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Sample records for central africa serological

  1. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  2. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity

  3. Mycological and serological study of pulmonary aspergillosis in central India

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    Kurhade A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and predisposing factors of Aspergillus infection and correlate microscopic, culture and serological findings along with drug sensitivity. METHODS: Sputum samples from 123 patients of pulmonary disease with clinical suspicion of having fungal, especially Aspergillus infections, were examined microscopically and for culture. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of itraconazole was tested against the isolates. Serum samples from these patients were tested for precipitin against Aspergillus antigen using immunodiffusion (ID technique. RESULTS: Aspergillus species were isolated in 20 (16.26% cases and Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated in 16 (80% cases. Precipitins were detected in 29 (23.58% cases. Serum samples collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as controls showed no precipitin against Aspergillus antigen galactomannan. This fungus was found to be sensitive to itraconazole with MIC range 0.125-1µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Serological tests have an edge over routine smear and culture methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis. Itraconazole is more effective than amphotericin B and fluconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis.

  4. Serological Survey of Hantavirus and Flavivirus Among Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

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    Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Sozio, Giulia; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Pascucci, Ilaria; Gavaudan, Stefano; Marianneau, Philippe; Monaco, Federica

    2017-11-01

    Hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic viruses carried by rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) are the causative agents of human hantavirus infections in Europe. Knowledge about hantavirus circulation in Italy is very scarce. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are emerging neuropathogenic flaviviruses, both endemic in most part of the Italian territories. To monitor the circulation of PUUV, DOBV, WNV, and USUV in natural environment in central Italy, we carried out serological surveillance in wild rodents. During this study, 90 animals were captured in forested areas of Abruzzo and Marche regions and tested with serological assays for the specific pathogens. Serological test provided no evidence of PUUV and DOBV circulation in the studied area. However, four rodents (Apodemus flavicollis) were found to be positive by WNV ELISA test. Two of them were confirmed as WNV by virus neutralization test.

  5. Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran

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    Vahid Noaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial, season (warm and cold, location (North, South, East, and West, cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years. The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 % were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was significantly higher (χ2 = 8.29, df = 3, p 2 years showed a relatively higher seroprevalence, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06. No statistically significant difference in BTV seroprevalence was noted between farming systems, seasons and cattle production groups (p > 0.05. The results demonstrate that the seroprevalence of BTV is low in cattle from the Isfahan province, central Iran. Further studies are needed to determine the serotypes and vectors of BTV in the central region of Iran.

  6. Serological evidence of influenza A viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa.

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    Gudrun Stephanie Freidl

    Full Text Available Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated.

  7. Fetish: Magic Figures in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    John Mack

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in Anthony Skelton (ed.), Fetishism: Visualising Power and Desire, London: The South Bank Centre in collaboration with Lund Humphries Publishers, 1995. This article was originally published as a catalogue essay accompanying an exhibition exploring the idea of ‘fetishism’ in western art and thought. It discusses a well-known African example, the nkisi and related objects of the Kongo peoples of west central Africa and examines its uses and significance. Expectations base...

  8. Central Africa: prospects for a cultural emergency

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    Jean-Arsène Yao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, biennials and festivals have multiplied across Africa, proof of the growing dynamism of the cultural sector, to which private actors and governments take a special interest, for several reasons. Cultural reasons related to the preservation of diversity with the threat of globalization seen as potential factor of standardization. But also economics reasons on having turned the African creators into conquerors of markets. Based on the case of the countries of Central Africa –considered to be the Cradle of Humankind, as the oldest hominid fossil was found in 2001 in Chad–, the aim of this article is to determine cultural policies in this region. Also it highlights the challenges and the opportunities to carry out development mechanisms of the cultural industry from policies that generate wealth, jobs and, above all, to return dignity to peoples.

  9. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  10. Accuracy of Serological Testing for the Diagnosis of Prevalent Neurocysticercosis in Outpatients with Epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyaca-Sibat, Humberto; Cowan, Linda D.; Carabin, Hélène; Targonska, Irene; Anwary, Mushtaq A.; Serrano-Ocaña, Gilberto; Krecek, Rosina C.; Willingham, A. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging. Methodology/Principal Findings All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%–48%). Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%–71.9%) and 69.2% (52.4%–83.0%), respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%–95.3%) for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives. Conclusions/Significance The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using

  11. Serological makers of rubella infection in Africa in the pre vaccination era: a systematic review.

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    Mirambo, Mariam M; Majigo, Mtebe; Aboud, Said; Groß, Uwe; Mshana, Stephen E

    2015-11-25

    Rubella infections in susceptible women during early pregnancy often results in congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that countries without vaccination programmes to assess the burden of rubella infection and CRS. However; in many African countries there is limited data on epidemiology of rubella infection and CRS. This review was undertaken to assess the serological markers and genotypes of rubella virus on the African continent in order to ascertain the gap for future research. A systematic search of original literatures from different electronic databases using search terms such as 'rubella' plus individual African countries such as 'Tanzania', 'Kenya', 'Nigeria' etc. and different populations such as 'children', 'pregnant women' etc. in different combinations was performed. Articles from countries with rubella vaccination programmes, outbreak data and case reports were excluded. Data were entered in a Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed. A total of 44 articles from 17 African countries published between 2002 and 2014 were retrieved; of which 36 were eligible and included in this review. Of all population tested, the natural immunity of rubella was found to range from 52.9 to 97.9 %. In these countries, the prevalence of susceptible pregnant women ranged from 2.1 to 47.1 %. Rubella natural immunity was significantly higher among pregnant women than in general population (P rubella infection was observed to be as low as 0.3 % among pregnant women to 45.1 % among children. All studies did not ascertain the age-specific prevalence, thus it was difficult to calculate the rate of infection with increase in age. Only two articles were found to report on rubella genotypes. Of 15 strains genotyped; three rubella virus genotypes were found to circulate in four African countries. Despite variations in serological assays, the seroprevalence of IgG rubella antibodies in Africa is high with a substantial number of women of childbearing

  12. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

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    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  13. [Canine leishmaniosis in Central Europe: retrospective survey and serological study of imported and travelling dogs].

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    Mettler, Maik; Grimm, Felix; Naucke, Torsten J; Maasjost, Christiane; Deplazes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a common parasitic disease in Central Europe affecting dogs imported or returning from endemic countries around the Mediterranean basin. Through an internet discussion forum owners of dogs with suspected or proven leishmaniosis living in Central Europe (D, A, CH), were questioned about the dog's history. Additionally, serologic examinations of the dogs for anti-Leishmania antibodies (ELISA using antigen of promastigote stages) were offered to the participants. From February to October 2003, 291 dogs imported or returning from Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, Malta, Portugal and others) were analysed. Serologically, 111 dogs (38%) were classified positive; 103 being imported and eight travelling dogs. The majority of seropositive dogs originated from Spain (67%). No significant correlation could be established between race, sex and age and the incidence of the disease. The clinical symptoms in the seropositive dogs varied widely and ranged from mild general symptoms to visceral manifestations with chronic renal failure. Skin disorders were found in 78% of the seropositive, symptomatic animals. In the country of origin or after import or return, 174 out of 291 dogs (60%) had been tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by different immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT). Discrepancies between the ELISA and the various IFATs used were noted in 55 cases (32%), especially in cases of low IFAT titers. Most of the seropositive dogs (80%) had been treated against leishmaniosis. In 91% of these cases, Allopurinol as monotherapy or in combination with Glucantime had been used. For diagnostics and therapy, dog owners had spent an average of 1,100 euros (median 900 euros, maximum 5,800 euros).

  14. Fetish: Magic Figures in Central Africa

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    John Mack

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Anthony Skelton (ed., Fetishism: Visualising Power and Desire, London: The South Bank Centre in collaboration with Lund Humphries Publishers, 1995. This article was originally published as a catalogue essay accompanying an exhibition exploring the idea of ‘fetishism’ in western art and thought. It discusses a well-known African example, the nkisi and related objects of the Kongo peoples of west central Africa and examines its uses and significance. Expectations based on their encrusted surfaces and nailed appearance – and on the apparent disjunction between indigenous belief and practice and Christian mission – have led to the application of the term ‘fetish’; in reality their purposes move well beyond those of vague magical application. Their appearance is compared with that of the shiny, well-patinated dynastic sculpture of the Kuba further into the equatorial forests. If one is conventionally regarded as about magical agency the other is discussed as an adjunct to royal legitimacy. Yet their divergent appearances are, it is suggested, a product of a convergent idea that for an object to have an active role in human affairs it needs to be activated.

  15. SANDF as peacemaker in Central Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    South Africa have increasingly been drawn into robust peace missions, but with mixed results. In DRC the FIB has been called a game changer for the UN mission, whilst the small South African training mission in CAR had to withdrawn in 2013 after taken heavy loses. What lessons have been drawn from...

  16. Yellow Fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from outbreak and serological data.

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    Tini Garske

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods.Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000-380,000 cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000-180,000 deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to

  17. Yellow Fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from outbreak and serological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F; Staples, J Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000-380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000-180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the

  18. Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Elias; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Lbacha, Hicham Ait; Oliva, Justine; Awoume, Félix; Aplogan, Gilbert L; Hymann, Emmanuel Couacy; Muloi, Dishon; Deem, Sharon L; Alali, Said; Zouagui, Zaid; Fèvre, Eric M; Meyer, Gilles; Ducatez, Mariette F

    2017-09-01

    Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses.

  19. Serology reveals heterogeneity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in northeastern South Africa: implications for malaria elimination.

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    Biggs, Joseph; Raman, Jaishree; Cook, Jackie; Hlongwana, Khumbulani; Drakeley, Chris; Morris, Natashia; Serocharan, Ishen; Agubuzo, Eunice; Kruger, Philip; Mabuza, Aaron; Zitha, Alpheus; Machaba, Elliot; Coetzee, Maureen; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2017-01-26

    It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes. Filter-paper blood spots, demographic and household survey data were collected from 2710 randomly selected households in 56 study wards located in the municipalities of Ba-Phalaborwa and Bushbuckridge. Blood spots were assayed for Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-119 blood-stage antigens using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence data were analysed using a reverse catalytic model to determine malaria seroconversion rates (SCR). Geospatial cluster analysis was used to investigate transmission heterogeneity while random effects logistic regression identified risk factors associated with malaria exposure. The overall SCR across the entire study site was 0.012 (95% CI 0.008-0.017) per year. Contrasting SCRs, corresponding to distinct geographical regions across the study site, ranging from transmission heterogeneity. Geospatial cluster analysis of household seroprevalence and age-adjusted antibody responses detected statistically significant (p transmission intensity and exposure to malaria was low across both study sites, malaria transmission intensity was highly heterogeneous and associated with low socio-economic status in the region. Findings suggest focal targeting of interventions has the potential to be an appropriate strategy to deploy in South Africa. Furthermore, routinely incorporating sero-epidemiological practices into

  20. Microfinance and reducing poverty in Central Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In spite of an abundance of natural resources, including oil and minerals, poverty is increasing in Central Africa. About 40% of the people in Cameroon live below the poverty threshold, 55% in Chad, 50% in Congo and 43% in Gabon. A considerable amount of research has attempted to generate insight into the factors that ...

  1. West and Central Africa — Addressing new challenges | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From his office in Dakar, Senegal, IDRC West and Central Africa Regional Director Gilles Forget has seen some aspects of life — particularly relating to trade ... Forget says that beyond its personal benefit to farmers, the project has a major positive environmental impact: “It's instrumental in helping local people protect their ...

  2. Mapping soil carbon stocks of Central Africa using SOTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the soil carbon stocks of Central Africa although such baseline data are needed for research and policy development on soil carbon changes. Estimates are presented based on a 1:2 million scale soil and terrain (SOTER) database for Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and

  3. Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will assist the Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA) by providing funding for succession planning, recruiting a regional coordinator (to be based in Mali) and strengthening the Network's ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth solutions.

  4. Environmental reform of West and Central Africa ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes-Dabban, Harry; Koppen, Van Kris; Mol, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    West and Central Africa ports have historically not paid much attention to environmental issues. In the past decade, however, environmental concerns are beginning to emerge with pockets of innovative responses to environmental risks as the ports undergo institutional and infrastructural reform –

  5. Transforming agriculture in Central and West Africa through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... Agricultural productivity in Central and West Africa remains low, but there is strong potential for research to improve food security and nutrition in the region. Developing sustainable agricultural production is key to effective strategies for sustainable and inclusive economic growth to improve livelihoods for ...

  6. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa (JOGECA) is a peer reviewed quarterly journal published by Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society (KOGS). It publishes: original work in all aspects related to obstetrics and gynaecology, reviews related to obstetrics and ...

  7. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (pSudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Mapping malaria transmission in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemperli, Armin; Sogoba, Nafomon; Fondjo, Etienne; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Bagayoko, Magaran; Briët, Olivier J T; Anderegg, Dan; Liebe, Jens; Smith, Tom; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2006-07-01

    We have produced maps of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in West and Central Africa using the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) database comprising all malaria prevalence surveys in these regions that could be geolocated. The 1846 malaria surveys analysed were carried out during different seasons, and were reported using different age groupings of the human population. To allow comparison between these, we used the Garki malaria transmission model to convert the malaria prevalence data at each of the 976 locations sampled to a single estimate of transmission intensity E, making use of a seasonality model based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperature and rainfall data. We fitted a Bayesian geostatistical model to E using further environmental covariates and applied Bayesian kriging to obtain smooth maps of E and hence of age-specific prevalence. The product is the first detailed empirical map of variations in malaria transmission intensity that includes Central Africa. It has been validated by expert opinion and in general confirms known patterns of malaria transmission, providing a baseline against which interventions such as insecticide-treated nets programmes and trends in drug resistance can be evaluated. There is considerable geographical variation in the precision of the model estimates and, in some parts of West Africa, the predictions differ substantially from those of other risk maps. The consequent uncertainties indicate zones where further survey data are needed most urgently. Malaria risk maps based on compilations of heterogeneous survey data are highly sensitive to the analytical methodology.

  9. Serological evidence of influenza a viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Freidl (Gudrun); T. Binger (Tabea); M.A. Müller (Marcel); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); J. van Beek (Janko); V.M. Corman (Victor); A. Rasche (Andrea); J.-F. Drexler (Jan-Felix); Sylverken, A. (Augustina); S. Oppong (Samuel); Y. Adu-Sarkodie (Yaw); M. Tschapka (Marco); V.M. Cottontail (Veronika); C. Drosten (Christian); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes - H17N10 and H18N11 - in Central and South American fruit bats.

  10. Banana Value Chains in Central Africa: Constraints and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Ouma, Emily Awuor; Jagwe, John

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries need to improve their position in food value chains in order to improve their margins and as a strategy for coping with agricultural food price volatility through innovations within the chains. Value chain mappings and gross margin analysis were employed to assess constraints and opportunities for existing value chains for bananas in Central Africa using market survey data. The results showed weak linkages within the banana value chains with poor in...

  11. Monkeypox and whitepox viruses in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, I; Henderson, D A

    1976-01-01

    Prospects for the eradication of smallpox are now highly encouraging. With the cessation of man-to-man transmission, the question of possible animal reservoirs of smallpox becomes increasingly important. During the period 1970-1975, 20 cases of a smallpox-like disease were detected in smallpox-free areas of tropical rain forest in West and Central Africa. Epidemiological and virological investigations revealed that the disease was caused by an animal poxvirus termed monkeypox virus, a member of the orthopox virus group. The disease spread with difficulty even among susceptible close contacts and does not appear to be sufficiently transmissible to permit continuing infection to become established in man. During the investigations, four orthopox viruses termed whitepox viruses were isolated from rodents and monkeys. The isolates were not distinguishable from variola virus with currently available laboratory techniques, but there is no evidence so far that viruses of this group have infected man. Although there is now substantial and accumulating evidence that there is no animal reservoir for smallpox, continued surveillance and studies in West and Central Africa are warranted.

  12. Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176. No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05. The infection rate in rural dogs (18% was higher (p < 0.05 than in urban dogs (11%. The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05 with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs.

  13. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy-Lacaux, C.; Delon, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000-2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NOx and NH3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha-1 yr-1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha-1 yr-1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha-1 yr-1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated by wet plus dry

  14. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  15. Serological study of selected vector-borne diseases in shelter dogs in central Spain using point-of-care assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, C Guillermo; Lorentzen, Leif; Beall, Melissa J; Shields, James; Bertolone, Nicolette; Couto, Jason I; Couto, Kristen M; Nash, Sarah; Slack, Jessica; Kvitko, Heather; Westendorf, Nicole; Marin, Liliana; Iazbik, M Christina; Vicario, Francisco Clemente; Sanz, Pilar; Ruano, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of selected vector-borne diseases in 131 dogs in an animal shelter in central Spain using point-of-care assays (SNAP 4DX and SNAP Leishmania; IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The SNAP 4DX detects Dirofilaria immitis (Di) antigen and antibodies against Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), and Anaplasma phagocytophylum (Aph); the SNAP Leishmania kit detects antibodies against Leishmania infantum (Li). Dogs were classified as healthy or sick based on physical examination, complete blood counts, and serum chemistry profiles. The prevalence of positive test results was as follows: Ec, 5.3% (n = 7); Aph, 19.0% (n = 25); Bb, 0%; Di, 0%; and Li, 5.3% (n = 7). Four dogs (3%) were coexposed to Ec and Aph, and three dogs (2.3%) were coexposed to Aph and Li. There was no statistically significant correlation between positive serology and clinical status (sick vs. healthy) or hematologic/biochemical abnormalities. The prevalence of Aph was the highest and is in agreement with a recent report in a dog shelter in northwestern Spain. These point-of-care assays may be more valuable as epidemiologic than as clinical tools.

  16. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  17. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted.

  18. MNC reporting on CSR and conflict in Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in developing countries has received more attention. However, in this literature Africa is much less well represented than other regions, and existing studies about Africa have mainly focused on South Africa

  19. [Schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma intercalatum and urbanization in central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripert, C

    2003-08-01

    The species name of Schistosoma intercalatum, Fischer 1934 is linked to the shape and the size of his eggs, which are intermediate between those of S. haematobium and S. bovis. S. intercalatum is the instrument of an intestinal form of schistosomiasis looking like the form induced by S. mansoni but characterized by a low location of the lesions, mainly situated at the rectum and sigmoid level. The spreading area of S. intercalatum is bound to Central Africa. The foci are often urban and of a size limited to a town district. Bulinus forskalii is the intermediate host mostly involved in transmitting S. intercalatum lower Guinea strain, which is the strain found in the largest number of foci. B. crystallinus too transmits the parasite in the area of Gamba in Gabon. The Central Basin congolese strain of S. intercalatum is transmitted by Bulinus globosus. The houses where inhabitants are voiding eggs of S. intercalatum are just in front of the river bank or stream which are snails'breeding places. S. intercalatum is expending at the present time because of the development of built-up areas which are characterized by a disorganized town-planning. The disease is due to the high faecal pollution of the environment, causing a contamination of the urban hydrographic network which is the setting of schistosomiasis transmission. Although primely linked to the forest area, S. intercalatum is spreading with deforestation. Coming from the savannah area, S. haematobium is now invading the forest area, entering into competition with S. intercalatum. But since Bulinus acting as intermediate hosts of S. haematobium are more heliophilous than Bulinus transmitting S. intercalatum, urinary schistosomiasis has a tendency to supplant recto-sigmoidal schistosomiasis, especially in foci where hybridization between the two species of schistosomes is occurring.

  20. Serological and molecular expression of Hepatitis B infection in patients with chronic Hepatitis C from Tunisia, North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azaiez Ons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study reports the prevalence and the viral aspects of HBV infection in HCV-positive patients from Tunisia, a country with intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis B and C, respectively. Results HBV infection was assessed in the serum samples of 361 HCV-positive patients and compared to a group of HCV negative individuals. Serological markers were determined by ELISA tests and HBV DNA by real-time PCR. HBV serological markers were found in 43% and 44% of patients and controls, respectively. However, the serological and molecular expression of HBV infection differed in the two groups: The group of patients included more individuals with ongoing HBV infection, as defined by the presence of detectable HBsAg and or HBV DNA (17% and 12%, respectively. Furthermore, while most of the controls with ongoing HBV infection expressed HBsAg, the majority of HCV and HBV positive patients were HBsAg negative and HBV DNA positive. Genotyping of HCV isolates showed large predominance of subtype 1b as previously reported in Tunisia. Comparison of the replicative status of the two viruses found low HBV viral load in all co-infected patients as compared to patients with single HBV infection. In contrast, high levels of HCV viremia levels were observed in most of cases with no difference between the group of co-infected patients and the group with single HCV infection. Conclusions This study adds to the knowledge on the prevalence and the virological presentation of HCV/HBV dual infection, providing data from the North African region. It shows that, given the local epidemiology of the two viruses, co-infected patients are likely to have low replication levels of HBV suggesting a suppressive effect of HCV on HBV. In contrast, high replication levels for HCV were fond in most cases which indicate that the presence of circulating HBV-DNA does not necessarily influence HCV replication.

  1. Drug Development and Conservation of Biodiversity in West and Central Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bacchi, Cyrus

    2004-01-01

    ...) Program, which was headed by the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research (WRAIR). The project involves screening extracts of medicinal plants from Central and West Africa for growth-inhibitory activity vs...

  2. Blood Transfusion in Surgery in Africa | Jani | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many changes have occurred in transfusion practices in Africa and in Western countries since this topic was first reviewed in 2005. Blood transfusion remains a key component in the resuscitation of surgical patients suffering, whether from operative losses, trauma, GI bleeding, or obstetrics. Nothing has replaced the ...

  3. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Laura D.; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  4. Low prevalence rate of indeterminate serological human immunodeficiency virus results among pregnant women from Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dramane; Fao, Paulin; Valéa, Diane; Gouem, Clarisse; Kagoné, Thérèse; Hien, Hervé; Somda, Paulin; Ouédraogo, Patrice; Drabo, Aly; Gampini, Sandrine; Méda, Nicolas; Diagbouga, Serge; Van de Perre, Philippe; Rouet, François

    2010-04-01

    Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests have been adopted into national guidelines for HIV testing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. One goal of HIV rapid testing is to minimize the occurrence of indeterminate results. From January 2005 to December 2007, plasma (or serum) samples from pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa) were screened for HIV by using two rapid tests (the Determine HIV1/2 test [Abbott] and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 [Bio-Rad]) through a sequential algorithm prior to enrollment of HIV-1-infected women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial (WHO/ANRS 1289 Kesho Bora trial). Samples exhibiting indeterminate results (Determine positive and Genie II negative) were further tested with a fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Murex HIV Ag/Ab combination in 2005 and 2006 and Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab in 2007). If positive, they were finally assessed for HIV-1 RNA (Generic HIV-1 RNA viral load assay; Biocentric). From a total of 44,653 samples tested, 597 (1.3%) showed indeterminate results. Of these, 367 could be analyzed by EIA. Only 15 (15/367, 4.1%) samples were found EIA reactive. Of these, 11 could be tested for HIV-1 RNA. All were HIV-1 RNA negative. In our clinical practice, pregnant women with such indeterminate results are now reassured during posttest counseling that they are very unlikely to be infected with HIV-1. As a consequence, such women with indeterminate results can reliably be considered negative when urgent clinical decisions (such as providing PMTCT prophylaxis) need to be taken.

  5. A new species of Trachylepis (Squamata: Scincidae) from Central Africa and a key to the Trachylepis of West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kaitlin E; N, Walter P Tapondjou; Welton, Luke J; Bauer, Aaron M

    2017-05-16

    A new species of skink, Trachylepis gonwouoi sp. nov. is described from Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo. It differs from all other species of Trachylepis in Central-West Africa by a combination of number of keels on dorsal scales (3-5); moderate SVL (maximum size of 80 mm); number of scale rows at midbody (28-34); number of supracilliaries (6-10); a well defined lateral white stripe, bordered by black, extending from under the eye to the insertion of the hind limb; and a ventral color in life of bright blue-green. Trachylepis gonwouoi sp. nov. was found in association with disturbed forest at elevations from 50 to 1050m. This species is syntopic with T. affinis and T. maculilabris. In order to aid in the identification of Trachylepis in West and Central Africa with the addition of T. gonwouoi sp. nov., we provide an updated key to the Trachylepis found from Mauritania through the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This key combines previous literature that treated Western and Central African taxa separately and represents the most comprehensive key for Trachylepis in West-Central Africa to date.

  6. Public health professionals? perceptions of mental health services in Equatorial Guinea, Central-West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Peter Robert; McGinnis, Shannon Marcail; Reuter, Kim Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mental health disorders constitute 13% of global disease burden, the impacts of which are disproportionality felt in sub-Saharan Africa. Equatorial Guinea, located in Central-West Africa, has the highest per-capita investment in healthcare on the African continent, but only two studies have discussed mental health issues in the country and none of have examined the perspective of professionals working in the field. The purpose of this study was to gain a preliminary understanding...

  7. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  8. Forest refugia in Western and Central Africa as ‘museums’ of Mesozoic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murienne, Jérôme; Benavides, Ligia R.; Prendini, Lorenzo; Hormiga, Gustavo; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The refugial speciation model, or ‘species pump’, is widely accepted in the context of tropical biogeography and has been advocated as an explanation for present species distributions in tropical Western and Central Africa. In order to test this hypothesis, a phylogeny of the cryptic arachnid order Ricinulei, based on four nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, was inferred. This ancient clade of litter-dwelling arthropods, endemic to the primary forests of Western and Central Africa and the Neotropics, might provide insights into the mode and tempo of evolution in Africa. Twenty-six African ricinuleid specimens were sampled from eight countries spanning the distribution of Ricinulei on the continent, and analysed together with Neotropical samples plus other arachnid outgroups. The phylogenetic and molecular dating results suggest that Ricinulei diversified in association with the fragmentation of Gondwana. The early diversification of Ricinoides in Western and Central Africa around 88 (±33) Ma fits old palaeogeographical events better than recent climatic fluctuations. Unlike most recent molecular studies, these results agree with fossil evidence, suggesting that refugia may have acted as ‘museums’ conserving ancient diversity rather than as engines generating diversity during successive episodes of climatic fluctuation in Africa. PMID:23193047

  9. A prominent role of Hepatitis D Virus in liver cancers documented in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Atsama Amougou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is one of the commonest cancers in Central Africa, a region with the unusual peculiarity to be hyperendemic for infections with Hepatitis B, C and D viruses. However, data estimating the respective proportions of HCC cases attributable to these viruses are still limited in this area. The current study was undertaken to determine the role of these viruses in HCC compared to non-HCC Cameroonian patients. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Unit of Central Hospital of Yaounde in collaboration with Centre Pasteur of Cameroon. Blood samples of all HCC cases (n = 88 and matched control individuals without known liver disease (n = 85 were tested for serological markers of Hepatitis B, C and D viral infections using commercially available enzyme immune-assay kits. Hepatitis B and C viral loads were quantified for positive patients by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Results The mean age was 46.0 ± 18 and 42.1 ± 16 years old for HCC-patients and controls, respectively for a 2.3 Male/Female sex ratio. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to HCV and antibody to HDV were significantly higher in HCC patients (65.90, 20.26 and 26 % respectively than in control patients (9.23, 4.62 and 1 % (P < 2.5 10−5. The risk factors analysis showed that both HBV and HCV infections were strongly associated with HCC development in Cameroon with crude odds ratios of 15.98 (95 % CI 6.19-41.25 and 7.33 (95 % CI 2.09-25.77, respectively. Furthermore, the risk of developing HCC increased even more significantly in case of HBV and HDV co-infections with the odd ratio of 29.3 (95 % CI, 4.1-1231. HBV-DNA level was significantly higher in HBsAg-positive HCC-patients than in HBsAg-positive controls with (6.3 Log IU/mL and 5.7 Log IU/mL respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusion HBV and HCV infections are the mains factors of HCC development in Cameroon

  10. [Serological survey for the prevalence of certain arboviruses in the human population of the south-east area of Central African Republic (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluzzo, J F; Gonzalez, J P; Hervé, J P; Georges, A J

    1981-01-01

    A serological survey of antibodies to arboviruses was carried out in the human population of the south-east part of Central African Republic in April 1979. Four hundred and fifty nine serum samples were tested using the haemagglutination inhibition test (H. I.) and fifty of them by the complement fixation test (C. F.). Only 11% of the population tested had no H. I. antibodies against the following arboviruses: Chikungunya, Semliki-forest, Sindbis, Yellow fever, Uganda S, West-Nile, Zika, Bunyamwera and Zinga. It seems that Chikungunya virus has recently been very active mainly in adult population. The same observation was reported for Zika virus. The following antigens were used for complement fixation test: Ilesha, Bwamba, CHF-Congo, Dugbe, Bhanja, Tataguine, Nyando, Bangui and Orungo. A positive reaction was noted in 88% of serum samples tested for Orungo virus. Antibodies were also detected by CF for CHF-Congo and Bhanja viruses.

  11. Book reviews:Bats of Southern and Central Africa: A Biogeographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book reviews:Bats of Southern and Central Africa: A Biogeographic and Taxonomic Synthesis by Ara Monadjem, Peter John Taylor, F.P.D. (Woody) Cotterill & M. Corrie Schoeman. Wits University Press, Johannesburg. 2010. Pp. 564. Price R591.00 (paperback).ISBN.

  12. Retrospective analysis of antimicrobial resistance and bacterial spectrum of infection in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alabi, Abraham S.; Frielinghaus, Lisa; Kaba, Harry; Kösters, Katrin; Huson, Michaëla A. M.; Kahl, Barbara C.; Peters, Georg; Grobusch, Martin P.; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2013-01-01

    Physicians depend on reliable information on the local epidemiology of infection and antibiotic resistance rates to guide empiric treatment in critically ill patients. As these data are scarce for Central Africa, we performed a retrospective analysis of microbiological findings from a secondary care

  13. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of

  14. Re-emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Grard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a severe tick-borne disease well recognized through Europe and Asia where diagnostic tests and medical surveillance are available. However, it is largely neglected in Africa, especially in the tropical rainforest of Central Africa where only sporadic human cases have been reported and date back to more than 30 years. We describe here an isolated human case that occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2008 and performed phylogenetic analysis to investigate whether it resulted from a regional re-emergence or from the introduction of a novel virus in the area.Near complete segment S and partial segment M sequences were characterized. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and datation were performed to investigate the relationship between this new strain and viral strains from Africa, Europe and Asia. The new strain is phylogenetically close to the previously described regional genotype (II that appears to be specific to Central Africa. Phylogenetic discrepancy between segment S and M suggested genetic exchange among local sublineages, which was dated back to 130-590 years before present.The phylogenetic analyses presented here suggest ongoing CCHF virus circulation in Central Africa for a long time despite the absence of reported human cases. Many infections have most probably been overlooked, due to the weakness of healthcare structures and the absence of available diagnostic procedure. However, despite the lack of accurate ecological data, the sporadic reporting of human cases could also be partly associated with a specific sylvatic cycle in Central Africa where deforestation may raise the risks of re-emergence. For these reasons, together with the high risk of nosocomial transmission, public health authorities' attention should be drawn to this etiological agent.

  15. Bushmeat Hunting and Zoonotic Transmission of Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 in Tropical West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoun, Arsène; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Anoh, Augustin E; Pauly, Maude S; Driscoll, Daniel A; Michel, Adam O; Nazaire, Lavry Grah; Pfister, Stefan; Sabwe, Pascale; Thiesen, Ulla; Vogler, Barbara R; Wiersma, Lidewij; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Fruth, Barbara; Wittig, Roman M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Schubert, Grit

    2017-05-15

    Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) enters human populations through contact with nonhuman primate (NHP) bushmeat. We tested whether differences in the extent of contact with STLV-1-infected NHP bushmeat foster regional differences in prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Using serological and PCR assays, we screened humans and NHPs at two Sub-Saharan African sites where subsistence hunting was expected to be less (Taï region, Côte d'Ivoire [CIV]) or more (Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) developed. Only 0.7% of human participants were infected with HTLV-1 in CIV (n = 574), and 1.3% of humans were infected in DRC (n = 302). Two of the Ivorian human virus sequences were closely related to simian counterparts, indicating ongoing zoonotic transmission. Multivariate analysis of human demographic parameters and behavior confirmed that participants from CIV were less often exposed to NHPs than participants from DRC through direct contact, e.g., butchering. At the same time, numbers of STLV-1-infected NHPs were higher in CIV (39%; n = 111) than in DRC (23%; n = 39). We conclude that similar ultimate risks of zoonotic STLV-1 transmission-defined as the product of prevalence in local NHP and human rates of contact to fresh NHP carcasses-contribute to the observed comparable rates of HTLV-1 infection in humans in CIV and DRC. We found that young adult men and mature women are most likely exposed to NHPs at both sites. In view of the continued difficulties in controlling zoonotic disease outbreaks, the identification of such groups at high risk of NHP exposure may guide future prevention efforts.IMPORTANCE Multiple studies report a high risk for zoonotic transmission of blood-borne pathogens like retroviruses through contact with NHPs, and this risk seems to be particularly high in tropical Africa. Here, we reveal high levels of exposure to NHP bushmeat in two regions of Western and Central tropical Africa. We provide evidence for

  16. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-03-31

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

  17. Cooperia pectinata and C. punctata, parasites of the abomasum of cattle in northern Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, J Y; Jacquiet, P; Cardinale, E; Ndamkou-Ndamkou, C; Diop, C; Thiam, A; Dorchies, P

    2000-02-29

    Cooperia pectinata Ransom, 1907 and C. punctata von Linstow, 1907 are common trichostrongyles of zebu cattle in Africa. Their intestinal localization within the digestive tract is considered by many authors to be exclusive. Nevertheless, some limited surveys in Malagasy, Mauritania, The Gambia and Cameroon reported the presence of both Cooperia species in the abomasum. The present survey was carried out in a slaughterhouse of northern Cameroon on 17 zebu cattle and confirms the infection of the small intestine and the abomasum by the two species within the total number of cattle examined. Abomasal infections especially with Cooperia punctata were heavier than those in the intestine. Due to the movements of herdbreeders in Central Africa, and to the preliminary results obtained in Mauritania, The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Malagasy, abomasal localization of C. pectinata and C. punctata may be encountered in very large areas of Africa, and that cooperiosis may contribute together with Haemonchus species to the digestive disorders involving the abomasum.

  18. Perceptions about civil war in Central Africa: Can war be justified or solve problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambala Lumbu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil war and ethnic violence are major problems in Central Africa and have caused the death and displacement of millions of people over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of religious leaders, lecturers and students in theology at various tertiary institutions in Central Africa with regard to civil war in the region. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate participants� perceptions about and attitudes towards civil war. The questionnaire was completed by 1 364 participants who originated or lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Rwanda. The results of the study illustrated the severe effect that civil wars had on the participants or their families and further indicated that Rwandans, Tutsis and males were more inclined toward justifying wars and seeing them as solutions for problems. The role of the Church in countering these perceptions is discussed.

  19. Coltan from Central Africa, International Trade and Implications for Any Certification.

    OpenAIRE

    Raimund Bleischwitz; Monika Dittrich; Chiara Pierdicca

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of coltan in Central Africa can be considered a case of conflict minerals due to its nature. Many international organizations and bodies, national governments and private sector organizations seek to address this conflict, in particular via transparency, certification and accountability along the material supply chain. This paper analyses the international trade dimension of coltan and gives evidence on the dimension of illicit trade of coltan. The authors start from the hypo...

  20. Coltan from Central Africa, international trade and implications for any certification

    OpenAIRE

    Bleischwitz, R.; Dittrich, M.; Pierdicca, C.

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of coltan in Central Africa can be considered a case of conflict minerals due to its nature. Many international organizations and bodies, national governments and private sector organizations seek to address this conflict, in particular via transparency, certification and accountability along the material supply chain. This paper analyses the international trade dimension of coltan and gives evidence on the dimension of illicit trade of coltan. The authors start from the hypo...

  1. Could payments for environmental services improve rangeland management in Central Asia, West Asia and North Africa?:

    OpenAIRE

    Dutilly-Diane, Celine; McCarthy, Nancy; Turkelboom, Francis; Bruggeman, Adriana; Tiedemann, James; Street, Kenneth; Serra, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    "Although several institutional and management approaches that address the degradation of the rangelands have been tested in the dry areas of Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA), impact has been limited. Nonetheless, the development of National Action Plans to combat desertification highlights the interest of governments to tackle this issue. Payment for Environmental Services (PES) may be a viable policy option, though, to date, most PES programs have focused on the management of ...

