Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women's and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of a large number of publications, the article shows that stances of African theologians are varying from silence and rejection to acceptance. Although many African theologians have taken up the cudgels against gay rights, some "dissident voices" break the taboo and develop more inclusive concepts of African identity and African Christianity. PMID:22269050

  8. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  9. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  10. Taking up the cudgels against gay rights? Trends and trajectories in African Christian theologies on homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Klinken, A.S. van; Gunda, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women’s and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualita...

  11. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  12. Discursive Depiction of Customary Conflict Management Principles in Selected African Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Yimulaw Gebregeorgis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore how proverbs of traditional African societies contribute to depicting the communities’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. To this end, proverbs collected from different parts of Africa, mainly Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Ethiopia were analysed using socio-semiotic approach to discourse studies and interpretive analysis. The findings of the study show that the proverbs of traditional African societies are instrumental in depicting the societies’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. Together with the ‘prevention is better than cure’ doctrine, taking communal responsibility, transparent truth-finding, participatory negotiation, win-win solution, and reconciliation and restoration of social harmony are among the traditional African conflict management principles that are portrayed through different African communities’ proverbs.

  13. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  14. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  15. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  16. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  17. THE ROLE OF MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS: THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.J. Van Dyk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an interdisciplinary publication focusing on the role anddevelopment of military psychology in the South African context. Peacekeepingoperations and the results of the first and fifth deployment of the South AfricanNational Defence Force (SANDF in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC areused as background to illustrate the relevance of military psychology in suchoperations. Peacekeeping operations involve military and often civilian personnel.The nature of peacekeeping operations has become increasingly complex andstressful. It is hypothesised that the stressors that members experience may have adestructive effect on their morale and on the cohesion of the force, and that it couldlead to alcohol and drug abuse (Ballone 2000.This article discusses peacekeeping stress theoretically and evaluates thestressors experienced by members of the first and fifth deployment of the SANDF inthe Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. The contribution of military psychologyin these and other peacekeeping operations in the South African context is alsoexplored.

  18. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    against rivaling tribes. The post-colonial states, which subsequently emerged from the struggle, were mostly characterized by dictatorships, instability, and poverty and often with a mainly Marxist political agenda. In contrast South Africa was not ruled by any colonial power and continued throughout......The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... place between the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) and South Africa in the border region between Namibia and Angola. Further the paper will discuss and compare the actual course of the campaign with some of the basic tenants of counterinsurgency strategies as defined by Dr. Paul Melschen...

  19. An input-output analysis of the impact of mining on the South African economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilwell, L.C.; Minnitt, R.C.A.; Monson, T.D.; Kuhn, G. [Allmine Projects, Farrarmere (South Africa)

    2000-03-01

    Input-output techniques are used to analyse the impacts of gold, coal and other mining activities upon South African economy between 1971 and 1993. Results suggest that the premise upon which the South African government's proposed minerals policy is based i.e. that 'the mining industries have the capacity to generate wealth and employment on a large scale' (Republic of South Africa, Department of Minerals and Energy, 1998. A minerals and mining policy. White Paper, Department of Minerals and Energy, Republic of South Africa), may require further thought. Estimated production and employment multipliers indicate that the impacts of marginal changes in mining production and employment were not significantly different from production and employment impacts of most other South African economic activities and that there were few linkages between mining and the rest of the economy. These results suggest that South African mining activities will increase income and employment only if exports increase or if policies are established to increase linkages between mining and the rest of the South African economy. 8 tabs., 6 apps.

  20. Radwaste management activities in the republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being short of natural resources, the Republic of Korea depends relatively large portion of its power generation upon nuclear energy. For the continuous utilization of nuclear energy, the public should be convinced that the necessary technologies and wherewithals are already available for the guarantee of the safe management of radwastes. The status and national policy of the radwaste management in Korea including R and D activities are covered herein. The ongoing activities of the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in the field of radwaste management include the areas of handling, treatment, storage and disposal of various radwastes, safety assessment of radwaste disposal, and the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In compliance with the national radwaste management programme, a centralized repository is expected to be operable by the early 1990's in the Republic. (author)

  1. Central Asia's comparative advantage in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lücke, Matthias; Rothert, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy for identifying the pattern of Central Asia’s comparative advantage in international trade, based on factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade. The paper focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, along with Azerbaijan and Mongolia. A country’s comparative advantage cannot be determined at the level of individual industries o...

  2. Nuclear legislation in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the status of nuclear legislation in the Czech Republic, specifying the fields of nuclear activities covered, partially covered and uncovered by the present legislation. The licensing process and the competence and powers of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are also briefly described

  3. Dominican Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in the Dominican Republic (DR), using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and drawing on international experience and good practices in those fields. The principal objective of this ROSC assessm...

  4. Manganese Biogeochemistry in a Central Czech Republic Catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, J. B.; Krám, P.; Mihaljevič, M.; Drahota, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 186, 1-4 (2007), s. 149-165. ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : manganese * catchment * weathering * biogeochemistry * biotite weathering * forest ecosystem * mass balance Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2007

  5. The Influence of the Institutions on Entrepreneurship Development: Public Support and Perception of Entrepreneurship Development in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Hlavacek; Marta Zambochova; Tomas Sivicek

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the research of entrepreneurship development in the frame of institutional environment in the Czech Republic. The example of the Czech Republic shows similar problems and specifics of post-transformation economies in Central and Eastern Europe. The goal is to discover the impact of specific institutional barriers on entrepreneurship development from the perspective of entrepreneurs and willingness to start own business. The surveys revealed that institutional barriers ...

  6. A Critical Appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability V Government of the Republic of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petronell Kruger.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal acce...

  7. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  8. Challenges in Diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis: Evaluation of the MSF OCG project in Dingila, DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nieuwenhove, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Between late 2010 and the end of 2014 and under extremely difficult conditions, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) carried out a project to combat Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, in the Dingila, Ango and Zobia regions of Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). HAT in DRC is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina genus) of the Palpalis group. Without effective treatment, virtually all f...

  9. THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY COURT SYSTEM – INDEPENDENT, IMPARTIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL?

    OpenAIRE

    Marita Carnelley

    2011-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa makes provision for adefence force that is structured and managed as a disciplined military force. Evenprior to the Constitution, to ensure discipline in the military, the South AfricanMilitary Law had been developed and the military court system has been recognised by the Constitutional Court. This military criminal justice system has been createdwith a separate system of courts hearing matters pertaining to the usual, as well asother special ...

  10. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    C Rautenbach

    1999-01-01

    The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...

  11. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  12. How Important Is the Efficiency of Government Investment? The Case of the Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Hannah; Lofgren, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Congo, an oil rich country in Central Africa, has made substantial progress in the past decade in stabilizing the economy and achieving high growth rates. However, despite reaching middle-income country status in 2006, the economy is not diversified, poverty remains pervasive, and social indicators are well below the average for countries with a similar income level. This p...

  13. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  14. Lost in Translation: Ever Changing and Competing Purposes for National Examinations in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, D.; Kifer, E.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling…

  15. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  16. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily. The...

  17. 75 FR 17902 - Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 4345 (January 27, 2010) (Initiation). Currently, the preliminary... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of... 1117 of the Central Records Unit (CRU) of the main Commerce Building. ] Postponement of Due Date...