  2. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L.D.; Hooft, van W.F.; Vrieling, K.; Weerd, de D.R.U.; York, D.S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H.H.T.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; Leirs, H.; Haeringen, van W.A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P.N.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique

  3. Intercontinental cross-linking of power supply - calculating an optimal power line corridor from North Africa to Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter, Katrin; Bosch, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    An oversupply of solar radiation in Northern Africa as well as high energy consumption in the economic centers of Central Europe give reason to an international cross-linking of regenerative power supply...

  4. [The determination of serological markers of the hepatitis B virus in high-risk areas of the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzyme immunoassay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of anti-HBc and anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalence of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  5. Climate warming causes declines in crop yields and lowers school attendance rates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Njabo, Kevin Y; Tróchez, Anthony; Morgan, Katy; Meñe, Demetrio Bocuma; Anthony, Nicola M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Allen, Walter R; Hanna, Rachid; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0.8°C temperature increase over this 63-year period - a trend that is also observed in monthly temperatures in the last twenty years. From 1991 to 2011, there was a 43% decrease in plantain productivity in Central Africa, which was explained by shifts in temperature (R2=0.68). This decline may have reduced rural household wealth and decreased parental investment in education. Over the past two decades, there was a six month decrease in the duration of school attendance, and the decline was tightly linked to plantain yield (R2=0.82). By 2080, mean annual temperature is expected to increase at least 2°C in Central Africa, and our models predict a concomitant decrease of 39% in plantain yields and 51% in education outcomes, relative to the 1991 baseline. These predictions should be seen as a call-to-action for policy interventions such as farmer training programs to enhance the adaptive capacity of food production systems to mitigate impacts on rural income and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in central Africa, by the polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Penchenier, Laurent; Simo, G.; Grébaut, Pascal; Nkinin, S.; Laveissière, Claude; Herder, Stéphane

    2000-01-01

    During a mass screening of sleeping sickness conducted in 1998 and 1999, and involving 27,932 persons in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, we tested the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on whole blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis due to #Trypanosoma brucei gambiense$. The 1858 samples obtained were from 4 groups : 155 infected patients, 1432 serological suspects detected by the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT), 222 negative controls living in th...

  7. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vanessa Wolff; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; Santos, João Barberino

    2013-01-01

    The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  8. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  9. Involvement of the central nervous system in dengue fever: three serologically confirmed cases from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. VASCONCELOS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of dengue fever involving the central nervous system (CNS are reported. All occurred in 1994 during a dengue (DEN epidemic caused by serotypes DEN-1 and DEN-2. The first case examined was a 17-year-old girl who complained of fever, nuchal rigidity and genital bleeding. Three blood samples were positive by anti-dengue IgM ELISA and showed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test titers ³ 1,280. The second case concerned a 86-year-old woman with fever, muscle and joint pains, altered consciousness, syncope, nuchal rigidity and meningismus. Her blood sample showed an HI titer of 1:320 for flaviviruses, and an IgM ELISA positive for dengue. The third case was a 67-year-old woman with fever, abnormal behaviour, seizures, tremor of extremities, thrombocytopenia, increased hematocrit and leukopenia. The patient suffered a typical case of dengue hemorrhagic fever with ensuing shock and a fatal outcome. A single blood sample showed HI antibodies of ³ 1,280 and an IgM ELISA positive for dengue. No virus could be isolated from any patient by inoculation of blood into C6/36 cells and suckling mice. No other agent of disease was encountered in the patient.Neste trabalho são descritos três casos de dengue com manifestações neurológicas incomuns durante a epidemia de dengue em Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará, em 1994. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino. A paciente do primeiro caso tinha 17 anos e apresentou além da síndrome febril, sinais de comprometimento meníngeo com rigidez de nuca, e sangramento genital. No segundo caso a paciente de 86 anos apresentou quadro febril, intensa dor muscular e articular, alterações da consciência, desmaio, rigidez de nuca e meningismo. A terceira, de 67 anos, teve um quadro inicial de síndrome febril, seguida de comportamento anormal, tremores de extremidades, trombocitopenia, hematócrito aumentado, leucopenia, hipotensão arterial e choque, evoluindo para o óbito. Amostras sangüíneas obtidas das

  10. Central bank independence and inflation in Africa: The role of financial systems and institutional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Mawuko Agoba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the effects of financial systems and the quality of political institutions on the effectiveness of central bank independence in achieving lower inflation. Drawing from the fiscal theory of price level (FTPL and political economy of macroeconomic policy (PEMP literature; we estimate a panel regression model, using Two Stage Least Squares instrumental variables procedure, on a sample of 48 African countries over the period 1970–2012. The study finds that central bank independence-inflation nexus is dependent on the model, sample and estimation technique used. After accounting for various control variables and introducing inflation targeting as an additional explanatory variable, the study shows that, unlike in developed countries, CBI is not sufficient in achieving lower inflation in Africa and the developing world. However, common to developed, developing and African countries, is that, higher central bank independence is more effective in lowering inflation in the presence of high levels of banking sector development and institutional quality. The findings of the study also show that while stock market development enhances the effectiveness of CBI in developed and developing countries, it has no significant effect on CBI effectiveness in Africa.

  11. Hepatitis C prevalence and risk factors in hemodialysis patients in Central Brazil: a survey by polymerase chain reaction and serological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Megmar AS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An hemodialysis population in Central Brazil was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and serological methods to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and to investigate associated risk factors. All hemodialysis patients (n=428 were interviewed in eight dialysis units in Goiânia city. Blood samples were collected and serum samples screened for anti-HCV antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Positive samples were retested for confirmation with a line immunoassay (LIA. All samples were also tested for HCV RNA by the PCR. An overall prevalence of 46.7% (CI 95%: 42-51.5 was found, ranging from 20.7% (CI 95%: 8.8-38.1 to 90.4% (CI 95%: 79.9-96.4 depending on the dialysis unit. Of the 428 patients, 185 were found to be seropositive by ELISA, and 167 were confirmed positive by LIA, resulting in an anti-HCV prevalence of 39%. A total of 131 patients were HCV RNA-positive. HCV viremia was present in 63.5% of the anti-HCV-positive patients and in 10.3% of the anti-HCV-negative patients. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that the number of previous blood transfusions, transfusion of blood before mandatory screening for anti-HCV, length of time on hemodialysis, and treatment in multiple units were associated with HCV positivity. However, multivariate analysis revealed that blood transfusion before screening for anti-HCV and length of time on hemodialysis were significantly associated with HCV infection in this population. These data suggest that nosocomial transmission may play a role in the spread of HCV in the dialysis units studied. In addition to anti-HCV screening, HCV RNA detection is necessary for the diagnosis of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients.

  12. Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, Byman H.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is

  13. First early hominin from central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma, and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25 from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma.

  14. From Central Asia to South Africa: In Search of Inspiration in Rock Art Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozwadowski Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the story of discovering South African rock art as an inspiration for research in completely different part of the globe, namely in Central Asia and Siberia. It refers to those aspect of African research which proved to importantly develop the understanding of rock art in Asia. Several aspects are addressed. First, it points to importance of rethinking of relationship between art, myth and ethnography, which in South Africa additionally resulted in reconsidering the ontology of rock images and the very idea of reading of rock art. From the latter viewpoint particularly inspiring appeared the idea of three-dimensionality of rock art ‘text’. The second issue of South African ‘origin,’ which notably inspired research all over the world, concerns a new theorizing of shamanism. The paper then discusses how and to what extent this new theory add to the research on the rock art in Siberia and Central Asia.

  15. Tree cover in Central Africa: determinants and sensitivity under contrasted scenarios of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Julie C; Blarquez, Olivier; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bremond, Laurent; Favier, Charly

    2017-01-30

    Tree cover is a key variable for ecosystem functioning, and is widely used to study tropical ecosystems. But its determinants and their relative importance are still a matter of debate, especially because most regional and global analyses have not considered the influence of agricultural practices. More information is urgently needed regarding how human practices influence vegetation structure. Here we focused in Central Africa, a region still subjected to traditional agricultural practices with a clear vegetation gradient. Using remote sensing data and global databases, we calibrated a Random Forest model to correlatively link tree cover with climatic, edaphic, fire and agricultural practices data. We showed that annual rainfall and accumulated water deficit were the main drivers of the distribution of tree cover and vegetation classes (defined by the modes of tree cover density), but agricultural practices, especially pastoralism, were also important in determining tree cover. We simulated future tree cover with our model using different scenarios of climate and land-use (agriculture and population) changes. Our simulations suggest that tree cover may respond differently regarding the type of scenarios, but land-use change was an important driver of vegetation change even able to counterbalance the effect of climate change in Central Africa.

  16. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST)  = 0.068, P albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  17. Maternal anaemia in West and Central Africa: time for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Bendech, Mohamed Ag; Zagré, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité

    2012-05-01

    To review the prevalence, severity and determinants of anaemia among women in West and Central Africa (WCA) and raise awareness among policy makers and programme planners in the region. Systematic descriptive review of data in the public domain of the ORC Macro MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys, national nutrition surveys, oral and technical communications at regional meetings, studies published in scientific journals, and WHO and UNICEF databases. West and Central Africa region. Women of childbearing age. The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant and non-pregnant women is higher than 50 % and 40 %, respectively, in all countries. Within countries, this prevalence varies by living setting (rural v. urban), women's age and education. Across countries, socio-economic and climatic differences have no apparent association with the prevalence of anaemia among women. Several factors contribute either alone or jointly to the high rates of maternal anaemia in this region. These include widespread nutritional deficiencies; high incidence of infectious diseases; low access to and poor quality of health services; low literacy rates; ineffective design, implementation and evaluation of anaemia control programmes; and poverty. Addressing the multiple causes and minimizing the consequences of anaemia on maternal and child health and development in WCA require integrated multifactorial and multisectoral strategies. This also calls for unprecedented, historical and stronger political will and commitment that put adolescent girls and maternal health at the centre of the development agenda.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Antibodies in Central and Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Stern, Daniel; Theophil, Dennis; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsène; Schubert, Grit; Wiersma, Lidewij; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Pauly, Maude; Schrick, Livia; Leendertz, Fabian H; Nitsche, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    Since the eradication of smallpox and the subsequent discontinuation of the worldwide smallpox vaccination program, other Orthopoxviruses beside Variola virus have been increasingly representing a risk to human health. To investigate the extent of natural contact with Orthopoxviruses and possible demographic risk factors for such an exposure, we performed a cross-sectional serosurvey of anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies in West and Central Africa. To this end, people living in forest regions in Côte d'Ivoire (CIV, n = 737) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD, n = 267) were assigned into groups according to their likely smallpox vaccination status. The overall prevalence of anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies was 51% in CIV and 60% in COD. High rates of seropositivity among the vaccinated part of the population (80% in CIV; 96% COD) indicated a long-lasting post vaccination immune response. In non-vaccinated participants, seroprevalences of 19% (CIV) and 26% (COD) indicated regular contact with Orthopoxviruses. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the antibody level in the vaccinated part of the population was higher in COD than in CIV, increased with age and was slightly higher in females than males. In the unvaccinated part of the population none of these factors influenced antibody level significantly. In conclusion, our results confirm expectedly high anti-Orthopoxvirus seroprevalences in previously smallpox-vaccinated people living in CIV and the COD but more unexpectedly imply regular contact with Orthopoxviruses both in Western and Central Africa, even in the absence of recognized outbreaks.

  19. Blood cigarettes: cigarette smuggling and war economies in central and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeca, Kristof; Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To analyse cigarette smuggling practices in central and eastern Africa. Primary data were gathered during long-term qualitative field research in which about 400 interviews were conducted. Analysis of secondary sources included academic literature and reports from non-government organisations, multilateral organisations and the press. Our research suggests that the following factors play an important role in cigarette smuggling in eastern and central Africa: (1) government officials encounter difficulties monitoring the long and porous borders; (2) there is a general problem of corrupt government officials and particularly those who allow large-scale smugglers to operate; (3) criminal elements also play an important role in smuggling--cigarette smuggling has helped rebel groups to finance their activities, something illustrated through examples from the war economy in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our research suggests that cigarette smuggling in this region is not primarily the result of different taxation levels in neighbouring states, but rather the outcome of weak state capacity, high levels of corruption and the activities of rebel groups. Under these conditions smuggling cigarettes becomes an attractive option as taxation is so easily avoided. This explains why in the low-income countries in this study there are high levels of smuggling in spite of low cigarette prices. Comprehensive supply control and enforcement legislation, and cooperation at national, regional and global level are needed to tackle fraudulent practices facilitated by corruption at state level, and to effectively punish interaction between cigarette traders and rebel groups.

  20. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Marcombe, Sébastien; Chandre, Fabrice; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Nwane, Philippe; Etang, Josiane; Corbel, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-05-15

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea) and Gabon (Libreville). Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95) suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis) and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville) and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé) were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%). Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality). All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95) was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. In view of the recent increase in dengue and chikungunya outbreaks in Central

  1. Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  2. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  3. Origins and genetic diversity of pygmy hunter-gatherers from Western Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Austerlitz, Frederic; Estoup, Arnaud; Vitalis, Renaud; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Froment, Alain; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Gessain, Antoine; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne

    2009-02-24

    Central Africa is currently peopled by numerous sedentary agriculturalist populations neighboring the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers, the Pygmies [1-3]. Although archeological remains attest to Homo sapiens' presence in the Congo Basin for at least 30,000 years, the demographic history of these groups, including divergence and admixture, remains widely unknown [4-6]. Moreover, it is still debated whether common history or convergent adaptation to a forest environment resulted in the short stature characterizing the pygmies [2, 7]. We genotyped 604 individuals at 28 autosomal tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in 12 nonpygmy and 9 neighboring pygmy populations. We found a high level of genetic heterogeneity among Western Central African pygmies, as well as evidence of heterogeneous levels of asymmetrical gene flow from nonpygmies to pygmies, consistent with the variable sociocultural barriers against intermarriages. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods [8], we compared several historical scenarios. The most likely points toward a unique ancestral pygmy population that diversified approximately 2800 years ago, contemporarily with the Neolithic expansion of nonpygmy agriculturalists [9, 10]. Our results show that recent isolation, genetic drift, and heterogeneous admixture enabled a rapid and substantial genetic differentiation among Western Central African pygmies. Such an admixture pattern is consistent with the various sociocultural behaviors related to intermariages between pygmies and nonpygmies.

  4. Public health professionals' perceptions of mental health services in Equatorial Guinea, Central-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Peter Robert; McGinnis, Shannon Marcail; Reuter, Kim Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disorders constitute 13% of global disease burden, the impacts of which are disproportionality felt in sub-Saharan Africa. Equatorial Guinea, located in Central-West Africa, has the highest per-capita investment in healthcare on the African continent, but only two studies have discussed mental health issues in the country and none of have examined the perspective of professionals working in the field. The purpose of this study was to gain a preliminary understanding of Equatoguinean health care professionals' perspectives on the mental health care system. Nine adult participants (directors or program managers) were interviewed in July 2013 in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea from government agencies, aid organizations, hospitals, and pharmacies. Interviews were designed to collect broad information about the mental healthcare system in Equatorial Guinea including the professionals' perspectives and access to resources. This research was reviewed and approved by an ethical oversight committee. All individuals interviewed indicated that the mental health system does not currently meet the needs of the community. Professionals cited infrastructural capacity, stigmatization, and a lack of other resources (training programs, knowledgeable staff, medications, data) as key factors that limit the effectiveness of mental healthcare. This study provides a preliminary understanding of the existing mental health care needs in the country, highlighting opportunities for enhanced healthcare services.

  5. Post-rift unroofing of the NW Africa passive continental margin during the Central Atlantic opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbal, B.; Bertotti, G.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Many passive margins considered as being stable for long times, show however late uplift and exhumation at regional scale as assessed by low temperature geochronometry. A large amount of Lower Cretaceous terrigeneous sediments laid down in most of basins along the NW Africa continental margins indicate that a major episode of erosion occurred during early post-rift period in the Central Atlantic. AFT and (U-Th)/He dating performed, along a roughly >500 km N-S transect, on pre-Mesozoic basement rocks from Western Meseta to the Anti-Atlas (Morocco, NW Africa) document a fully unexpected widespread unroofing during the Middle-Late Jurassic to early Late Cretaceous, with AFT and (U-Th)/He ages ranging respectively between 120-170Ma and 115-165Ma. A well documented age cluster of 140±20Ma measured for the Moroccan Meseta, Atlas domains and Anti-Atlas belt designates those domains as potentially being the source areas of the detritic sediments considering the proximity of the depositional basins. Absence of major fault separating the Anti-Atlas from the rest of the Western African Craton during the Mesozoic suggests the unroofing region to extend further in Morocco, as far south as the Reguibat (Mauritania) or even New Guinea, documented by our investigation, and perhaps even further when confirmed by additional AFT and AHe data.

  6. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...... we have engaged with Africa in a similar manner as we have done with other emerging economies? We also introduce the papers published in this special issue and highlight directions for future research....

  7. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences...... between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously...... the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial...

  8. 'Deadly gonorrhoea': history, collective memory and early HIV epidemiology in East Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhanen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article combines local oral reminiscences with recent epidemiological literature to sketch a historical context around the onset and expansion of the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Uganda and north-western Tanzania. The local historical imagination has associated the appearance of AIDS in two ways. First, with specific socio-economic structures and circumstances common in the region since the 1960s and their enhancement during the 1970s due to economic changes at national and global levels. Second, the epidemic is associated with changes in the epidemiological situation. Local perspectives are supported by recent phylogenetic research and circumstantial historical evidence, on the basis of which a hypothesis on the expansion of HIV-1 in East Central Africa (southern Uganda, north-western Tanzania, Rwanda) is presented.

  9. Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: Clinical and Genetic Data from a First Case Diagnosed in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuyi-Musanzayi, Sébastien; Lumaka, Aimé; Kasole, Toni Lubala; Ilunga, Erick Kasamba; Asani, Bienvenu Yogolelo; Tshilobo, Prosper Lukusa; Muenze, Prosper Kalenga; Reychler, Hervé; Katombe, François Tshilombo; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2017-09-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome caused by a deletion involving chromosome 4p16.3. We report clinical and genetic findings of the first WHS patient diagnosed in central Africa. This boy who presented with cleft palate, microcephaly, severe growth delay, and intellectual disability was 12 years old. Typical craniofacial features were present, though the characteristic "Greek helmet" appearance of the nose was less evident, probably reflecting a variable expression related to the genetic background. The clinical diagnosis of WHS was confirmed by array CGH, which revealed a terminal 4p16.3 deletion of 3.47 Mb, typically associated with a milder phenotype, contributing to the long survival of this child in a developing country.

  10. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. CONCLUSION: The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Antibodies in Central and Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Aina J. Leendertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the eradication of smallpox and the subsequent discontinuation of the worldwide smallpox vaccination program, other Orthopoxviruses beside Variola virus have been increasingly representing a risk to human health. To investigate the extent of natural contact with Orthopoxviruses and possible demographic risk factors for such an exposure, we performed a cross-sectional serosurvey of anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies in West and Central Africa. To this end, people living in forest regions in Côte d’Ivoire (CIV, n = 737 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD, n = 267 were assigned into groups according to their likely smallpox vaccination status. The overall prevalence of anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies was 51% in CIV and 60% in COD. High rates of seropositivity among the vaccinated part of the population (80% in CIV; 96% COD indicated a long-lasting post vaccination immune response. In non-vaccinated participants, seroprevalences of 19% (CIV and 26% (COD indicated regular contact with Orthopoxviruses. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the antibody level in the vaccinated part of the population was higher in COD than in CIV, increased with age and was slightly higher in females than males. In the unvaccinated part of the population none of these factors influenced antibody level significantly. In conclusion, our results confirm expectedly high anti-Orthopoxvirus seroprevalences in previously smallpox-vaccinated people living in CIV and the COD but more unexpectedly imply regular contact with Orthopoxviruses both in Western and Central Africa, even in the absence of recognized outbreaks.

  12. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwane Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 are the main vectors of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea and Gabon (Libreville. Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95 suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%. Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality. All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95 was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in

  13. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the osteoglossiform fish Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Mormyridae) in Central Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-62 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish parasites * Anisakidae * Central Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  14. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Boone Kauffman

    Full Text Available Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and 1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1 and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1. At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters. Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1 and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1 but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1. This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  15. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Bhomia, Rupesh K

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and 1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1) and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1). At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters). Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1) and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1) but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1). This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values) of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  16. Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillo, R.; Mazzucato, V.

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue entitled 'Africa<>Europe: Transnational Linkages, Multi-Sited Lives' outlines the history of the African migrant presence in Europe, gives an account of the contexts which shape contemporary migration, and surveys the approaches to international migration from

  17. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The impact and cost-effectiveness of the Amref Health Africa-Smile Train Cleft Lip and Palate Surgical Repair Programme in Eastern and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Hasan; Mengiste, Asrat; Carter, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) is a congenital malformation that causes significant morbidity in low and middle income countries. Amref Health Africa has partnered with Smile Train to provide CLP surgeries since 2006. We analyzed anonymized data of 37,274 CLP patients from the Smile Train database operated on in eastern and central Africa between 2006 and 2014. Cases were analyzed by age, gender, country and surgery type. The impact of cleft surgery was determined by measuring averted Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and delayed averted DALYs. We used mean Smile Train costs to calculate cost-effectiveness. We calculated economic benefit using the human capital approach and Value of Statistical Life (VSL) methods. The median age at time of primary surgery was 5.4 years. A total of 207,879 DALYs were averted at a total estimated cost of US$13 million. Mean averted DALYs per patient were 5.6, and mean cost per averted DALY was $62.8. Total delayed burden of disease from late age at surgery was 36,352 DALYs. Surgical correction resulted in $292 million in economic gain using the human capital approach and $2.4 billion using VSL methods. Cleft surgery is a cost-effective intervention to reduce disability and increase economic productivity in eastern and central Africa. Dedicated programs that provide essential CLP surgery can produce substantial clinical and economic benefits.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variability in Giraffa camelopardalis: consequences for taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of giraffes in West and central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Ropiquet, Anne; Gourmand, Anne-Laure; Chardonnet, Bertrand; Rigoulet, Jacques

    2007-03-01

    The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) still survives in four countries of West and central Africa. The populations of Niger and Cameroon are generally assigned to the subspecies peralta, but those of Chad and the Central African Republic are taxonomically problematic, as they are referred to as either peralta, or antiquorum, or congoensis. In this study, a mitochondrial fragment of 1765 nucleotide sites, covering the complete cytochrome b gene, three transfer RNAs and a large part of the control region, was sequenced to assess the relationships between several populations of giraffe. The phylogenetic analyses performed on the 12 identified haplotypes indicate that northern giraffes constitute a natural group, distinct from that of southern giraffes. Surprisingly, the giraffes of Niger are found to be more closely related to the giraffes of East Africa (subspecies rothschildi and reticulata) than to those of central Africa. We conclude therefore that the subspecies peralta contains only the Niger giraffes, whereas the subspecies antiquorum includes all populations living in Cameroon, Chad, the Central African Republic, and southwestern Sudan. We suggest that the ancestor of the Nigerian giraffe dispersed from East to North Africa during the Quaternary period and thereafter migrated to its current Sahelian distribution in West Africa, in response to the development of the Sahara desert. This hypothesis implies that Lake Mega-Chad acted as a strong geographical barrier during the Holocene, preventing any contact between the subspecies peralta and antiquorum. Our study has direct implications for conservation management, as we show that no subspecies peralta is represented in any European zoos, only in Niger, with a small population of less than 200 individuals.

  20. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day) set for children. Also, gender differences exist in the sedentary activities of the children, with boys having higher screen time and other sedentary activities than girls. Children's screen

  1. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahé Antoine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947 were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1% were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004 and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05, being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c. Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed.

  2. The equatorial rainforest of Central Africa between economic needs and sustainability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arétouyap, Zakari; Bisso, Dieudonné; Njandjock Nouck, Philippe; Yembe, Shey Jones; Diab, Diab Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    This article sets out to investigate the role played by the rainforest of Central Africa in providing environmental goods and services, regulating and stabilizing the global climate as well as participating in socio-economic development of the riparian countries. This complex role offers a double status, almost confrontational, to this rainforest: it stands as an economic resource and as a major global climate regulator. Hence, there is an urgent need to question certain aspects such as climate trends in this strategic region and the use of local forest resources for economic purpose in order to suggest ecological attitudes to be adopted by policymakers, stakeholders, forest professionals and users for a sustainable development. It is shown that: 1) this rainforest constitutes an economic resource and plays a major socio-cultural role in addition to its global climate regulatory role, 2) an overexploitation of the forest resources for economic purposes exposes the forest to an increased deterioration which can change the ecological and socio-economic balance, or destroy this forest, and by so doing, alter its global climate control power, 3) the climate of the region is experiencing serious variability. Thus, solutions that can satisfy socio-economic needs and give room for sustainable development are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Njouom, Richard; Branger, Michel; Brun-Vézinet, Francoise; Mahé, Antoine; Rousset, Dominique; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1%) were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004) and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05), being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c). Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c) was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed. PMID:18559087

  4. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  5. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  6. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  7. Nursing and midwifery regulatory reform in east, central, and southern Africa: a survey of key stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, nurses and midwives provide expanded HIV services previously seen as the sole purview of physicians. Delegation of these functions often occurs informally by shifting or sharing of tasks and responsibilities. Normalizing these arrangements through regulatory and educational reform is crucial for the attainment of global health goals and the protection of practitioners and those whom they serve. Enacting appropriate changes in both regulation and education requires engagement of national regulatory bodies, but also key stakeholders such as government chief nursing officers (CNO), professional associations, and educators. The purpose of this research is to describe the perspectives and engagement of these stakeholders in advancing critical regulatory and educational reform in east, central, and southern Africa (ECSA). Methods We surveyed individuals from these three stakeholder groups with regard to task shifting and the challenges related to practice and education regulation reform. The survey used a convenience sample of nursing and midwifery leaders from countries in ECSA who convened on 28 February 2011, for a meeting of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative. Results A total of 32 stakeholders from 13 ECSA countries participated in the survey. The majority (72%) reported task shifting is practiced in their countries; however only 57% reported their national regulations had been revised to incorporate additional professional roles and responsibilities. Stakeholders also reported different roles and levels of involvement with regard to nursing and midwifery regulation. The most frequently cited challenge impacting nursing and midwifery regulatory reform was the absence of capacity and resources needed to implement change. Discussion While guidelines on task shifting and recommendations on transforming health professional education exist, this study provides new evidence that countries in the ECSA region face

  8. Research and training in medicinal chemistry in south and central american countries and sub-saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monge

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proposal to search for universal cooperation in the field of Medicinal Chemistry, the IUPAC group has elaborated a line of work divided into two phases: a- An Awareness of the true situation of Medicinal Chemistry in the different geographic areas of the world; b- A proposal of actions as to achieve more effective cooperation. This first report presents and discusses the actual situation in South and Central America as well as in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  10. Patterns in volatile organic compound emissions along a savanna-rainforest gradient in central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, L. F.; Greenburg, J.; Guenther, A.; Tyndall, G.; Zimmerman, P.; M'bangui, M.; Moutsamboté, J.-M.; Kenfack, D.

    1998-01-01

    In temperate regions the chemistry of the lower troposphere is known to be significantly affected by biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. The chemistry of the lower troposphere over the tropics, however, is poorly understood, in part because of the considerable uncertainties in VOC emissions from tropical ecosystems. Present global VOC models predict that base emissions of isoprene from tropical rainforests are considerably higher than from savannas. These global models of VOC emissions which rely mainly on species inventories are useful, but significant improvement might be made with more ecologically based models of VOC emissions by plants. Ecosystems along a successional transect from woodland savanna to primary rainforest in central Africa were characterized for species composition and vegetation abundance using ground surveys and remotely sensed data. A total of 336 species (mostly trees) at 13 sites were recorded, and 208 of these were measured for VOC emissions at near-optimal light and temperature conditions using a leaf cuvette and hand-held photoionization detector (PID). A subset of 59 species was also sampled using conventional VOC emission techniques in order to validate the PID technique. Results of ecological and VOC emission surveys indicate both phylogenetic and successional patterns along the savanna-rainforest transect. Genera and families of trees which tend to emit isoprene include Lophira, Irvingia, Albizia, Artocarpus, Ficus, Pterocarpus, Caesalpiniaceae, Arecaceae, and Moraceae. Other taxa tend to contain stored VOCs (Annonaceae and Asteraceae). Successional patterns suggest that isoprene emissions are highest in the relatively early successional Isoberlinia forest communities and progressively decrease in the later successional secondary and primary rainforest communities. Stored VOCs appear to increase along the savanna-rainforest succession, but these data are more tentative. These findings are consistent with

  11. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927

  12. The dolerite dyke swarm of Mongo, Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa): Geological setting, petrography and geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Nkouandou Oumarou Faarouk; Bardintzeff Jacques-Marie; Mahamat Oumar; Fagny Mefire Aminatou; Ganwa Alembert Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Dolerite dykes are widespread in the Mongo area within the granitic Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa). Dykes are several hundred metres to several kilometres long, a metre to decametre thick, and vertical, crosscutting the Pan-African granitic basement rocks. They are controlled by major Pan-African NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW faults. Rocks constituting the dykes exhibit typical doleritic textures (i.e. intergranular, ophitic or subophitic). They are mainly composed of phenocrysts, microcrys...

  13. Protected Area managers' Perceptions of Community Conservation Training in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Groot, de W.T.; Mayna, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Training needs assessments have revealed the need for people-oriented training to increase the job performance of African protected area (PA) managers. The Garoua regional wildlife college for francophone Africa (Cameroon) developed the first long (diploma and certificate) and refresher courses in

  14. Catchment management in semi-arid area of central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa: Strategy for improving water productivity. YE Woyessa1*, M Hensley2 and LD van ... This accentuates the need for wise decisions by catchment management agencies (CMAs), espe- cially in water-scarce semi-arid .... crop model together with long-term rainfall data it was pos- sible to predict long-term yields of ...

  15. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in Central Africa: a review of the published literature between 1955 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieghe, E; Phoba, M F; Tamfun, J J Muyembe; Jacobs, J

    2009-10-01

    A systematic review of the published literature on bacterial resistance in Central Africa between 1955 and 2008 was performed. Eighty-three publications from seven countries were retrieved, the majority presenting data on enteric and other gram-negative pathogens. Despite methodological limitations in many studies, alarming resistance rates are noted in nearly all pathogens. Of special concern are multidrug resistance in Shigella and Salmonella spp. and the emergence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, high-level penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among gram-negative pathogens. These findings make clear that the Central African region shares the worldwide trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance and is in urgent need of sound surveillance based on competent and affordable microbiology to provide clear data on antimicrobial resistance. These data could enable redaction of local treatment guidelines and fuel national and regional policies to contain antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Adult HIV care resources, management practices and patient characteristics in the Phase 1 IeDEA Central Africa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Mushingantahe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent advances in the management of HIV infection and increased access to treatment, prevention, care and support, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa suffering by far the greatest humanitarian, demographic and socio-economic burden of the epidemic. Information on HIV/AIDS clinical care and established cohorts’ characteristics in the Central Africa region are sparse. Methods: A survey of clinical care resources, management practices and patient characteristics was undertaken among 12 adult HIV care sites in four countries of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa (IeDEA-CA Phase 1 regional network in October 2009. These facilities served predominantly urban populations and offered primary care in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; six sites, secondary care in Rwanda (two sites and tertiary care in Cameroon (three sites and Burundi (one site. Results: Despite some variation in facility characteristics, sites reported high levels of monitoring resources, including electronic databases, as well as linkages to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs. At the time of the survey, there were 21,599 HIV-positive adults (median age=37 years enrolled in the clinical cohort. Though two-thirds were women, few adults (6.5% entered HIV care through prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, whereas 55% of the cohort entered care through voluntary counselling and testing. Two-thirds of patients at sites in Cameroon and DRC were in WHO Stage III and IV at baseline, whereas nearly all patients in the Rwanda facilities with clinical stage information available were in Stage I and II. WHO criteria were used for antiretroviral therapy initiation. The most common treatment regimen was stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (64%, followed by zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (19%. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the

  17. Changes in Intense Precipitation Events in West Africa and the central U.S. under Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kerry H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Vizy, Edward [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of the proposed project is to improve our understanding of the physical processes and large-scale connectivity of changes in intense precipitation events (high rainfall rates) under global warming in West Africa and the central U.S., including relationships with low-frequency modes of variability. This is in response to the requested subject area #2 “simulation of climate extremes under a changing climate … to better quantify the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme events under climate change and elucidate the role of low frequency climate variability in modulating extremes.” We will use a regional climate model and emphasize an understanding of the physical processes that lead to an intensification of rainfall. The project objectives are as follows: 1. Understand the processes responsible for simulated changes in warm-season rainfall intensity and frequency over West Africa and the Central U.S. associated with greenhouse gas-induced global warming 2. Understand the relationship between changes in warm-season rainfall intensity and frequency, which generally occur on regional space scales, and the larger-scale global warming signal by considering modifications of low-frequency modes of variability. 3. Relate changes simulated on regional space scales to global-scale theories of how and why atmospheric moisture levels and rainfall should change as climate warms.

  18. A review of existing trauma and musculoskeletal impairment (TMSI) care capacity in East, Central, and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokotho, Linda; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Burgess, David; Labib, Mohamed; Le, Grace; Peter, Noel; Lavy, Christopher B D; Pandit, Hemant

    2016-09-01

    We conducted an assessment of orthopaedic surgical capacity in the following countries in East, Central, and Southern Africa: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We adapted the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care with questions specific to trauma and orthopaedic care. In May 2013-May 2014, surgeons from the College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa (COSECSA) based at district (secondary) and referral (tertiary) hospitals in the region completed a web-based survey. COSECSA members contacted other eligible hospitals in their country to collect further data. Data were collected from 267 out of 992 (27%) hospitals, including 185 district hospitals and 82 referral hospitals. Formal accident and emergency departments were present in 31% of hospitals. Most hospitals had no general or orthopaedic surgeons or medically-qualified anaesthetists on staff. Functioning mobile C-arm X-ray machines were available in only 4% of district and 27% of referral hospitals; CT scanning was available in only 3% and 26%, respectively. Closed fracture treatment was offered in 72% of the hospitals. While 20% of district and 49% of referral hospitals reported adequate instruments for the surgical treatment of fractures, only 4% and 10%, respectively, had a sustainable supply of fracture implants. Elective orthopaedic surgery was offered in 29% and Ponseti treatment of clubfoot was available at 42% of the hospitals. The current capacity of hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa to manage traumatic injuries and orthopaedic conditions is significantly limited. In light of the growing burden of trauma and musculoskeletal impairment within this region, concerted efforts should be made to improve hospital capacity with equipment, trained personnel, and specialist clinical services. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on maternal age, parity, birth weight, gestational age, maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, use of bednets, and intake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy were collected in a cross-sectional survey in 775 women giving birth in three mother-child health centers in Gabon. Adolescent women (≤16 years of age had a significantly increased risk to deliver a baby with low birth weight in univariable analysis (22.8%, 13/57, vs. 9.3%, 67/718, OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5-5.6 and young maternal age showed a statistically significant association with the risk for low birth weight in multivariable regression analysis after correction for established risk factors (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5. In further analysis adolescent women were shown to attend significantly less antenatal care visits than adult mothers (3.3±1.9 versus 4.4±1.9 mean visits, p<0.01, n = 356 and this difference accounted at least for part of the excess risk for low birth weight in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the importance of adolescent age as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa.

  20. Serological versus biochemical detection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    Serological versus molecular diagnosis. Diseases caused by viruses are a constant and major problem for crop and livestock production worldwide. The diseases range from highly contagious acute forms with high mortality, to chronic disabling ones with an insidious effect on production. Considerable efforts are needed to.

  1. Effects of the Boko Haram Insurgency Group in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Point Value TOTAL 2000 2008 2010 2014 TOTAL XX XXX TOTAL AGG XXX Source: Created by author. Table 2...Nigeria-regains- border-town-after-Chadian-military-assault- video ; Bate Felix, “Cameroon says Chad to send large military contingent to fight Boko...http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2015/0130/Boko-Haram-Nigeria- regains-border-town-after-Chadian-military-assault- video . Seiff, Kevin. “The

  2. Malaria continues to select for sickle cell trait in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elguero, E; Délicat-Loembet, LM; Rougeron, V; Arnathau, C.; Roche, B; Becquart, P.; Gonzalez, JP; Nkoghe, D; Sica, L; Leroy, EM; Durand, P.; Ayala, FJ; Ollomo, B; Renaud, F; Prugnolle, F

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that poses a serious health threat in tropical Africa, which the World Health Organization has declared a public health priority. Its persistence in human populations has been attributed to the resistance it provides to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in its heterozygous state, called sickle cell trait (SCT). Because of migration, SCT is becoming common outside tropical countries: It is no...

  3. Leishmania infantum in a Central Italy dog shelter: retrospective study of serologic reactivity during a 4-year period in a confined dog population subjected to preventive and therapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Iannetti, Luigi; Di Mattia, Tiberio; Dalla Villa, Paolo

    2009-03-23

    Leishmaniasis from Leishmania infantum is a parasitary zoonotic disease and a serious problem to public health. Guidelines from Italian Health Authority (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) suggest to control the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis canine reservoir in endemic areas using an association of preventive and therapeutic tools. Moreover, in literature there are no studies about the long term effects on the disease seroprevalence and incidence in relation to this "holistic" approach. Past research has considered the effects of the alternative employment of preventive or therapeutic treatment, usually for limited periods. In this retrospective study the patterns of seroprevalence and incidence of leishmaniasis in a dog shelter sited in an endemic area of Central Italy are described throughout a 4-year period. Both preventive spot-on tools (imidacloprid/permetrin) and therapeutic protocols based on antimonials and allopurinol were administered. The results showed a progressive reduction of prevalence and incidence of serological reactivity to L. infantum, corroborating the effectiveness of the treatment administered to the animals. Significant improvements from the beginning to the end of the 4-year period were reported, considering both prevalence and incidence. A very low rate of relapses (8% in a pool of 67 subjects positive since 2004; 10.2% among all subjects enrolled in the study) was achieved.

  4. Hepatitis E virus is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, with different patterns between rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Mélanie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. Nothing is known about the circulation of this virus in central Africa. We evaluated therefore the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in samples collected from pregnant women living in the five main cities of Gabon, central Africa. We found that 14.1% (119/840 of pregnant women had anti-HEV IgG. The prevalence differed between regions and between age groups. In 391 newly collected samples from the region where the highest prevalence was found, a significant difference (p

  5. Innovating for skills enhancement in agricultural sciences in Africa: The centrality of field attachment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Africa remains an intensely agrarian continent, with two-thirds of its people directly or indirectly deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Higher agricultural education has thus emphasised production of graduates with the requisite skills to drive agricultural development. Despite these efforts, too few graduates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have the employable skills necessary to transition to the labour market. A similar situation is observable among agricultural science graduates, who are vital to serving rural smallholder farmers. Most Colleges of Agriculture in Africa offer field attachment internships in agriculture and related fields but they are largely designed to cater for undergraduate students and are not part of the training programs at graduate level. To ameliorate this gap, the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM, a network of 55 member universities in SSA, designed and rolled out an innovative field attachment program award (FAPA, launched in 2010, to serve graduate students. The FAPA is competitively based and designed to encourage students to follow through with the dissemination of their research and to enable them to link more closely with the communities and agencies working in the geographical area where the research was undertaken. During the period 2010–2015, five grant cycles were successfully implemented and 114 graduate students from 17 countries in SSA awarded. This article discusses the lessons learned during this period by examining two key areas: (1 the application process and implementation of the awards; and (2 the reported outcomes and challenges for grantees. Establishing the award has generated key technical and implementation lessons that the network and individual universities have been able to use to improve and institutionalise processes. Grantees have reported gaining a range of cross-cutting skills in personal mastery, initiative leadership and innovativeness

  6. Disjunct distributions of freshwater snails testify to a central role of the Congo system in shaping biogeographical patterns in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Riedel, Frank; von Rintelen, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2014-03-06

    The formation of the East African Rift System has decisively influenced the distribution and evolution of tropical Africa's biota by altering climate conditions, by creating basins for large long-lived lakes, and by affecting the catchment and drainage directions of river systems. However, it remains unclear how rifting affected the biogeographical patterns of freshwater biota through time on a continental scale, which is further complicated by the scarcity of molecular data from the largest African river system, the Congo. We study these biogeographical patterns using a fossil-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny of the gastropod family Viviparidae. This group allows reconstructing drainage patterns exceptionally well because it disperses very poorly in the absence of existing freshwater connections. Our phylogeny covers localities from major drainage basins of tropical Africa and reveals highly disjunct sister-group relationships between (a) the endemic viviparids of Lake Malawi and populations from the Middle Congo as well as between (b) the Victoria region and the Okavango/Upper Zambezi area. The current study testifies to repeated disruptions of the distribution of the Viviparidae during the formation of the East African Rift System, and to a central role of the Congo River system for the distribution of the continent's freshwater fauna during the late Cenozoic. By integrating our results with previous findings on palaeohydrographical connections, we provide a spatially and temporarily explicit model of historical freshwater biogeography in tropical Africa. Finally, we review similarities and differences in patterns of vertebrate and invertebrate dispersal. Amongst others we argue that the closest relatives of present day viviparids in Lake Malawi are living in the Middle Congo River, thus shedding new light on the origin of the endemic fauna of this rift lake.

  7. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic diversity of Dacryodes buettneri (Engl. H.J. Lam (Burseraceae, a timber tree in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Todou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to the management of plant genetic resources in tropical Africa, a study of the genetic diversity of Dacryodes buettneri, a forest species exploited in Central Africa as timber, was carried out in Gabon. The nuclear DNA extracted from 170 trees distributed in six populations was amplified using five microsatellite markers. This amplification revealed that the genetic diversity within population is relatively important: the mean number of alleles per locus A=4.43±0.93, the percentage of polymorphism P=76% and expected heterozygosis Hexp= 0.35±0.06. The mean of inbreeding coefficient, F is equal to 0.25±0.08. The values of F-statistics showed that the genetic variability of populations taken separately is less than genetic variability in the meta-population (Fis=38% and Fit = 40%. The mean genetic distance between populations is low Fst=0.08, indicating much of genetic diversity within population. The gene flow is Nm=2.88. The genetic diversity of D. buettneri, showing an important inbreeding coefficient, is related to the reproductive system and mode of seed dispersal. The results contribute to valorization and conservation of wild phytogenetic resources for sustainable use.

  9. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3 in Central Africa

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    Mahieux Renaud

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human T-cell Leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 and type 2 (HTLV-2 are pathogenic retroviruses that infect humans and cause severe hematological and neurological diseases. Both viruses have simian counterparts (STLV-1 and STLV-2. STLV-3 belongs to a third group of lymphotropic viruses which infect numerous African monkeys species. Among 240 Cameroonian plasma tested for the presence of HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2 antibodies, 48 scored positive by immunofluorescence. Among those, 27 had indeterminate western-blot pattern. PCR amplification of pol and tax regions, using HTLV-1, -2 and STLV-3 highly conserved primers, demonstrated the presence of a new human retrovirus in one DNA sample. tax (180 bp and pol (318 bp phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the strong relationships between the novel human strain (Pyl43 and STLV-3 isolates from Cameroon. The virus, that we tentatively named HTLV-3, originated from a 62 years old Bakola Pygmy living in a remote settlement in the rain forest of Southern Cameroon. The plasma was reactive on MT2 cells but was negative on C19 cells. The HTLV 2.4 western-blot exhibited a strong reactivity to p19 and a faint one to MTA-1. On the INNO-LIA strip, it reacted faintly with the generic p19 (I/II, but strongly to the generic gp46 (I/II and to the specific HTLV-2 gp46. The molecular relationships between Pyl43 and STLV-3 are thus not paralleled by the serological results, as most of the STLV-3 infected monkeys have an "HTLV-2 like" WB pattern. In the context of the multiple interspecies transmissions which occurred in the past, and led to the present-day distribution of the PTLV-1, it is thus very tempting to speculate that this newly discovered human retrovirus HTLV-3 might be widespread, at least in the African continent.

  10. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

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    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  11. Histogram evaluation of /sup 14/C dates applied to the first complete Iron Age sequence from West Central Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyh, M.A. (Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany, F.R.)); De Maret, P. (Musee Royal de l' Afrique Centrale, Tervuren (Belgium))

    1982-08-01

    In recent years, it has become obvious that whenever possible it is better to have several /sup 14/C dates in order to ascertain the time period of a phenomenon. One arrives at 'populations' of dates which would not normally be easily related to nor comparable with each other. A new method based on statistical and graphical evaluation of the dates is described here. Standard deviation is used to construct histograms corresponding to each date. These can be summed up in large histograms encompassing several dates and which are comparable with each other. The application of this method to forty-two /sup 14/C dates from several Iron Age sites in West Central Africa has provided the clue for dating by an absolute chronology the first complete Iron Age sequence for this part of the world.

  12. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  13. Trend and variability in western and central Africa streamflow, and their relation to climate variability between 1950 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, Moussa; Dieppois, Bastien; Mahé, Gil; Paturel, Jean-Emmanuel; Rouché, Nathalie; Amoussou, Ernest; Anifowose, Babatunde; Lawler, Damian

    2017-04-01

    Unprecedented drought episodes that struck western and central Africa between the late 1960s and 1980s. This triggered many studies investigating rainfall variability and its impacts on food production systems. However, most studies were focused at the catchment scale. In this study, we examine how rainfall variability has impacted on river flow at the subcontinental scale between 1950 and 2010, as well as the key large-scale controls on this relationship. For the first time, we establish a complete, gap-filled, monthly streamflow data set, which extends from 1950 to 2010, over the western and central African region. To achieve this, we used linear regression modelling across and between 600 flow gauging stations (see initial database information at http://www.hydrosciences.fr/sierem/index_en.htm). Streamflow trend and variability are then seasonally assessed at this subcontinental scale and compared to those observed in three different rainfall data sets (i.e. CRU TS3.24, GPCC V7, IRD-HSM). Long-term trends and variability in streamflow are mainly consistent with trends in rainfall. However, these relationships may have been moderated by: i) changes in land use; and ii) contributions from groundwater resources. In particular, we note that the recent post 1990s partial recovery in Sahel rainfall could have, at least partially, positively impacted river flows (e.g. the Senegal and Niger rivers). Using multi-temporal trend and continuous wavelet analysis, the time-evolution of western and central African river flows are analysed, and are all characterized by very strong decadal fluctuations, which can be interpreted as modulations in the baseflow. These decadal fluctuations, which are also significantly detected in rainfall, are likely related to large-scale sea-surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns, such as the tropical Atlantic SST variability, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and/or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

  14. New taxa, combinations and records of Pteridophyta from southern and central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Burrows

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa of ferns are described and illustrated from southern Africa:  Ophioglossum convexum J.E. Burrows, Mohria caffrorum (L. Desv. var. ferruginea J.E. & S.M. Burrows,  Marsilea farinosa Launert subsp. arrecta J.E. Burrows and Asplenium sebungweense J.E. Burrows. The combination of Grammitis rigescens (Bory ex Willd. J.E. Burrows is made. Ophioglossum thomasii Clausen,  O. rube Hum Welw. ex A. Braun.  Vinana ensiformis Swartz and Asplenium buettneri Hieron. ex Brause are new records for Zimbabwe, while Hymenophyllum splendidum V.d. Bosch and  Asplenium uhligii Hieron. are new records for Malawi and Zimbabwe. Actiniopteris semiflabellata Pichi-Sermolli is recorded from Namibia and Thelypteris oppositiformis (C. Chr. Ching is recorded from the Transvaal.

  15. South Africa and the search of strategic effect in the Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... emphasis on the absence of South African interests in the Central African Republic, the failure of the executive to inform parliament, the dubious and blurred intentions of the African National Congress government and the absence of a clear political–military nexus for the operation. The lack of sufficient military capabilities ...

  16. Factors Associated with Retention to Care in an HIV Clinic in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Saskia; Wieten, Rosanne Willemijn; Stolp, Sebastiaan; Cremers, Anne Lia; Rossatanga, Elie Gide; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Belard, Sabine; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retention to HIV care is vital for patients' survival, to prevent onward transmission and emergence of drug resistance. Travelling to receive care might influence adherence. Data on the functioning of and retention to HIV care in the Central African region are limited. METHODS: This

  17. Factors Associated with Retention to Care in an HIV Clinic in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Saskia; Wieten, Rosanne Willemijn; Stolp, Sebastiaan; Cremers, Anne Lia; Rossatanga, Elie Gide; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Belard, Sabine; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    Retention to HIV care is vital for patients' survival, to prevent onward transmission and emergence of drug resistance. Travelling to receive care might influence adherence. Data on the functioning of and retention to HIV care in the Central African region are limited. This retrospective study

  18. Inguinal Hernia Repair is Safe in Africa | Warwick | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  19. A review of patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa

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    R Govender

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1 is an organic acidaemia. The objective of this study was to describe the profile of patients diagnosed with GA1 at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa from 2007 to 2015. We identified 6 children (4 girls, 2 boys in a retrospective review. The mean age at diagnosis was 12 months. Clinical findings on presentation were encephalopathic crises (n=4, hypotonia (n=4 and macrocephaly (n=5. Other complications included seizures (n=4, dystonia (n=3 and bulbar dysfunction (n=4. Urine organic acid screens showed elevated glutaric acid levels (n=6. Five patients tested positive for the A293T mutation on the glutarylco-enzyme A (CoA dehydrogenase gene. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging screening included hyperintense basal ganglia (n=6, widened perisylvian fissures (n=6, and an abnormal signal in the cerebral peduncles (n=5 and central tegmental tract (n=4. All patients were treated with L-carnitine and dietary modification. Two patients had a static clinical course, 1 patient gained milestones, and 3 have shown further neuroregression.

  20. Tick control by small-scale cattle farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Masika; A. Sonandi; W. Van Averbeke

    1997-01-01

    A survey conducted in 5 magisterial districts involving rapid rural appraisal and a questionnaire showed participation in state-managed and funded dipping programmes by cattle owners in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape to be nearly complete, with 98 % of livestock owners interviewed participating in all dipping events. Disease control was the main reason for participation, but farmers perceive dipping to have a much broader disease-preventing activity than is really the case. Other ...

  1. Malaria continues to select for sickle cell trait in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguero, Eric; Délicat-Loembet, Lucrèce M; Rougeron, Virginie; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Becquart, Pierre; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Sica, Lucas; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Ayala, Francisco J; Ollomo, Benjamin; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-06-02

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that poses a serious health threat in tropical Africa, which the World Health Organization has declared a public health priority. Its persistence in human populations has been attributed to the resistance it provides to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in its heterozygous state, called sickle cell trait (SCT). Because of migration, SCT is becoming common outside tropical countries: It is now the most important genetic disorder in France, affecting one birth for every 2,400, and one of the most common in the United States. We assess the strength of the association between SCT and malaria, using current data for both SCT and malaria infections. A total of 3,959 blood samples from 195 villages distributed over the entire Republic of Gabon were analyzed. Hemoglobin variants were identified by using HPLCy (HPLC). Infections by three species of Plasmodium were detected by PCR followed by sequencing of a 201-bp fragment of cytochrome b. An increase of 10% in P. falciparum malaria prevalence is associated with an increase by 4.3% of SCT carriers. An increase of 10 y of age is associated with an increase by 5.5% of SCT carriers. Sex is not associated with SCT. These strong associations show that malaria remains a selective factor in current human populations, despite the progress of medicine and the actions undertaken to fight this disease. Our results provide evidence that evolution is still present in humans, although this is sometimes questioned by scientific, political, or religious personalities.

  2. Onchocerca volvulus infection and serological prevalence, ocular onchocerciasis and parasite transmission in northern and central Togo after decades of Simulium damnosum s.l. vector control and mass drug administration of ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlan, Kossi; Vossberg, Patrick S; Gantin, Richard G; Solim, Tchalim; Korbmacher, Francois; Banla, Méba; Padjoudoum, Koffi; Karabou, Potchoziou; Köhler, Carsten; Soboslay, Peter T

    2018-03-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin has become the main intervention to control onchocerciasis or "river blindness". In Togo, after many years of MDA, Onchocerca volvulus infection has declined dramatically, and elimination appears achievable, but in certain river basins the current situation remains unknown. We have conducted parasitological, serological, ophthalmological, and entomological assessments in northern and central Togo within the river basins of Ôti, Kéran and Mô. Examinations were completed in 1,455 participants from 11 onchocerciasis sentinel villages, and O. volvulus transmission by Simulium damnosum sensu lato (s.l.) was evaluated. In children (aged 1-10 years), the prevalence of microfilariae (Mf) was 2.3% and in adults it ranged from 5.1 to 13.3%. Positive IgG4 responses to O. volvulus adult (crude) worm antigen (OvAg) and the recombinant Ov16 antigen were in all-ages 48.7% and 34.4%, and 29.1% and 14.9% in children, respectively. In the river basin villages of Kéran, Mô and Ôti, the IgG4 seroprevalences to OvAg in children were 51.7%, 23.5% and 12.7%, respectively, and to the Ov16 antigen 33.3% (Kéran) and 5.2% (Ôti). Onchocerciasis ocular lesions (punctate keratitis, evolving iridocyclitis and chorioretinitis) were observed in children and young adults. O. volvulus-specific DNA (Ov150) was detected by poolscreen in vector samples collected from Tchitchira/Kéran(22.8%), Bouzalo/Mô(11.3%), Baghan/Mô(2.9%) and Pancerys/Ôti(4.9%); prevalences of O. volvulus infection in S. damnosum s.l. were, respectively, 1%, 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.2%. In the northern and central river basins in Togo, interruption of O. volvulus transmission has not yet been attained. Patent O. volvulus infections, positive antibody responses, progressive ocular onchocerciasis were diagnosed, and parasite transmission by S. damnosum s.l. occurred close to the survey locations. Future interventions may require approaches selectively targeted to non-complying endemic

  3. On the added value of the regional climate model REMO in the assessment of climate change signal over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Pokam, Wilfried M.; Djomou, Zéphirin Yepdo; Diallo, Ismaïla; Haensler, Andreas; Tchotchou, Lucie A. Djiotang; Kamsu-Tamo, Pierre H.; Gaye, Amadou T.; Tchawoua, Clément

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the regional climate model REMO is used to investigate the added value of downscaling low resolutions global climate models (GCMs) and the climate change projections over Central Africa. REMO was forced by two GCMs (EC-Earth and MPI-ESM), for the period from 1950 to 2100 under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario. The performance of the REMO simulations for current climate is compared first with REMO simulation driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, then by the corresponding GCMs in order to determine whether REMO outputs are able to effectively lead to added value at local scale. We found that REMO is generally able to better represent some aspects of the rainfall inter-annual variability, the daily rainfall intensity distribution as well as the intra-seasonal variability of the Central African monsoon, though few biases are still evident. It is also found that the boundary conditions strongly influences the spatial distribution of seasonal 2-m temperature and rainfall. From the analysis of the climate change signal from the present period 1976-2005 to the future 2066-2095, we found that all models project a warming at the end of the twenty-first century although the details of the climate change differ between REMO and the driving GCMs, specifically in REMO where we observe a general decrease in rainfall. This rainfall decrease is associated with delayed onset and anticipated recession of the Central African monsoon and a shortening of the rainy season. Small-scales variability of the climate change signal for 2-m temperature are usually smaller than that of the large-scales climate change part. For rainfall however, small-scales induce change of about 70% compared to the present climate statistics.

  4. Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet Maia

    2005-01-01

    This is a critical, systematic review of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower women through increasing women's access to funds and education, this review examines the epidemiological and public health literature, which ascertains the association between low SES using different measurements of SES and risk of HIV infection in women. Also, given the focus on structural violence and poverty as factors driving the HIV epidemic at a structural/ecological level, as advocated by Paul Farmer and others, this study examines the extent to which differences in SES between individuals in areas with generalized poverty affect risk for SES. Out of 71 studies retrieved, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria including 30 cross-sectional, one case-control and five prospective cohort or nested case-control studies. Thirty-five studies used at least one measurement of female's SES and fourteen also included a measurement of partner's SES. Studies used variables measuring educational level, household income and occupation or employment status at the individual and neighbourhood level to ascertain SES. Of the 36 studies, fifteen found no association between SES and HIV infection, twelve found an association between high SES and HIV infection, eight found an association between low SES and HIV infection and one was mixed. In interpreting these results, this review examines the role of potential confounders and effect modifiers such as history of STDs, number of partners, living in urban or rural areas and time and location of study in sub-Saharan Africa. It is argued that STDs and number of partners are on the causal pathway under investigation between HIV and SES and should not be adjusted as confounders in any analysis. In conclusion, it is argued that in low-income sub-Saharan Africans

  5. Phylogeography, risk factors and genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Gabon, central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Njouom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological and molecular characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the general population have been poorly investigated in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and epidemic history of HCV in the Gabonese general population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4042 sera collected from adults in 220 villages in all nine administrative areas of the country were screened for antibodies to HCV. HCV NS5B region sequencing was performed for molecular characterization and population genetic analyses. Of 4042 tested sera, 455 (11.2% were positive. The seroprevalence of HCV varied significantly by administrative area, with the highest rate in Ogooué-Lolo province (20.4% and the lowest in Ogooué-Maritine province (3.7%. History of parenteral injections, past hospital admission and age over 55 years were independent risk factors for HCV infection (p<0.0001. Phylogenetic analyses showed that 91.9% of the strains were genotype 4 (HCV-4, 5.7% genotype 1 and 2.2% genotype 2. HCV-4 strains were highly heterogeneous, with more than eight subtypes; subtype 4e predominated (57.3%. Coalescence analyses indicated that subtype 4e was the oldest, with an estimated most recent common ancestor of 1702 [95% CI, 1418-1884]. The epidemic profile indicated that it spread exponentially during the first part of the 20th century, probably by iatrogenic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the endemicity of HCV subtype 4e in Gabon and show that its spread is due to a cohort effect, with previous, possibly iatrogenic events. More extensive epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize the route of transmission and the dissemination of HCV in Gabon.

  6. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  7. Allele frequencies and haplotypes of eight Y-short tandem repeats in Bantu population living in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Maxime; Filali, Mounir; Grésenguet, Gérard; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Le Goff, Jérôme; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Bélec, Laurent

    2007-09-13

    Eight Y chromosome short tandem repeats (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385I/II) were used to assess haplotype distribution in non-selected, unrelated Bantu males living in Central Africa [N. Mathias, M. Bayes, C. Tyler-Smith, Highly informative compound haplotypes for the human Y chromosome, Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 (1994) 115-123; L. Roewer, J. Arnemann, N.K. Spurr, K.H. Grzeschik, J.T. Epplen, Simple repeat sequences on the human Y chromosome are equally polymorphic as their autosomal counterparts, Hum. Genet. 89 (1992) 389-394; P. De Knijff, M. Kayser, A. Caglia, D. Corach, N. Fretwel, C. Gehrig, G. Graziosi, F. Heidorn, S. Herrmann, B. Herzog, M. Hidding, K. Honda, M. Jobling, M. Krawczak, K. Leim, S. Meuser, E. Meyer, W. Oesterreich, A. Pandya, W. Parson, G. Penacino, A. Perez-Lezaun, A. Piccini, M. Prinz, C. Schmitt, P. M. Schneider, R. Szibor, J. Teifel-Greding, G. Weishold, L. Rower, Chromosome Y microsatellites: population genetic and evolutionary aspects, Int. J. Legal Med. 110 (1997) 134-149; M. Kayser, A. Caglia, D. Corach, N. Fretwel, C. Gehrig, G. Graziosi, F. Heidorn, S. Herrmann, B. Herzog, M. Hidding, K. Honda, M. Jobling, M. Krawczak, K. Leim, S. Meuser, E. Meyer, W. Oesterreich, A. Pandya, W. Parson, G. Penacino, A. Perez-Lezaun, A. Piccini, M. Prinz, C. Schmitt, P. M. Schneider, R. Szibor, J. Teifel-Greding, G. Weishold, P. de Knijff, L. Rower, Evaluation of Y chromosome STRs: a multicenter study, Int. J. Legal Med. 110 (1997) 125-133, 141-149]. One hundred and sixty-five full haplotypes were obtained from Bantu males. The most common haplotype (DYS19-15, DYS389I-13, DYS389II-30, DYS390-21, DYS391-10, DYS392-11, DYS393-13, DYS385I/II-15,17) was shared by 5.5% of individuals. In the Bantu population in Central Africa, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity of Y-STR may be estimated at 99.14% and 0.5333, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of historical and future simulations of precipitation and temperature in central Africa from CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, Noel R.; Sheffield, Justin; Saiers, James E.; Li, Haibin; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional climate change assessments rely heavily on the general circulation model (GCM) outputs such as provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Here we evaluate the ability of 25 CMIP5 GCMs to simulate historical precipitation and temperature over central Africa and assess their future projections in the context of historical performance and intermodel and future emission scenario uncertainties. We then apply a statistical bias correction technique to the monthly climate fields and develop monthly downscaled fields for the period of 1948-2099. The bias-corrected and downscaled data set is constructed by combining a suite of global observation and reanalysis-based data sets, with the monthly GCM outputs for the 20th century, and 21st century projections for the medium mitigation (representative concentration pathway (RCP)45) and high emission (RCP85) scenarios. Overall, the CMIP5 models simulate temperature better than precipitation, but substantial spatial heterogeneity exists. Many models show limited skill in simulating the seasonality, spatial patterns, and magnitude of precipitation. Temperature projections by the end of the 21st century (2070-2099) show a robust warming between 2 and 4°C across models, whereas precipitation projections vary across models in the sign and magnitude of change (-9% to 27%). Projected increase in precipitation for a subset of models (single model ensemble (SME)) identified based on performance metrics and causal mechanisms are slightly higher compared to the full multimodel ensemble (MME) mean; however, temperature projections are similar between the two ensemble means. For the near-term (2021-2050), neither the historical performance nor choice of models is related to the precipitation projections, indicating that natural variability dominated any signal. With fewer models, the "blind" MME approach will have larger uncertainties in future precipitation projections compared to projections

  9. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

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    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  10. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

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    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  11. Incertitude, Hepatitis B, and Infant Vaccination in West and Central Africa.

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    Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Bainilago, Louis

    2016-06-01

    This comparative study explores incertitude about hepatitis B (HBV) and its implications for childhood vaccination in Bangui, Central African Republic, and the Cascades region, Burkina Faso. Anthropological approaches to vaccination, which counter stereotypes of "ignorant" publics needing education to accept vaccination, excavate alternative ways of knowing about illness and vaccination. We build on these approaches, evaluating different kinds of incertitude (ambiguity, uncertainty, ignorance) about infancy, HBV, health protection, and vaccination. Using interviews and participant observation, we find that Bangui and Cascades publics framed their incertitude differently through stories of infancy, illness, and protection. We locate different forms of incertitude within their historical contexts to illuminate why vaccination practices differ in the Cascades region and Bangui. A more nuanced approach to incomplete knowledge, situated in political, economic, and social histories of the state and vaccination, can contribute to more appropriate global health strategies to improve HBV prevention. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Sorghum germplasm from West and Central Africa maintained in the ICRISAT genebank: Status, gaps, and diversity

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    Hari Deo Upadhyaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genebank at ICRISAT maintains 8020 accessions of sorghum from 16 West and Central African countries. Geographical gaps and diversity were assessed in the collection. Using the passport data of 3991 accessions for which georeferenced data were available, a total of 386 districts (gaps located in 11 West and Central African countries were identified as geographical gaps. Burkina Faso with 140 and Nigeria with 118 districts were identified as countries with major geographical gaps. The collection of 43 accessions of wild species represented only three species belonging to Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii and ssp. verticilliflorum, S. hevisonii, and S. macrochaeta, highlighting the need for collection missions aimed exclusively at enriching the collection of wild relatives. Accessions having characterization data (7630 were used to assess diversity. The first three principal components contributed to >60% of variation. Maximum diversity was observed in the collection from Nigeria for both qualitative and quantitative traits. Mean values indicated significant differences between basic and intermediate races for the traits studied. Among the races, accessions of guinea-caudatum for qualitative traits and those of caudatum for quantitative traits were highly diverse. The low intensity of the sorghum collection and the many geographical gaps in the collection underline the importance of launching collection missions to fill the gaps, particularly in regions of predominantly guinea sorghums. Genotyping of possible duplicate accessions is needed to identify duplicates in the collection. It is suggested that all passport information including georeferenced data of collection sites should be collected when samples are collected in gaps. Keywords: Collection, Diversity, Gaps, Germplasm, Landraces, Sorghum

  13. Initiation and development of the Kivu rift segment in Central Africa by reactivating un-favorably oriented structural weaknesses

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    Delvaux, Damien; Smets, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    The Kivu rift region forms the central segment of the western branch of the East African rift system, between the northern termination of the Tanganyika rift and the southern extension of the Edward-George rift. Its structure and geological evolution has been revised in the light of a compilation of existing data on earthquake epicenters, focal depth, focal mechanisms, thermal springs and neotectonic faults. It has long been shown that the link between the Kivu rift basin and the Northern termination of the Tanganyika rift basin forms an accommodation zone in which the Rusizi tectonic depression occupies a central place (Ebinger, 1989). In addition, our compilation suggests that the NNE-trending Kivu rift basin and the N-S northern half of the Tanganyika rift basin initiated as separated, partly overlapping and differently oriented basins. The orientation and development of the Kivu rift basin was controlled by an inferred Mid-Proterozoic crustal shear zone and a Pan-African reverse fault front. It was not optimally oriented with the general (first-order) stress field characterized by roughly E-W extension. In a later stage, the more optimally N-S oriented North Tanganyika basin progressed towards the North and connected to Kivu rift in its middle in a region now occupied by the town of Bukavu. This accommodation zone is marked by Quaternary volcanism, warm thermal springs, frequent and relatively shallow seismicity. The southwestern part of the Kivu rift became progressively abandoned but it is still seismically active and hosts a number of warm thermal springs. This particular architecture influences the present-day stress field. This work is a contribution to the Belgian GeoRisCA project. Ebinger, C.J. 1989. Geometric and kinematic development of border faults and accommodation zones, Kivu-Rusizi Rift, Africa. Tectonics, 8, 117-133

  14. Congruent phylogeographical patterns of eight tree species in Atlantic Central Africa provide insights into the past dynamics of forest cover.

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    Dauby, G; Duminil, J; Heuertz, M; Koffi, G K; Stévart, T; Hardy, O J

    2014-05-01

    Cycles of Quaternary climatic change are assumed to be major drivers of African rainforest dynamics and evolution. However, most hypotheses on past vegetation dynamics relied on palaeobotanical records, an approach lacking spatial resolution, and on current patterns of species diversity and endemism, an approach confounding history and environmental determinism. In this context, a comparative phylogeographical study of rainforest species represents a complementary approach because Pleistocene climatic fluctuations may have left interpretable signatures in the patterns of genetic diversity within species. Using 1274 plastid DNA sequences from eight tree species (Afrostyrax kamerunensis, A. lepidophyllus, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Greenwayodendron suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Santiria trimera, Scorodophloeus zenkeri and Symphonia globulifera) sampled in 50 populations of Atlantic Central Africa (ACA), we averaged divergence across species to produce the first map of the region synthesizing genetic distinctiveness and standardized divergence within and among localities. Significant congruence in divergence was detected mostly among five of the eight species and was stronger in the northern ACA. This pattern is compatible with a scenario of past forest fragmentation and recolonization whereby forests from eastern Cameroon and northeastern Gabon would have been more affected by past climatic change than those of western Cameroon (where one or more refugia would have occurred). By contrast, southern ACA (Gabon) displayed low congruence among species that may reflect less drastic past forest fragmentation or a more complex history of vegetation changes. Finally, we also highlight the potential impact of current environmental barriers on spatial genetic structures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The dolerite dyke swarm of Mongo, Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa): Geological setting, petrography and geochemistry

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    Nkouandou, Oumarou Faarouk; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Mahamat, Oumar; Fagny Mefire, Aminatou; Ganwa, Alembert Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    Dolerite dykes are widespread in the Mongo area within the granitic Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa). Dykes are several hundred metres to several kilometres long, a metre to decametre thick, and vertical, crosscutting the Pan-African granitic basement rocks. They are controlled by major Pan-African NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW faults. Rocks constituting the dykes exhibit typical doleritic textures (i.e. intergranular, ophitic or subophitic). They are mainly composed of phenocrysts, microcrysts and microlites of clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, alkali feldspar and Fe-Ti oxides. Mongo dolerites are classified into two groups: Group 1 of basalt and trachybasalt and Group 2 of basaltic trachyandesite, which follow a trend with continental tholeiite affinities, and are differentiated through fractional crystallization. Trace element enrichment and REE contents show the high melting degree at shallow depths of enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle, whose composition is intermediate between OIB and MORB, contaminated by small amounts of sediment during older subduction. Mongo dolerites are interpreted as imprints of either the final stage of stabilization of ancient continental crust, or the initiation of tectonic activity related to Pan-African mobile belts.

  16. The dolerite dyke swarm of Mongo, Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa: Geological setting, petrography and geochemistry

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    Nkouandou Oumarou Faarouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dolerite dykes are widespread in the Mongo area within the granitic Guéra Massif (Chad, Central Africa. Dykes are several hundred metres to several kilometres long, a metre to decametre thick, and vertical, crosscutting the Pan-African granitic basement rocks. They are controlled by major Pan-African NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW faults. Rocks constituting the dykes exhibit typical doleritic textures (i.e. intergranular, ophitic or subophitic. They are mainly composed of phenocrysts, microcrysts and microlites of clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, alkali feldspar and Fe-Ti oxides. Mongo dolerites are classified into two groups: Group 1 of basalt and trachybasalt and Group 2 of basaltic trachyandesite, which follow a trend with continental tholeiite affinities, and are differentiated through fractional crystallization. Trace element enrichment and REE contents show the high melting degree at shallow depths of enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle, whose composition is intermediate between OIB and MORB, contaminated by small amounts of sediment during older subduction. Mongo dolerites are interpreted as imprints of either the final stage of stabilization of ancient continental crust, or the initiation of tectonic activity related to Pan-African mobile belts.

  17. What Are the Impacts of Deforestation on the Harvest of Non-Timber Forest Products in Central Africa?

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    Pauline Gillet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of forest transition on non-timber forest product (NTFP harvesting in Central Africa. We analyze the evolution of several parameters, including distance from NTFP harvest site to road, proportion of dietary intake and villagers’ incomes. The research is based on field surveys, participatory mapping and the geolocation of activities in three study sites representing different stages along the Mather’s forest transition curve: (i intact forest; (ii partially degraded forest; and (iii small areas of degraded forest with plantations of useful trees. The results show that the maximum distance from harvest site to road is higher in Site 2 compared to Site 1 as a consequence of a lower availability of NTFPs; and that this distance is significantly lower in Site 3 due to a drastically smaller village territory. The diversity of bushmeat decreases as game evolves from large to small species, commensurate with the progression of forest transition. As a consequence, there is also a reduction in the proportion of these products represented both in household dietary intake and cash income. This analysis establishes a strong link between the Mather’s forest transition curve and a decline in the importance of NTFPs in village production and livelihoods.

  18. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

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    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  19. Vegetation structure and greenness in Central Africa from Modis multi-temporal data.