  18. The extreme drought episode of August 2011–May 2012 in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, P.; Trnka, M.; Brázdil, R.; Možný, M.; Štěpánek, P.; Hlavinka, P.; Žalud, Z.; Malý, A.; Semerádová, D.; Dobrovolný, P.; Dubrovský, Martin; Řezníčková, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 11 (2015), s. 3335-3352. ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : drought * meteorological drought * agricultural drought * hydrological drought * fire * drought impact * future climate * Czech Republic * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4211/abstract

  19. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  20. The Universal Jurisdiction of South African Criminal Courts and Immunities of Foreign State Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the "complementarity" regime of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC, the jurisdiction of the ICC is secondary to the jurisdiction of domestic courts. States Parties, not the ICC, have the primary responsibility of investigating and prosecuting international crimes. The ICC acts only when States are "unable" or "unwilling" to prosecute. As a State Party, in order to give effect to the complementarity principle, South Africa enacted the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, which determines the modalities of prosecuting perpetrators of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in South African courts. The Implementation Act also provides that South African courts will have jurisdiction over these crimes not only when they are committed on the territory of South Africa but also when they are committed outside the Republic. By granting South African courts jurisdiction over a person who commits a crime outside the Republic when that person is later found on South African territory, without regard to that person's nationality or the nationality of the victims, the Implementation Act empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. This paper seeks to determine whether and to what extent foreign State officials, such as foreign heads of State, heads of government and ministers of foreign affairs, can plead immunity when they are accused of international crimes before South African courts when exercising their universal jurisdiction in terms of the Implementation Act and in accordance with the complementarity regime of the Rome Statute. In other words, the article endeavours to determine whether international law rules regarding immunities of State officials may or may not limit the ability of South African courts to exercise universal jurisdiction over international crimes committed in foreign States.

  1. The energy market in the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovak Republic and Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, the Slovak Republic and Hungary have made efforts to abandon their centralized economies in order to introduce an open market economic system. In addition, the four governments are changing their energy policies to prepare for accession to the European Union in 2003-2004. Restructuring within the energy sectors is taking place to comply with energy regulations within the EU. These include: ensuring energy supply, promoting competition, protecting the environment, and promoting energy efficiency through modernization of supply structures. The changes have prompted interest by foreign companies to invest in these Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEECs), particularly with the recent growth in the market for power-related equipment and services. One of the major changes in the power industry is the trend towards the use of natural gas and the gradual decrease in the use of coal-fired power generation. CEECs are also working on developing trans-European gas networks and medium-scale hydro-electric facilities. Energy consumption and demand is forcing power utilities to update existing power plants and create additional generating capacity. Future work will also involve the expansion of power distribution networks. For this reason, specialized equipment and services are in strong demand for the CEECs that are seeking to become competitive globally. Canadian companies are in a position to offer technologies and services to the renewable energy sector of these countries. Other opportunities for Canadian companies include power-related developments such as waste management. The opportunity exists for Canadian exporters to form partnerships and joint ventures with CEECs. refs., tabs

  2. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  3. Experience of Consolidation Of Disused Sources In Developing Countries, An African Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of sealed sources in agriculture, medicine and industry was used in many African countries without having any arrangements in place for managing the sources when their useful life was over. In Tanzania a substantial use of such sources was utilized. In the early days source management was not an area that was given the required attention hence a legacy associated with sealed sources became evident in many African countries and Tanzania was one of them. In the 90's Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC), realized the scope of the waste problem and began to participate in an International Atomic Energy Agency Regional (IAEA) project on waste management. Tanzania in cooperation with IAEA initiated activities under the IAEA Technical Cooperation and the Regional projects 'Strengthening Waste Management Infrastructure, RAF/4/015'; and 'Sustaining the Waste Management Infrastructure RAF/3/005' which played a significant role. The first outcome of the project was realized in 1999, as the first 'Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Facility' began to operate. This particular Storage facility gave the first impact as well as the need to develop this particular infrastructure further. As the project carried on, more and more orphan sources were recovered, collected and safely stored at the facility. As the use of nuclear technology was expanding and the identification of the extent of sealed sources in the countries became more defined, the need to develop a 'Central Radioactive Waste Management Facility' (CRWMF) was becoming more desired. The central radioactive waste storage facility was constructed and commissioned in 2005. The facility was more advanced and could be used for much longer periods of time, as one of the most advanced storage facility in the Region. At present a large number of disused sources from various industries as well as from different activities are being stored at the facility. Tanzanian authorities are also planning to initiate a

  4. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  5. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  6. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  7. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  8. Kosovo - An Atypical Parliamentary Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Jashari; Behar Selimi

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this comparative study is the republican character of the system of governance in Kosovo. In the public discourse and political communication, as well as in academic discourse Kosovo is considered a Parliamentary Republic, based on the principle “of the separation of powers and checks and balances between them.” Although the constitutional definition of the relationship between the executive and legislative favors parliamentary republicanism, the constitutional powers of the pres...

  9. Morphostructures of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demek, J.; Kirchner, Karel; Mackovčin, P.; Slavík, P.

    Pécs : Institute of Geography, University of Pécs, 2007 - (Varga, G.; Kovács, I.). s. 3-4 ISBN 978-963-9632-13-4. [Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric conference on geomorphology. 24.10.2007-28.10.2007, Pécs] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : morphostructures * morphostructural analysis * tectonic evolution * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  10. Cybercrime in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Libovický, Radek

    2013-01-01

    With advancement in computer technology new kinds of computer crimes being spread and this is a main theme of this bachelor work. In theoretic part of this work reader will be introduced into most known types of illegal behavior first and this part is followed by concrete paragraphs from Czech criminal law which what sanction is taking for. The element of the theoretical part is statistics which are identifying rate of computer criminality in the Czech Republic. The main contribution of this ...

  11. Trichinella infection in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Sumary This work deals with issues of trichinosis, gender Trichinella in Czech Republic, describes the best-known types of trichinosis, their occurrence, adaptation mechanisms important for survival, real danger of disease and preventative measures aimed at protection against the infection. Trichinellas are parasites that may cause a very dangerous disease called trichinelosa which can be fatal to humans. It occurs mainly in carnivores and humans may be infected by ingestion of under ...

  12. Restructuring in SMEs: Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bučinová, Lucie; Bučina, Petr; Dužár, Jiří; Hruška, Vladan

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for the Czech Republic.

  13. All-State Radiation Monitoring Network in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Havranek

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the All-State Radiation Monitoring Network in the Czech Republic have been establishedby Regulation No. 319/2002 Sb, and its function and organisation are described in Regulation No. 27/2006Sb. The All-State Radiation Monitoring Network in the Czech Republic consists of two components–permanentmonitoring and emergency monitoring. The activity of the whole network is provided by the State Office forNuclear Safety. The selected central authorities of the state administration participate in operation and providingparticular components. There are two different modes of the operation of these components–normal andemergency. The modes of operation are controlled by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The activity of wholenetwork is focused on continuous monitoring of the radiation situation in the Czech Republic and on earlydetection of radiation accidents in and around the country as well as beyond it. The acquired data shall serveas a basis for adopting urgent and subsequent radiological protection provisions.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(6, pp.728-733, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1700