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    Gond, Valéry; Fayolle, Adeline; Pennec, Alexandre; Cornu, Guillaume; Mayaux, Philippe; Camberlin, Pierre; Doumenge, Charles; Fauvet, Nicolas; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    African forests within the Congo Basin are generally mapped at a regional scale as broad-leaved evergreen forests, with the main distinction being between terra-firme and swamp forest types. At the same time, commercial forest inventories, as well as national maps, have highlighted a strong spatial heterogeneity of forest types. A detailed vegetation map generated using consistent methods is needed to inform decision makers about spatial forest organization and their relationships with environmental drivers in the context of global change. We propose a multi-temporal remotely sensed data approach to characterize vegetation types using vegetation index annual profiles. The classifications identified 22 vegetation types (six savannas, two swamp forests, 14 forest types) improving existing vegetation maps. Among forest types, we showed strong variations in stand structure and deciduousness, identifying (i) two blocks of dense evergreen forests located in the western part of the study area and in the central part on sandy soils; (ii) semi-deciduous forests are located in the Sangha River interval which has experienced past fragmentation and human activities. For all vegetation types enhanced vegetation index profiles were highly seasonal and strongly correlated to rainfall and to a lesser extent, to light regimes. These results are of importance to predict spatial variations of carbon stocks and fluxes, because evergreen/deciduous forests (i) have contrasted annual dynamics of photosynthetic activity and foliar water content and (ii) differ in community dynamics and ecosystem processes.

  20. Differential Performance between Two Timber Species in Forest Logging Gaps and in Plantations in Central Africa

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    Adeline Fayolle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop silvicultural guidelines for high-value timber species of Central African moist forests, we assessed the performance of the pioneer Milicia excelsa (iroko, Moraceae, and of the non-pioneer light demander Pericopsis elata (assamela, Fabaceae in logging gaps and in plantations in highly degraded areas in south-eastern Cameroon. The survival and size of each seedling was regularly monitored in the silvicultural experiments. Differences in performance and allometry were tested between species in logging gaps and in plantations. The two species performance in logging gaps was significantly different from plantations and concurred with the expectations of the performance trade-off hypothesis but not with the expectations of species light requirements. The pioneer M. excelsa survived significantly better in logging gaps while the non-pioneer P. elata grew significantly faster in plantations. The high mortality and slow growth of M. excelsa in plantations is surprising for a pioneer species but could be explained by herbivory (attacks from a gall-making psyllid. Identifying high-value native timber species (i with good performance in plantations such as P. elata is of importance to restore degraded areas; and (ii with good performance in logging gaps such as M. excelsa is of importance to maintain timber resources and biodiversity in production forests.

  1. Tick control by small-scale cattle farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted in 5 magisterial districts involving rapid rural appraisal and a questionnaire showed participation in state-managed and funded dipping programmes by cattle owners in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape to be nearly complete, with 98 % of livestock owners interviewed participating in all dipping events. Disease control was the main reason for participation, but farmers perceive dipping to have a much broader disease-preventing activity than is really the case. Other reasons for participation in dipping programmes were to prevent ticks from sucking blood, provide animals with a clean appearance, and prevent damage to teats of cows. Many livestock owners complement dipping with other tick control measures, including old motor oil, household disinfectant, pour-on acaricide and manual removal of ticks. Recently local farming communities were given the responsibility of buying dipping acaricide. This has presented them with the challenge of developing farmer-managed, cost-effective tick control programmes. At present, this process is constrained by lack of information and farmer training.

  2. Getting ready for REDD+: Recognition and Donor-country Project Development Dynamics in Central Africa

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    Gretchen M Walters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ (Reducing Emissions, Deforestation and forest Degradation+ is a United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC process through which governments reduce the impacts of climate change through forest conservation in a results-based payments scheme. Distinct from international negotiations about the REDD+ framework under the UNFCCC, there are also REDD+ projects that help governments to set up the institutional architecture, plans and strategies to implement REDD+. These capacity-building projects, in the first phase of 'REDD+ readiness', involve negotiations among national and international actors in which recognition and authority claims are used by participants to influence project-level negotiations. This study analyses the project development negotiations in a World Bank-led REDD+ capacity building regional project, involving six Central African countries between 2008 and 2011. It explores how the project created a 'negotiation table' constituted of national and regional institutions recognised by the donors and governments, and how this political space, influenced by global, regional and national political agendas led to 'instances' of recognition and misrecognition – in which some negotiating parties' claims of representation were acknowledge and affirmed, while others' claims were not. Focusing on Cameroon and Gabon, this article analyses how negotiations shaped full participation by Cameroon and only partial engagement by Gabon.

  3. Factors Associated with Retention to Care in an HIV Clinic in Gabon, Central Africa.

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    Saskia Janssen

    Full Text Available Retention to HIV care is vital for patients' survival, to prevent onward transmission and emergence of drug resistance. Travelling to receive care might influence adherence. Data on the functioning of and retention to HIV care in the Central African region are limited.This retrospective study reports outcomes and factors associated with retention to HIV care at a primary HIV clinic in Lambaréné, Gabon. Adult patients who presented to this clinic between January 2010 and January 2012 were included. Outcomes were retention in care (defined as documented show-up for clinical visits, regardless of delay or LTFU (defined as a patient not retained in care; on ART or ART naïve, not returning to care during the study period with a patient delay for scheduled visits of more than 6 months, and mortality. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with respective outcomes. Qualitative data on reasons for LTFU were obtained from focus-group discussions.Of 223 patients included, 67.3% were female. The mean age was 40.5 (standard deviation 11.4 years and the median CD4 count 275 (interquartile range 100.5-449.5 cells/μL. In total, 34.1% were lost to follow up and 8.1% died. Documented tuberculosis was associated with increased risk of being LTFU (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR 1.80, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.05-3.11, P = 0.03, whereas early starting anti-retroviral therapy (ART was associated with a decreased risk of LTFU (aHR 0.43, 95%CI 0.24-0.76, P = 0.004, as was confirmed by qualitative data.Retention to HIV care in a primary clinic in Gabon is relatively poor and interventions to address this should be prioritized in the HIV program. Early initiation of ART might improve retention in care.

  4. Efficacy comparison between anti-malarial drugs in Africans presenting with mild malaria in the Central Republic of Africa: a preliminary study

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    Nambei W.S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum contributes to major health problems in central Africa and, as a consequence, poverty. We have analyzed the efficacy of three currently available antimalarial drugs to treat symptomatic, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in semiimmune adults living in Bangui, Central Republic of Africa. 210 consecutive individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 45 were excluded. Those having received dihydroartemisin proved significantly less parasitemic than those having received quinine per os or sulfadoxin-pyrimethamin (χ2 = 16.93 ; p < 0.05, and 75 % recovered in two days compared to 57 and 44 %, respectively. The 25 % who did not recover benefited from a second cure with dihydroartemisin, which proved 100 % efficient. The most accurate protocol remains to be established by analyzing clinical and parasitological data and taking into account the economics of the country.

  5. Tropical forest recovery from logging: a 24 year silvicultural experiment from Central Africa

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    Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Mortier, Frédéric; Fayolle, Adeline; Baya, Fidèle; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Bénédet, Fabrice; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Large areas of African moist forests are being logged in the context of supposedly sustainable management plans. It remains however controversial whether harvesting a few trees per hectare can be maintained in the long term while preserving other forest services as well. We used a unique 24 year silvicultural experiment, encompassing 10 4 ha plots established in the Central African Republic, to assess the effect of disturbance linked to logging (two to nine trees ha−1 greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) and thinning (11–41 trees ha−1 greater than or equal to 50 cm DBH) on the structure and dynamics of the forest. Before silvicultural treatments, above-ground biomass (AGB) and timber stock (i.e. the volume of commercial trees greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) in the plots amounted 374.5 ± 58.2 Mg ha−1 and 79.7 ± 45.9 m3 ha−1, respectively. We found that (i) natural control forest was increasing in AGB (2.58 ± 1.73 Mg dry mass ha−1 yr−1) and decreasing in timber stock (−0.33 ± 1.57 m3 ha−1 yr−1); (ii) the AGB recovered very quickly after logging and thinning, at a rate proportional to the disturbance intensity (mean recovery after 24 years: 144%). Compared with controls, the gain almost doubled in the logged plots (4.82 ± 1.22 Mg ha−1 yr−1) and tripled in the logged + thinned plots (8.03 ± 1.41 Mg ha−1 yr−1); (iii) the timber stock recovered slowly (mean recovery after 24 years: 41%), at a rate of 0.75 ± 0.51 m3 ha−1 yr−1 in the logged plots, and 0.81 ± 0.74 m3 ha−1 yr−1 in the logged + thinned plots. Although thinning significantly increased the gain in biomass, it had no effect on the gain in timber stock. However, thinning did foster the growth and survival of small- and medium-sized timber trees and should have a positive effect over the next felling cycle. PMID:23878332

  6. Serologic evidence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis in horses from central West Brazil Evidência sorológica de anaplasmose granulocítica equina em equinos do Centro-oeste Brasil

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    Carlos Augusto Salvagni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by gram-negative and intracellular obligatory bacterial organisms. Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis - EGA (formerly Equine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis, EGE is a seasonal disease, normally self-limited in horses. There are few reports in Brazil about this ehrlichial agent, as well as its natural vectors. Nowadays, veterinarians are considering the suspicion of EGA in horses with suggestive symptoms of ehrlichiosis and which do not respond to piroplasmosis treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify horses exposed to the agent A. phagocytophilum by serological and molecular techniques. Twenty equine blood and serum samples from the central West region of Brazil were evaluated by microscopic examination of buffy coat smear, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Additionally, the serodiagnosis of Theileria equi by IFA and ELISA were carried out, as well as molecular diagnosis by nPCR. Thirteen (65% serum samples were positive for A. phagocytophilum by ELISA, but none of them were positive by buffy-coat smear examination or nPCR. Antibodies IgG anti-T. equi were detected in 18 (90% and 17 (85% horses by IFA and ELISA, respectively and the agent was detected in 9 (45% animals by nPCR. Our data may be considered as important information to understanding the occurrence of EGA and equine piroplasmosis in central West Brazil.A Erliquiose é uma doença zoonótica causada por bactérias gram-negativas e intracelulares obrigatórias. A Anaplasmose Granulocítica Equina - AGE (anteriormente denominada Erliquiose Granulocítica Equina, EGE é uma enfermidade sazonal, normalmente auto-limitante em equinos. No Brasil, existem poucos relatos deste agente erliquial, bem como de seus vetores naturais. Atualmente, veterinários têm levantado a suspeita de casos de AGE em equinos com sinais clínicos sugestivos de erliquiose e

  7. A close look on the lithosphere of Central North Africa with the new global gravity and gravity-gradient fields

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    Braitenberg, C. F.; Pivetta, T.; Mariani, P.

    2011-12-01

    The gravity satellite missions GRACE and GOCE have boosted the resolution of the global Earth gravity models (EGM), opening new possibilities of investigation. The EGMs must be distinguished in models based on pure satellite or mixed satellite-terrestrial observations. Satellite-only models are truly global, whereas satellite-terrestrial models have inhomogeneous quality, depending on availability and accuracy of the terrestrial data set. The advantage of the mixed models (e.g. EGM2008 by Pavlis et al. 2008) is their greater spatial resolution, reaching nominally 9 km, against the 80 km of the pure satellite models of satellite GOCE. The disadvantage is the geographically varying reliability due to problems in the terrestrial data, compiled from different measuring campaigns, using various acquisition methods, and different national geodetic reference systems. We present a method for quality assessment of the higher-resolution fields through the lower-resolution GOCE-field and apply it to northern Africa. We find that the errors locally are as great as 40 mGal, but can be flagged as "bad areas" by our method, leaving the "good areas" for reliable geophysical modeling and investigation. We analyze gravity and gravity gradients and their invariants over North-Central Africa derived from the EGM2008 and GOCE (e.g. Migliaccio et al., 2010) and quantify the resolution in terms of density variations associated to crustal thickness variations, rifts and magmatic underplating. We focus on the Benue rift and the Chad lineament, a 1300 km arcuate feature which links the Benue to the Tibesti Volcanic province. The existing seismological investigations are integrated to constrain the lithosphere structure in terms of seismic velocities, crustal thickness and top asthenosphere boundary, together with physical constraints based on thermal and isostatic considerations (McKenzie stretching model). Our modeling shows that the gravity signal can only be explained if the Benue rift

  8. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    the intra-annual variability of precipitation in estimating the severity of events that can impact on seasonal activities. The MDSI is standardized in space and time, and considers the relative monthly precipitation deficits and the seasonal influence of precipitation regimes in the meteorological drought severity computation. In this study, the calculation of the MDSI is performed with monthly precipitation totals from the Full Data Reanalysis Monthly Product Version 6.0 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). This dataset provides a global analysis at 0.5 dd latitude/longitude grid spacing of monthly precipitation over land from operational in situ rain gauges collected between January 1901 and December 2010. Using the MDSI, we estimated the severity of drought events that occurred in the past 100 years in Africa and South-Central America, and produced drought hazard maps based on the probability of exceedance the median historical severity. Overall, results indicate that drought hazard is high for semiarid areas, such as Northeastern and Southern South America, as well as Eastern and Southwestern Africa. Since available water resources in semiarid areas are already insufficient to permanently meet the demands of human activities, the outcomes highlight the aggravated risk for food security and confirm the need for the implementation of disaster mitigation measures in those regions.

  9. Using satellite tracking to optimize protection of long-lived marine species: olive ridley sea turtle conservation in Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Maxwell

    Full Text Available Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 18 in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09. These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent, highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool.

  10. Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Breed, Greg A.; Nickel, Barry A.; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J.; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Witt, Matthew J.; Coyne, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool. PMID:21589942

  11. A comparative analysis of intraseasonal atmospheric variability in OLR and 1DD GPCP rainfall data over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjon, Alain Tchakoutio; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Kamga, François Mkankam; Vondou, Derbetini

    2014-04-01

    The spatial and temporal structures of the leading modes of intraseasonal atmospheric variability over Central Africa using outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and one-degree daily Global Precipitation Climatology Project (1DD GPCP) data are compared. A spectral analysis indicates that in the two datasets, the intraseasonal variability is dominated by 20-70-day period bands with center near 40-50 days. Results from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis have shown that three main spatial structures characterize the leading modes of 20-70-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISO), but they differ in the two data by the amount of variance explained by each mode. For both time series, the power spectra of all the three principal components peak around 40-50 days, indicating Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) signal. Moreover, the cross correlation computed among the principal components indicates that there exists a relatively high positive correlation between the EOFs of similar spatial loadings. For the two datasets, an index of MJO strength was built by averaging the 30-50-day power for each day and each EOF mode. A plot of the two indices revealed a coherent onset, peak, and decay of ISO activity but with different amplitudes. The correlation coefficients computed between the ISO indices corresponding to each mode revealed that they are highly correlated, especially for the annual mean time series where the correlation coefficient reaches up to 0.88 for the Tanzanian mode. Overall, the analysis showed that the leading modes are similar, but the 1DD GPCP loadings have better spatial localization, when compared with those of OLR datasets.

  12. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  13. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  14. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of droughts using self-calibrating Palmer's Drought Severity Index in the central region of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edossa, Desalegn C.; Woyessa, Yali E.; Welderufael, Worku A.

    2016-11-01

    The loss of life and property from drought events has forced society to focus on the development of reliable early warning systems which may enable farmers and other stakeholders to correctly and timely adapt to the expected impacts of climatic hazard. However, a scientific approach to a reliable early warning system for a region requires, among others, characterisation of drought events in the region in terms of duration, magnitude, intensity and frequency using standard drought indices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and characterise drought events in the Modder River basin, central region of South Africa, using a self-calibrated Palmer's Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI). Attempts were also made to establish a relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought events in the region. During the period of analysis, the total number of drought episodes identified in the study area ranged between eight and sixteen. It was found that the most severe drought episodes occurred during the period 1992-1995 followed by the period 1982-1987. Results of analysis of seasonal drought events in one of the quaternary catchments (C52A) revealed that peak drought events during the three summer months (November, December and January) occurred in the area in 1993. However, in terms of event magnitude and intensity, the worst drought events were recorded during the period December 1982-July 1987, followed by the event that ensued during December 1989-September 1995. Results of analysis of decadal variation of drought events showed that the number of extreme and moderate drought events recorded in the catchment showed statistically significant increasing trends during the five decades at 5 % significance level. Moreover, spectral analysis of sc-PDSI time series in the region identified periodicities in the time series ranging from 6 years (C52E) to 16 years (C52K). In terms of the spatial extent of extreme drought events, the maximum areal coverage (91

  16. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  17. Late Neoproterozoic overprinting of the cassiterite and columbite-tantalite bearing pegmatites of the Gatumba area, Rwanda (Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Stijn; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Melcher, Frank; Sitnikova, Maria; Burgess, Ray; Gerdes, Axel; Fernandez, Max Alonso; De Clercq, Friso; Muchez, Philippe; Lehmann, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kibara belt in Central Africa has recently been redefined and subdivided into the Karagwe-Ankole belt (KAB) and the Kibara belt (KIB), separated by Palaeoproterozoic (Rusizian) terranes. The KIB and KAB are characterised by the presence of numerous rare metal mineralised (Nb-Ta-Sn) pegmatites and Sn-W mineralised quartz veins that are related to the youngest granite generation, i.e. the G4-granites in Rwanda, which formed at 986 ± 10 Ma. The pegmatites of the Gatumba area (western Rwanda) have historically been mined for their columbite-tantalite and cassiterite mineralisation, but contain also beryl, apatite, spodumene, amblygonite, and rare phosphates. Columbite-tantalite formed during the crystallisation of the pegmatites, followed by intense alkali metasomatism, i.e. widespread growth of albite and white mica. The major part of the cassiterite mineralisation is, however, concentrated in zones associated with intense phyllic alteration. U-Pb ages of columbite-tantalite samples vary between ˜975 Ma and ˜930 Ma. The oldest ages (975 + 8.2/-8.3 Ma and 966 + 8.7/-8.6 Ma) overlap with previous reported Rb-Sr ages of the emplacement of the pegmatites (˜965 Ma) and are interpreted to reflect the crystallisation of the Nb-Ta mineralisation. The youngest ages (951 ± 15 Ma to 936 ± 14 Ma) are apparently related to variable degrees of resetting by (metasomatic) post-crystallisation processes. The resetting could either be due to recrystallisation of early Nb-Ta minerals or due to the disturbance of the U-Pb isotopic signature of the Nb-Ta minerals. The 40Ar- 39Ar spectra of muscovite samples associated with different steps in the paragenesis of the pegmatites show a spread of apparent ages between ˜940 Ma and ˜560 Ma that reflect Late Neoproterozoic tectonothermal events. One plateau age of 592.2 ± 0.8 Ma is interpreted to reflect far-field effects of the East African orogeny on the Karagwe-Ankole Belt.

  18. Mapping Vegetation Morphology Types in Southern Africa Savanna Using MODIS Time-Series Metrics: A Case Study of Central Kalahari, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti B. Mishra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are geographically extensive and both ecologically and economically important; they therefore require monitoring over large spatial extents. There are, in particular, large areas within southern Africa savanna ecosystems that lack consistent geospatial data on vegetation morphological properties, which is a prerequisite for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of ecological resources. Given the challenges involved in distinguishing and mapping savanna vegetation assemblages using remote sensing, the objective of this study was to develop a vegetation morphology map for the largest protected area in Africa, the central Kalahari. Six vegetation morphology classes were developed and sample training/validation pixels were selected for each class by analyzing extensive in situ data on vegetation structural and functional properties, in combination with existing ancillary data and coarse scale land cover products. The classification feature set consisted of annual and intra annual matrices derived from 14 years of satellite-derived vegetation indices images, and final classification was achieved using an ensemble tree based classifier. All vegetation morphology classes were mapped with high accuracy and the overall classification accuracy was 91.9%. Besides filling the geospatial data gap for the central Kalahari area, this vegetation morphology map is expected to serve as a critical input to ecological studies focusing on habitat use by wildlife and the efficacy of game fencing, as well as contributing to sustainable ecosystem management in the central Kalahari.

  19. Epidemiology of rickettsioses in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaïef, Amel

    2006-10-01

    The first description of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) was made by Conor and Brush in 1910 in Tunisia, where, at the same time, Nicolle described the role of lice in transmission of epidemic typhus. However, along this century, there have been few and fragmentary reports about ecology and epidemiology of rickettsioses in North Africa. This region was always considered, for these diseases, like other Mediterranean regions. The most human tick-borne rickettsiosis known to occur in North Africa is MSF caused by R. conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Recent studies showed that other arthropode-transmitted rickettsiae are prevalent in North Africa: R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae, and R. felis. Moreover, R. felis and R. aeschlimannii human infection were respectively confirmed, by serology in Tunisia, and by PCR in Morocco. The seroprevalence of R. conorii among healthy population was ranging from 5% to 8% in most of the countries. Epidemiological and clinical features are frequently resumed in an eruptive fever with eschar occurring in hot season in rural areas. Typhus group rickettsioses, caused by R. typhi and R. prowazekii are less frequently reported than in the 1970s. Seroprevalence of R. typhi among blood donors was from 0.5% to 4%. In Algeria about 2% of febrile patients had R. prowazekii antibodies. Moreover, reemerging threat of epidemic typhus should be considered, after the two cases recently diagnosed in the highlands of Algeria. Murine typhus, considered as "benign" typhus, is underestimated. When R. typhi was inserted in serologic tests, murine typhus became more frequently confirmed. In a recent study in Central Tunisia, we confirmed an emergence of murine typhus mistaken for R. conorii or viral infection. In addition to typhus surveillance, future studies have to determine which spotted fever group rickettsiae are prevalent in vectors and in human pathology.

  20. Protecting breastfeeding in West and Central Africa: over 25 years of implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Ellen; Clark, David; Aguayo, Victor M

    2008-09-01

    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes out of concern that inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes was contributing to the alarming decline in breastfeeding worldwide and the increase in child malnutrition and mortality, particularly in developing countries. To document progress, challenges, and lessons learned in the implementation of the International Code in West and Central Africa. Data were obtained by literature review and interviews with key informants. Twelve of the 24 countries have laws, decrees, or regulations that implement all or most of the provisions of the Code, 6 countries have a draft law or decree that is awaiting government approval or have a government committee that is studying how best to implement the Code, 3 countries have a legal instrument that enacts a few provisions of the Code, and 3 countries have not taken any action to implement the Code. International declarations and initiatives for child nutrition and survival have provided impetus for national implementation of the Code. National action to regulate the marketing of breastmilk substitutes needs to be linked to national priorities for nutrition and child survival. A clearly defined scope is essential for effective implementation of national legislation. Leadership and support by health professionals is essential to endorse and enforce national legislation. Training on Code implementation is instrumental for national action; national implementation of the Code requires provisions and capacity to monitor and enforce the legislative framework and needs to be part of a multipronged strategy to advance national child nutrition and survival goals. Nations in West and Central Africa have made important progress in implementing the International Code. More than 25 years after its adoption by the WHA, the Code remains as important as ever for child survival and development in West and Central Africa.

  1. Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual persuasions and various ...

  2. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific

  3. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  4. The predominance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 02 (CRF02_AG in West Central Africa may be related to its replicative fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butel Christelle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G were obtained from a well-described Cameroonian cohort. Growth competition experiments were carried out at equal multiplicity of infection in activated T cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DC in parallel. Results Dual infection/competition experiments in activated T cells clearly indicated that CRF02_AG isolates had a significant replication advantage over the subtype A and subtype G viruses. The higher fitness of CRF02_AG was evident for isolates from patients with CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/μL (non-AIDS or CD4+ T cell counts Conclusion We observed a higher ex vivo replicative fitness of CRF02_AG isolates compared to subtype A and G viruses from the same geographic region and showed that this was independent of the co-receptor tropism and irrespective of high or low CD4+ T cell count. This advantage in replicative fitness may contribute to the dominant spread of CRF02_AG over A and G subtypes in West and West Central Africa.

  5. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a program...

  6. Serologic Markers of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramova, T V; Kaysheva, Anna L; Ivanov, Y D; Pleshakova, T O; Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, Y B; Schetkin, A A; Archakov, A I

    2017-08-01

    According to WHO data, about 67 million people worldwide are affected by autism, and this number grows by 14% annually. Among the possible causes of autism are genetic modifications, organic lesions of the central nervous system, metabolic disorders, influence of viral and bacterial infections, chemical influence to the mother's body during pregnancy, etc. The conducted research shows that research papers published until today do not name any potential protein markers that meet the requirements of the basic parameters for evaluating the efficiency of disease diagnostics, in particular high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Conducting proteomic research on a big scale in order to detect serologic markers of protein nature associated with development of autism spectrum disorders seems to be highly relevant.

  7. Cryptomyrus: a new genus of Mormyridae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) with two new species from Gabon, West-Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan,John P.; Lavoue,Sebastien; Hopkins,Carl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to show that three weakly electric mormyrid fish specimens collected at three widely separated localities in Gabon, Africa over a 13-year period represent an unrecognized lineage within the subfamily Mormyrinae and determine its phylogenetic position with respect to other taxa. We describe these three specimens as a new genus containing two new species. Cryptomyrus , new genus, is readily distinguished from all other mormyrid genera by a...

  8. Africa was still far south in the Late Ypresian: Paleomagnetic study on the early Eocene 'Minia' formation in central Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, H.; Heleika, M. Abu; Mostafa, R.; Wahbah, D.

    2017-12-01

    The paleomagnetic study was carried out on three sections of the Late Ypresian "Minia" formation limestone, in order to shed light on the paleolatitude of northeast Africa upon the end of the Early Eocene. The initial study on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility [AMS] helped in confining the paleomagnetic sampling to the virtually isotropic limestone beds. The subsequent stepwise thermal demagnetization of the three-axis isothermal remanence acquired in one sample of each sampled site, revealed the limited contribution of goethite and hematite with the main remanence carrier magnetite in most samples.

  9. Volcano-tectonic deformation in the Kivu Region, Central Africa: Results from six years of continuous GNSS observations of the Kivu Geodetic Network (KivuGNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Mashagiro, Niche; Syauswa, Muhindo; Celli, Gilles; Kadufu, Benjamin; Smets, Benoît; Kervyn, François

    2017-10-01

    We present an overview of the installation, operation, and initial results of the 15-station KivuGNet (Kivu Geodetic Network) in the Kivu Region, Central Africa. The network serves primarily as a research and monitoring tool for active volcanic, earthquake, and plate boundary processes in the region. Continuous operation of in-situ measurement networks in naturally and politically harsh environments is challenging, but has proven fruitful in this case. During the operation of the network since 2009, KivuGNet has captured: co-eruptive deformation from two eruptions of Nyamulagira (in 2010 and 2011-2012); inter-eruptive deformation, which we interpret as a combination of plate motion across the Western - East Africa Rift, and decreasing deep-seated magma accumulation under the Nyiragongo-Nyamulagira region; co-seismic deformation from the Mw5.8 August 7, 2015 Lwiro earthquake at the western border of Lake Kivu. We hope that this study will serve as a motivation for further implementation of in-situ geodetic networks in under-monitored and under-studied sections of the East African Rift.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of wild poliovirus type 1 circulation in West and Central Africa, from 1997 to 1999, using genotyping with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Burns, Cara C; Gumede, Nicksy; Guillot, Sophie; Ménard, Didier; Dosseh, Annick; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Virological surveillance is an important element in the Polio Eradication Initiative to provide information rapidly about circulating wild polioviruses. Molecular tools have been developed to identify the serotype of the poliovirus strains and whether they are of vaccine or wild origin (intratypic differentiation) and to perform the molecular epidemiology of wild strains. The main objective of this study was to show that restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a tool that can be used for molecular epidemiology of wild polioviruses. This is retrospective study of poliovirus type 1 strains received at the Institut Pasteur of Bangui (IPB), a WHO Regional Reference Laboratory for Africa, since 1994. We describe our experience with isolates from Western and Central Africa and show a positive correlation between the genotypes as determined by sequencing the gene for the VP1 capsid protein and the RFLP patterns. Although genomic sequencing is the gold standard method for detailed molecular epidemiology analysis of poliovirus isolates, these results show that RFLP is a potentially valuable tool for molecular epidemiological analysis of poliovirus type 1 strains: it could be used by many laboratories as a rapid method for ITD and genotype screening where sequencing capacity is not readily available.

  11. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  12. A possible bridge between Adria and Africa: New palaeobiogeographic and stratigraphic constraints on the Mesozoic palaeogeography of the Central Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Giuseppe; Petti, Fabio M.; Cillari, Azzurra; Di Stefano, Pietro; Guzzetta, Dario; Nicosia, Umberto

    2010-12-01

    Dinosaur records in central and southern Italy testify to the occurrence of a diverse dinosaur fauna on the Apennine and Apulian carbonate platforms at least from the Tithonian to the Santonian. Most of the palaeogeographic reconstructions show these domains as topographically isolated areas, separated by deep pelagic basins and far from emerged continental areas. Thus, they hardly justify the long-lasting occurrence of these terrestrial vertebrates. Recent studies on the Mesozoic Panormide Carbonate Platform (western Sicily) yielded important stratigraphical and palaeontological data, which provide evidence for a convincing explanation of this unresolved problem. The recent discovery of a theropod bone in mid-Cretaceous peritidal levels of the Panormide Platform as well as the anomalous subsidence of this palaeogeographic domain, strongly support the existence of a crustal sector (filtering bridge) which connected Africa to Adria.

  13. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  14. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  15. The Saharan heat low and moisture transport pathways in the central Sahara—Multiaircraft observations and Africa-LAM evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstaedter, S.; Washington, R.; Flamant, C.; Parker, D. J.; Allen, C. J. T.; Todd, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a characterization of the Saharan heat low (SHL) based on dropsonde observations made on 22 June 2011 by two simultaneously flying aircraft during the Fennec project. The observations are used to identify moisture transport pathways and to validate the UK Met Office limited area model for northern Africa (Africa-LAM). The observations capture the SHL, harmattan, and monsoon surge. The SHL has a northeast-southwest orientated elongated shape centered over northern Mauritania. The SHL core is associated with a 950 hPa temperature minimum (36.4°C) in the morning caused by the monsoon surge and a maximum (42.6°C) in the afternoon. The monsoon surge east of the SHL core splits into two transport pathways: (a) curving around the SHL core in the north, especially pronounced in a morning near-surface layer, and (b) northeastward transport within the ~2 km deep monsoon surge (afternoon observations only). In the morning the model forecasts the harmattan, monsoon surge, and the SHL geographic location and northeast-southwest orientation well but the model represents the SHL flatter and more spatially extended and overestimates the convective boundary layer (CBL) by up to ~0.3 km. The simulated afternoon SHL location appears shifted westward by up to ~1°. The model overestimates the shallow afternoon monsoon surge CBL depth of ~1.8 km by >2 km resulting in southwestward transport of vertically mixed moisture above ~2.5 km contrasting observed northeastward-only transport at lower levels. This moisture distribution model error is likely to have consequences for simulations of Saharan thermodynamics and dust emissions caused by convection-driven cold pools.

  16. On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Karen D; Schmitt, Dave N; Kiahtipes, Christopher A; Ndanga, Jean-Paul; Young, D Craig; Simiti, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production on par with other archaeological and historically-known iron fabrication areas. These data document the first evidence of intensive iron mining and production spanning approximately 90 years prior to colonial occupation (circa AD 1889) and during an interval of time that is poorly represented in the archaeological record. Additional site areas pre-dating these remains by 3-4 centuries reflect an earlier period of iron production on a smaller scale. Microbotanical evidence from a sediment core collected from an adjacent riparian trap shows a reduction in shade-demanding trees in concert with an increase in light-demanding species spanning the time interval associated with iron intensification. This shift occurs during the same time interval when many portions of the Central African witnessed forest transgressions associated with a return to moister and more humid conditions beginning 500-100 years ago. Although data presented here do not demonstrate that iron smelting activities caused widespread vegetation change in Central Africa, we argue that intense mining and smelting can have localized and potentially regional impacts on vegetation communities. These data further demonstrate the high value of pairing archeological and paleoenvironmental analyses to reconstruct regional-scale forest histories.

  17. Malaria cure with sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine combination in 12 semi-immune adults from West-Central Africa with high rates of point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dhfr and dhps genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzosa, Pedro J; Puente, Sabino; Benito, Agustìn

    2005-10-01

    We report 12 uncomplicated falciparum-malaria cases from semi-immune people from Central Africa treated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (Fansidar) in a Spanish hospital. We resolved by PCR-RFLP the mutations in dhfr and dhps genes related to resistance to antifolate drugs. The 12 patients presented high frequencies of combined mutations in both genes but they were completely cured after treatment.

  18. Geophysical evidence of Cretaceous volcanics in Logone Birni Basin (Northern Cameroon), Central Africa, and consequences for the West and Central African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loule, Jean-Pierre; Pospisil, Lubomil

    2013-01-01

    Detailed analyses and interpretation realized by combining existing 2D reflection seismic and Gravity/Magnetic data of the Logone Birni Basin (LBB) in the West and Central African Rift System (WCAS) have revealed the distribution of the main buried volcanic bodies as well as their relationships with the structural and tectonic evolution of this basin. The volcanic activity in the LBB is restricted to the Cretaceous period. Three main volcanic episodes are identified and are associated to the Neocomian, Late Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian rifting phases respectively. The volcanic bodies within the Lower Cretaceous are either lying directly on basement or are mainly interbedded with the contemporaneous sediments whereas the Upper Cretaceous bodies are morphologically expressed in the forms of dykes and sills. The volcanic activity was more intense in the western region of the central LBB (Zina sub-basin) along the Cameroon-Nigeria border whereas it was scanty and scattered in the other parts of the basin. The main volcanic dykes are found on the flanks of the major faults bounding basement horsts or in crestal positions in association with syndepositional faults. Although WCAS is associated with large amount of crustal extension and minor volcanism, the intense volcanic activity observed in LBB during the Cretaceous suggests that the intrusive zone during this period was confined to the basement beneath the study area flanked respectively to the north, south and southwest by the Lake Chad, Poli and Chum triple junctions. Tensional stresses generated by this localized domal uplift accounts for most of the observed tectonic structures where major faults transected the entire lithosphere, thus providing conduits for magma migration.

  19. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits: Serological screening and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Giovanni; Ricci, Emanuele; Cantile, Carlo; Mannella, Riccardo; Mancianti, Francesca; Paci, Gisella; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Perrucci, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were found in 129/183 (70.5%) analysed sera. At statistical analysis, E. cuniculi seropositivity was significantly higher (prabbits. At histology, different degrees of pathological lesions were found in serological positive (9) deceased animals. In three rabbits deceased after showing neurological signs, the severity of the lesions was interpreted as a likely cause for their death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Older Adults Accessing HIV Care and Treatment and Adherence in the IeDEA Central Africa Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Newman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very little is known about older adults accessing HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from 18,839 HIV-positive adults at 10 treatment programs in Burundi, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We compared characteristics of those aged 50+ with those aged 18–49 using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine if age was associated with medication adherence. Results. 15% of adults were 50+ years. Those aged 50+ were more evenly distributed between women and men (56% versus 44% as compared to those aged 18–49 (71% versus 29% and were more likely to be hypertensive (8% versus 3% (P<0.05. Those aged 50+ were more likely to be adherent to their medications than those aged 18–49 (P<0.001. Adults who were not heavy drinkers reported better adherence as compared to those who reported drinking three or more alcoholic beverages per day (P<0.001. Conclusions. Older adults differed from their younger counterparts in terms of medication adherence, sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics.