  14. State environmental reports of the Slovak Republic on Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovak Environmental Agency under supervision of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic (SR) prepare yearly different types of reports with evaluation of state of environment of the Slovak Republic on the basis of verified statistical data which come from records of Statistical Office of the SR, Ministry of Environment of the SR, professional organisation of departments of environment, as well as from data bases of others central executive administration and their special organisations. Single report varies by form, content, structure and scope, for which were designed. They made available for public on the internet web-site http://www.enviroportal.sk/, eventually on the web-site of the Slovak Environmental Agency http://www.sazp.sk/. The following types of reports are published by the Slovak Environmental Agency: State of the Environment Reports of the Slovak Republic; State of the Environment Reports according to the D-P-S-I-R structure (where (Pressure - P, State - S, (Response - R, Driven forces - D, and Impact - I, indicators of the OECD); Report about impacts of economic sectors on the environment of the SR; Sustainable development indicators of the SR on national level. The form of presentation of individual indicators makes it possible to obtain information about present state, trends and fixing of these problems in strategic documents with possibility of their international comparison and access to relevant information on Internet

  15. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  16. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  17. Shanghai's Fashion During Republic Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞向阳

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research is to describe and analyze Shanghai's fashion during Republic Period. Shanghai's fashion during Republic Period plays a special role in fashion history of China and Shanghai history. In the paper, three aspects including the fashion centre of China as well as Far East, men's fashion and women's fashion in Shanghai are discussed. The style, textiles, color, decoration and combination of clothing are described. Many costumes from the Clothing Museum at Donghua University and private collections as well as some historical writings, photographs and publications are elucidated and corroborated to give a more detailed description about Shanghai's fashion during that period.Here are some tentative conclusions. Firstly, Shanghai had always been the fashion center in China even Far East during Republic Period. Modeng was the main reflection of Shanghai fashion. Secondly, the traditional clothing exerted less influence and was less widely used, some kinds and combinations were out of fashion gradually. The fashion was described to be highly stylized, exquisite and concise. Thirdly, the influence of Western Style was further greater. The fashion in Shanghai was almost synchronous with fashion of Paris. Some western clothing was directly used in daily life and the elements of Western Style had an increasingly wide utilization. Fourthly, the New Chinese Style whose representatives were Qipao and Zhongshan Zhuang appeared and popularized in Shanghai. The fashion of Qipao changed frequently. Finally, the fashion in Shanghai called Shanghai Style could be summarized fashionable, exquisite, rapidly changeable, which is harmonious of both ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign.

  18. Strategy for food risk assessment of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Domazetovska-Popovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Central legal Act in food legislation in the Republic of Macedonia is The Law on safety of food and products and materials in contact with food (O.G. of R.M. No. 54/02 and 84/07). Authorities for control of food safety are Ministry of Health by Food Directorate (about 100 employees, 60 inspectors), and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water economy by: Veterinary Directorate, Agricultural Inspection and Phytosanitary Directorate. Tasks of the Risk Assment Unit includes: Creating da...

  19. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  20. The Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Panama's open financial system, skilled labor force, adequate infrastructure, and export-oriented commercial sector give it a greater prospect for recovery from Latin America's economic crisis than other countries. Indicators such as average daily caloric rate, population per health care worker, per capita income, total fertility rate, life expectancy, and percent of population under 15 years are more favorable in Panama than neighboring countries. However, economic growth is at present being undermined by internal and external debt, unemployment, high labor costs, and a rising trade deficit. Real per capita output has stagnated since 1980 and growth in the gross domestic product stood at 4.4% in 1982. Over 60% of married women in Panama use modern contraceptive methods, making the birth rate of 28/1000 the lowest in Central America. Panama's growth rate is expected to be 1.9%/year until the year 2000, at which point the population is projected to be 3 million. The infant mortality rate was 26/1000 in 1985, comparable to that in developed countries. Of concern has been rapid urbanization. 54% of the total population in 1980 lived in urban areas, and 66% of the urban population is concentrated in Panama City. Another concern is the tremendous gap between the rich and the poor in Panama. In 1980, the poorest 20% of the population received only 2.7% of total income, while the richest 20% received 60.3%. Such inequality has been somewhat compensated for by above average health services, a national sanitation program to provide safe drinking water, and strong government support for public education. Female labor force participation rates are higher in urban areas, but tends to be concentrated in the low-paying service sector. To absorb additions to the labor force, the economy needs to grow by 7.5%/year. PMID:12268220

  1. Czech Republic,TOUCHING THE DREAMLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Briefly about the Czech Republic Since time immemorial, the Czech lands have been the crossroads of European cultures. The cultural character of Czech cities, villages and spa towns has always been a source of inspiration to visitors and guests, who come here from all comers of the world. The Czech Republic,the youngest in the family of European countries, was born in 1993 when the Czechoslovak Federal Republic split into two independent states.

  2. Integration of foreigners in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Horčicová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    How successful is the government of the Czech Republic at supporting social integration of foreigners? What is the immigrant integration policy in the Czech Republic? The aim of this theses is to overview and analyse the immigrant integration in the Czech Republic. The concept of immigrant integration is crucial to the process of immigrant integration, therefore I focus on it and analyse it in detail. In the past few years, there has been a clear shift of immigrant policy from multiculturalis...

  3. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  4. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  5. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  6. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  7. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  8. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  9. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  10. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  11. Structural analysis of the 5' flanking region of the β-globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haplotype analysis of the β-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT)n and (AT)xTy, which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT)n and (AT)xTy repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT)xTy correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5' and 3' to the (AT)xTy copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of the β-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa

  12. Structural analysis of the 5 prime flanking region of the. beta. -globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebloune, Y.; Pagnier, J.; Trabuchet, G.; Faure, C.; Verdier, G.; Labie, D.; Nigon, V. (Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon, Villeurbane (France))

    1988-06-01

    Haplotype analysis of the {beta}-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y}, which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y} repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT){sub x}T{sub y} correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5{prime} and 3{prime} to the (AT){sub x}T{sub y} copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa.

  13. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Timus Asea M.; Croitoru Nichita J.

    2006-01-01

    Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each p...

  14. Energy policy of the former Soviet Union republics by the example of Belarus and Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was a centralized energy supply policy of the former Soviet republics before the collapse of the USSR. After that these republics became independent states, the situation changed dramatically. Now each country has become forced to conduct its own energy policies. Some countries like Belarus were without significant domestic fuel and energy resources, others such as Azerbaijan, became the exporters of energy resources. Both categories of states set themselves first of all two main objectives: economic growth and energy security. Key words: energy policy, energy security, energy efficiency, diversity of supply

  15. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  16. Business environment and enterprise behaviour in East Germany compared to West Germany and central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Krkoska; Katrin Robeck

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines institutional differences between the former East and West Germany and four central European transition countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic). Using enterprise survey data we show that the quality of both formal and informal institutions in East Germany still differs from West Germany. In addition, central European transition countries are shown to have closed the gap in institutional quality with East Germany in many areas. We also show t...

  17. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  18. The “Ticas” of “Matema” of an African People: An exercise for the Brazilian Classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Costa Santos

    2008-01-01

    This article has as its central focus the examination of one of the ways that African culture can be introduced into the mathematics classroom, contributing to the transformation of this formal space of the classroom into an area in which culture is intertwined with scholarly knowledge through the transdisciplinarity of ethnomathematics. The thesis that permeates [this work] can be delineated as how African culture, through the representation of African Kente cloth looms, can contribute to th...

  19. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    express as their expectations that they will through Islamic studies get an opportunity to move upwards socially and materially. Therefore, they dream of going abroad to study in the Middle East. For the time being, religious study grants to the Middle East seem to be one of the few ways for them to gain...... part in the adventures and experiences of globalization in a socially and religiously acceptable way. With its high reputation the al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt, has played a central role for the establishment of this tradition of religious study trips in an African context. On the basis of 10 months of...