  1. Serological Studies of Parasite Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Christine E.; Smith, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Complement-fixation (CF) tests with sonicated aqueous extracts of adult forms of five species of gastrointestinal nematodes as antigens have been made on serial biweekly bleedings from two groups of parasitized calves grazing on infected pastures during the 1963 or 1964 seasons. Three of these nematode species, Cooperia oncophora, Ostertagia ostertagi and Nematodirus helvetianus, were found in large numbers in most of these animals. The calves were negative serologically before being placed on pasture but within 2 to 4 weeks some had developed considerable CF activity with Cooperia and other nematode antigens. Ten calves died, however, before significant CF titres had been attained. Eight control calves in the 1963 or 1964 groups which were grazed on “clean” pastures, remained serologically negative during the summer and autumn months. Four of the six surviving exposed animals in the 1964 group showed a fall in CF activity during the winter months when they were stabled, whereas the six surviving controls developed low CF titres suggesting that they were becoming mildly parasitized. In the spring of 1965 CF titres began to rise in some of the previously exposed and control yearlings even before they were placed on infected pasture in June. PMID:4226342

  2. Strengthening laboratory capacity through the surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Africa: the Surveillance Épidémiologique en Afrique Centrale (SURVAC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Esona, Mathew D; Pukuta, Elizabeth; Gouandijka-Vasilache, Ionela; Boula, Angeline; Dahl, Benjamin A; Mondonge, Vital; Mekontso, David; Guifara, Gilbert; Mbary-Daba, Regis; Lewis, Jamie; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Mwenda, Jason M; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Koki-Ndombo, Paul; Bowen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SURVAC pilot project was to strengthen disease surveillance and response in three countries; Cameroon (CAE), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR). Seven laboratories involved in rotavirus surveillance were provided with equipment, reagents and supplies. CDC and WHO staff provided on-site classroom and bench training in biosafety, quality assurance, quality control (QC), rotavirus diagnosis using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and genotyping of rotavirus strains using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). All laboratory data were reported through WHO/AFRO. Twenty-three staff members were trained on RT-PCR for rotavirus genotyping which was introduced for the first time in all three countries. In CAE, the number of samples analysed by EIA and RT-PCR increased tenfold between 2007 and 2013. In DRC, this number increased fivefold, from 2009 to 2013 whereas in CAR, it increased fourfold between 2011 and 2013. All laboratories passed WHO proficiency testing in 2014. Laboratory capacity was strengthened through equipping laboratories and strengthening a subregional laboratory workforce for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Each of the three countries generated rotavirus surveillance and genotyping data enabling the mapping of circulating genotypes. These results will help monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccination in these countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Towards the development of a regional electricity market in Central Africa: Issues and Challenges; Vers la realisation d'un marche regional de l'electricite en Afrique Centrale: Enjeux et defies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, Rheaume; Mbadinga, David; Kitoko Senghi, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    This article gives a short description of the African continent. It then describes the 5 energy pools covering 54 countries: COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. More specifically, the article looks at the main strategies and methods to be put in place in order to implement the electricity market, in particular the regional market of Central Africa. The current interconnecting projects and studies between different African countries, made by RSW international in collaboration with different partners, are presented, and in a more comprehensive way, the one related to the Interconnexion of the electrical networks of the member countries of the ECCAS. [French] Cet article presente une courte description du continent africain. Par la suite, on decrit les 5 pools energetiques couvrant les 54 pays : COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. Plus specifiquement, on aborde les principales strategies et moyens a mettre en place pour implanter et developper le marche de l'electricite, plus particulierement le marche regional de l'Afrique centrale. Les projets ou etudes d'interconnexion en cours entre differents pays de l'Afrique, realises par RSW International de concert avec differents partenaires, sont presentes et, de facon plus exhaustive, celle relative au projet de l'Interconnexion des Reseaux Electriques des Pays Membres de la CEEAC.

  4. Late Pan-African and early Mesozoic brittle compressions in East and Central Africa: lithospheric deformation within the Congo-Tanzania Cratonic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, D.; Kipata, M. L.; Macheyeki, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Tectonic reconstructions leading to the formation of the Central-African part of Gondwana have so far not much taken into account constraints provided by the evolution of brittle structures and related stress field. This is largely because little is known on continental brittle deformation in Equatorial Africa before the onset of the Mesozoic Central-African and Late Cenozoic East-African rifts. We present a synthesis of fault-kinematic data and paleostress inversion results from field surveys covering parts of Tanzania, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is based on investigations along the eastern margin of the Tanzanian craton, in the Ubendian belt between the Tanzanian craton and Bangweulu block, in the Lufilian Arc between the Kalahari and Congo cratons and along the Congo intracratonic basin. Paleostress tensors were computed for a substantial database by interactive stress tensor inversion and data subset separation, and the relative succession of major brittle events established. Two of them appear to be of regional importance and could be traced from one region to the other. The oldest one is the first brittle event recorded after the paroxysm of the Terminal Pan-African event that led to the amalgamation Gondwana at the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. It is related to compressional deformation with horizontal stress trajectories fluctuating from an E-W compression in Central Tanzania to NE-SW in the Ubende belt and Lufilian Arc. The second event is a transpressional inversion with a consistent NW-SE compression that we relate to the far-field effects of the active margin south of Gondwana during the late Triassic - early Jurassic.

  5. Cambial growth season of brevi-deciduous Brachystegia spiciformis trees from south central Africa restricted to less than four months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Trouet

    Full Text Available We investigate cambial growth periodicity in Brachystegia spiciformis, a dominant tree species in the seasonally dry miombo woodland of southern Africa. To better understand how the brevi-deciduous (experiencing a short, drought-induced leaf fall period leaf phenology of this species can be linked to a distinct period of cambial activity, we applied a bi-weekly pinning to six trees in western Zambia over the course of one year. Our results show that the onset and end of cambial growth was synchronous between trees, but was not concurrent with the onset and end of the rainy season. The relatively short (three to four months maximum cambial growth season corresponded to the core of the rainy season, when 75% of the annual precipitation fell, and to the period when the trees were at full photosynthetic capacity. Tree-ring studies of this species have found a significant relationship between annual tree growth and precipitation, but we did not observe such a correlation at intra-annual resolution in this study. Furthermore, a substantial rainfall event occurring after the end of the cambial growth season did not induce xylem initiation or false ring formation. Low sample replication should be taken into account when interpreting the results of this study, but our findings can be used to refine the carbon allocation component of process-based terrestrial ecosystem models and can thus contribute to a more detailed estimation of the role of the miombo woodland in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Furthermore, we provide a physiological foundation for the use of Brachystegia spiciformis tree-ring records in paleoclimate research.

  6. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV, an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX. Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC, and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4(th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts.

  7. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Fuller, Trevon; Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Shiplacoff, Julia A G; Mulembakani, Prime M; Blumberg, Seth; Johnston, Sara C; Kisalu, Neville K; Kinkela, Timothée L; Fair, Joseph N; Wolfe, Nathan D; Shongo, Robert L; LeBreton, Matthew; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Buermann, Wolfgang; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Smith, Thomas B; Rimoin, Anne W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX). Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4(th) Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts.

  8. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud-prone areas with complex mountainous terrain and a landscape that is heterogeneous at a scale of approximately 10 m, is an important challenge in the remote sensing of tropical regions in developing nations, due to the small plot sizes. Persistent monitoring of natural resources in these regions at multiple spatial scales requires development of tools to identify emerging land cover transformation due to anthropogenic causes, such as agricultural expansion and climate change. Along with the cloud cover and obstructions by topographic distortions due to steep terrain, there are limitations to the accuracy of monitoring change using available historical satellite imagery, largely due to sparse data access and the lack of high quality ground truth for classifier training. One such complex region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. This work addressed these problems to create an effective process for monitoring the Lake Kivu region located in Central Africa. The Lake Kivu region is a biodiversity hotspot with a complex and heterogeneous landscape and intensive agricultural development, where individual plot sizes are often at the scale of 10m. Procedures were developed that use optical data from satellite and aerial observations at multiple scales to tackle the monitoring challenges. First, a novel processing chain was developed to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification, using the state-of-the-art machine learning classifier Random Forest, was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps

  9. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  10. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  11. Cocirculation of Two env Molecular Variants, of Possible Recombinant Origin, in Gorilla and Chimpanzee Simian Foamy Virus Strains from Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric; Njouom, Richard; Buseyne, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. In the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central Africa infected with zoonotic SFVs. Analysis of the complete sequences of five SFVs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. Furthermore, recombinant SFV strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identified. Here, we investigated the variability of the env genes of zoonotic SFV strains and searched for possible recombinants. We sequenced the complete env gene or its surface glycoprotein region (SU) from DNA amplified from the blood of (i) a series of 40 individuals from Cameroon or Gabon infected with a gorilla or chimpanzee foamy virus (FV) strain and (ii) 1 gorilla and 3 infected chimpanzees living in the same areas as these hunters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two env variants among both the gorilla and chimpanzee FV strains that were present in zoonotic and NHP strains. These variants differ greatly (>30% variability) in a 753-bp-long region located in the receptor-binding domain of SU, whereas the rest of the gene is very conserved. Although the organizations of the Env protein sequences are similar, the potential glycosylation patterns differ between variants. Analysis of recombination suggests that the variants emerged through recombination between different strains, although all parental strains could not be identified. IMPORTANCE SFV infection in humans is a great example of a zoonotic retroviral infection that has not spread among human populations, in contrast to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). Recombination was a major mechanism leading to the emergence of HIV. Here, we show that two SFV molecular envelope gene variants circulate among ape populations in Central Africa and that both

  12. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for serological diagnosis of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Teppo; Knuutila, Aapo; Barkoff, Alex-Mikael; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2018-03-07

    Current serological diagnosis of pertussis is usually done by ELISA. However, the ELISAs are often central-laboratory based, require trained staff and have long turnaround times. A rapid point-of-care (POC) assay for pertussis serology would aid in both diagnosis and surveillance of the disease. While lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are simple to use and ideal for point-of-care diagnostics, they were limited to qualitative assays until recently. In this study, we developed a quantitative LFIA with fluorescent Eu-nanoparticle reporters for the detection of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG. The assay was evaluated by testing 198 serum samples with varying anti-PT IgG levels and the result was compared to those obtained with standardized anti-PT IgG ELISA. At the diagnostic cutoff of 100 IU/mL in ELISA, the LFIA had a concordance of 92% with the ELISA, with a specificity of 96% [95% confidence interval (CI): 89-99%] and a sensitivity of 88% [CI: 77-94%]. The developed LFIA has a turnaround time of one hour and requires only a simple manipulation by the user and an instrument for the quantitative detection of the signal. We conclude that the LFIA is specific and sensitive for serological diagnosis of pertussis and is suitable for a POC test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.Y.; Macey, P.H.; Delor, C.; Amelin, Y.; Armstrong, R.A.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen-Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52-2.48. Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha Groups) each with a common and diagnostic signature of Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.2-1.8. Ga). The central domain (Ikalamavony-Itremo) consists of two distinct parts. The Itremo Sub-domain, in the east, is a structurally intercalated sequence of Neoarchean gneiss and shallow marine metasedimentary rocks of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic age (Itremo Group), the latter with Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons ranging in age between 2.2 and 1.8. Ga. The Ikalamavony Sub-domain, to the west, contains abundant volcano-clastic metasediments and lesser quartzite (Ikalamavony Group), formed between 1.03. Ga and 0.98. Ga, and intruded by igneous rocks (Dabolava Suite) of Stenian-Tonian age. Structurally intercalated with these are sheets of Neoarchean gneiss (~2.5. Ga) and Neoproterozoic metaclastic rocks (Molo Group). Like the Itremo Group, quartzite of the Ikalamavony Group has detrital zircons of Paleoproterozoic age (2.1-1.8. Ga). The southern domain of Anosyen-Androyen consists of a newly recognized suite of Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks (2.0-1.8. Ga), and stratified supracrustal rocks also having Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.3-1.8. Ga). The contact between the Anosyen-Androyen and Ikalamavony-Itremo domains, formerly known as the Ranotsara-Bongolava shear zone, is a tightly folded and highly flattened boundary that was ductilely deformed in Ediacaran time. It is roughly equivalent to the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone in south India, and it defines approximately the boundary between the Archean

  15. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Carter, Timothy F; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, Darcy B; McLaughlin, Patrick J; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Portik, Daniel M; Stanley, Edward L; Tinsley, Richard C; Tobias, Martha L; Blackburn, David C

    2015-01-01

    African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon) to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana) and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups).

  16. The relationship between future time perspective, self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour in the Black youth of central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2016-01-01

    An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.

  17. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  18. Simian Foamy Virus in Non-Human Primates and Cross-Species Transmission to Humans in Gabon: An Emerging Zoonotic Disease in Central Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Mouinga-Ondémé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now known that all human retroviruses have a non-human primate counterpart. It has been reported that the presence of these retroviruses in humans is the result of interspecies transmission. Several authors have described the passage of a simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV, from primates to humans. To better understand this retroviral “zoonosis” in natural settings, we evaluated the presence of SFV in both captive and wild non-human primates and in humans at high risk, such as hunters and people bitten by a non-human primate, in Gabon, central Africa. A high prevalence of SFV was found in blood samples from non-human primates and in bush meat collected across the country. Mandrills were found to be highly infected with two distinct strains of SFV, depending on their geographical location. Furthermore, samples collected from hunters and non-human primate laboratory workers showed clear, extensive cross-species transmission of SFV. People who had been bitten by mandrills, gorillas and chimpanzees had persistent SFV infection with low genetic drift. Thus, SFV is presumed to be transmitted from non-human primates mainly through severe bites, involving contact between infected saliva and blood. In this review, we summarize and discuss our five-year observations on the prevalence and dissemination of SFV in humans and non-human primates in Gabon.

  19. Simian foamy virus in non-human primates and cross-species transmission to humans in Gabon: an emerging zoonotic disease in central Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-06-19

    It is now known that all human retroviruses have a non-human primate counterpart. It has been reported that the presence of these retroviruses in humans is the result of interspecies transmission. Several authors have described the passage of a simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV), from primates to humans. To better understand this retroviral "zoonosis" in natural settings, we evaluated the presence of SFV in both captive and wild non-human primates and in humans at high risk, such as hunters and people bitten by a non-human primate, in Gabon, central Africa. A high prevalence of SFV was found in blood samples from non-human primates and in bush meat collected across the country. Mandrills were found to be highly infected with two distinct strains of SFV, depending on their geographical location. Furthermore, samples collected from hunters and non-human primate laboratory workers showed clear, extensive cross-species transmission of SFV. People who had been bitten by mandrills, gorillas and chimpanzees had persistent SFV infection with low genetic drift. Thus, SFV is presumed to be transmitted from non-human primates mainly through severe bites, involving contact between infected saliva and blood. In this review, we summarize and discuss our five-year observations on the prevalence and dissemination of SFV in humans and non-human primates in Gabon.

  20. The nutritional status of older people with and without dementia living in an urban setting in Central Africa: the EDAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rouvray, C; Jésus, P; Guerchet, M; Fayemendy, P; Mouanga, A M; Mbelesso, P; Clément, J P; Preux, P M; Desport, J C

    2014-12-01

    To determine the nutritional status of elderly African people and to investigate the association between undernutrition and dementia. Door-to-door cross-sectional surveys in the general population. Representative districts of Bangui (Central African Republic) and Brazzaville (Republic of Congo). Population aged over 65 years. Undernutrition was defined as a body mass index nutritional habits. PARTICIPANTS underwent cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI-D) and the Five-Word Test. After further neuropsychological testing and neurological examination, the diagnosis of dementia was confirmed according to DSM-IV criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied in order to identify factors associated with undernutrition in populations with or without dementia. 1016 people were included. In the general population, the prevalence of undernutrition was 19.2%. Dementia was found in 7.4% of elderly people. Compared with healthy people, patients with dementia had an increased prevalence of undernutrition (32.0% vs. 17.7%; p = 0.002), lower weight (49.3 ± 10.5 kg vs. 58.4 ± 13.5 kg ; p older population. The nutritional status of patients with dementia is more impaired than that of healthy patients. However, they are less often malnourished than in French home care settings. This study is the first to look at the nutritional status of at-home patients with dementia in Africa. These comparative data will eventually be used in the development of new nutritional intervention strategies.

  1. Mapping Forest Degradation due to Selective Logging by Means of Time Series Analysis: Case Studies in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Hirschmugl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and monitoring forest degradation in the tropics has implications for various fields of interest (biodiversity, emission calculations, self-sustenance of indigenous communities, timber exploitation. However, remote-sensing-based detection of forest degradation is difficult, as these subtle degradation signals are not easy to detect in the first place and quickly lost over time due to fast re-vegetation. To overcome these shortcomings, a time series analysis has been developed to map and monitor forest degradation over a longer period of time, with frequent updates based on Landsat data. This time series approach helps to reduce both the commission and the omission errors compared to, e.g., bi- or tri-temporal assessments. The approach involves a series of pre-processing steps, such as geometric and radiometric adjustments, followed by spectral mixture analysis and classification of spectral curves. The resulting pixel-based classification is then aggregated to degradation areas. The method was developed on a study site in Cameroon and applied to a second site in Central African Republic. For both areas, the results were finally evaluated against visual interpretation of very high-resolution optical imagery. Results show overall accuracies in both study sites above 85% for mapping degradation areas with the presented methods.

  2. Relating vegetation condition to grazing management systems in the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent; Ndou, Naledzani

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of the temporal changes in vegetation condition across the communal villages of the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, in relation to local grazing management systems was conducted. Landsat TM images of 1984 and 1999, in conjunction with SPOT imagery of 2011 were used to assess the spatial trends in vegetation. Information regarding the functionality of local grazing management structures was obtained through structured interviews. Vegetation condition was related to grazing management systems using the logistic regression in Idrisi Selva remote sensing software. Analysis of vegetation condition trends revealed a consistent deterioration of vegetation condition in villages with weak grazing management systems. A statistically significant correlation between vegetation condition and grazing management systems was identified. High levels of vegetation degradation were associated with villages that did not adhere to sound grazing management practices. The introduction of another layer governance in the form of elected municipal committees weakened traditional village management structures. Strengthening traditional management committees should be the point of departure for vegetation restoration.

  3. Mixed-Forest Species Establishment in a Monodominant Forest in Central Africa: Implications for Tropical Forest Invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Séné, Olivier; Djuikouo, Marie-Noël K.; Nguembou, Charlemagne K.; Taedoumg, Hermann; Begne, Serge K.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm) within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450–800 m apart). Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement–revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement) and population-level characteristics (relative abundance) may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species. PMID:24844914

  4. Mixed-forest species establishment in a monodominant forest in central Africa: implications for tropical forest invasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin S-H Peh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart. Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement-revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement and population-level characteristics (relative abundance may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species.

  5. Population genetics of IFITM3 in Portugal and Central Africa reveals a potential modifier of influenza severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Susana; Correia, Vanessa; Antunes, Liliana; Faria, Ricardo; Ferrão, José; Faustino, Paula; Nunes, Baltazar; Maltez, Fernando; Lavinha, João; Rebelo de Andrade, Helena

    2017-08-25

    Influenza epidemics are a serious global public health and economic problem. The IFITM3 allele (rs12252-C) was suggested as a population-based genetic risk factor for severe influenza virus infection by A(H1N1)pdm09. We analyzed the population genetics of IFITM3 variants in the Portuguese general population (n = 200) and Central Africans (largely Angolan) (n = 148) as well as its association to influenza severity in Portuguese patients (n = 41). Seven SNPs, within the 352 bp IFITM3 amplicon around rs12252, were identified. SNP distributions in the Portuguese appeared at an intermediate level between the Africans and other Europeans. According to HapMap, rs34481144 belongs to the same linkage disequilibrium (LD) block as rs12252 and is in strong LD with rs6421983. A negative association with severe relative to mild disease was observed for allele rs34481144-A, indicating a protective effect under the dominant model. Moreover, haplotype Hap4 with rs34481144-A, not including rs12252-C, was significantly associated to mild influenza. Conversely, although with borderline significance, haplotype Hap1 with rs34481144-G, not including rs12252-C, was associated to severe disease. Moreover, in comparison to the general Portuguese population, statistical significant differences in the frequencies of the protective allele rs34481144-A in the severe disease group, the deleterious Hap1 in the mild disease group, and the protective Hap4 in the severe disease group were observed. The population attributable risk (PAR) for the targeted rs34481144 allele or genotype was of 55.91 and 64.44% in the general population and the mildly infected individuals, respectively. Implication of these variants in disease phenotype needs further validation, namely through functional analysis as is discussed.

  6. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  8. Women and agro‑processing in Africa : a case study of the state of women in fish smoking in the central region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Okorley, E.L.; Kwarten, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the role of women in the production, processing and marketing of agricultural goods in many countries in Africa, agricultural information and production resources are not reaching and benefiting them in the food security chain. Recent reports in Africa shows that the productivity of agriculture on the continent has not satisfied the requirement for food fibre and other raw materials despite efforts by governments to develop agriculture. Many studies in Africa show that the poor achiev...

  9. Abrupt Climate Change Around 850 Cal Bc From Central Africa To Northern Europe and The Role of Solar Uv

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, B.; Renssen, H.; van der Plicht, J.

    Changing solar activity is a possible factor behind rapid climate shifts. Matching of high resolution sequences of uncalibrated 14C dates of organic deposits to the dendro- calibration curve can provide a precise core chronology. This method (14C wiggle matching) reveals relationships between atmospheric 14C variations and short-term climatic fluctuations caused by solar variations. Shifts to cool and wet climate types in the temperate zones correspond to phases of increasing and high values of delta 14C, pointing to a link between changing solar activity and climate change. In the temperate zones the transition from the Subboreal to the Subatlantic (ca 850 calendar years BC) represents a sudden and strong shift from a relatively dry and warm climate to a humid and cool episode. The climate shift is reflected in the plant macrofossil composition of NW European raised bogs, but there is also strong archaeological and dendroclimatological evidence. The climate shift occurs at the start of a sharp rise of the atmospheric 14C content, caused by a sudden decline of solar activity. Reduced solar wind permitted more cosmic rays to penetrate into the atmosphere, resulting in a higher production of the cosmogenic isotope 14C. In Cameroon and other sites in the Central African rain forest belt there was a drastic change in the vegetation cover as a consequence dryness after ca 850 cal BC. Shortly afterwards farmers migrated into the area, availing themselves of what was from the human standpoint a regional climatic improvement. A possible palaeoclimatological explanation for the dry-wet transition in the temperate zones, and the contemporaneous wet-dry transition in the tropics is the following: A reduction in solar activity (less solar UV) resulted in a decrease of stratospheric ozone, less absorption of warmth, an equatorward shift and intensification of the mid-latitude storm tracks, a constriction of the latitudinal extent of the Hadley Cell circulation and thus a weaker

  10. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle T. Mbaveng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2 as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1, human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae, Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr. Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51

  11. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mumps virus serological reagents consist of antigens and antisera...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Bordetella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Brucella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600 Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Schistosoma spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Listeria spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175... Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Cytomegalovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to cytomegalovirus in...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rhinovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Klebsiella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  7. ELISA for the serology of FIP virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Kroon; R.M.S. Wirahadiredja

    1979-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus serology is described. The assay is analogous to a previously developed indirect heterologous immunofluorescence test (IFT) in which transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) viral antigen was used.

  8. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  9. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic

  10. District-based malaria epidemic early warning systems in East Africa: perceptions of acceptability and usefulness among key staff at health facility, district and central levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Rapuoda, Beth; Okia, Michael; Cox, Jonathan

    2008-07-01

    Malaria epidemics represent a significant public health problem in the highlands of Africa. Many of these epidemics occur in low resource settings, where the development of an effective system for malaria surveillance has been a key challenge. Between 2001 and 2006, the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL) established a programme to develop and test a district-based surveillance system for the early detection and control of malaria epidemics in four pilot districts in Kenya and Uganda. An innovative feature of the programme was the devolution of responsibility for the detection of epidemics from the central Ministry of Health to District Health Management Teams. The implementation of the programme offered the opportunity to test both the technical aspects of the system and to examine the practical issues relating to the operation of the programme in the context of the existing health system. To investigate the attitude of key staff towards the programme, and their perceptions of its impact on their working practices, interviews were carried out among 52 health staff at district level and in the Ministries of Health in Kenya and Uganda. The transfer of responsibility for the early detection of epidemics to the districts had resulted in perceptions of individual empowerment among district-based staff. This, together with improved support supervision, was a key factor in sustaining motivation and improved surveillance. The enhanced support supervision also produced capacity benefits that extended beyond improved malaria surveillance. However, these improvements occurred in the context of increased logistical support (the provision of transport, fuel and travel allowances) which the participants believed was essential to the functioning of an effective system. With this proviso, the district-based malaria early warning system was perceived to be manageable, effective and sustainable in the context of the current health system.

  11. The correlation between ATLS and junior doctors' anatomical knowledge of central venous catheter insertion at a major trauma centre in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Odendaal, J J; Weale, R; Liu, M; Keene, C M; Sartorius, B; Clarke, D L

    2017-11-07

    To review the ability of junior doctors (JDs) in identifying the correct anatomical site for central venous catheterization (CVC) and whether prior Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training influences this. We performed a prospective, observational study using a structured survey and asked a group of JDs (postgraduate year 1 [PGY1] or year 2 [PGY2]) to indicate on a photograph the exact site for CVC insertion via the internal jugular (IJV) and the subclavian (SCV) approach. This study was conducted in a large metropolitan university hospital in South Africa. A total of 139 JDs were included. Forty-four per cent (61/139) were males and the mean age was 25 years. There were 90 PGY1s (65%) and 49 PGY2s (35%). Overall, 32% (45/139) were able to identify the correct insertion site for the IJV approach and 60% (84/139) for the SCV approach. Of the 90 PGY1s, 34% (31/90) correctly identified the insertion site for the IJV approach and 59% (53/90) for the SCV approach. Of the 49 PGY2s, 29% (14/49) correctly identified the insertion site for the IJV approach and 63% (31/49) for the SCV approach. No significant difference between PGY1 and 2 were identified. Those with ATLS provider training were significantly more likely to identify the correct site for the IJV approaches [OR=4.3, p=0.001]. This was marginally statistically significant (i.e. p>0.05 but ATLS training were more likely to be able to identify the correct insertion site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-sectional description of nursing and midwifery pre-service education accreditation in east, central, and southern Africa in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carey F; Gross, Jessica M; Verani, Andre R; Nkowane, Annette M; Wheeler, Erica L; Lipato, Thokozire J; Kelley, Maureen A

    2017-07-24

    In 2013, the World Health Organization issued guidelines, Transforming and Scaling Up Health Professional Education and Training, to improve the quality and relevance of health professional pre-service education. Central to these guidelines was establishing and strengthening education accreditation systems. To establish what current accreditation systems were for nursing and midwifery education and highlight areas for strengthening these systems, a study was undertaken to document the pre-service accreditation policies, approaches, and practices in 16 African countries relative to the 2013 WHO guidelines. This study utilized a cross-sectional group survey with a standardized questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of approximately 70 nursing and midwifery leaders from 16 countries in east, central, and southern Africa. Each national delegation completed one survey together, representing the responses for their country. Almost all countries in this study (15; 94%) mandated pre-service nursing education accreditation However, there was wide variation in who was responsible for accrediting programs. The percent of active programs accredited decreased by program level from 80% for doctorate programs to 62% for masters nursing to 50% for degree nursing to 35% for diploma nursing programs. The majority of countries indicated that accreditation processes were transparent (i.e., included stakeholder engagement (81%), self-assessment (100%), evaluation feedback (94%), and public disclosure (63%)) and that the processes were evaluated on a routine basis (69%). Over half of the countries (nine; 56%) reported limited financial resources as a barrier to increasing accreditation activities, and seven countries (44%) noted limited materials and technical expertise. In line with the 2013 WHO guidelines, there was a strong legal mandate for nursing education accreditation as compared to the global average of 50%. Accreditation levels were low in the programs that produce

  13. The Meteorology of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-11-01

    rVAr.-’:r*ii--’ vJ^-’’^-’..»*~’’*<’TO-’».Tg«-fiw*TO? ^wstV-romcV ’gsy-t"?-: ^pcoteabi^ arlbfcj^ fium ’ blw -Laoh, of, opportunity for the m&ifffem’e

  14. Genetic Diversity of Polymorphic Vaccine Candidate Antigens (Apical Membrane Antigen-1, Merozoite Surface Protein-3, and Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175) in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Western and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulama, Issiaka; Bigoga, Jude D.; Ndiaye, Magatte; Bougouma, Edith C.; Quagraine, Josephine; Casimiro, Prisca N.; Stedman, Timothy T.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.

    2011-01-01

    The malaria vaccine candidate antigens erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175), merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP-3), and apical membrane antigen (AMA-1) from Plasmodium falciparum isolates from countries in central and west Africa were assessed for allelic diversity. Samples were collected on filter paper from 600 P. falciparum-infected symptomatic patients in Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal and screened for class-specific amplification fragments. Genetic diversity, assessed by mean heterozygosity, was comparable among countries. We detected a clinical increase in eba 175 F-allele frequency from west to east across the study region. No statistical difference in msp-3 allele distribution between countries was observed. The ama-1 3D7 alleles were present at a lower frequency in central Africa than in West Africa. We also detected little to no genetic differentiation among sampling locations. This finding indicates that, at least at the level of resolution offered by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, these antigens showed remarkable genetic homogeneity throughout the region sampled, perhaps caused by balancing selection to maintain a diverse array of antigen haplotyes. PMID:21292899

  15. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central Africa schools of public health: enhancing capacity to design and implement teaching programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangami, Mabel N; Rugema, Lawrence; Tebeje, Bosena; Mukose, Aggrey

    2014-06-02

    The role of health systems research (HSR) in informing and guiding national programs and policies has been increasingly recognized. Yet, many universities in sub-Saharan African countries have relatively limited capacity to teach HSR. Seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa undertook an HSR institutional capacity assessment, which included a review of current HSR teaching programs. This study determines the extent to which SPHs are engaged in teaching HSR-relevant courses and assessing their capacities to effectively design and implement HSR curricula whose graduates are equipped to address HSR needs while helping to strengthen public health policy. This study used a cross-sectional study design employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. An organizational profile tool was administered to senior staff across the seven SPHs to assess existing teaching programs. A self-assessment tool included nine questions relevant to teaching capacity for HSR curricula. The analysis triangulates the data, with reflections on the responses from within and across the seven SPHs. Proportions and average of values from the Likert scale are compared to determine strengths and weaknesses, while themes relevant to the objectives are identified and clustered to elicit in-depth interpretation. None of the SPHs offer an HSR-specific degree program; however, all seven offer courses in the Master of Public Health (MPH) degree that are relevant to HSR. The general MPH curricula partially embrace principles of competency-based education. Different strengths in curricula design and staff interest in HSR at each SPH were exhibited but a number of common constraints were identified, including out-of-date curricula, face-to-face delivery approaches, inadequate staff competencies, and limited access to materials. Opportunities to align health system priorities to teaching programs include existing networks. Each SPH has key strengths that can be leveraged to

  16. Serologic evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus detected in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.

  17. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Agustsdóttir, Elfa; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Oström, Inga-Lena Örde; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Wensman, Jonas Johansson

    2013-11-01

    In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

  18. Local Communities’ and Indigenous Peoples’ Rights to Forests in Central Africa: From Hope to Challenges Die Rechte lokaler Gemeinschaften und indigener Völker an den Wäldern in Zentralafrika: von Hoffnungen zu Herausforderungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Assembe-Mvondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various rights of local communities and indigenous peoples over forest resources in Central Africa. Indeed, in 2010, the Council of Ministers of the Commission des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC adopted the Subregional Guidelines on the Participation of Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples and NGOs in Sustainable Forest Management in Central Africa. A survey of this subregional legal instrument highlights a genuine commitment by states to consolidate the benefits and the emerging rights that can improve the living conditions of vulnerable communities and strengthen the subregional regime of sustainable forest management. However, the effectiveness of the subregional guidelines hinges on the administrative acts and practical measures of member states to incorporate this instrument into their domestic legal systems and to enforce it.Dieser Beitrag untersucht die diversen Rechte lokaler Gemeinschaften und indigener Völker an Waldressourcen in Zentralafrika. Im Jahr 2010 hat der Ministerrat der Commission des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC die „Subregionalen Richtlinien zur Partizipation der lokalen und autochthonen Bevölkerung sowie von Nichtregierungsorganisationen am nachthaltigen Management der Wälder Zentralafrikas“ (Directives sous-régionales sur la participation des populations locales et autochtones et des ONG à la gestion durable des forêts d'Afrique centrale angenommen. Eine Prüfung dieses rechtlichen Instruments wirft ein Schlaglicht auf das ernsthafte Bekenntnis von Staaten zu einer Konsolidierung bisheriger Leistungen und der sich entwickelnden Rechtsmittel, um die Lebensbedingungen bedrohter Volksgruppen zu verbessern und nachhaltiges Forstmanagement auf subregionaler Ebene zu stärken. Allerdings hängt die Wirksamkeit der Richtlinien von administrativem Handeln und praktischen Maßnahmen der COMIFAC-Mitgliedsländer ab, dieses Instrument in ihre jeweiligen nationalen Rechtssysteme

  19. Serological And Microbiological Studies Of Contagious Caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medium and a commercial freeze-dried CCPP diagnostic medium. A total of 1,927 sera were screened serologically using the latex agglutination test. The major clinical features of the sick goats were dyspnoea, coughing, muco-purulent nasal discharge and pyrexia, and 60 of 74 goats had pathological features suggestive ...

  20. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  1. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Presented are laboratory procedures of a serologic or immunologic nature for use in the diagnosis of a variety of infectious and noninfectious conditions. Included are tests for the detection of specific antibodies in the patient's serum, as well as immunologic tests for the detection of other products in the patient's serum and biological fluids.…

  2. Serological pregnancy diagnosis of syphilis in pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.N. Naicker, J. Moodley, A. Van Middelkoop, R.C. Cooper. Abstract. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. The prevalence of ... The TPHA test is therefore advocated for screening patients for syphilis.

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Mirambo

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ... Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2) infections is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and causes ... A total of 174 non HIV infected health professional students were enrolled between April and May 2016 from Mwanza City, ...

  4. Homophobic Africa? Toward a more nuanced view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awondo, P.; Geschiere, P.; Reid, G.

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of homosexuality as a central issue in public debate in various parts of Africa has encouraged a stereotypical image of one homophobic Africa, often placed in opposition to a tolerant or depraved West. What is striking is that this image of Africa as homophobic is promoted by

  5. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866... Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trichinella spiralis serological reagents are... Trichinella spiralis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of trichinosis caused by parasitic...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. 866.3780 Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents are devices that consist of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus antigens and antisera used to identify...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Chlamydi...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and provides...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices... herpes simplex virus in serum. Additionally, some of the assays consist of herpes simplex virus antisera...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866... Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. (a) Identification. Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents... Entamoeba histolytica in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866... Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. (a) Identification. Coccidioides immitis serological reagents are... Coccidioides immitis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis caused by a...

  14. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambarene, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500

  15. Mapping Vegetation Morphology Types in Southern Africa Savanna Using MODIS Time-Series Metrics: A Case Study of Central Kalahari, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Niti B. Mishra; Kelley A. Crews; Jennifer A. Miller; Thoralf Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems are geographically extensive and both ecologically and economically important; they therefore require monitoring over large spatial extents. There are, in particular, large areas within southern Africa savanna ecosystems that lack consistent geospatial data on vegetation morphological properties, which is a prerequisite for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of ecological resources. Given the challenges involved in distinguishing and mapping savanna vegeta...

  16. Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciotti, Robert S; Kosoy, Olga L; Laven, Janeen J; Velez, Jason O; Lambert, Amy J; Johnson, Alison J; Stanfield, Stephanie M; Duffy, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel animal surveillance studies have demonstrated that ZIKV is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia, yet reported human cases are rare, with <10 cases reported in the literature. In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated with ZIKV was detected in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. We report the genetic and serologic properties of the ZIKV associated with this epidemic.

  17. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  18. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  19. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et ... Sujet: Social Policy, SOCIAL WELFARE, SOCIAL SECURITY, HOUSEHOLD INCOME, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT. Région: Africa, South Africa, South of ...

  20. Role of CSF serology in follow-up of subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis patients on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with poor prognosis and high mortality. No effective treatment has a proven role; oral isoprinosine and intrathecal administration of a-interferon may prolong survival. We report an unusual case of adult onset SSPE patient on treatment with significant clinical improvement, even in the absence of conversion to seronegativity in either CSF or serum, on follow-up serological examination.

  1. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed)...

  2. Lassa serology in natural populations of rodents and horizontal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. Previously, we demonstrated by PCR screening that only the multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, hosts Lassa virus in Guinea. In the present study, we used the same specimen collection from 17 villages in Coastal, Upper, and Forest Guinea to investigate the Lassa virus serology in the rodent population. The aim was to determine the dynamics of antibody development in M. natalensis and to detect potential spillover infections in other rodent species. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody screening was performed using the indirect immunofluorescence assay with the Guinean Lassa virus strain Bantou 289 as antigen. The overall seroprevalence was 8% (129/1551) with the following rodents testing positive: 109 M. natalensis, seven Mastomys erythroleucus, four Lemniscomys striatus, four Praomys daltoni, three Mus minutoides, and two Praomys rostratus. Nearly all of them (122/129) originated from Bantou, Tanganya, and Gbetaya, where Lassa virus is highly endemic in M. natalensis. The antibody seroprevalence in M. natalensis from this high-endemic area (27%; 108/396) depended on the village, habitat, host age, and host abundance. A main positive factor was age; the maximum seroprevalence reached 50% in older animals. Our data fit with a model implicating that most M. natalensis rodents become horizontally infected, clear the virus within a period significantly shorter than their life span, and develop antibodies. In addition, the detection of antibodies in other species trapped in the habitats of M. natalensis suggests spillover infections.

  3. [A serological survey of arboviruses in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, C; Languillat, G; Renaudet, J; Robin, Y

    1978-01-01

    Serological studies for arbovirus antibodies were carried out on 1.279 human serum specimens collected from adults in south-eastern part of Gabon from June to September 1975 during a multipurpose epidemiological survey. More than 80% of the population surveyed have neutralizing antibodies for yellow fever virus as consequence of mass vaccination campaign. Chikungunya, Zika, Wesselsbron and Koutango virus showed some activity, especially in woodland savannahs.

  4. Seronegative chronic polyarthritis: clinical and serological correlates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rasker, J L; Davis, P; Bacon, P A

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with chronic, active, seronegative polyarthritis were assessed clinically and serologically by accepted criteria for evidence of connective tissue diseases. The patients were divided into 2 groups, 13 positive for fluorescent antinuclear antibody (FANA) and 14 that were negative. All but 1 patient fulfilled the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of definite rheumatoid arthritis. Four patients (2 in each group) fulfilled the preliminary criteria for the classification of...

  5. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  6. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Galkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO 13485 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Regulatory requirements”, and DSTU ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories”. Similar requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine which are used for drug standardization can not be directly applied to the medical devises for in vitro diagnostics due to a number of features, namely, the serological diagnosis products pre-designed to determine the unknown concentration of a particular analyte in a biological material, the diagnostic kits has to include the control samples (internal standard systems that need to be calibrated. It was determined following parameters of bioanalytical standardization and validation characterization for of qualitative (semi quantitative test-kits for serological diagnosis: precision (convergence, intralaboratory precision and reproducibility, diagnostic and analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity. It’s necessary to inspect additional parameters for quantitative test-kits such as accuracy (precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity and range.

  7. [Fertility in black Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locoh, T

    1985-01-01

    The number of children per woman is between 6 and 7 children in Black Africa. Infertility and poor fertility existing in certain regions of Africa only appear in results concerning central Africa. 6-10% of births occur in women between the ages of 40 and 50. It must be noted that the goal of the majority of societies in Black Africa is to have numerous descendants. Factors of fertility in Africa examined are: precocious marriage, a long period of exposure to the risk of pregnancy, birth spacing and pathological infertility. The paper also discusses modern contraception and birth control, the improvement of sanitation conditions as part of the battle against infertility and infant mortality, combating infertility, decreasing infant mortality and governmental attitudes toward fertility control. Despite the efforts of several private and governmental agencies to promote family planning, progress in Africa has been modest. In the majority of Black African countries, women do not have access to contraception. In rural areas, the absence of an administrative infrastructure prevents diffusion of information and access to contraception. Improving general health conditions has 2 consequences on fertility: it reduces infertility due to diseases that cause sterility and it reduces infant mortality which affects birth intervals. So far birth control has only been successful among the very educated women. However, a great potential for more users exists.

  8. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    African states today are strongly encouraged by the United States (US) and other members of the international community to play a more central role in confronting crises on the continent. Indeed, in recent years African armed forces have increasingly served as the backbone supporting various...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  9. Caractérisation géochimique des dykes basiques du massif de les Saras (Mayombe Congolais, Afrique Centrale): conséquences géodynamiquesGeochemical characterizations of basic dykes of the Saras massif (Congolese Mayombe Belt, Central Africa): geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, J. Mpemba; Vellutini, P. J.

    1992-02-01

    The Saras granodioritic massif is one of the Eburnean intrusive plutons of the Mayombe Belt. (South-West Congo, Central Africa) It is crosscut by a system of basic dykes, of diversified composition. Petrographic data and a comparative geochemical study, using incompatible trace elements, shows a tholeiitic transitional affinity, and allow us to suggest that these dykes are continental basaltic suites, from extensive areas. This basic magmatism, scattered in the whole Congo Craton, marks a widespread extensional episode in relation with the formation of subsidence basins or true aulacogens, at about 970 Ma (Pan African).

  10. Retrospective review of serological testing of potential human milk donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald S; Xiong, Sean C; Sakamoto, Pauline

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of positive serology among potential donors to a human milk bank. Retrospective review of our experience with donor serological testing at our milk bank over a 6-year interval. Not-for-profit, regional human milk bank. Volunteer, unpaid potential donors of human milk. Serological testing for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2). Results of serological screening tests performed on potential donors. Of 1091 potential donors, 3.3% were positive on screening serology, including 6 syphilis, 17 hepatitis B, 3 hepatitis C, 6 HTLV and 4 HIV. There is a significant incidence of positive serology among women interested in donating human milk. This implies that there may be significant risk associated with peer-to-peer distribution of human milk from unscreened donors.

  11. Strangers but for Stories: The Role of Storytelling in the Construction of Contemporary White Afrikaans-Speaking Identity in Central South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Conrad Kotze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the application of an integral framework for sociological practice to a case study of White Afrikaans-speaking identity in South Africa. In addition to the introduction of the framework, identity is conceived as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which is formed and shaped biologically, psychologically and socially. Using the empirical examples of the case study, the socially constructed aspects of identity are interpretively investigated. The stories and their narrative repertoires, structures and contents are integrally reconstructed and analysed by means of an approach that includes in-depth interviews, a hermeneutical interpretation and the contextualisation of these stories within the broader meta-narrative of South African history. The analysis demonstrates that White Afrikaans-speaking identity has diversified since the end of apartheid in 1994, i.e. the self-definitions and self-understandings of White Afrikaans-speakers do not (exclusively refer anymore to the formerly dominant notion of the Afrikaner. The analysis concludes that there exist three contemporary White Afrikaans-speaking identities in South Africa, namely the Afrikaners, the Afrikaanses, and the Pseudo-Boers. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501201

  12. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus... echoviruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...

  13. Serologic differences in strains of Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T; Harada, T; Harada, S; Hatano, H

    1975-11-01

    To obtain evidence that Sporothrix scheneckii enters the body by contact with contaminated materials, the antigenic property of strains from different sources was investigated. The reciprocal absorption test of the antisera against a soil isolate and a human isolate (KO 4606) showed that the absorbed antisera against KO 4606 possessed unique antigen(s) in addition to the common antigen of both strains. Twenty-three clinical isolates were tested with absorbed antisera. Not all of them possessed the unique antigen(s), but there were serologic varieties among S. schenckii strains, regardless of their sources, clinical type of the disease and the morphology of the yeast phase cells.

  14. Clinical phenotypes and the biological parameters of Congolese patients suffering from sickle cell anemia: A first report from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikobi, Tite M; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel N; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Mvumbi-Lelo, Georges; Mbuyi-Muamba, Jean Marie

    2017-01-23

    The influence of phenotype on the clinical course and laboratory features of sickle cell anemia (SCA) is rarely described in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa. A clinical phenotype score was built up. The following definitions were applied: asymptomatic clinical phenotype (ACP; score≤5), moderate clinical phenotype (MCP; score between 6 and 15), and severe clinical phenotype (SCP; score≥16). ANOVA test were used to compare differences among categorical variables. We have studied 140 patients. The mean body mass index (BMI) value of three groups was lower (clinical severity and the biological parameters of SCA. The study provides data concerning the sickle cell anemia clinical and biological variability in our midst. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    SOUTH AFRICA. Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South ...

  16. Africa was still far south in the Late Ypresian: Paleomagnetic study on the early Eocene ‘Minia’ formation in central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotfy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paleomagnetic study was carried out on three sections of the Late Ypresian “Minia” formation limestone, in order to shed light on the paleolatitude of northeast Africa upon the end of the Early Eocene. The initial study on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility [AMS] helped in confining the paleomagnetic sampling to the virtually isotropic limestone beds. The subsequent stepwise thermal demagnetization of the three-axis isothermal remanence acquired in one sample of each sampled site, revealed the limited contribution of goethite and hematite with the main remanence carrier magnetite in most samples.The assessment of the natural remanence during the progressive stepwise thermal demagnetization [15–17 steps] of all samples, elucidated the early decay [<150 °C] of a present- day field [PDF] overprint component scattered around the magnetic field direction of the study area. Despite that, the anchored component in most samples was carried in magnetite, yet hematite was recorded in few sites. The visual inspection of the decay spectra in the orthogonal projections, followed by the determination of the best-fit line of every component using the principal component analysis [PCA] technique, differentiated between the magnetite- and hematite- remanence components: 1. The magnetite-anchored component, which was overwhelming in most samples, was antipodal with shallow to medium inclination, yielding a paleomagnetic North poles at 73.8°N/197.5°E. This component, which successfully passed the reversal test at 95% confidence level, was considered as the characteristic primary remanent direction of the “Minia” formation. This paleomagnetic pole was, consequently, considered as representing the African Plate in the Late Ypresian. 2. On the other hand, the hematite component had normal north-direction clustered around the present-day field [PDF] in the study area. The hematite paleomagnetic pole at 88.7°N/78.8

  17. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine... tests to identify antobodies to equine encephalomyelitis virus in serum. The identification aids in the...

  18. [Serologic examination of patients with prolonged cough in anamnesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkina, I G

    2005-05-01

    Serological examinations of patients with prolonged cough in history, made at an allergy center, revealed, in 56% of them, IgG to antigens of Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. psittaci; antibodies to M. pneumonie were detected in 25% of them. It is expedient to diagnose serologically opportunistic infections in order to prevent chronic disease forms and further allergization.

  19. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  20. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  1. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L C

    1985-01-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed. PMID:3988957

  2. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  4. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  5. Serological Diagnosis of Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Özkesici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune blistering diseases are a rare diseases, characterized by development of autoantibodies against the structural proteins of the epidermis or dermoepidermal junction, and blisters and erosions on skin and/or mucous membranes clinically. Clinical features are important guiding findings for suspicious of this group of diseases. The diagnosis is achieved by the evaluation together of clinical features, histological and immunological findings. The gold standard in the diagnosis of this group diseases are demonstration of tissue bound and/or circulating autoantibodies. Methods for this purpose are; direct and indirect immunofluorescence, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. The aim of this paper is to review serological diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases and to present developments in recent years.

  6. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...... and Sp, the HI test may be effectively considered a gold standard. In the framework of LPAI surveillance, where large numbers of samples have to be processed, the blocking ELISA could be a valid alternative to the HI test, in that it is almost as sensitive and specific as the HI test yet quicker...... has been evaluated in comparison with HI test results, whose performance for poultry has not been properly evaluated. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the HI test and six other diagnostic assays for the detection of AI...

  7. Imunopatogenesis Treponema pallidum dan Pemeriksaan Serologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSifilis adalah penyakit menular seksual yang sangat infeksius, disebabkan oleh bakteri berbentuk spiral, Treponema pallidum subspesies pallidum. Penyebaran sifilis di dunia telah menjadi masalah kesehatan yang besar dengan jumlah kasus 12 juta pertahun. Infeksi sifilis dibagi menjadi sifilis stadium dini dan lanjut. Sifilis stadium dini terbagi menjadi sifilis primer, sekunder, dan laten dini. Sifilis stadium lanjut termasuk sifilis tersier (gumatous, sifilis kardiovaskular dan neurosifilis serta sifilis laten lanjut. Sifilis primer didiagnosis berdasarkan gejala klinis ditemukannya satu atau lebih chancre (ulser. Sifilis sekunder ditandai dengan ditemukannya lesi mukokutaneus yang terlokalisir atau difus dengan limfadenopati. Sifilis laten tanpa gejala klinis sifilis dengan pemeriksaan nontreponemal dan treponemal reaktif, riwayat terapi sifilis dengan titer uji nontreponemal yang meningkat dibandingkan dengan hasil titer nontreponemal sebelumnya. Sifilis tersier ditemukan guma dengan pemeriksaan treponemal reaktif, sekitar 30% dengan uji nontreponemal yang tidak reaktifKata kunci: sifilis, Treponema pallidum, serologiAbstractSyphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is highly infectious, caused by a spiral -shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The spread of syphilis in the world has become a major health problem and the common, the number of 12 million cases per year. Infectious syphilis is divided into early and late-stage syphilis. Early-stage syphilis is divided into primary, secondary, and early latent. Advanced stage of syphilis include tertiary syphilis (gumatous, cardiovascular syphilis, and neurosyphilis and late latent syphilis. Primary syphilis is diagnosed by clinical symptoms of the discovery of one or more chancre (ulcer. Secondary syphilis is characterized by the finding of localized mucocutaneous lesions or with diffuse lymphadenopathy. Latent syphilis without clinical symptoms of syphilis with

  8. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  9. Peasant farmer–raptor conflicts around Chembe Bird Sanctuary, Zambia, Central Africa: poultry predation, ethno–biology, land use practices and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Nyirenda, V. R.; Musonda, F.; Kambole, S.; Tembo, S.

    2017-01-01

    Los conflictos entre campesinos y rapaces alrededor del refugio de Chembe Bird, en Zambia, África central: depredación de aves de corral, etnobiología, prácticas de uso de la tierra y conservación Las rapaces prestan servicios ecosistémicos a las comunidades rurales de África: (1) depredando roedores, (2) regulando las poblaciones de serpientes dañinas, (3) configurando las creencias culturales y (4) formando parte de las atracciones turísticas. Sin embargo, los campesinos las relaciona...

  10. Serological evidence of schistosomiasis among Orang Asli from three areas of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, G J; Anuar, H

    1984-09-01

    Using ELISA and COPT diagnostic tests, serological evidence of Malaysian schistosomiasis was discovered among Orang Asli populations from three areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples collected in 1975 indicated an ELISA-positive prevalence of 25% and a COPT prevalence of 11% from Pos Iskandar, Pahang and an ELISA prevalence of 13% and a COPT of 4% from Bukit Lanjan, Selangor. Resurveys at these site in 1982-1984 showed a continued presence of serological positive individuals but prevalence rates were markedly lower: 7% and 1% for ELISA and 4% and 2% for COPT at Pos Iskandar and Bukit Lanjan respectively. Snail hosts were not found at either site. The source of infection for persons living in these lowland areas remains unknown. In a third area, Kuala Tahan, Pahang, located in the foothills of the central mountain range, foci of transmission have been found near to Orang Asli settlements. The serological prevalence rate among Negrito Orang Asli in that study area was 9% for ELISA and 4% for COPT. Thirty-three of 36 COPT-positive sera produced vacuolated bleb precipates and in 31 these were the only reactions seen. The high percentage of positives producing only these precipates suggests that among Orang Asli schistosomiasis patients such reactions are not an indication of recently acquired infection as has been reported for schistosomiasis patients in the Philippines.

  11. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  12. Usefulness of a fourth generation ELISA assay for the reliable identification of HCV infection in HIV-positive adults from Gabon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, François; Deleplancque, Luc; Mboumba, Berthold Bivigou; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Liégeois, Florian; Goudeau, Alain; Dubois, Frédéric; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for optimized HCV screening are urgently required in Africa, especially for patients infected with HIV, who sometimes show false positive or false negative reactivity in anti-HCV antibody assays. Here, we assessed the usefulness of a fourth-generation HCV Ag-Ab ELISA for the identification of active HCV infection in HIV-positive patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 03/2010 and 01/2013 and included 762 Gabonese HIV-positive adult patients. The results of ELISA (Monolisa HCV Ag-Ab ULTRA, Bio-Rad) were compared with those obtained by RT-PCR (gold standard). The optimal ELISA signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio to identify patients with active hepatitis C (positive HCV RNA) was determined. Specimens were further tested by the INNO-LIA HCV Score assay (Innogenetics) and the Architect HCV Ag kit (Abbott) to define the best diagnostic strategy. Sixty-seven patients tested positive for HCV (S/CO ratio ≥ 1) by ELISA. Of these, 47 (70.1%) tested positive for HCV RNA. The optimal S/CO associated with active HCV infection was 1.7. At this threshold, the sensitivity of ELISA was 97.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 90.0-99.9%), its specificity was 91.3% (95% CI 85.0-95.5%), and HCV seroprevalence rate was 7.3% (56/762) (95% CI 5.6-9.4%). Among 57 HCV-seropositive patients with available INNO-LIA results, false reactivity was identified in 14 (24.6%), resolved HCV infection in two (3.5%), possible acute HCV infections in nine (15.8%) and likely chronic HCV infections in 32 (56.1%) patients. HCV core Ag was undetectable in 14/15 (93.3%) specimens that tested negative for HCV RNA whereas it was quantified in 34 (out of 39, 87.2%) samples that tested positive for HCV RNA. Our study provides comprehensive guidance for HCV testing in Gabon, and will help greatly clinicians to improve case definitions for both the notification and surveillance of HCV in patients co-infected with HIV.

  13. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-11-15

    Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF). The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP's infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), complementary feeding (CF), and children's linear growth. A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359) and non-NIP sites (n = 415) from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs) in the Northwest (NWR) and Southwest Regions (SWR) of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children's linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94) more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver, children were five times more likely to be stunted at

  14. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.

    2012-01-01

    conservation status of each species and to evaluate how well the species are protected by the protected areas in the region. Distributions were analyzed and potential distributions predicted using the Maxent species distribution algorithm with climatic (precipitation and temperature) and non-climatic predictor...... of concentration of endemic species which should be given particular conservation attention. Comparing the potential distributions to the current Central African protected areas showed that the endemic species are not well protected, as 97% of their potential habitat is localized outside protected areas. Hence......Understanding why some regions have higher levels of diversity and which factors are driving the occurrence of species in a particular area is crucial for environmental management and for the development of species conservation strategies. In this study, we studied seven species...

  15. Notes on the Strumariinae (Amaryllidaceae-Amaryllideae. Six new taxa in Strumaria and Hessea from the central and northwestern Cape, South Africa, and southern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Snijman

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly described are four species and a subspecies of Strumaria and one species of Hessea. S.  aestivalis  Snijman from the Langberg and  S. perryae Snijman from the Bokkeveld escarpment are rare species closely allied to S. pubescens W.F. Barker.  S. discifera Marloth ex Snijman is widespread on the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld escarpments but S. discifera subsp. bulbifera Snijman which comprises several clonal populations, is narrowly restricted to the dolerite ridges near Nieuwoudtville. S.  villosa Snijman, a rare species, is localised on quartz hills near Kosies in the Richtersveld.  H. speciosa Snijman occurs in red sand and friable loam from southern Namibia to the central Cape.

  16. [A serological examination for toxocariasis in the population of greater Baku].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanov, R E; Gulieva, R O; Niftullaev, M Z

    1990-01-01

    RIHA serological and epidemiological survey for toxocariasis in 4765 inhabitants of various districts of the Baku agglomeration has been performed. Positivity rate in the town settlements was 12.5% versus 2.8 +/- 0.5% in the central Baku. The risk groups were identified according to the population's behavior that determines the contact with environmental objects. The highest seropositive rates (10.1 and 9.7%) were found in children aged 4-7 and 8-11 years, respectively and that (6.5%) in females aged 31 to 60 years.

  17. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  18. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...

  19. All projects related to South Africa | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...

  20. All projects related to South Africa | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Region: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  1. Chemistry for sustainable development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius); Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas (eds.) [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Faculty of Veterinary Science

    2013-07-01

    Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa' gives an insight into current Chemical research in Africa. It is edited and written by distinguished African scientists and includes contributions from Chemists from Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern, Central and Island state African Countries. The core themes embrace the most pressing issues of our time, including Environmental Chemistry, Renewable Energies, Health and Human Well-Being, Food and Nutrition, and Bioprospecting and Commercial Development. This book is invaluable for teaching and research institutes in Africa and worldwide, private sector entities dealing with natural products from Africa, as well as policy and decision-making bodies and non-governmental organizations.

  2. Serologic Evaluation of Patients from Missouri with Erythema Migrans-Like Skin Lesions with the C6 Lyme Test

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, Mario T.; Masters, Edwin; Wormser, Gary P.; Hogrefe, Wayne; Martin, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), also known as Masters disease, affects people predominantly in the Southeast and South Central United States. These patients exhibit skin lesions that resemble erythema migrans (EM), the characteristic skin lesion in early Lyme disease. The etiology of STARI remains unknown, and no serologic test is available to aid in its diagnosis. The C6 Lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate coded serum specimens from patients with STARI ...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that...

  4. Serological Survey of Antibodies against Brucella Organisms in One ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Survey of Antibodies against Brucella Organisms in One Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Herds in the Lake Chad Area of Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria. MA Sadiq, I Ajogi, JOO Bale, FB Mosimabale, AN Tijjani, AA Kaikabo ...

  5. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen H.; Frei, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The Namaqua Metamorphic Complex is a Mesoproterozoic low-pressure, granulite facies belt along the southern and western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The NMC has formed between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 Ga and its central part consists essentially of different types of granitoids intercalated with metapelites and calc-silicate rocks. The granitoids can be subdivided into three major groups: (i) mesocratic granitoids, (ii) leucocratic granitoids and (iii) leucogranites. The high-K, ferroan mesocratic granitoids (54-75 wt% SiO2) have a variable composition ranging from granitic to tonalitic, and contain biotite and/or hornblende or orthopyroxene. They are strongly enriched in REE and LILE, indicating A-type chemical characteristics, and are depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb, Ta and Ti. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites (68-76 wt% SiO2) differ from the other group in having a granitic or slightly syenitic composition containing biotite and/or garnet/sillimanite. They have lower REE and MgO, FeOt, CaO, TiO2, MnO concentrations, but higher Na2O and K2O contents. Compositional variations in mesocratic granitoids indicate their formation by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma. Leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites lack such trends, which suggests melting of a felsic crustal source without subsequent further evolution of the generated magmas. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the mesocratic granitoids are consistent magmatic differentiation of a mantle derived, hot (> 900 °C) parental magma. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites granites were formed from low-temperature magmas (history is best compatible with steady and long-lasting heat transfer from mantle sources, suggesting a continental back-arc situation as the most likely setting of the NMC in the late Mesoproterozoic.

  6. [Serologic diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas Andreu, Lurdes; Molinos Abós, Sonia; Fernández Rivas, Gema; González Soler, Victoria; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2006-10-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen with worldwide distribution. This microorganism is a common cause (10-30%) of community-acquired pneumonia, also called primary atypical pneumonia because of the spectrum of clinical and radiological findings. The immune response is mainly based on rapid antibody production against peptide and glycolipid antigens derived from this microorganism. During the primary infection, IgM levels generally rise within the first week, and are then followed by an IgG response. Titers of IgG and IgA increase in reinfections. Microbiological diagnosis is based on specific antibody detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques performed on sputum or pharyngeal/nasopharyngeal exudates, as well as the development of multiplex PCR reactions allowing identification of M. pneumoniae and other respiratory pathogens, would by highly useful in routine diagnosis. The most common serological techniques are complement fixation, immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassay. Diagnosis should be performed by selecting the most appropriate test according to functional criteria and population groups. Specific detection of IgM antibodies should not be included in the differential diagnosis in adults and young people. Diagnostic criteria including seroconversion or rising IgG titers may not be clinically useful, because of the time delay and the difficulty of obtaining a second serum specimen for testing, given the mildness of the clinical symptoms.

  7. Multiple sclerosis and positive lyme serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available As Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may clinically mimick multiple sclerosis (MS the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum of patients with a MS-like disease in non-edemic areas for Lyme disease may be troublesome. We report the case of a 45-year-old white female with the diagnosis of relapsing/ remitting form of MS due to a 15-year history of optic neuritis and recurrent episodes of motor and sensation disturbance in the upper right limb and in both lower extremites associated with bladder dysfunction. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple high intensity periventricular white matter lesions. The patient had been exposed to ticks but did not recall the presence of erythema migrans. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive in two different laboratories and the positive serology was confirmed by Western blotting. No convincing reponse followed treatment with ceftriaxone. Although it is clear that the patient had been infect by Borrelia burgdorferi the relationship of this spirochetal infection with the neurological disease could not be ascertained.

  8. Serological survey for canine angiostrongylosis in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miterpáková M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Angiostrongylus vasorum has become another important heart parasite of dogs besides Dirofilaria immitis, with intense spread into new areas of Europe. The first two cases of canine angiostrongylosis in Slovakia were observed in 2013, demonstrating that this life-threatening parasitic disease of dogs has expanded into this territory too. One year after the first A. vasorum findings, a serological survey was conducted to assess the current distribution of this parasitic infection in dogs from Slovakia. Serum samples from 225 dogs were collected from 29 veterinary practices situated in 22 districts of Slovakia and tested by ELISA for the presence of circulating A. vasorum antigens and additionally for the detection of specific antibodies against A. vasorum. Fourteen samples (6.22 % were seropositive in at least one ELISA. Of these, 7 dogs (3.11 % were only antibody-positive and 4 dogs (1.78 % were positive only for circulating A. vasorum antigen. Three animals out of 225 examined (1.33 % were positive in both ELISAs

  9. Serology for human papillomavirus Serología para el virus del papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coursaget

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.

  10. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.

  11. for Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was witnessed by a galaxy of African leaders all united in their vision of a future for Africa representative of the African. Renaissance as conceptualised by Nelson Mandela. Thousands of miles away, in the land of the Rising Sun, the city of. Yokohama witnessed the birth of another African child, con- ceived, carried and ...

  12. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  13. Drought in Africa 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalby, D.; Harrison-Church, R.J.; Berzaz, F. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    The second edition of Drought in Africa is reviewed. The book, which has been greatly expanded, looks at the Sahelian and Ethiopian droughts from a long-term perspective. Among the subjects included are: a description of the meteorological aspects of the drought; changes in animal and human populations; overpopulation of areas of nomadic pastoralism and of crop-producing areas; and mechanisms by which people survived. Cash crops, taxes, the market economy and over-centralized planning receive much of the blame for the effects of the drought.

  14. Towards a unified theory for immunogenetic systems. I. Probing the serologic field--a meta-serologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A serologic field (SEF) is produced by the in vitro studies of antibody-antigen interactions and usually includes serologic information processing (SIF). SIF can be regarded as the process whereby essentially "meaningless" raw data or experimental observables emanating from an input reality are structuralized and hence falsified into a "meaningful" pattern, Gestalt or output image. According to this "black box model", different "fact categories" (FC) can be identified in SEF. Traditional serology generally confounds its FC whereby fact category mistakes (FCM) are produced. Some FCM are structurally similar to the description of "mice" as four-letter animals or as a four-legged word--i.e. facts about "thing-properties" (animals, legs) are confounded with facts about "language-properties" (letters, words). In SEF, antibody and antigen molecules (thing-properties) are similarly endowed with "empty symbols" (language-properties). Due to such FCM, radically new meanings are assigned to experimental observables if the serologic language and/or theory is changed. The present meta-serologic approach consists of the design of a meta-serologic symbol language (SL-2) which includes the contemporary (simple-complex) conceptual framework (language and theory) as a limiting case. Consequently, some truly radical and revolutionary Gestalt switches will be generated when a specified SEF is mapped onto SL-2.

  15. Africa-Asia trade versus Africa's trade with the North: Trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resources in areas of trade, finance and investment as well as technical assistance so as ... Singapore and Japan, to name but just a few, have become central to Africa's ... Many African leaders who have embraced the Look East Policy have.

  16. Empiric treatment based on Helicobacter pylori serology cannot substitute for early endoscopy in the management of dyspeptic rural black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S J; Salvador, B; Nainkin, J; Majiki, S; Stevens, H; Atherstone, A

    2000-11-01

    Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma has led to the suggestion that all serologically positive dyspeptic patients should be treated empirically with antibiotics to eradicate the infection, without endoscopic diagnosis. The following study was performed to determine whether such a policy would prove to be of benefit in rural Africa, where endoscopic facilities are lacking and infection rates high. Four district clinics were visited and 97 consecutive patients with persistent upper gastro-intestinal symptoms studied. After history-taking and physical examination, a blood sample was taken for HP serology (IgG anti-HP EIA) and endoscopy was performed. In comparison with similar studies in westernised countries HP was considerably more common (80%), and similar to that reported for the background population (83-86%), but peptic ulceration (17%) and gastric cancer (1%) were not. HP status and antibody levels failed to predict the presence of serious disease; patients with 'alarm' signs (78%), cancer (78%) and peptic ulcers (81%) had similar seropositivity rates to patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (81%). Interestingly, many patients with distal oesophagitis were seronegative (40%). Haemoglobin concentrations and nutritional status were similar in HP-positive and negative patients. On the basis of published decision analysis strategies, empiric treatment of HP-positive patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia could be expected to produce symptomatic relief in 50% of cases, but would have delayed the diagnosis of 3 cases of cancer if patients over the age of 45 were included. The lack of association between HP serology and upper gastro-intestinal disease indicates that serological investigation cannot substitute for endoscopy in the management of black Africans with dyspepsia, and that empiric anti-HP therapy cannot be justified.

  17. A SHRIMP U Pb and LA-ICP-MS trace element study of the petrogenesis of garnet cordierite orthoamphibole gneisses from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Ian S.; Hermann, Jörg; Williams, Ian S.; Gibson, Roger L.; Rubatto, Daniela

    2006-05-01

    The Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (South Africa) underwent high-grade metamorphism at ˜2.7-2.5 and ˜2.03 Ga. Quartz-rich, garnet-, cordierite-, biotite- and orthoamphibole-bearing, feldspar-free gneisses from the western Central Zone reached granulite-facies conditions (˜800 °C at ˜8-10 kbar) followed by decompression. Garnet from one such sample shows significant zonation in trace elements but little zonation in major elements. Zoning patterns suggest that the early prograde breakdown of REE-rich accessory phases contributed to the garnet trace element budget. Monazite from the sample yields a SHRIMP weighted mean 207Pb- 206Pb age of 2028 ± 3 Ma, indistinguishable from a SHRIMP zircon age of 2022 ± 11 Ma previously measured on metamorphic overgrowths on ˜2.69 Ga igneous zircon cores. New zircon and monazite formed before, or at, the metamorphic peak, and occur as inclusions in garnet. Monazite appears to have formed through the breakdown of early allanite ± xenotime ± apatite. Trace element zoning patterns in garnet and the age of accessory phases are most consistent with a single tectonometamorphic event at ˜2.03 Ga. The plagioclase and K-feldspar-free composition of the garnet-cordierite-orthoamphibole gneisses requires open system processes such as intense hydrothermal alteration of protoliths or advanced chemical weathering. In the studied sample, the ˜2.69 Ga igneous zircons show a prominent negative Eu anomaly, suggesting equilibrium with plagioclase, or plagioclase fractionation in the precursor magma. In contrast, the other minerals either show small negative (˜2.03 Ga monazite), no (˜2.02 Ga zircon and garnet) or positive Eu anomalies (orthoamphibole). This suggests that the unusual bulk compositions of these rocks were set in after ˜2.69 Ga but before the peak of the ˜2.03 Ga event, most probably while the protoliths resided at shallow or surficial crustal levels.

  18. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (ρ, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ρ: a group with very low ρ (ρ 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ρ may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  19. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania infection in dogs from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Hugo; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Schallig, Henk D F H; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

    2014-03-24

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a global zoonosis endemic in more than 70 countries in Europe, North Africa, Asia and America; however, data on this infection is scarce from southern Africa. The aim of this study was to survey dogs in Luanda, Angola, for Leishmania infection. One hundred-and-three dogs presented to a veterinary medical centre in Luanda were serologically and molecularly assessed for Leishmania with the direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two dogs were seropositive, with DAT titres of 800 and ≥6400; the latter was also found to be PCR-positive and confirmed to be infected with L. infantum by DNA sequence analysis. No other dog was found to be PCR-positive. The first dog had been imported from Portugal, but the latter had never left Angola (neither had its parents), strongly suggesting an autochthonous infection. Although other cases of CanL have previously been described in the country, this is the first reported study of canine Leishmania infection at the population level, as well as the first report on the molecular characterization of L. infantum in dogs from Angola.

  20. Factors Influencing the Serological Response in Hepatic Echinococcus granulosus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissandrin, Raffaella; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Piccoli, Luca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Mariconti, Mara; Meroni, Valeria; Genco, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variables influencing serology is crucial to evaluate serology results for the diagnosis and clinical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE). We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of patients with hepatic CE followed in our clinic in 2000-2012 to evaluate the influence of several variables on the results of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. Sera from 171 patients with ≥ 1 hepatic CE cyst, and 90 patients with nonparasitic cysts were analyzed. CE cysts were staged according to the WHO-IWGE classification and grouped by activity. A significant difference in ELISA optical density (OD) values and percentage of positivity was found among CE activity groups and with controls (P < 0.001). The serological response was also influenced by age (P < 0.001) and cyst number (P = 0.003). OD values and cyst size were positively correlated in active cysts (P = 0.001). IHA test showed comparable results. When we analyzed the results of 151 patients followed over time, we found that serology results were significantly influenced by cyst activity, size, number, and treatment ≤ 12 months before serum collection. In conclusion, serological responses as assessed by commercial tests depend on CE cyst activity, size and number, and time from treatment. Clinical studies and clinicians in their practice should take this into account. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  2. West and Central Africa Symposium infographic charts

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    unemployment, Structures and Schooling to limit the to basic social especially for young men inclusive security risk of youth becoming services in and women that promote desocialized disadvantaged. º ſeSocialization of . to limit. Redevelop InSeCure young Criminals Createarigorous data Violence against neighbourhoods.

  3. Relevance of and New Developments in Serology for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serological assays for emerging coronaviruses: challenges and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A

    2014-12-19

    More than a decade after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002/2003 the occurrence of a novel CoV termed Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV challenges researchers and public health authorities. To control spread and finally contain novel viruses, rapid identification and subsequent isolation of infected individuals and their contacts is of utmost importance. Next to methods for nucleic acid detection, validated serological assays are particularly important as the timeframe for antibody detection is less restricted. During the SARS-CoV epidemic a wide variety of serological diagnostic assays were established using multiple methods as well as different viral antigens. Even though the majority of the developed assays showed high sensitivity and specificity, numerous studies reported on cross-reactive antibodies to antigens from wide-spread common cold associated CoVs. In order to improve preparedness and responsiveness during future outbreaks of novel CoVs, information and problems regarding serological diagnosis that occurred during the SARS-CoV should be acknowledged. In this review we summarize the performance of different serological assays as well as the applicability of the two main applied antigens (spike and nucleocapsid protein) used during the SARS-CoV outbreak. We highlight challenges and potential pitfalls that occur when dealing with a novel emerging coronavirus like MERS-CoV. In addition we describe problems that might occur when animal sera are tested in serological assays for the identification of putative reservoirs. Finally, we give a recommendation for a serological testing scheme and outline necessary improvements that should be implemented for a better preparedness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  6. Serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Stauffert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.