  20. [Malaria in the Republic of Tajikistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, S P

    2000-01-01

    There were 200-300 malaria cases registered annually in the republic up to 1992. Due to civil war, interruption of antimalarial control measures and mass returning of refugees from Afghanistan epidemiological situation deteriorated since 1994. In 1997, 29,794 malaria cases were officially registered. Estimated number of cases were 200,000-500,000. There were local transmission of falciparum malaria. Since 1998, Tadjikistan receives financial support from Japan, Italy, Norway, and technical support from WHO. National Programme of malaria control has been designed and adopted by the Government in 1997. Laboratory diagnostics of malaria was implemented. Network of special antimalarial centres were established on central, regional and district levels. Mass treatment of population with primaquine and indoor residual spaying with piretroid have been performed in 1998 and 1999. In 1998, there were 19,351 malaria cases of which 10,268 were microscopically confirmed. During 6 months of 1999 2531 malaria cases were registered, 2246 among them were microscopically confirmed. PMID:10900917

  1. Radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN) of the Czech Republic was established after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and it is developed all the time. It is co-ordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the National Radiation Protection Institute. Czech RMN consists of the several sub-networks, which include selected or all permanent parts of RMN. The sub-networks are following: the Early Warning Network (EWN), the TLD Territorial Network, the Network of the Measuring Sites of Air Contamination, the Network of Laboratories Equipped with Gamma-spectrometric and Radiochemical Analytical Instrumentation, the Ground and Airborne Mobile Groups. The Laboratory of Monitoring of Internal Contamination and the information system (IS) are a significant part of RMN, too. The data of RMN resulting from monitoring are transferred to the central database of CRMN, processed by the information system (IS). They are used in normal and emergency situations for an evaluation of radiation situation and for preparation of recommendations for protection of the public and the environment. In 2002 any extraordinary radioactivity in the environment was not detected and also none of the measuring points recorded any exceeding of established investigation levels. In components of environment and also in human beings a very low activity of 137Cs was still measurable, that had been released into environment after the Chernobyl accident and by the nuclear weapon tests in sixties of the last century. (authors)

  2. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  3. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  4. Geomorphic Aspects of Southern African Dryland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Southern African drylands are host to stable land surfaces with limited denudation rates. The resulting soils manifest long term weathering processes, including leaching, collapse and precipitation of calcium carbonate as is the case in the semi-arid Kalahari. Despite the thickness of some of the Kalahari soils and sands, they are furthermore depicting a range of neotectonic land forms and processes, associated with the contemporary rifting of the southern African continent. This is particularly apparent in satellite imagery and digital elevation data that can be used to examine regional scale surface characteristics. Southern Africa is also home to significant global and regional scale dust sources, which are mostly associated with inland basins and playas. Plumes of dust emitted from playas are able to impact upon downwind soil quality. This can be observed in the both the western Makgadikgadi as well as the Central Namib gravel plain. In the Namib playa dust contributes to the accumulation of gravel plain fines, leaching and massive pedogenic gypsum accumulations. It is apparent that Southern African dryland soils are home to aeolian inputs, host extensive duricrusts and depict neotectonic movement which should be of interest to the wider earth science community.

  5. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  6. Republic of Kazakhstan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) is the first such report carried out for the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is based on an extensive review, qualitative analysis and discussion on the procurement environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The report includes: (i) the compatibility or otherwise of the national public procurement regime with the Bank's Procurement Guidelines; (...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  8. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  9. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doruska, J. [Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech, Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  10. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  11. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  12. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  13. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  14. Kosovo - An Atypical Parliamentary Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Jashari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this comparative study is the republican character of the system of governance in Kosovo. In the public discourse and political communication, as well as in academic discourse Kosovo is considered a Parliamentary Republic, based on the principle “of the separation of powers and checks and balances between them.” Although the constitutional definition of the relationship between the executive and legislative favors parliamentary republicanism, the constitutional powers of the president, the government and especially the constitutional and political power of the prime minister, significantly weaken the parliamentary character, in favor of a semi-presidential system. However, neither the current theories of government, nor constitutional provisions can rank Kosovo among semi-presidential systems, or pure parliamentary systems. Comparisons of competence powers relations in Kosovo, with similar relations and competences of the countries of the region and beyond, testify to the specific nature of parliamentary democracy in Kosovo. It is precisely the comparison of the Kosovo constitutional-legal system of governance with similar systems and theoretical analysis of parliamentary models facing Kosovo model which will be the basis of support of the hypothesis that Kosovo is not a typical parliamentary republic.

  15. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  16. Chytridiomycosis in dwarf African frogs Hymenochirus curtipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B G; Hillman, C; Groff, J M

    2015-05-11

    Chytridiomycosis, resulting from an infection with the fungal agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in widespread population declines in both wild and captive amphibians. The dwarf African frog (DAF) Hymenochirus curtipes is native to central Africa and is commonly sold throughout North America as an aquarium pet species. Here we document fatal chytridiomycosis resulting from cutaneous Bd infections in DAF purchased directly from a pet store and from a historical lethal epizootic occurring at an aquaculture facility in central California, USA, more than 25 yr ago. Histological lesions and PCR-amplified sequence data were consistent with the etiology of Bd. The potential epidemiological relevance of this infection in DAF is discussed. PMID:25958807

  17. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  18. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  19. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    literature play a central role in African management and business. Practical implications – The paper concludes that manager should recognize the negative effects that may follow from a rejection of these socio-cultural patterns of behaviour. Originality/value – It introduces Marshall Sahlins’ theory of......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that organizational behaviour and business relations in African countries reflect preindustrial social norms typical of kinship based, rural communities such as in-group/out-group differentiation, reliance on kinship and the use of gift-exchange to...... create and strengthen social bonds. Design/methodology/approach – Two books on African management are interpreted using anthropological and sociological theory as the analytical perspective. Findings – The analysis of the two works suggests that the preindustrial patterns described in the anthropological...

  20. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  1. The environment of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with next areas of the environment of the Slovak Republic in 1999: (1) Basic information about the Slovak republic; (2) The environmental protection; (3) The cultural monuments protection; (4) The world and natural heritage; (5) The biodiversity; (6) The territorial system of ecological stability; (7) The environmental regional partition; (8) Components of the environment and their protection; (9) Environmental risk factors (radiation and others); (10) Health and age of population; (11) Ministration on environment; (12 ) International co-operation. Alphabetical list of abbreviations and texts to pictures are included

  2. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L.; Busam, Maria Rivera

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. DESIGN Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. METHODS To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. RESULTS Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure (t = −3.42, P = 0.001) and diastolic pressure (t = −3.790, P = 0.000) and urine protein (W = 294.00, P = 0.000) were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. CONCLUSION Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women. PMID:27398044

  3. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  4. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; González, Laura F; Kimani, Paul M; Butare, Louis

    2010-07-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, including a large group of landraces from Rwanda as well as varieties from primary centers of diversity and from neighboring countries of Central Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, using 30 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and automated allele detection. In addition, the landraces were evaluated for their seed iron and zinc concentration to determine if genetic diversity influenced nutritional quality. Principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses allowed the separation of the landraces into 132 Andean and 195 Mesoamerican (or Middle American) genotypes with 32 landraces and 6 varieties intermediate between the gene pools and representing inter-gene pool introgression in terms of seed characteristics and alleles. Genetic diversity and the number of alleles were high for the collection, reflecting the preference for a wide range of seed types in the region and no strong commercial class preference, although red, red mottled and brown seeded beans were common. Observed heterozygosity was also high and may be explained by the common practice of maintaining seed and plant mixtures, a coping strategy practiced by Central African farmers to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses. Finally, nutritional quality differed between the gene pools with respect to seed iron and zinc concentration, while genotypes from the intermediate group were notably high in both minerals. In conclusion, this study has shown that

  5. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of the Republic of South Africa 2011 5 SA 87 (WCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Petronell

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal acce...

  6. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  7. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  8. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey th...

  9. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  10. The Genetics of POAG in Black South Africans: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Susan E. I.; Carmichael, Trevor R.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC,...

  11. The Impact of Political Transformation on the South African Commercial Property Market

    OpenAIRE

    F. Viruly; Pienaar, E

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the impact that the transformation of the South African socio-political environment has had on locational decision making in the South African commercial property market. A central theme of the apartheid policy was to underpin and promote the economic viability of homelands and specific areas in metropolitan areas through a national decentralization policy and more specifically the provision of financial locational incentives. In addition, townships in close proximity to ...

  12. Barack Obama’s Dreams from My Father and African American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stein

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “function...

  13. Parental Analysis of Introgressive Hybridization between African and European Honeybees Using Nuclear DNA Rflps

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, H G

    1990-01-01

    African honeybees, introduced into Brazil 33 years ago, have spread through most of South and Central America and have largely replaced the extant European bees. Due to a paucity of genetic markers, genetic interactions between European and African bees are not well understood. Three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), detected with random, nuclear DNA probes, are described. The polymorphisms are specific to bees of European descent, possibly specific to certain European races....

  14. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  15. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.

  16. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  17. Trends in occupational and collective dose in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent new legislation in the Czech Republic (Law on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation [2]) is based on the ICRP Report 60 [3] and New International Basic Safety Standards [4]. Concerning the personal monitoring of workers, licensee will be responsible not only to designate controlled areas where specific protective measures are required for control of occupational radiation exposures (ORE) and prevention of the spread of contamination during normal working conditions, but shall also maintain exposure records for each worker for whom assessment of ORE is required. This duty of licensee is given in new Regulation on Radiation Protection No.184 adopted in August 1997 [1]. In accordance with this Regulation one duty of licensee is to send results of personal monitoring to the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The Central Registry of Occupational Exposures (CROE) was regularly established for this purpose in the State Office for Nuclear Safety and rules for handling, maintenance and protection of data were defined. The data collected in CROE were used for the evaluation of trends of occupational exposures in the Czech Republic in the period 1990 - 1994 years also for the UNSCEAR survey. Basic information about the methods used for ORE evaluation, comments for different occupational groups and general conclusions are presented. It is concluded that general trend of the occupational exposures in the Czech Republic is constant with the average value of effective dose equivalent 1.02 mSv (without workers in uranium industry). It is observed the slight increase of exposures in medicine related with the reorganisation on this field and significant decrease in uranium industry related with the suppression of uranium production. (author)

  18. DECENTRALISATION AND QUALITY OF GOVERNANCE: SELECTED ISSUES FROM THE CZECH AND SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Public administration reforms in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia started almost immediately after the "Velvet Revolution" in 1989. More than two decades of concrete experience with decentralisation in the specific environment of two selected transitional countries, now provides enough material for an attempt to assess the main pros, cons and risks of decentralisation as a public administration reform tool in these conditions. The goal of the paper is to discuss some important issues connected with processes of creation of modern governance in transitional countries, focusing mainly on decentralisation, its general problems and its specific limits in the environment of accession countries in Central Europe. Both Slovakia and the Czech Republic use decentralisation as the dominant tool to change their current public administrations. decentralisation might well be a good thing to achieve better governance in accession countries in Central Europe, but only under certain circumstances. Decentralisation alone does not bring positive results, automatically and immediately.

  19. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author deals with the state and perspectives of energy production in the Czech Republic up to 2030 year. Share of energy consumption as well as perspectives of nuclear energy are discussed

  20. English in the Czech Republic: Linguists’ perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaderka, Petr; Prošek, Martin

    -, č. 28 (2014), s. 173-198. ISSN 0933-1883 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language situation * English as a global language * attitudes towards English * national language institution * sociolinguistics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  1. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  2. Czech Republic gross domestic product analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kabelková, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The topic of my essay is the analysis of the gross domestic product of the Czech Republic in years 1999-2009. It consists of methodological and analytic parts. The methodological part describes basic terms needed to understand given issues. The analytic part details GDP of the Czech Republic in the monitored period. Analysis is made by comparisons between years and between quarters in constant prices of the previous year. Causes of development are described in detail including their positive ...

  3. Psychology Publication Issues in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    JOSEF ŠVANCARA

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the current situation and the view of psychology publication policy in Czech Republic. The presentation provided a platform for discussion. It summarized sixth-century progress in the development of scientific language. The current publication situation in Psychology in the Czech Republic was described. The present article reports on the journals: Czechoslovak Psychology (Prague) in comparison with the journal Studia psychologica (Bratislava), about their i...

  4. Waste management in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Houšková, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The key theme of this Bachelor thesis is to waste management in the Czech Republic. First, the basic concepts are defined and valid legislation, summarized the issue of waste management in the Czech Republic, including waste management and its different activities. It is also characterized by the Ústí region, including waste management and waste management plan. In the practical part are evaluated by interview investigation oriented to two important companies of the Ústí region engaged in the...

  5. Renewable energy support in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Minovski, Dragan; Sarac, Vasilija; Bozinovski, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Republic of Macedonia is, highly dependent on energy commodities import. Apart the whole consumption of natural gas and oil, 30% from the total annual consumption of electrical energy is from import. In order to increase electrical energy production from RES Government of the Republic of Macedonia, together with Energy Regulatory Commission and Energy Agency brought new Energy Law and new regulations for renewable energy sources. For the different type of renewable energy source is determinat...

  6. Agritourism business in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Pourová

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with possibilities and problems of agritourism development in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of local authorities. The survey indicates that agritourism is at the beginning of its development in the Czech Republic and is accompanied with difficulties. The interest in agritourism development is identified in North-Moravian region, where the unemployment rate is the highest, then in South-Bohemian, South-Mora via n and East-Bohemian regions. Conditions tor agritourism a...

  7. Export policy of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Tomišková, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the export policy of the Czech Republic. It describes the Export strategy of the Czech Republic for 2012--2020 and covers a number of institutions that currently support Czech exporters. The thesis includes a review of the export policy of Slovakia and its comparison with the current Czech export policy. In conclusion, pros and cons of the Czech export policy are highlighted. There are also suggestions to improve the Czech export support in the future.

  8. Protecting and Enlarging the Digital Republic

    OpenAIRE

    David Bollier

    2009-01-01

    The Internet and various digital technologies are enabling the rise of the "Digital Republic," a new trans-national global culture that is based on principles of openness, participation, and decentralised control. A sprawling federation of digital tribes, from hackers and Wikipedians to artists using Creative Commons licenses and academics managing their own open-access journals, is creating their own "sharing economy" based on self-organized virtual commons. If the Digital Republic is going ...

  9. Private banking in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Palička, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to compare private banking of two selected institutions in the Czech Republic from the perspective of client segmentation, investment products, client approach, private bankers and premium services. Bibliographic research summerizes history of private banking in the Czech Republic and in the world and gives an overview of the main differences between retail banking and private banking. Alongside defines client segmentation in private banking, describes a pri...