  7. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  8. Serological prevalence of celiac disease in Brazilian population of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pérola; de Carvalho, Daniel Rocha; Brandi, Ivar Viana; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    Comorbidity of celiac disease with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system has been reported since the 1960s. The objective of this study was to determine the serological prevalence of celiac disease in the largest series of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or myelitis. A prevalence study was conducted with patients evaluated at Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals between March 2012 and September 2013. They were previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or idiopathic myelitis. The serum levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were assessed. Of the 379 patients evaluated, 249 (65.70%) were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, 37 (9.56%) with neuromyelitis optica, and 96 (24.54%) with idiopathic myelitis. Two patients (0.53%), one with multiple sclerosis and other with myelitis, tested positive for both antibodies. Our study do not confirm the relationship between celiac serological antibodies with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and inflammatory myelitis of an unknown etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Utility of Serologic Testing for Celiac Disease in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective of Analysis The objective of this evidence-based evaluation is to assess the accuracy of serologic tests in the diagnosis of celiac disease in subjects with symptoms consistent with this disease. Furthermore the impact of these tests in the diagnostic pathway of the disease and decision making was also evaluated. Celiac Disease Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that develops in genetically predisposed individuals. The immunological response is triggered by ingestion of gluten, a protein that is present in wheat, rye, and barley. The treatment consists of strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Patients with celiac disease may present with a myriad of symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, iron deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, among others. Serologic Testing in the Diagnosis Celiac Disease There are a number of serologic tests used in the diagnosis of celiac disease. Anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) Anti-endomysial antibody (EMA) Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) Anti-deamidated gliadin peptides antibodies (DGP) Serologic tests are automated with the exception of the EMA test, which is more time-consuming and operator-dependent than the other tests. For each serologic test, both immunoglobulin A (IgA) or G (IgG) can be measured, however, IgA measurement is the standard antibody measured in celiac disease. Diagnosis of Celiac Disease According to celiac disease guidelines, the diagnosis of celiac disease is established by small bowel biopsy. Serologic tests are used to initially detect and to support the diagnosis of celiac disease. A small bowel biopsy is indicated in individuals with a positive serologic test. In some cases an endoscopy and small bowel biopsy may be required even with a negative serologic test. The diagnosis of celiac disease must be performed on a gluten-containing diet since the small intestine abnormalities and the serologic antibody levels may resolve or improve

  10. The diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, M M G; Ang, C W; Berkhout, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpretation of serological assays in Lyme borreliosis requires an understanding of the clinical indications and the limitations of the currently available tests. We therefore systematically reviewed the accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. ...

  11. South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239.

  12. Serological survey of Brucellosis in livestock animals and workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers was conducted in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between May and August 2004. A total of 1,210 cattle, 54 sheep, 496 goats, 200 pigs and 21 humans (i.e. butchers and herdsmen) were screened using the Rose Bengal test (RBT).From the results ...

  13. Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus among healthy hepatitis B surface ... Journal Home > Vol 16, No 3 (2016) > ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed ...

  14. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  15. National strategy for serological diagnosis ofHIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the cells in which the viruses were cultured, biologi- cal false-positive results were sometimes ..... REFERENCES. 1. Consrantine NT. Serologic tests for the retroviruses: approaching a decade of evolution. AIDS 1993; 7: 1-13. 2. Hunsmann G, Schneider J, Wendler I, Fleming AF. HTLV positivity in Africans. Lanar 1985 ...

  16. Serological and molecular evidence of bluetongue in sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Molalegne Bitew

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Serological and molecular evidence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Uttar Pradesh, India. Molalegne Bitew1,2, Sukdeb Nandi1, Chintu Ravishankar1 and Ramesh Somvanshi1. 1Virus Laboratory, Center for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis (CADRD), Indian ...

  17. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in the Sistan region, Iran. ... provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, ...

  18. (IHAT) for serological diagnosis and screening of bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to develop and evaluate an Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody Test (IHAT) for the serological diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis in live animals. IHAT was set-up in-house and used to test serum samples of cattle against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) coated with crude extracts of C. bovis cyst. Serum ...

  19. Serological survery of infectious bursal diseas antibody in local kitchen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological evidence for infectious bursal disease virus antibody in local chicken in Ago-lwoye a rea of Ogun State was detected using agar gel precipitation test. 51 out of the 98 sera samples tested were vositive for precipitating antibody against infectious bursal disease. Key words: Infectious bursa] disease, precipitating ...

  20. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-10-23

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency.

  1. Serological Evidence of Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Evidence of Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Local Chickens in Wuse, Abuja Municipal Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. ... These findings imply that the local chickens in the study area are exposed to field strains of IBDV and the immunity conferred on them by this exposure is not very ...

  2. East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objects of the Association journal shall be the advancement of the science and art of surgery and the promotion of friendship and exchange of ideas between surgeons in the constituent countries of The Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) and The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa ...

  3. Serología en hepatitis virales = Serology in viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Aristizábal, María Clara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuando ocurre infección por el virus de hepatitis A (VHA, virus de hepatitits B (VHB, virus de hepatitis C (VHC virus de hepatitis D o virus de hepatitis E (VHE el cuadro clínico y bioquímico es similar, por lo que se hace necesario recurrir a pruebas de laboratorio diferentes a las de función hepática para identificar con certeza el agente etiológico; dentro de estas se encuentran: la serología, que permite detectar antígenos virales o anticuerpos contra estos y las pruebas moleculares que permiten detectar el genoma viral. Para diagnosticar la existencia de una infección actual por alguno de estos virus basta con la realización de pruebas serológicas, excepto en el caso del infección por VHC para la que es necesario realizar detección del genoma viral. Las pruebas moleculares son de gran utilidad para el seguimiento y la toma de decisiones terapéuticas en los pacientes con infección crónica por VHB o VHC.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or total...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents... Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. (a) Identification. Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents..., occurring in adults who were previously infected with varicella-zoster viruses. Zoster is the response...

  7. Isolation of Bartonella henselae from a serologically negative cat in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Pretorius

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sera collected from apparently healthy 6-12-month-old cats (n = 31 presented to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Veterinary Clinic in Bloemfontein for neutering were tested for antibodies reactive to Bartonella henselae (Houston-1 strain by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Whole blood collected from the cats was used in isolation experiments and subsequent identification of Bartonella species was based on comparison of the nucleotide base sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified citrate synthase gene fragments. While none of the cats had antibodies reactive with B. henselae at titres > 1/64, an organism with a partial citrate synthase gene sequence identical to that of B. henselae (Houston-1 was isolated from 1 cat.

  8. [Toxoplasma gondii serology in pregnant woman: characteristics and pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, P; Chene, G; Varlet, M-N; Sung, R Tran Manh

    2009-01-01

    Screening program of congenital toxoplasmosis depends principally on serological testing and follow-up of pregnant women with negative serology from the onset of pregnancy. This program is particularly efficient because the majority of cases of obstetrical seroconversion are diagnosed and followed up. Serological techniques have evolved with time and are many on the market. The "IgG" tests are more and more specific at the detriment of their sensitivity. The latter is variable from one technique to the other. In 2008, despite the presence of an international standard, serological titrations are particularly variable making interpretation of the kinetics impossible between two different series, two techniques or two laboratories. In cases of interpretation discordance or borderline values, it is useful to do a confirmatory technique. The dye test or the western blot are useful in these cases and prevent up to 2 to 8% of unnecessary obstetric follow up. IgM tests are becoming more and more sensitive and precocious. These tests frequently detect "non specific IgM" as well as "residual IgM" (associated with a stable positive IgG titre). In such cases and in the absence of a preceding positive result, a complementary test done by specialized laboratories (such as ISAgA IgM or IgA, IgG avidity test, differential agglutination, etc.) is indispensable in order to prevent any error of interpretation. These complementary tests as well as the serological evolution (control done in 15 days) permit, in a large number of cases, to reassure the patient with full confidence.

  9. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted.

  10. Serological survey of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle herds in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Z; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Medina-Espinoza, L; García-Tapia, D; Chavarria-Martinez, B

    2002-06-03

    A serological survey for antibody activity to Neospora caninum was carried out in Aguascalientes, a state in the central part of Mexico. One-hundred and eighty-seven serum samples from 13 dairy herds were tested by the ELISA test. The herd prevalence was 100% and the overall prevalence was 59% (n=110). Seventy-six of 97 seropositive cows had previous records of abortion. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P<0.05). However, the odds ratio was 1.4, suggesting an association between abortion and seropositivity. Neosporosis in dairy cattle appears to be widespread in Mexico, warranting more epidemiological studies to determine the distribution of the causative protozoan.

  11. [Prenatal screening and the prevalence of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women in the Marche Region (Central Italy): differences between ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Ermanno; Gesuita, Rosaria; Compagnoni, Luigina; Tubaldi, Lucia; Infriccioli, Giovanna; Vianelli, Patrizia; Genga, Roberto; Bonifazi, Vitaliana; Dieni, Alessandra; Guerrini, Domenico; Basili, Gabriella; Salvatori, Patrizia; DeColli, Rosa; Leone, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women living in the Marche Region (Central Italy), according to the Country of origin. cross sectional observational study conducted from May 2011 to April 2012, which involved 13 of the 15 birthing centres in the Marche region. serological data of hepatitis B infection were obtained during the execution of mandatory prenatal screening. The total number of pregnant women was of 10,232 of which 7,669 were Italian (74.9%) and 2,563 were foreign (25.1%). rate of adherence to prenatal serologic screening and prevalence of hepatitis B infection in Italian and foreign pregnant women. The 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the exact method for proportions. The test for proportions was applied to make comparisons between groups (significance level: 0.05). the rate of adherence to prenatal serologic screening and the overall prevalence of hepatitis B infection in pregnancy ware 98.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In foreign women, compared to native ones, differences of adherence to screening and the prevalence of infection were significant (96.7% vs. 99.3% and 2.7% vs. 0.2%). The highest prevalence was observed in pregnant women who came from the Western Pacific Region, Eastern Europe, and Africa (7.0%, 4.0%, and 3.3%, respectively). More than half of the cases of pregnant women, positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, were originating in Albania and China (60.6%). The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was significantly higher in pregnant women from China (8.1%), Albania (7.7%), Ukraine (7.2%), and Senegal (6.1%). the study emphasises the need to organise targeted interventions to facilitate access to prenatal screening programmes to foreign women for better control of hepatitis B infection in the Marche Region.

  12. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  13. Initiatives in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J; Middleberg, M I

    1986-03-01

    Since the 1st oil crisis in 1973, the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have barely kept pace with their burgeoning populations. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa give birth more often than women in any other region of the world, with an average of more than 6.5 live births each. The region's natural increase average 2.5% a year in the 1960s, 2.7% in the 1970s, and in the mid-1980s, it is 3.1% per annum--a rate that will double the regions population in 22 years. National leaders in Sub-Saharan Africa were slow to consider population policy as a key component of the social and economic development effort. The neglect of population issues is reflected in the limited scope of public or private family planning programs in the sub-continent. Donor countries and institutions play an important role in developing the information base by providing technical training to government staff, supporting research, and disseminating information to a broad spectrum of political actors. Some examples of policy reconsiderations in Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Niger are given. These countries are starting to give active consideration to population policies to reduce fertility and high rates of population growth by expanding family planning services, raising the age of marriage, improving the status of women, providing family-life education, and incorporating economic incentives for smaller families into the provision of social services. The highly centralized nature of African governments dictates that the acquiescence of the governmental elite must be obtained before any policy can take hold. Overall, high population growth rates in combination with a stagnating social and economic development effort throughout the region have provided the catalyst for a new look at Sub-Saharan Africa population policy. The ability of African nations to implement policies that reduce fertility is more open to question; no African nation has as yet done so, and the socioeconomics factors contributing to high

  14. All projects related to South Africa | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Americas, Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Africa, Kenya, South of Sahara, Peru, South Africa. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. Vulnerability, Coping and Adaptation in the context of Climate ...

  15. Managing the Monster: Urban Waste and Governance in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effective governance is typified by transparency, accountability, credibility, and stability of the governing body, as well as by the cooperative partnership of public sector, private sector, and civil society. In Africa today, good governance is central to the achievement of sustainable and equitable development. But Africa is ...

  16. science granting councils initiative in sub-saharan africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    Briefly describe your organization, its vision and mission, its interest in STI issues, and its interest in forging long-term relationships with Science Granting Councils in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).1 Which regions (Eastern, Southern, Central or West Africa) and countries has your organization worked in? 1 The Initiative is keen ...

  17. Strengthening Africa's science granting councils as champions of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science granting councils are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation, particularly in national science systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The availability of reliable indicators—to monitor Africa's scientific and technological developments, implement science policies and strategies, track public investment in ...

  18. NeuroAIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2010-05-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.

  19. Science Granting Councils in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    khaled fourati

    2015-07-22

    , boards, commissions, and foundations are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation across Africa. A recent scoping study supported by IDRC in 17 SSA countries underscored the increasingly important role ...

  20. Gender Research in Africa into ICTs for Empowerment (GRACE ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    s). North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Project Leader. Ineke Buskens. Institution. Grace Project. Institution Country. South Africa. Project Leader. Ineke Buskens. Institution. Research for the Future CC.

  1. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR POLICY, LABOUR LAW, MINIMUM WAGE, FORMAL SECTOR, INFORMAL SECTOR, UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDEREMPLOYMENT. Région: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  2. Serological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Fengmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological markers have the features of noninvasiveness and simple operation and thus have become a research hotspot in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article briefly introduces the role of the conventional serological marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in assisting the diagnosis and predicting the prognosis of HBV-related liver cancer, as well as the clinical value of new markers such as alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and abnormal prothrombin/des-γ-carboxy prothrombin. Based on literature review, the possibility of serum Golgi protein 73 used for laboratory auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma has been denied. The results of the author′s experiment suggest that serum GP73 measurement can be used as a laboratory diagnostic index for progressive liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.

  3. Recent Trends in the Serologic Diagnosis of Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ameeta E.

    2014-01-01

    Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. PMID:25428245

  4. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....

  5. Development of serological technique for examination of aspergillosis in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaenudin Gholib

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis detection by using serological method has not been reported in Indonesia. In this case, a study was conducted, by using mycelium extract of A. fumigatus as the antigen. Rabbits and chickens were injected with the antigen to produce positive serum (antiserum. The antigen and antiserum were tested serologicaly by Immunodiffusion/Agar Gel Precipitation (AGP, ELISA and Immunoblot. Chicken serum of broiler and layer collected from field were also included in the test. All positive serum of the experimentally animals gave positive results with all methods of serological tests. No bands of precipitation reaction in AGP test with chicken serum from the field. Both chicken and rabbit positive serum with ELISA test showed high Optical Density (OD, while field chicken serum from broiler commonly gave lower OD compared to layer. Immunoblot test of chicken positive serum showed bands of reaction with the antigen in nitrocellulose membrane, approximately on 33, 38, 44, 52, 70, 77, 97, and 110 kDa, meanwhile field chicken serum with high OD in ELISA test, showed bands approximately on 16, 18, 33, 38, 44, 47, 52, 70, 77, 84, 97, and 110 kDa. It means that the field chicken serum contain immunoglobulin molecules has spesific antibody of aspergillus antigen. It is concluded that the ELISA test can be used for screening on chicken aspergillosis in serological methode.

  6. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P < 0.001) and numbers of bradyzoite (P < 0.001) and tachyzoite (P < 0.001) immunoblot bands than control donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shohei; Terada, Yutaka; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Masaki; Onuma, Mamoru; Ota, Akihiko; Ota, Yuichi; Akabane, Yoshihito; Tamukai, Kenichi; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Naganuma, Yumiko; Kanagawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Kaneichi; Ohashi, Masanari; Takami, Yoshinori; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Tanoue, Tomoaki; Ohwaki, Masao; Ohta, Jouji; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1-179 and a.a. 180-374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180-374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1-179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1-179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection.

  8. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  9. Central African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed general medical journal which seeks to promote the practice and science of medicine in Africa. Emphasis is placed on general medical topics, reflecting common and important conditions in the region. The journal also covers related medical fields. Submissions ...

  10. Strengthening partnerships among Africa's science granting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science granting councils are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation. A recent scoping study supported by IDRC underscored the important role of these councils in national science systems in sub-Saharan Africa. However, that study also noted that most councils are pursuing their efforts in isolation, with ...

  11. in Social Science Analysis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central role of surveys in social science research has long been recognised. Surveys have provided rich data about the extent of inequality in places such as. South Africa and Brazil. Surveys have also expanded our knowledge about demographic, social and economic and other variables, and have provided crit-.

  12. Africa Insight - Vol 40, No 4 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sovereignty and Economic Rights Revisiting Aspects of Integration in the Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC) Subregion and Implications for a United Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. NA Check.

  13. Southern Africa - a giant natural photochemical reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diab, RD

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The analogy of a ‘giant natural photochemical reactor’ is extended in this paper to the central and southern African tropics, where tropospheric ozone enhancement occurs over a vast geographical area from the Congo to South Africa, and over a long...

  14. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy reveals that transformational global governance considerations have occupied a central place on the Republic's international radar screen. The Mandela, Mbeki, Motlanthe and Zuma governments have all ambitiously set out to help transform global order from its western-bias and ...

  15. Networking Africa's science granting councils | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science granting councils are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation. A recent scoping study supported by IDRC underscored the important role of these councils in national science systems in sub-Saharan Africa. However, that study also noted that most councils are pursuing their efforts in isolation, with ...

  16. Serological follow-up of infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology - real-world experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Harriet E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Isitt, Catherine E; Miall, Lawrence S; Wilson, Janet D

    2016-11-01

    The 2008 UK syphilis guideline recommends infants born to women with any positive syphilis serology be followed up until both treponemal and nontreponemal tests are negative to exclude congenital syphilis, whereas Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend using only nontreponemal tests. Historically, we had low infant follow-up rates with no coherent pathways. We initiated a change in multidisciplinary team practice of infant testing for syphilis in 2011 and evaluated the results before and after by retrospective review of testing of infants born to women with positive syphilis serology between 2005 and 2012. A total of 28 infants' mothers were treated in pregnancy (termed 'high risk'); 26 had adequate treatment prior to pregnancy (termed 'low risk'). There was a significant increase in serological testing after 2011 compared with before (83% versus 48%; OR 5.07 [95% CI 1.22-22.77] p = 0.01) but mainly in low risk infants with no significant improvement in high risk infants who are the priority group. Using nontreponemal tests only in the infants would have reduced the tests required by at least 50%, allowing health resources to be concentrated on achieving adequate follow-up for those infants most at risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Association of Mean Platelet Volume with Severity, Serology & Treatment Outcome in Dengue Fever: Prognostic Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kritika; Yadav, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue fever (DF) with its severe manifestations such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) has emerged as a major public health problem of international concern. Thrombocytopenia and bleeding are common complications of dengue fever, hence besides platelet counts, there is a need to assess the role of mean platelet volume. Studying association of mean platelet volume (MPV) with severity, serology & treatment outcome to assess its prognostic utility, which can be of great help in limiting morbidity & mortality associated with dengue fever. The present study was conducted in Central Pathology Lab of SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan from the period of March 2013 till October 2013. Blood samples were collected from 200 patients with NS 1 Antigen positivity experiencing febrile illness, clinically consistent with dengue infection. Evaluation of platelet counts, MPV, IgM and IgG antibodies was done in all these cases. Categorical data were presented as numbers (percent) and were compared among groups using Chi-square test. Groups compared for demographic data were presented as mean and standard deviation and were compared using student t-test, ANOVA and Post-Hoc Test, Tukey Test using SPSS, version 20 for Windows. A total of 200 Dengue fever cases were studied. Out of which, 68% cases were of DF, 23% DHF & 9% DSS i.e. classical dengue fever was most common presentation. Maximum (44%) cases were in age group of 15-24 years. Fever was the presenting complaint in all cases (100%). 98% cases of dengue had thrombocytopenia. MPV showed no significant correlation with severity, serology & treatment outcome, thus excluding its role in dengue cases. Mean platelet volume is not important as prognostic parameter in dengue fever.

  18. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the

  19. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to Shakespeare. Its geographical scope is not confined to Southern Africa. Contributions discussing the legacy of Shakespeare elsewhere in Africa, with a specific focus on the Shakespearean experience in particular African countries, ...

  20. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ..... Africa and Africans as indigenous to South Africa is erroneous .… The history books show us that the original inhabitants of South Africa are the Khoi and San people, ..... IOL News 2007 White Teen Joins Friend for Xhosa Ritual.

  1. Africa Insight: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mmakwena Chipu Assistant Editor: Publications Africa Institute of South Africa. Human Sciences Research Council. Private Bag X41. Pretoria. 0001. South Africa. Phone: +27 12 316 9762. Email: mchipu@hsrc.ac.za. Support Contact. Rosemary Lepule Phone: +27 12 316 9743. Email: rlepule@hsrc.ac.za.

  2. Clinically and/or Serologically Misleading Findings Surrounding Immune Haemolytic Anaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHAs) are well-characterized disorders. They can be differentiated from one another and from other non-immune haemolytic anaemias by clinical, laboratory and serological testing. However, several misleading clinical presentations and/or serological findings may result in misinterpretation, delay and/or misdiagnosis. Such failures are avoidable by adequate clinical and serological experience of the responsible physicians and serologists or, at least, by an optimised bidirectional communication. As long as this has not been achieved, unpleasant failures are to be expected. A true diagnosis of AIHA can neither be verified by clinical nor serological findings alone. Thus, a collective clinical and serological picture remains obligatory for fulfilling the criteria of optimal diagnosis and therapy. Ultimately, the majority of pioneer scientific and practical work in this field stems from scientists who were simultaneously involved in both the clinic and serology.

  3. Aparasitemic serological suspects in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis : a potential human reservoir of parasites ?

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi, Mathurin; Solano, Philippe; Denizot, M.; Courtin, D.; Garcia, André; Lejon, V.; Buscher, P.; Cuny, Gérard; Jamonneau, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The serological and parasitological tests used for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) diagnosis have low specificity and sensitivity, respectively, and in the field, control program teams are faced with subjects with positive serology but negative parasitology who remain untreated. The aim of this work was to explore, using PCR tool, the significance of these aparasitemic serological suspects. Since discordant PCR results have been observed earlier with different...

  4. Are you sure it's syphilis? A review of false positive serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwani, R; Evans, D T

    1995-01-01

    This article on false positive serological reactions for syphilis reviews the rapid developments which have taken place in the serodiagnosis of syphilis in recent years since the advent of the AIDS epidemic. An overview of non-specific and specific treponemal serological tests in relation to acute and chronic biological false positive reactions is followed by closer consideration of syphilis serology in the context of HIV infection, pregnancy and other conditions which may produce false positive reactions.

  5. Analytical evaluation of nine serological assays for diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, K; Andersson, S; Fredlund, H; Norrgren, H; Biague, A; Månsson, F; Ballard, R; Unemo, M

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of syphilis is most frequently dependent on antibody detection with serological assays. Assays for both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies are needed to provide a sensitive and specific diagnosis. For decades, a first screening has been done with non-treponemal assays, followed by treponemal. However, in recent years, following laboratory automation, the reverse sequence screening algorithms have been developed, using a treponemal assay as the initial screening test. To evaluate serological assays for treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies, to use in reverse algorithm screening of syphilis. Six treponemal assays (one IgM-specific assay), two non-treponemal assays and one novel dual point-of-care (POC) assay for serological diagnosis of syphilis were evaluated. Serum samples from Guinea-Bissau and Sweden were examined, as well as two performance panels and samples from blood donors. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay, using different assays as gold standard test. The Macro-Vue RPR Card test was the most sensitive non-treponemal test and the TrepSure Anti-Treponema EIA Screen and the SeroDia TP-PA were the most sensitive and specific treponemal assays. Among the automated assays, both the Liaison Treponema Screen and Architect Syphilis TP showed high sensitivity, however, the former had clearly higher specificity. In resourced settings, where the reverse sequence algorithm is preferred for screening, an automated treponemal immunoassay for initial screening subsequently followed by the TrepSure test or TP-PA assay as a second treponemal assay appear highly effective. Finally, a quantitative highly sensitive non-treponemal assay, e.g. the Macro-Vue RPR Card test, could then be used as a supplementary test to evaluate activity of the syphilis infection. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Multiplex Evaluation of Influenza Neutralizing Antibodies with Potential Applicability to In-Field Serological Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molesti, Eleonora; Wright, Edward; Terregino, Calogero; Rahman, Rafat; Cattoli, Giovanni; Temperton, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    .... Retroviral pseudotypes bearing influenza haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope glycoproteins represent a flexible platform for sensitive, readily standardized influenza serological assays...

  7. History of meningococcal vaccines and their serological correlates of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipond, Caroline; Care, Rory; Feavers, Ian M

    2012-05-30

    For over a hundred years Neisseria meningitidis has been known to be one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis. However, effective vaccines were not developed until the latter part of the 20th century. The first of these were based on purified high molecular weight capsular polysaccharides and more recently the development of glycoconjugate vaccines has made paediatric immunisation programmes possible. The prevention of group B meningococcal disease has remained a challenge throughout this period. This review charts the history of the development of meningococcal vaccines and the importance of serological correlates of protection in their evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sklerodermi--systemisk sklerose. Serologi, lungefunktion og overlevelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullman, S; Halberg, P; Wiik, A

    1999-01-01

    %, anti-Scl-70 antibodies in 13% and anti-U1-RNP antibodies in 6.5%. These serological groups were associated with limited SSc, diffuse SSc, and myositis/arthritis, respectively. The most prevalent finding at first lung function test was isolated reduction of diffusion capacity (47%). Further...... deterioration of diffusion capacity was related to the presence of anti-centromere antibodies and increased sedimentation rate. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) was 2.9, higher in young patients (SMR = 13) and patients with diffuse SSc (SMR = 4.5)....

  9. Epidemiological and serological profiles of TORCH infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Pradhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal infections caused by TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Herpes simplex virus (HSV] are the major causes of bad obstetric history. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of TORCH infections in pregnancyMaterials and Methods:The study included 109 pregnant women with unfavorable previous pregnancy. Serological evaluation for TORCH infections was carried out by IgM Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay method.  Data was analyzed using SPSS 17.0 whenever necessary.Results: The IgM/ IgG sero-positivity to T. gondii, Rubella, CMV and HSV-2 was 26.6/9.2 %, 9.2/78.9%, 17.4/58.7%, and 4.6/35.8 % respectively. There was an increased percentage of CMV infection. There was increased number of recent Toxoplasma infection in comparison to other studies conducted.Conclusion: A previous history of pregnancy wastage and the serological reaction for TORCH infections during current pregnancy must be considered while managing BOH cases so as to reduce the adverse fetal outcome.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 705-708

  10. New Platform Technology for Comprehensive Serological Diagnostics of Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Willitzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody assessment is an essential part in the serological diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. However, different diagnostic strategies have been proposed for the work up of sera in particular from patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD. In general, screening for SARD-associated antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is followed by confirmatory testing covering different assay techniques. Due to lacking automation, standardization, modern data management, and human bias in IIF screening, this two-stage approach has recently been challenged by multiplex techniques particularly in laboratories with high workload. However, detection of antinuclear antibodies by IIF is still recommended to be the gold standard method for antibody screening in sera from patients with suspected SARD. To address the limitations of IIF and to meet the demand for cost-efficient autoantibody screening, automated IIF methods employing novel pattern recognition algorithms for image analysis have been introduced recently. In this respect, the AKLIDES technology has been the first commercially available platform for automated interpretation of cell-based IIF testing and provides multiplexing by addressable microbead immunoassays for confirmatory testing. This paper gives an overview of recently published studies demonstrating the advantages of this new technology for SARD serology.

  11. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  12. ELISA Serology for Antibodies Against Chlamydia trachomatis in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, Herbert J; Helal, Zeinab; Leroyer, Ariane; Garmendia, Antonio; Gower-Rousseau, Corrine

    2017-12-01

    Recently we reported IgA anti-Chlamydia antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), in particular in four patients from a single family of six with CD. We studied sera from four cohorts from the north of France. These were identified as: EPIMAD (80 pediatric onset CD and 20 pediatric onset ulcerative colitis), MINOTOR (148 adult onset sporadic CD and 50 adult onset ulcerative colitis), Grande Famillies (50) and matched controls for the Grande Famillies cohort (49). Sera were tested using commercial anti-Chlamydia trachomatis (LGV2:434) IgG and IgA human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Cutoff for positivity was 11.0 standard units. Patients with sporadic CD, unaffected first degree relatives from multiplex families and ulcerative colitis patients had no greater serologic reactivity than controls. However, multiplex families' patients had twice as many positives as the other groups: for IgG 20% vs. 8%; for IgA 20% vs. 10%. Though not attaining statistical significance, the data showed that familial CD patients had greater exposure to C. trachomatis than sporadic CD patients, supporting our earlier results from one family from the north of France. More specific serologic tests based on outer membrane proteins will need to be employed against the various Chlamydia species with zoonotic potential.

  13. Serological and PCR detection of feline leptospira in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kun-Wei; Hsu, Yun-Hsiu; Hu, Wei-Ling; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lai, Jyh-Mirn; Huang, Kwo-Ching; Chou, Shih-Jen

    2014-02-01

    Taiwan is in the subtropical zone and has typhoons every year. Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Taiwan, and feline leptospirosis in Taiwan remains unknown so far. From January, 2010, to September, 2011, 233 cats in south Taiwan (159 stray cats and 74 household cats) were sampled in this research. Leptospira antibody titer was detected by the serology gold standard, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Both serum and urine were examined for Leptospira DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers. In this study, the serological survey showed 21 (9.3%) examined sera contained antibodies specific for pathogenic Leptospira serogroups. The results of PCR revealed that 25 (19.1%) serum and 80 (67.8%) urine samples were found positive for leptospiral DNA sequences. All products amplified from PCR reactions were sequenced by an automated method for further confirmation. This is the first study concerning the epidemiology of pathogenic Leptospira in stray and household cats' urine, and the results demonstrate that some of the cats are susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira and have the potential to shed pathogenic Leptospira into the environment. This could be an issue of public health.

  14. All projects related to south africa | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The political and economic rise of women has marked the 20th century. Topic: DIVISION OF LABOUR, WOMEN WORKERS, WORK AT HOME, GENDER ANALYSIS, WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, North and Central America, South America, India, Mexico, South Africa. Program: ...

  15. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 9 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  16. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Brazil, South America, India, Morocco, Mexico, North and Central America, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ... à l'information est à la fois un droit de la personne fondamental et universel et une pierre angulaire de la bonne gouvernance et de la lutte contre la corruption.

  17. Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal

  18. Impact of serological methodology on assessment of the link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and vascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraha, B.; Heijer, M. den; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Peeters, M.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the impact of five serologic tests on the link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The results of the tests were inconsistent. Agreement among the five tests was generally poor. Detection of the link between C. pneumoniae and AAA depends on the serologic

  19. A Recombinant Positive Control for Serology Diagnostic Tests Supporting Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric J; Yokobe, Lindsay; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Peck, Roger; Valdez, Melissa; Steel, Cathy; Karabou, Potochoziou; Banla, Méba; Soboslay, Peter T; Adade, Kangi; Tekle, Afework H; Cama, Vitaliano A; Fischer, Peter U; Nutman, Thomas B; Unnasch, Thomas R; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2016-01-01

    Serological assays for human IgG4 to the Onchocerca volvulus antigen Ov16 have been used to confirm elimination of onchocerciasis in much of the Americas and parts of Africa. A standardized source of positive control antibody (human anti-Ov16 IgG4) will ensure the quality of surveillance data using these tests. A recombinant human IgG4 antibody to Ov16 was identified by screening against a synthetic human Fab phage display library and converted into human IgG4. This antibody was developed into different positive control formulations for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) platforms. Variation in ELISA results and utility as a positive control of the antibody were assessed from multiple laboratories. Temperature and humidity conditions were collected across seven surveillance activities from 2011-2014 to inform stability requirements for RDTs and positive controls. The feasibility of the dried positive control for RDT was evaluated during onchocerciasis surveillance activity in Togo, in 2014. When the anti-Ov16 IgG4 antibody was used as a standard dilution in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) ELISAs, the detection limits were approximately 1ng/mL by HRP ELISA and 10ng/mL by AP ELISA. Positive control dilutions and spiked dried blood spots (DBS) produced similar ELISA results. Used as a simple plate normalization control, the positive control antibody may improve ELISA data comparison in the context of inter-laboratory variation. The aggregate temperature and humidity monitor data informed temperature parameters under which the dried positive control was tested and are applicable inputs for testing of diagnostics tools intended for sub-Saharan Africa. As a packaged positive control for Ov16 RDTs, stability of the antibody was demonstrated for over six months at relevant temperatures in the laboratory and for over 15 weeks under field conditions. The recombinant human anti-Ov16 IgG4 antibody-based positive

  20. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium: A Key to Developing the Future Geoscience Workforce in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhonjera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of

  1. Afar Triangle, Ethiopia, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Afar Triangle of Ethiopia (11.5N, 42.5E) is a very active plate tectonic region. The region is stressed by Saudi Arabia moving away from Africa and East Africa tearing itself away from the rest of Africa. Because of the plate movements in three different directions, The Afar Triangle is stretched thin and torn resulting in a series of faults seen as long parallel valleys. There is frequent volcanic activity and lava flows occur along the faults.

  2. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  3. Serological studies on schistosomiasis mansoni in the northeast Brazil (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Okazaki, M; Okazaki, M; Kobayashi, S; Kaneko, N; Sekiguchi, T; Tateno, S; Motta, S R; Takeuchi, T

    1990-01-01

    Sera from the patients (N = 10) with schistosomiasis mansoni of the hospital of Federal University of Pernambuco, the Schistosoma mansoni egg-positive (N = 51) and -negative (N = 452) inhabitants in Cabo City area, out-patients (N = 37) of the IMIP hospital and Japanese immigrants (N = 127) in Petrolina City area of northeast Brazil as well as Japanese healthy subjects (N = 30) were examined by serological tests including an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with antigens prepared from eggs (ELISA-egg) and adult worms (ELISA-adult). The ELISA with egg or adult antigen correctly identified 100% of the uninfected individuals lived in non-endemic area of schistosomiasis. Moreover, when examined cross-reactivity of our ELISA with sera isolated from 78 subjects infected with various intestinal parasitic infections, only one of these sera reacted with the egg and adult antigens. On the examination of 51 sera from the egg-positive subjects, the ELISA-egg revealed the highest sensitivity (98.0%), whereas a large number of false negative reactions of ELISA-adult, Ouchterlony method using adult antigen, circumoval precipitation and immediate intradermal skin test were observed. A low sensitivity of these serologic tests except for ELISA-egg appears to be primarily due to their inability to detect antibody in the sera from egg-positive infantiles. There was no positive correlation between the absorbance values of these two types of ELISA among the sera isolated from ELISA-positive subjects. Rather, by the reactivity of these sera to egg or adult antigen, they could be divided into two subgroups; one reacted more positively with egg antigen and the other with adult antigen. Moreover, it was confirmed that the sera from young subjects (under 20 years old) appear to be highly reactive to the egg antigen than did aged ones. These data suggest that the ELISA with egg antigen, but not with the adult antigen, appears to be useful for the serological survey of schistosomiasis mansoni

  4. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a relatively recently discovered bacterium and its role in the pathology of avian respiratory infections has not yet been clarified. Since there was no data relating to the prevalence of this infection in Serbia at the time of carrying out our investigations, we decided to explore the prevalence of the infection in broilers and its influence on clinical manifestations at the selected apizootiological area with developed poultry industry. A total of 430 blood samples from 26 flocks of broilers of different ages, from five municipalities were taken for examination. The serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies to the agent. Epizootiological investigation was carried out based on the results obtained with serological testing and epizootiological data, collected from the farms. The data were analyzed statistically to identify association between the infection and manifestation of clinical symptoms by Fisher’s exact test. Seropositive chickens were detected in 16 out of 26 examined broiler flocks at the age of 3 to 56 days. The percentage of seropositive samples per flock was 5-30%. The titer values of specific antibodies ranged from 946 to 6886. Serological response to O. rhinotracheale was evidenced in five flocks which had clinical symptoms in the form of respiratory tract disorders or stunting. However, specific antibodies against the agent were discovered in 11 flocks which did not show clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms (p = 0.1213. The results are in agreement with those of other authors who investigated the prevalence of this infection and its manifestations in other countries. The present investigation determined indirectly, serologically a presence of O. rhinotracheale in the majority of examined broiler flocks (61,54% and a small average number of individual

  5. Exploring the floristic diversity of tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosef, Marc S M; Dauby, Gilles; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; van der Burgt, Xander; Catarino, Luís; Damen, Theo; Deblauwe, Vincent; Dessein, Steven; Dransfield, John; Droissart, Vincent; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Engledow, Henry; Fadeur, Geoffrey; Figueira, Rui; Gereau, Roy E; Hardy, Olivier J; Harris, David J; de Heij, Janneke; Janssens, Steven; Klomberg, Yannick; Ley, Alexandra C; Mackinder, Barbara A; Meerts, Pierre; van de Poel, Jeike L; Sonké, Bonaventure; Stévart, Tariq; Stoffelen, Piet; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zaiss, Rainer; Wieringa, Jan J; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2017-03-07

    Understanding the patterns of biodiversity distribution and what influences them is a fundamental pre-requisite for effective conservation and sustainable utilisation of biodiversity. Such knowledge is increasingly urgent as biodiversity responds to the ongoing effects of global climate change. Nowhere is this more acute than in species-rich tropical Africa, where so little is known about plant diversity and its distribution. In this paper, we use RAINBIO - one of the largest mega-databases of tropical African vascular plant species distributions ever compiled - to address questions about plant and growth form diversity across tropical Africa. The filtered RAINBIO dataset contains 609,776 georeferenced records representing 22,577 species. Growth form data are recorded for 97% of all species. Records are well distributed, but heterogeneous across the continent. Overall, tropical Africa remains poorly sampled. When using sampling units (SU) of 0.5°, just 21 reach appropriate collection density and sampling completeness, and the average number of records per species per SU is only 1.84. Species richness (observed and estimated) and endemism figures per country are provided. Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, Ivory Coast and Liberia appear as the botanically best-explored countries, but none are optimally explored. Forests in the region contain 15,387 vascular plant species, of which 3013 are trees, representing 5-7% of the estimated world's tropical tree flora. The central African forests have the highest endemism rate across Africa, with approximately 30% of species being endemic. The botanical exploration of tropical Africa is far from complete, underlining the need for intensified inventories and digitization. We propose priority target areas for future sampling efforts, mainly focused on Tanzania, Atlantic Central Africa and West Africa. The observed number of tree species for African forests is smaller than those estimated from global tree data, suggesting that a

  6. Indonesia and Africa: questioning the origins of some of Africa’s most famous icons

    OpenAIRE

    Dick-Read, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the author’s opinion there have been three far-reaching gaps in the study of Africa’s history: 1) Indonesian involvement in East and Central Africa; 2) Links between Madagascar and Eastern and South/Central Africa; and 3) Extension of Indonesian interest to West Africa, particularly Nigeria. He contends that Indonesians (the term applies to ‘Insular Southeast Asians’) may have begun regular trading to Africa when Greek and Roman demand for oriental spices developed several centuries BCE. T...