  10. Landslide Detection Methods, Inventory Analysis and Susceptibility Mapping Applied to the Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Danneels, Gaëlle; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Strom, A.; Pirard, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of the last five years of landslide detection and landslide susceptibility mapping in the Central and Southern Tien Shan. Landslide inventories have been compiled for areas of major interest in the Kyrgyz Republic. For those areas, landslides were first mapped manually using KFA satellite images and aerial photographs. Recently, a landslide detection method has been developed in order to map landslides automatically. This method is based on a neural network scheme ...

  11. Analysis of horse breeding and equestrian sports in the Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Baban M.; Sakač M.; Korabi N.; Antunović B.; Mijić P.; Ivanković A.; Ramljak J.

    2011-01-01

    Horse breeding in the Republic of Croatia, before its entrance into European Union, is in the transitional period. In the breeding sense, Croatian horse breeding is set according to the model of European countries and is trying to counteract with “modern horse breeding countries”. Croatian Center for Horse Breeding - Dakovo and Lipik State Stud Farms (CCHB), with the Central register of equidae is, as the head national institution, responsible for running a...

  12. The Public Pension System in the Czech Republic from the Point of View of Public Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bezdek, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The Czech public pension system is fiscally unsustainable in the long run because of population ageing, which is particularly pronounced in the Czech Republic. Some parametrical adjustments have been implemented since the beginning of the 1990s, but in contrast to other central European transition countries, the Czech pension scheme is still awaiting a fundamental reform. An independent working group was established in 2004 to analyse the pension reform proposals of the main political parties...

  13. Impact of Economic Crisis on Municipal Budgets in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    David Spacek; Petra Dvorakova

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to outline an impact of the economic crisis on municipal budgets in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how selected municipalities with different level of delegated state administration dealt with the economic slump from the financial perspective. The results of our research so far suggest that Czech municipal budgets have been affected by the economic crisis more than regional budgets, but less than the central budget. The reason is that the budgets contain different ...

  14. Regional growth curves and improved design value estimates of extreme precipitation events in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Picek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2007), s. 243-255. ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : extreme precipitation event * regional frequency analysis * design values * central Europe * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2007 http://www.int-res.com/articles/cr2007/33/c033p243.pdf

  15. A case study of risk factors for lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Missamou, François; Sébastien D Pion; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Gary J Weil; Boussinesq, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. We studied the epidemiology of LF in an endemic village in the Republic of Congo. Methods: Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia (ICT card test) and microfilaremia (night blood smears). The following factors were investigated: sex, age, bed net, latrines, source of water, uptake of anthelmintic drugs, hunting/fishing activities, and occasionally sleeping in the bush. Mixed m...

  16. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  17. Plasma preparation and storage for African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Blad-Stahl, Julia; Lawrenz, Arne; Schuerer, Ulrich; Wehrend, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The use of plasma as a life-saving tool for neonatal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that failed passive transfer of immunoglobulins is proposed. The methodology of blood sampling, plasma extraction, and plasma storage is described. Values for cellular component sedimentation and biochemical parameters of extracted plasma that was collected from 2 female elephants is presented. The proposal for a central plasma bank for elephants in European zoos is suggested. PMID:19368242

  18. Functions of Central Bank of Kosovo and the need for their advancement

    OpenAIRE

    Lluka, Valon

    2010-01-01

    Central Bank of the Republic of Kosova (CBK), was established in June 2008, and is the successor of the Authority of Banking and Payments of Kosovo and the Central Banking Authority of Kosovo. Main Functions of the Central Bank of Kosovo are: • Drafting and implementation of monetary policy, • Regulation and supervision of the banking system, • Bank of the Government, • Management of foreign exhange and gold reserves. Central Bank acts as the Banker, Fiscal Agent, and Eco...

  19. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  20. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  1. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  2. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  3. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to collaborate with various stakeholders, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs), research on the scope, peculiarities and impact of such cooperation has been limited, particularly in th...

  4. Institutional capacity of the South African Police Service for disaster risk reduction in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda district municipality / Brazer, P.J.

    OpenAIRE

    Brazer, Peter Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    The South African Police Service's (SAPS) main responsibility, according to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, is to protect and safeguard the inhabitants of South Africa. The SAPS had to adjust to different regime changes as occurred both before 1994 and after 1994. The main aim of the previous dispensation was to deliver a service to a minority of the population. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act, Act 57 of 1996 changed the face of Government. The new dispe...

  5. Part I. Feasibility Study for a Plan of Action to Investigate the Effects of Air Pollution on Health in PHARE Countries Part II. Air Pollution and Health. Country Descriptions for the PHARE countries. Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland and Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Lebret E; Wolters N; Elliott P; Fletcher T

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility study was carried out on behalf of CEC-DG-I(OPS) in the PHARE countries Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic. Two country visits to each of the countries were involved. On the basis of information supplied by experts met during these visits and a review of published sources, the Regional Programme EHAP was prepared. The overall aim of the Programme was to strengthen the capacity of the individual Central and Eastern European Countries to u...

  6. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsephe M. Letseka; Elza Venter

    2012-01-01

    The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philoso...

  7. 入盟十年对中欧维谢格拉德集团经济发展的影响--以捷克为例%Influences of EU Entry on Central European Visegrad Group - Using the Czech Republic as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜琍

    2014-01-01

    Since entering into EU ten years ago, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, the four members of Visegrad Group, have benefited greatly: rapid growth of total GDP and per capita GDP, export expansion, reduction of gap with old EU members in income and price level and improvement of quality of life in most member nations. However, these countries have not achieved the goal of reaching the living standard of Western Europe. Take the Czech Republic as an example: after entering into the EU, the Czech Republic does not have an economic convergence with the EU mainly because of its two economic recessions, its failures in absorbing EU funds and conducting EU policies consistently. Meanwhile, despite concerns for negative impacts of entering into EU, they have not occurred yet.%入盟十年来,欧盟成员国身份给中欧维谢格拉德集团四国波兰、捷克、斯洛伐克和匈牙利带来了一系列的好处:促进国内生产总值和人均国内生产总值快速增长,出口扩大,与欧盟老成员国之间收入和物价水平的差距有所缩小,多数成员国生活质量显著改善。但这些国家达到西欧发达国家生活水平的美好愿望并没有实现。以捷克为例,入盟后经历了两次经济衰退、吸收欧盟基金不力和对欧盟的政策不连续等因素是造成其与欧盟经济趋同效果不佳的主要原因。与此同时,他们曾经担忧的入盟消极影响也没有变成现实。

  8. Republic of Korea: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of one day total diet of an adult Korean, based on the food intake data survey of 108 healthy subjects in the age range 20-50 a were prepared in typical Korean style for the intake study. The sampling was based on market basket concept. In all, five samples of total cooked diet were prepared. The samples were thoroughly mixed in a mixer blender fitted with Titanium coated blade and 20% of it was drawn from the lot for freeze drying. The analytical methods used for Cs, U, Th, Sr, I were a combination of INAA, RNAA as well as ICP-MS. For the determination of Ca, Cs, K, Sr and Zn, INAA/ICP-MS were employed and the rest of elements were analysed using both RNAA and ICPMS. Four most commonly consumed foodstuffs in the Republic of Korea, namely Kimchi, fish, pork and beef combination were also analysed to determine their contribution to the daily elemental intakes. However, the four commonly consumed foodstuffs from Korea did not represent the total intake in terms of the major or micronutrients. The data inputs from these food materials were therefore not considered for the Asian diet. They however represent important sources of trace element intakes in Korean diet and this information will be included in another technical document to be prepared at the IAEA with compilation of final country reports on the CRP from all the participating countries

  9. The People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the proliferation of nuclear weapons has undergone a perceptible shift in focus. As the contributions to this book attest, we are placing more emphasis on the multiplication of sources for weapons-related materials and technology, the growth of sophisticated industrial and engineering capabilities in threshold states, and the condition of latent---or potential---proliferation they can create. A cardinal feature of this picture is the role played by new suppliers in the nuclear marketplace who offer a variety of materials, equipment, and services that cover an impressive span of the fuel cycle. Most prominent among them is the People's Republic of China. China is in the forefront of our attention for several notable reasons. It is, for one thing, a weapons state possessing a significant nuclear force comprising hundreds of warheads and a formidable array of delivery systems (including ballistic missiles and nuclear submarines). The size and composition of its forces bespeaks a sophisticated set of resource, engineering, and manufacturing capabilities covering uranium processing and enrichment, heavy water, fuel fabrication, warhead design, plutonium reprocessing, and nuclear waste management. This formidable military program, dating back to the 1950s, has endowed the PRC with extensive experience in nearly all facets of nuclear operations and management

  10. A Phylogeographic Investigation of African Monkeypox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Nakazawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus member of the genus Orthopoxvirus and is endemic to Central and Western African countries. Previous work has identified two geographically disjuct clades of monkeypox virus based on the analysis of a few genomes coupled with epidemiological and clinical analyses; however, environmental and geographic causes of this differentiation have not been explored. Here, we expand previous phylogenetic studies by analyzing a larger set of monkeypox virus genomes originating throughout Sub-Saharan Africa to identify possible biogeographic barriers associated with genetic differentiation; and projected ecological niche models onto environmental conditions at three periods in the past to explore the potential role of climate oscillations in the evolution of the two primary clades. Analyses supported the separation of the Congo Basin and West Africa clades; the Congo Basin clade shows much shorter branches, which likely indicate a more recent diversification of isolates within this clade. The area between the Sanaga and Cross Rivers divides the two clades and the Dahomey Gap seems to have also served as a barrier within the West African clade. Contraction of areas with suitable environments for monkeypox virus during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests that the Congo Basin clade of monkeypox virus experienced a severe bottleneck and has since expanded its geographic range.

  11. State of the Environment Report of the Slovak Republic 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of the Environment Report is a result of a concentration of a wider range of specialists from different departments - from specialists providing for environmental monitoring, evaluation of particular indicators, creation and building of the information system, creation, implementation and evaluation of statistical evaluations, to specialist focused on aimed evaluation of the environment situation in the Slovak Republic (SR) and its comparison with other countries, especially in the European Union (EU) and closer in the area of Central Europe. The following sections of the report are included: Foreword; Complex environmental monitoring and information system; Components of the environment and their protection; Major cumulative environmental problems; Nature and landscape protection; Environmental regional classification of Slovakia and deteriorated regions; State of the environment - causes and consequences; Environmental risk factors; Environmental care; International co-operation; Abbreviations and texts to figures

  12. Geographical Perspectives on Agritourism in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Ondřej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides more traditional tourist enterprises, tourists in Western Europe and North America regularly seek out even more specific forms of tourist opportunities, such as products of rural tourism. Within rural tourism, agritourism has been developed in these countries as a particular subset, and its significant enhancement in post-socialist European countries was widely anticipated (especially after their integration into the European Union. While considerable and focused attention was devoted to the implementation of agritourism strategies and the characterization of agritourist space with respect to particular countries (e.g. Poland and Slovenia, in Czech geographical literature it has remained a noticeably absent topic. In this paper, central attention is paid to selected characteristics of agritourist space in the Czech Republic, analyzed on the basis of a compiled database of farms diversified into tourism at the municipality level.

  13. State of the Environment Report of the Slovak Republic 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of the Environment Report 2008 is a result of a concentration of a wider range of specialists from different departments - from specialists providing for environmental monitoring, evaluation of particular indicators, creation and building of the information system, creation, implementation and evaluation of statistical evaluations, to specialists focused on aimed evaluation of the environment situation in the Slovak Republic (SR) and its comparison with other countries, especially in the European Union (EU) and closer in the area of Central Europe. The following sections of the report are included: Foreword; Complex environmental monitoring and information system; Components of the environment and their protection; Major cumulative environmental problems; Nature and landscape protection; Environmental regionalization; State of the environment - causes and consequences; Environmental risk factors; Environmental care; International co-operation; Appendixes - maps; Abbreviations and texts to figures.

  14. Engineering-Geological Problems in the Moravian Karst, Czech Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Moravian karst belongs to one of the famous karst regions in Central Europe. It is situated in Moravia in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. According to the geology it is of Devonian age and the main rocks are of different types of limestones. The process of karstification is still active. They are many caves with rich stalagmites and stalactites and the Macocha abyss, the depth of which is 138.5 m. The underground Punkva River flows through the main part of the karst,forming beautiful underground lakes. Typical karst phenomena, such as sinkholes and deep canyons, may be observed on the surface of the terrain. Because of the karstification, water erosion and frost weathering, many steep unstable slopes and walls originated. To solve the stability from a geotechnical point of view is not easy. This requests a special engineeringgeological knowledge and experience.``

  15. Noise and Performance: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Belojevic

    2013-01-01

    Researches on noise and performance in central and Eastern Europe and South-East Europe countries and Newly Independent States have been performed in last 40 years in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics, Russia, Serbia and Yugoslavia, mainly at universities in the capitals. In laboratory studies the effects of noise have been studied on vigilance, visual performance, attention, information ...

  16. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  17. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Krum Efremov

    2015-01-01

    Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA). The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade ...

  18. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  19. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  20. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  1. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  2. Forced expiratory indices in normal black Southern African children aged 6-19 years

    OpenAIRE

    Shamssain, M H

    1991-01-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid expiratory flow (FMF), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured in 2000 non-smoking black African schoolchildren aged 6-19 years from Umtata in the Republic of Transkei in Southern Africa. FVC, FEV1, FMF, and PEF were highly correlated with each other and all were highly correlated with age and standing height in both sexes. There was a significant negative corr...

  3. Nonlinear hedonic pricing: a confirmatory study of South African wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priilaid DA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available David A Priilaid1, Paul van Rensburg21School of Management Studies, 2Department of Finance and Tax, University of Cape Town, Republic of South AfricaAbstract: With a sample of South African red and white wines, this paper investigates the relationship between price, value, and value for money. The analysis is derived from a suite of regression models using some 1358 wines drawn from the 2007 period, which, along with red and white blends, includes eight cultivars. Using the five-star rating, each wine was rated both sighted and blind by respected South African publications. These two ratings were deployed in a stripped-down customer-facing hedonic price analysis that confirms (1 the unequal pricing of consecutive increments in star-styled wine quality assessments and (2 that the relationship between value and price can be better estimated by treating successive wine quality increments as dichotomous “dummy” variables. Through the deployment of nonlinear hedonic pricing, fertile areas for bargain hunting can thus be found at the top end of the price continuum as much as at the bottom, thereby assisting retailers and consumers in better identifying wines that offer value for money.Keywords: price, value, wine

  4. Third party assisted conception: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwa, Godfrey B

    2008-01-01

    The central importance of reproduction in all human cultures has given rise to many methods and techniques of assisting reproduction or overcoming infertility. Such methods and techniques have achieved spectacular successes in the Western world, where processes like in vitro fertilization (IVF) constitute a remarkable breakthrough. In this paper, the author attempts to reflect critically on assisted reproduction technologies (ART) from the background and perspective of African culture, a culture within which human reproduction is given the highest priority but which also exhibits a highly ambivalent attitude to modern technology-assisted methods of reproduction. The author considers the ethical crux of reproductive technologies to be linked to the issue of the moral status of the human embryo and argues that a morally significant line of demarcation cannot be drawn between embryos and other categories of humans. PMID:19067233

  5. Twin Sessions Through African Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    Every year journalists from around China and the world flock to Beijing in March to cover the sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), known as the lianghui, or twin sessions. With the deepening of Sino-African relations in the past decades, an increasing number of African journalists are involved in reporting China's lianghui to their audiences in Africa.

  6. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  7. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  8. Foreign trade, the Slovak Republic - world; 1 : 180 000 000; Foreign trade, the Slovak Republic - Europe; 1 : 28 600 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the consequence of the socio-economic changes in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989 also the territorial orientation of foreign trade of Slovakia changed. The disintegration of the markets of the former Council of Mutual Economic Aid (which absorbed 75 % of foreign trade), the trade with the member countries of the Council, above all with the former Soviet Union has dramatically dropped. The maps present foreign trade of Slovakia in thousands of millions of Slovak crowns (Sk) in 1999. Its distribution is as follows: 92.4 % of foreign trade is concluded in Europe, while 3.95 %, 2.8 %, 0.5 %, and 0.1 % correspond to Asia, America, Africa and Australia respectively. The greatest trading partner of Slovakia in Europe is Germany followed by the Czech Republic, Russia, Italy, and Austria. Structure of exported and imported commodities by the individual states is also presented. The prevailing foreign trade commodities are industrial products, machines, and transport machinery. (author)

  9. Uranium mineral base of the Republic of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main uranium estimated and inferred resources making up the mineral base of Republic of Uzbekistan are located in the Central Kyzylkum uranium ore province. Uranium deposits of the province belong to two types: sandstone and black-shale ones. Twenty-two deposits of the sandstone type have been identified in the Central Kyzylkum province and 5 deposits of the black-shale type have been discovered in the province. 114.7 Kt of uranium of the sandstone type from 138.8 Kt can be extracted by underground leaching with operation costs not more than $40/kg of uranium, 24.2 Kt will cost up to $130/kg due to complex geo-technical conditions. 36.0 Kt of uranium from 47.0 Kt of the black-shale type are open pittable with subsequent heap leaching with operation cost not more than $40/kg of uranium. 11.0 Kt located deeper can be mined out with operation costs up to $130/kg. As for 1 January 1999, inferred traditional resources (EAR-II+SP or P1+P2) are 242.7 Kt of uranium, including 188.8 Kt of the sandstone type and 53.9 Kt of black-shale type. Small, 3%, reduction of the inferred resources compared with 1 January 1997 occurred because part of these resources was provided up to EAR-I category after further exploration. Navoi Hydro-Metallurgical Plant (NHMP) deals with uranium operation on the territory of Uzbekistan since 1956. The NHMP comprises following mining operations: Severnoe operation in Uchkuduk, operation in Zafarabad and Yuzhnoe operation in Nurabad. Five modern towns with total population about 500 000 have been constructed on the base of the uranium mining industry. Background radioactivity of territory of Uzbekistan is defined by radionuclides (mainly uranium and thorium) dispersed in rocks and soils. Technogenic radionuclide pollution of territory of Uzbekistan occurs due to mining operation activity in general. Environmental conditions in underground waters on areas of mineral deposits are unfavorable even before mining. The underground waters are highly

  10. Sawing Capacities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pražan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author recapitulates the development of the sawmilling in the Czech Republic after the World War II, and describes the major investments in the nineties of the past century and since 2000 until today. The paper shows the main timber-processing plants bordering with the surrounding countries, which fundamentally affect the exports of the logs from the Czech Republic. In the next part the author presents the summary of roundwood cutting in the period 1991 to 2009, and describes the creation of the database of the important sawmill plants in the Czech Republic. These plants are then divided into 7 groups according to the size, and their list is available in Table 2. Subsequently the paper provides a general division of the sawmill plants into individual groups according to the used technology. Then the author compares the sawmill sawing of more than 50,000 m3 of logs per year in the Czech Republic, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. The conclusion of the paper deals with the potential future development of the sawmill capacities in the Czech Republic and with the level of their expected concentration.

  11. Race and nation in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.

  12. [South African tick bite fever in a group of Russian tourists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikova, G M; Tokmalaev, A K; Voznesensky, S L; Karan, L S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical case of South African tick bite fever in a group of Russian tourists. The group of 5 people who had been ill with this disease after a tourist trip to the South African Republic (the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern province of Mpumalanga) were followed up. During their trip, all of them were bitten by different insects many times. The disease exhibited different clinical presentations; however, all the patients were noted to have a fever with slight intoxication and a maculopapular rash at different sites of the body; 3 had lymphadenopathy and one had a primary effect at the site of tick sticking. The diagnosis was verified by indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of high titers to Rickettsia conorii. The course of the disease was favorable in all the patients treated with antibiotics (doxycycline or ceftriaxone). PMID:25715493

  13. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  14. The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kylea E; Rinderer, Thomas E; Franck, Pierre; Quezada-Euán, Javier G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2002-07-01

    Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred. PMID:12206246

  15. About mechanisms of earthquake focuses of Central Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In first information about earthquakes in so-called 'aseismatic' regions of Kazakhstan obtained by the Institute of Geophysical Research of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan specialists were published. Until recently central Kazakhstan was not in part of seismically active regions of Republic. With putting into operation the NNC RK station network, a number of earthquakes with magnitude up to 5.0 were registered. In the present work focus mechanisms for two seismically active zones of central Kazakhstan were determined for the first time. Mode of deformation characteristics of this region which compared with seismotectonic deformation parameters of Northern Tien-Shan and Djungary were established. Obtained results are very important for understanding the geo dynamic processes on vast territory of Central Asia. (author)

  16. THE MAIN DIRECTION INCREASING LEVEL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC AND PEOPLE''S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    ABDULLAYEV KAMRAN

    2015-01-01

    The article dedicated increasing level of international economic relations between Azerbaijan Republic and People's Republic of China. In article realized analyze and gave estimation modern condition of economic collaboration between two countries.

  17. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  18. East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the socialist system at the beginning of the 1990s, the health situation in the Czech Republic has improved more rapidly than in other CEE countries. Mortality from circulatory diseases decreased significantly at higher ages. The recent decline in mortality is likely to be attributable to technical progress in medical treatment and less affected by the change in lifestyle. While the use of cardiovascular drugs and the number of operations of invasive heart-surgery considerably improved, smoking and alcohol consumption have somewhat augmented at the same time. The recent favourable turnover has currently brought the Czech Republic a little closer to the European average.

  20. ICT AND AGRITOURISM IN CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Havlicek, Zdenek; Lohr, Vaclav; Benda, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is regarded as the world’s future. Agritourism is a unique symbiosis of agriculture and tourism. Based on extensive analysis of the state agritourism in the Czech Republic, it was found that information on agritourism facilities is very diverse and disorderly, lacking a specialized portal for agro-tourism. Agritourism facilities in the Czech Republic is several thousand, but most of them have non-quality web sites, or none at all. It should be ensured that entrepreneurs in the agrit...