  7. Serology-Based Diagnostics for the Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Stefano; Katzer, Frank; Nanjiani, Ian; Milne, Elspeth; Innes, Elisabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The protozoan Neospora caninum is a primary infectious cause of abortion in cattle that causes significant economic losses worldwide. Because effective vaccines and licensed pharmacological treatments are currently unavailable, control measures rely on biosecurity and management practice. Serological diagnosis plays a crucial role in the identification of infected animals and several tests have been developed. However, owing to the particular dynamics of the host-parasite interaction and to the characteristics of the currently used diagnostic tools, a proportion of infected cattle may not be reliably identified, and can potentially undermine efforts towards the control of bovine neosporosis. Current diagnostic methods for N. caninum infection in cattle and the advances necessary to support effective control strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  9. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, Sophie; Suin, Vanessa; Van der Stede, Yves; Lamoral, Sophie; Marche, Sylvie; Tignon, Marylène; Saiz, Juan Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Casaer, Jim; Brochier, Bernard; Van Gucht, Steven; Roels, Stefan; Vervaeke, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended. PMID:27087689

  10. Serological evidence for brucellosis in Bos indicus in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Hassan, Moses; Mwankon, Esther; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Ior, Daniel D.; Husseini, Bakari A.; Ibrahim, Gideon; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to

  11. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal's objects are the advancement of the science and art of surgery and exchange of ideas among surgeons in the constituent countries of The Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) and The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa (COSECSA).

  12. ROLE OF THE SEROLOGIC TEST FOR DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Sinta Purnama Dewi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Dengue virus infection is infection disease cause by dengue virus. Dengue virus infection can cause a broad spectrum disease such as : dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Currently dengue virus ranks eighth as a cause of illness in the State of South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur each year in Indonesia with a tendency incident and the affected area is increasing. Laboratory tests can be done to detect the dengue virus infection: a complete blood count and serology. Of serology test, positive IgM antibody showed that patients had a primary infection, whereas patients with secondary infections showed positive IgG antibodies, usually accompanied by antibody IgM positive. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Serological evidence for human cystic echinococcosis in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotar Tadeja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapeworm eggs, excreted with the feces of these animals. In the intestine, the larvae released from the eggs are nested in the liver, lungs or other organs of livestock as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant hosts. The aim of this study was to examine serologically whether some of the patients in Slovenia, suspected of CE by imaging findings in the liver or lungs had been infected with the larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Methods Between January 1, 2002 and the end of December 2006, 1323 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA. For confirmation and differentiation of Echinococcus spp. infection, the sera of IHA-positive patients were then retested by western blot (WB. Results Out of 127 IHA-positive sera, 34 sera were confirmed by WB and considered specific for CE. Of 34 sera of CE-positive patients sera, 32 corresponded to the characteristic imaging findings of a liver cysts and 2 to those of lung cysts. The mean age of CE-positive patients was 58.3 years. No significant differences were found between the CE-positive patients in regard to their sex. Conclusion In the study, it was found out that CE was mostly spread in the same area of Slovenia as in the past, but its prevalence decreased from 4.8 per 105 inhabitants in the period 1956–1968 to 1.7 per 105 inhabitants in the period 2002–2006. In spite of the decreased prevalence of CE in the last years, it is suggested that clinicians and public health authorities, especially in the eastern parts of Slovenia where the most CE patients come from, should pay greater attention to this disease in the future.

  14. Serological tests in gluten sensitivity (nonceliac gluten intolerance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Umberto; Tovoli, Francesco; Cicola, Ronny; Parisi, Claudia; Fabbri, Angela; Piscaglia, Maria; Fiorini, Erica; Caio, Giacomo

    2012-09-01

    To characterize the serological pattern of gluten sensitivity (GS) and to compare it with that found in celiac disease. GS has recently been identified as a new clinical entity included in the spectrum of gluten-related disorders, but it is still lacking of diagnostic markers. Sera from 78 patients with GS and 80 patients with celiac disease were retrospectively assessed for immunoglobulin (Ig)G/IgA antigliadin antibodies (AGA), IgG deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (DGP-AGA), IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA), and IgA endomysial antibodies (EmA). IgG AGA were positive in 56.4% of GS patients and in 81.2% of celiac patients, with high antibody titers in both groups. IgA AGA were detected in 7.7% of GS patients and in 75% of celiac patients, showing lower enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay activities in GS than those found in celiac disease. Only 1 of the 78 patients with GS was positive for IgG DGP-AGA (detected in 88.7% of patients with celiac disease). IgA tTGA and IgA EmA were negative in all GS patients, whereas their positivity in celiac patients was 98.7% and 95%, respectively. Patients with GS displayed a variegated clinical picture with intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, foggy mind, tiredness, eczema/skin rash, headache, joint/muscle pain, numbness of legs/arms, depression, and anemia) together with normal or mildly abnormal small intestinal mucosa. The serological pattern of GS is characterized by IgG AGA positivity in more than half of cases associated to IgA AGA in a few patients, but without EmA, tTGA, and DGP-AGA, which are the specific markers of celiac disease.

  15. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  16. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  17. Serologic and molecular evidence for Testudinid herpesvirus 2 infection in wild Agassiz's desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Berry, Kristin H; Wellehan, James F X; Origgi, Francesco; Childress, April L; Braun, Josephine; Schrenzel, Mark; Yee, Julie; Rideout, Bruce

    2012-07-01

    Following field observations of wild Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) with oral lesions similar to those seen in captive tortoises with herpesvirus infection, we measured the prevalence of antibodies to Testudinid herpesvirus (TeHV) 3 in wild populations of desert tortoises in California. The survey revealed 30.9% antibody prevalence. In 2009 and 2010, two wild adult male desert tortoises, with gross lesions consistent with trauma and puncture wounds, respectively, were necropsied. Tortoise 1 was from the central Mojave Desert and tortoise 2 was from the northeastern Mojave Desert. We extracted DNA from the tongue of tortoise 1 and from the tongue and nasal mucosa of tortoise 2. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products of the herpesviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and the UL39 gene respectively showed 100% nucleotide identity with TeHV2, which was previously detected in an ill captive desert tortoise in California. Although several cases of herpesvirus infection have been described in captive desert tortoises, our findings represent the first conclusive molecular evidence of TeHV2 infection in wild desert tortoises. The serologic findings support cross-reactivity between TeHV2 and TeHV3. Further studies to determine the ecology, prevalence, and clinical significance of this virus in tortoise populations are needed.

  18. The Rhnull phenotype in an English individual: haematological, serological and immunological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, J A; Poole, J; Bates, A J; Faulkner, M; Day, V; Booker, D; Sokol, R J; Reilly, J T

    1997-06-01

    We have characterized the first case of Rhnull phenotype to be identified in England. The red cells were serologically negative for C, c, Cw, D, E, e, f, hr B, Rh17, Lw a, Lw ab and Duclos, while the patient's serum contained anti-Rh29, which was subsequently boosted by transfusion. The Rh phenotype of the patient's son (R1r) confirmed that this was a regulator type of Rhnull in the patient. Follow up studies confirmed the presence of a mild chronic anaemia with stomatocytes and spherocytes; electron microscopy revealed the presence of cells with deep central indentations. Osmotic fragility was increased to a level intermediate between normal and hereditary spherocytic controls. The presence of ongoing haemolysis was indicated by a mild reticulocytosis and splenomegaly. The potent anti-Rh29 has made the provision of compatible blood difficult and autologous units have been frozen. The case illustrates the rare phenomenon of the Rhnull phenotype which not only causes problems for the transfusionist but should also be recognized as a cause of haemolytic anaemia secondary to a membrane defect. Blood film and Rh phenotyping are useful preliminary investigations in suspected cases.

  19. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  20. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zambia, and South Africa, the articles deal mainly with Politics, Sociology...

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Sahara Africa, Angola, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda...

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa...

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report on Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, and Swaziland, contains...

  4. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  5. The South Africa Case

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    54,100. Source: African Renaissance Fund Annual Report: 2004-2005. The ARF 2005-2006 report noted the following beneficiaries and amounts: African Renaissance Fund Grants – 2005-2006. Grant. Value (R'000). Africa Institute of South Africa, Terrorism Commission. 1,700. Liberian disarmament and elections. 25,750.

  6. Four concepts of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... to benefit from its problematic socio-political history is an indication that there are different and often contradictory concepts of Africa. .... The use of the word 'Africa' to name these Roman provinces marks a significant shift from the designations ...... on in an African museum.' It is much rather about 'animating.

  7. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues). We accept and publish a wide variety of ...

  8. Transformation of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Theory of an Africa as a Unification. Nation: A Re—thinking of the Structural ... context of the Cold War, and the current colonialism from globalisation requires that African intellectuals re—emerge once ..... The notion of the Africa-nation complements and deepens the theories of. Pan-Africanism and African renaissance.

  9. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  10. English in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Editor invites contributions, including unsolicited reviews, on all aspects of English writing and the English language in Africa, including oral traditions. English in Africa is listed in the Journal of Commonwealth Literature Annual Bibliography, the Modern Language Association MLA International Bibliography, Institute for ...

  11. Archives: Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 55 ... Archives: Africa Development. Journal Home > Archives: Africa Development. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 55 Items, 1 2 > >>. 2017 ...

  12. Africa Insight: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles appearing in Africa Insight are abstracted or indexed in Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstracts, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, African Studies Abstracts, AfricaBib, African Book Publishing Record, ...

  13. Military Assistance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    on the wildlife habitats, reduces the animal population through poaching, and reduces another source of income, tourism . 3 Hearing before the...their livestock, and defecate. The roads between Mombassa, Kenya and Goma, Zaire are often litde more than trails of rubble, remnants of what once was...authority of four different unified commands. In sub-Saharan Africa the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) is responsible for Djibouti, Kenya , Ethiopia and

  14. Did Adria rotate relative to Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Mensink, M; C. G. Langereis; Maffione, M; Spalluto, L.; Tropeano, M.; Sabato, L.

    2014-01-01

    The first and foremost boundary condition for kinematic reconstructions of the Mediterranean region is the relative motion between Africa and Eurasia, constrained through reconstructions of the Atlantic Ocean. The Adria continental block is in a downgoing plate position relative to the strongly curved central Mediterranean subduction-related orogens, and forms the foreland of the Apennines, Alps, Dinarides, and Albanides–Hellenides. It is connected to the African plate throu...

  15. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Levine

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970-2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.

  16. Serological evidence indicates that foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, C and SAT1 are most dominant in eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A

    2014-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eritrea and in most parts of Africa. To be able to control FMD using vaccination, information on the occurrence of various foot-and-mouth disease serotypes in Eritrea is needed. In this cross-sectional study, 212 sera samples were collected from FMD infected and recovered animals in Eritrea. These samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against FMD non-structural proteins (NSP) and neutralizing antibodies against six of the seven (all but SAT 3) serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Of these, 67.0% tested positive to non-structural protein antibodies in the FMD NS ELISA. By virus neutralization, FMDV serotype O antibodies were shown to be the most dominant (approximately 50%). Virus neutralization test results indicate that infection with serotype C and SAT 1 might have occurred, although there are no reports of isolation of these two serotypes. Because the samples were not randomly selected, further random serological surveillance in all age group animals is necessary both to estimate the prevalence of FMD in the country and to confirm the serological results with serotype C and SAT 1. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. [Myiasis caused by Oestridae: serological and molecular diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, D; Traversa, D; Giangaspero, A

    2004-06-01

    Myiasis-causing Oestridae (bot flies) infect several animal species world-wide, from palaearctic to subtropical/tropical areas. Oestrids affect livestock production causing abortion, reduced milk production, losses in weight and fertility, poor hide quality and an impairment of the host's immune system. In the last few years much research has been carried out on the immunology of these infestations, in order to acquire efficient and reliable diagnostic serological tools; the genome of the different species of Oestridae has been studied to further their molecular identification, taxonomy and phylogenesis. The immunodiagnostic methods for many myiasis causing Oestrids have proven to be a viable alternative to the clinical parasitological examination or the post-mortem examination. Numerous serological tests have been developed for the diagnosis of bovine hypodermosis caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum, and ELISAs using larval hypodermin C as the antigen are currently used on serum, individual and pooled milk samples to detect the presence of circulating anti-Hypoderma antibodies. In Italy the best period to sample the animals is November-January, since it is in this period that the antibody kinetics of the animals reaches a peak. Recently the efficacy of the ELISA test on pasteurized milk samples has been demonstrated, allowing the diagnosis of bovine hypodermosis also in areas where there is no information on the presence of the disease and the sampling of the animals is laborious. The cross-reactivity between Przhevalskiana silenus antigens and anti-Hypoderma antibodies led to assessing the usefulness of a simple and cost-effective ELISA for the diagnosis of goat warble fly infection. In particular, it has been demonstrated that infected goats display an antibody peak in November-December in blood and milk, thus making this period suitable for sampling. Although no extensive data is available on the immunology of sheep and goat oestrosis caused by

  18. Moravia in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Casini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Though his fiction is deeply linked to Rome and Italy, we cannot understand the cultural figure of Alberto Moravia (1907-1990, if we do not consider his experience as a traveller. In particular, there is no other Italian or European writer of his generation, who had such a tight connection with Africa, which Moravia used to visit almost every year from 1963 until 1987. He wrote three books on this continent. «I would have to go to Africa twenty, thirty years before: instead I went very late in my life, when I was fifty. I do not know why I didn’t. I regret it. For me, Africa is the most beautiful thing in the world». This paper reconstructs the reasons and the stages that brought Moravia to Africa in detail, it also focuses on his travels as a European citizen, who  starts his journey from the coasts to the “heart of the black continent", sometimes following  the footsteps of his favorite Africanist writers, such as Conrad, Rimbaud, Gide, Hemingway and Céline, but always pursuing his own question, looking for his own Africa, which is indeed connected to his deepest self. The movement to Africa has changed the Roman writer, as his last novels clearly show, that whereby include Africa becomes one of their major themes.

  19. Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M; Bertu, W J; Matope, G; Cadmus, S; Conde-Álvarez, R; Gusi, A M; Welburn, S; Ocholi, R; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and affecting domestic and wild mammals. In this paper, the bacteriological and serological evidence of brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its epidemiological characteristics are discussed. The tools available for the diagnosis and treatment of human brucellosis and for the diagnosis and control of animal brucellosis and their applicability in the context of SSA are presented and gaps identified. These gaps concern mostly the need for simpler and more affordable antimicrobial treatments against human brucellosis, the development of a B. melitensis vaccine that could circumvent the drawbacks of the currently available Rev 1 vaccine, and the investigation of serological diagnostic tests for camel brucellosis and wildlife. Strategies for the implementation of animal vaccination are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Africa's Pulse, October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Punam, Chuhan-Pole; Ferreira, Francisco H. G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...

  1. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of community-acquired bloodstream infection in Africa. The contribution of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars to invasive disease varies considerably in place and time, even within the same country. Nonetheless, many African countries are now thought to experience typhoid fever incidence >100 per 100,000 per year with approximately 1% of patients dying. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease was estimated to cause 3.4 million illnesses and 681 316 deaths in 2010, with the most disease in Africa. Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing problem in S. enterica that threatens to further compromise patient outcomes. Reservoirs for nontyphoidal Salmonella and the predominant routes of transmission for typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella are not well understood in Africa, hampering the design of evidence-based, non-vaccine- and vaccine-based prevention measures. It is difficult to distinguish clinically invasive Salmonella disease from febrile illnesses caused by other pathogens. Blood cultures are the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis, but lack sensitivity due to the low magnitude of bacteremia, do not produce results at point of care, and are not widely available in Africa. Serologic approaches to diagnosis remain inaccurate, and nucleic acid amplification tests are also compromised by low concentrations of bacteria. High-throughput whole-genome sequencing, together with a range of novel analytic pipelines, has provided new insights into the complex pattern of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and host adaptation. Concerted efforts are therefore needed to apply these new tools in the context of high-quality field surveillance to improve diagnosis, patient management, control, and prevention of invasive Salmonella infections in Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J Akombi

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa.Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016 of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used. The countries were grouped into four sub-regions (East Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa and Central Africa, and a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of each malnutrition indicator within each of the sub-regions. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the various surveys (I2 >50%, hence a random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed, to examine the effects of outliers. Stunting was defined as HAZ<-2; wasting as WHZ<-2 and underweight as WAZ<-2.Stunting was highest in Burundi (57.7% and Malawi (47.1% in East Africa; Niger (43.9%, Mali (38.3%, Sierra Leone (37.9% and Nigeria (36.8% in West Africa; Democratic Republic of Congo (42.7% and Chad (39.9% in Central Africa. Wasting was highest in Niger (18.0%, Burkina Faso (15.50% and Mali (12.7% in West Africa; Comoros (11.1% and Ethiopia (8.70% in East Africa; Namibia (6.2% in Southern Africa; Chad (13.0% and Sao Tome & Principle (10.5% in Central Africa. Underweight was highest in Burundi (28.8% and Ethiopia (25.2% in East Africa; Niger (36.4%, Nigeria (28.7%, Burkina Faso (25.7%, Mali (25.0% in West Africa; and Chad (28.8% in Central Africa.The prevalence of malnutrition was highest within countries in East Africa and West Africa compared to the WHO Millennium development goals target for 2015. Appropriate nutrition interventions need to be prioritised in East Africa and West Africa if sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the WHO global nutrition target

  3. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  4. Comparison of serological and molecular panels for diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Hegarty, Barbara C; Bradley, Julie M; Levy, Michael G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to compare CVBD serological and molecular testing as the two most common methodologies used for screening healthy dogs or diagnosing sick dogs in which a vector-borne...

  5. Development and evaluation of modern enzyme immunoassays for comprehensive syphilis serology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.E. IJsselmuiden

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn the previous Chapters of this dissertation the major shortcomings of the current serological tests for syphilis were investigated. These include an insufficient sensitivity and specificity, reactivity of a diagnostic test long after the syphilitic infection had been

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, M M G; Ang, C W; Berkhout, J

    2016-01-01

    -tiered algorithms or antibody indices did not outperform single test approaches. CONCLUSIONS: The observed heterogeneity and risk of bias complicate the extrapolation of our results to clinical practice. The usefulness of the serological tests for Lyme disease depends on the pre-test probability and subsequent......BACKGROUND: Interpretation of serological assays in Lyme borreliosis requires an understanding of the clinical indications and the limitations of the currently available tests. We therefore systematically reviewed the accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Europe....... METHODS: We searched EMBASE en MEDLINE and contacted experts. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serological assays for Lyme borreliosis in Europe were eligible. Study selection and data-extraction were done by two authors independently. We assessed study quality using the QUADAS-2 checklist...

  7. Diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Belgium by combining molecular and serological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here one new, hospitalized case of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Belgium. The clinical presentation of anaplasmosis, its treatment and the molecular and serological relevant laboratory methods are briefly developed.

  8. Serological Screening of the Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Patrocínio, Paola R.; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Falcone, Franco H.; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Silva-Pereira, Rosiane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant) individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. Concluding/Significance Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection. PMID:24651847

  9. Serologic screening for syphilis. Rationale, cost, and realpolitik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G P

    1996-01-01

    Serologic testing for syphilis is a cornerstone of syphilis control efforts, but our objectives for doing it and the costs involved are not always recognized. Tests applied to individuals with symptoms or signs may be viewed as diagnostic tests, and tests applied to individuals with no clinical indications for testing may be viewed as screening tests. Infected individuals whom we detect through screening efforts are important, mostly from an individual and economic standpoint, because treatment will prevent the late complications of syphilis and thus avoid high medical costs. Because they are uncommonly infectious for others, however, they are relatively unimportant from a public health intervention standpoint. The prevalence of infection above which we should screen is based mostly on economic grounds, but is undetermined. We intuitively recognize such a threshold, however, when we use epidemiologic markers to restrict our efforts to groups in whom we think the yield is worth the effort (i.e., targeted [focused] screening). In deciding whether to institute or increase screening efforts for syphilis, we must consider not only the dollar costs of these efforts, but also the opportunity costs (i.e., what programs we will forgo so that we can devote our resources to the increased efforts). Similarly, because syphilis is not the only priority with which governments, health departments, and sexually transmitted disease programs must contend, any broader plan to significantly enhance syphilis control must acknowledge this reality and show the benefit, economic and otherwise, of its adoption.

  10. Phylogenetic interrelations between serological variants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patyka N. V.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. B. thuringiensis (Bt are gram-positive spore-forming aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria able to form during sporulation species specific crystal-like inclusions of protein nature, consisting of particular thermolabile d-endotoxins. Serological Bt variants produce different entomotoxins; their synthesis in many respects depends on the conditions of cultivation. There was accumulated a vast information on the entomotoxins, their origin, synthesis, structure, toxic properties and mechanisms of action on insects. These bacteria are dominating in the microbiomethods of pest control in plants and animals. There are more than 70 serovariants of Bt selectively specific to the definite groups of host insects. However, the description of new variants not always looks justified considering the phylogenetic systematization based on phenotype signs. Methods. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of the Bt intraspecific interrelations was performed on the basis of the cloned 16S rRNA genes of entomopathogenic bacteria BtH1, BtH10, BtH14. Results. The phylogenetically homogeneous lines were investigated – a homology of 16S rRNA of the strains 1 and 10 ranged from 90,0 to 94,0 %; no distinct genetic isolation among the strains of 14th and 10th serovars was revealed. Conclusions. The comparison of nucleotides sequences of 16S rRNA has shown the existence of strains polymorphism within the group of entomopathogens BtH1, BtH10, BtH14, connected with their entomocide activity

  11. Serological study of brucellosis in Argentine Creole sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo E; Peña, Sabrina; Escobar, Gabriela I; Hasan, Déborah B; Lucero, Nidia E

    2018-01-05

    Ovine cattle was introduced into America during the Spanish conquest with the second journey of Columbus to the Antilles and was disseminated throughout the region. In 1587, sheep were introduced into Argentina, later developing into the "Creole" breed. We selected 486 animals from different Argentine provinces with the aim of determining the serological status of brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis. For the detection of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp., the Rose Bengal test (RBT) was performed as screening test while the serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2 mercapto-ethanol (2ME) were run as a confirmatory technique. Moreover, for the detection of antibodies against rough Brucella spp., we used the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) for screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA) as confirmatory assay. This study showed that the total positive percentage of brucellosis due to B. ovis was 2.9%. Excluding the animals mixed with the Suffolk breed; seropositivity would be 0.6%. All animals tested negative for brucellosis caused by B. melitensis. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  13. A case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed by serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yoko; Yamauchi, Asako; Nagano, Isao; Itoh, Makoto; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Takahashi, Kenzo; Uezato, Hiroshi; Maeda, Manabu; Seishima, Mariko

    2014-08-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese Bolivian male had been suffering from a right leg ulcer after an insect bite during his residence in Bolivia. The ulcer healed after herbal medicine treatment. Ten years later, the patient had symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal bleeding, and pharyngodynia, which were accompanied by a destructive ulcer with surrounding erythema involving the right nostril apex and columella. Papillary, irregular mucosal lesions were seen on the soft palate. Giemsa staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using biopsy specimens of the papillary mucosal lesions on the soft palate failed to identify Leishmania parasites. However, the IgG antibody test was positive for Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, and the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using five Leishmania antigens L. (L.) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (V.) panamensis was positive. Combined, the findings suggested mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was started but was soon terminated because of palpitation, epigastralgia and facial flushing. It is sometimes difficult to identify the parasites in lesions of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and serological tests are useful for such occasions. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Serologic Study of Pig-Associated Viral Zoonoses in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lunt, Ross A.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a serologic survey of four high-priority pig-associated viral zoonoses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), Nipah virus (NiV), and swine influenza virus (SIV), in Laos. We collected blood from pigs at slaughter during May 2008–January 2009 in four northern provinces. Japanese encephalitis virus hemagglutination inhibition seroprevalence was 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.5–77.9%), JEV IgM seroprevalence was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.2–3.2%), and HEV seroprevalence was 21.1% (95% CI = 18.1–24.0%). Antibodies to SIV were detected in 1.8% (95% CI = 0.8–2.8%) of pigs by screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and only subtype H3N2 was detected by hemagglutination inhibition in two animals with an inconclusive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result. No NiV antibody–positive pigs were detected. Our evidence indicates that peak JEV and HEV transmission coincides with the start of the monsoonal wet season and poses the greatest risk for human infection. PMID:22665622

  15. Clinical, serological and genetic study in patients with CREST syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Y; Tanaka, M; Takeishi, M; Adachi, D; Mimori, A; Suzuki, T

    2000-06-01

    To assess the clinical, serological and genetic features of Japanese patients with CREST syndrome. Clinical features, autoantibodies and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing were studied in thirty patients with CREST syndrome, including 29 females and one male, with a mean age of 59.0 years (ranging from 40 to 76 years). Interstitial pneumonia on chest X-ray and renal involvement were rare. Mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation were present in 56.7% and 76.7%, respectively. Sjören's syndrome (SS) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were highly associated, however the positivity of the marker antibodies to those syndromes, such as anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-mitochondrial (AMA) and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies were less frequent than that of primary SS and PBC without the other autoimmune diseases. The histological findings of PBC were all early stages in Scheuer's classification. HLA-Cw6 were associated with CREST-PBC overlap syndrome (pCREST syndrome, and the frequency of HLA-DR2 between CREST syndrome with or without PBC was significantly different (pCREST syndrome alone and CREST-PBC overlap syndrome and there were differences (the positivity of AMA and the severity of bile duct lesion) between PBC and CREST-PBC overlap syndrome.

  16. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  17. A serological method for detection of Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, K A; Webster, T C; Saldivar, E

    2013-03-01

    We developed a new method for detection of the intracellular parasite, Nosema ceranae, one of the most economically devastating pathogens of the honeybee. The SWP-32 antibody was used for the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We also compared the efficiency of this ELISA to microscopy and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR, the methods currently in use. ELISA is comparable in sensitivity with the qRT-PCR, less expensive and faster. When this method is commercialized and made available to bee-keepers, it will allow them to make informed decisions for the application of in-hive chemicals. Hence, bee-keepers may be able to determine when treatments for control of N. ceranae are unnecessary and reduce the cost, time and possible side effects of these treatments. This assay provides the first serological method for detection of N. ceranae in bee colonies, which is as sensitive as DNA amplification. It can be easily adopted for both laboratory and field applications. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to US Government works.

  18. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  19. Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia: serology and mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudewi, A A R; Wandra, T; Artha, A; Nkouawa, A; Ito, A

    2008-01-01

    An active Taenia solium cysticercosis case in Bali, Indonesia, was followed-up by serology and computed tomography. Serology using semi-purified glycoprotein and recombinant antigens showed a drastic drop in titers after calcification of the cysts. Three paraffin-embedded cysts, prepared for histopathological examination, from three other patients were used for mtDNA analysis. The sequences of cox1 gene from T. solium cysticerci from Bali differed from those in Papua and other Asian countries.

  20. Serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease in AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupa Kamat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier during chronic HIV infection allows translocation of bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS from the gut into the circulation. Microbial translocation also occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD serological markers are useful in the diagnosis of IBD and to differentiate between Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Here, we evaluate detection of IBD serological markers in HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and their relationship to HIV disease markers. METHODS: IBD serological markers (ASCA, pANCA, anti-OmpC, and anti-CBir1 were measured by ELISA in plasma from AIDS patients (n = 26 with low CD4 counts (<300 cells/µl and high plasma LPS levels, and results correlated with clinical data. For meta-analysis, relevant data were abstracted from 20 articles. RESULTS: IBD serological markers were detected in approximately 65% of AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation. An antibody pattern consistent with IBD was detected in 46%; of these, 75% had a CD-like pattern. Meta-analysis of data from 20 published studies on IBD serological markers in CD, UC, and non-IBD control subjects indicated that IBD serological markers are detected more frequently in AIDS patients than in non-IBD disease controls and healthy controls, but less frequently than in CD patients. There was no association between IBD serological markers and HIV disease markers (plasma viral load and CD4 counts in the study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: IBD serological markers may provide a non-invasive approach to monitor HIV-related inflammatory gut disease. Further studies to investigate their clinical significance in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.

  1. Retrospective Analysis of the Serologic Response to the Treatment of Syphilis During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Galan, Henry L.; Montalvo, Juan F.; Deaver, John

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of several maternal variables on the serologic response following the treatment of syphilis in pregnancy. Methods: A 5-year chart review identified 95 patients coded with syphilis at Hermann Hospital. Inclusion criteria were 1) serologically confirmed syphilis infection during the index pregnancy, 2) complete treatment during the index pregnancy, and 3) minimum of one follow-up rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer. Forty-nine of 95 pati...

  2. Serologic features of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: clinical and prognostic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carrasco, Mario; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Jiménez-Hernández, César; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo; Riebeling, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic autoimmune disease. The disease spectrum extends from sicca syndrome to systemic involvement and extraglandular manifestations, and SS may be associated with malignancies, especially non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients with SS present a broad spectrum of serologic features. Certain serological findings are highly correlated with specific clinical features, and can be used as prognostic markers. PMID:23525186

  3. Learning from Logframes: Reflections on Three Educational Development Projects in East and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Against a backdrop of the importance of project evaluation in Africa, and the centrality of the project logical framework (logframes) to project evaluation, this paper reflects on experiences arising from evaluations of three educational development projects in East and Southern Africa. Each of these projects had a strong teacher development…

  4. The impact and cost-effectiveness of the Amref Health Africa-Smile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... surgery for cleft lip and palate in eastern and central Africa. Based on previous estimates in LMICs [4,5,19], we hypothesized that a surgical program for cleft repair can yield substantial clinical and economic benefits in this region. Indeed, Amref Health Africa and Smile Train's cleft lip and palate surgical ...

  5. Ebola virus disease control in West Africa: an ecological, one health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2013-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa had similar nuances with the 1976 outbreaks in Central Africa; both were caused by the Zaire Ebola Virus strain and originated from rural forested communities. The definitive reservoir host of Ebola virus still remains unknown till date. However, from ecological ...

  6. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay-Adeyelure, O.C.

    2017-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics’ invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of ‘African bioethics,’ which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for ‘bioethics in Africa’. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics. PMID:28344985

  7. Cytomegalovirus frequency in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis determined by serology, histology, immunohistochemistry and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo-Brandao, Maria Angela; Andrade, Paula D; Costa, Sandra CB; Escanhoela, Cecilia AF; Vassallo, Jose; Porta, Gilda; De Tommaso, Adriana MA; Hessel, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine cytomegalovirus (CMV) frequency in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis by serology, histological revision (searching for cytomegalic cells), immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and to verify the relationships among these methods. METHODS: The study comprised 101 non-consecutive infants submitted for hepatic biopsy between March 1982 and December 2005. Serological results were obtained from the patient’s files and the other methods were performed on paraffin-embedded liver samples from hepatic biopsies. The following statistical measures were calculated: frequency, sensibility, specific positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. RESULTS: The frequencies of positive results were as follows: serology, 7/64 (11%); histological revision, 0/84; immunohistochemistry, 1/44 (2%), and PCR, 6/77 (8%). Only one patient had positive immunohistochemical findings and a positive PCR. The following statistical measures were calculated between PCR and serology: sensitivity, 33.3%; specificity, 88.89%; positive predictive value, 28.57%; negative predictive value, 90.91%; and accuracy, 82.35%. CONCLUSION: The frequency of positive CMV varied among the tests. Serology presented the highest positive frequency. When compared to PCR, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of serology were low. PMID:19610143

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus serological markers among pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Henrietta Oneh; Aminu, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection is a global problem; however, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are most affected by it. Hepatitis B status of pregnant women is essential for the effective management of the disease and prevention of mother to child transmission. The study was conducted at the antenatal care unit of four hospitals within Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria, between August and December 2011. After obtaining ethical clearance, blood samples were collected from 800 consenting pregnant women, the plasma were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using first response HBsAg card and the reactive sera were confirmed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Other serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were detected using the one-step HBV multi-5 test kit. Of the 800 pregnant women screened, 31 (3.9%) tested positive for HBsAg. Only one of the 31 HBsAg positive women had developed the hepatitis B surface antibody, 16 (51.6%) had the envelop antibody, 18 (58.1%) had the hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), and two (6.5%) had hepatitis B envelop antigen (HBeAg). The highest prevalence of HBsAg was recorded among women in age group 21-25 years old (P = 0.968). Similarly, married women (P = 0.772), women in their second trimester of pregnancy (P = 0.938), women with tertiary education (P = 0.972), women from the South-East geopolitical zone (P = 0.250) and those whose husbands were in polygamous relationships (P = 0.944) had the highest seroprevalence of HBsAg. HBV was detected with a prevalence of 3.9% among pregnant women in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. About 96.8% (29) of the reactive women had HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis while 6.5% (2) had HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B infection. About 58.1% of the women had anti-HBc, hence, did not have immunity and probably had chronic infection with reduced risk of vertical transmission. Pregnant women should be screened for HBsAg at the first antenatal clinic visit for appropriate clinical management and

  9. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  10. Epilepsy and tropical parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa is associated with the high prevalence of parasitic infections affecting the central nervous system. Though epidemiological evidence suggests an association between parasitic infections and epilepsy, the biological causal ...

  11. Mapping Africa Biomass with MODIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Baccini, A.; Houghton, R.

    2006-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest block of tropical forest remaining in the world, and is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. The carbon dynamics of the region differ substantially from other tropical forests because most deforestation and land use is associated with selective logging and small-scale landholders practicing traditional "slash-and-burn" agriculture. Despite estimates of 1-2 PgC/yr released to the atmosphere from tropical deforestation, the amount released from Central Africa is highly uncertain relative to the amounts released from other tropical forest areas. The uncertainty in carbon fluxes results from inadequate estimates of both rates of deforestation and standing stocks of carbon (forest biomass). Here we present new results mapping above-ground forest biomass for tropical Africa using machine learning techniques to integrate MODIS 1km spectral reflectance with forest inventory measurements to calibrate an empirical relationship. The derived forest biomass at each MODIS pixel shows the spatial distribution of forest biomass over the entire tropical forest region. The model has been tested in Uganda, Mali and part of Republic of Congo where field data were available. The regression tree model based on MODIS NBAR surface reflectance for Uganda, Mali and Republic of Congo explains 94 percent of the variance in above-ground biomass with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 27 Tons/ha. The approach shows promise for use of optical remote sensing data in mapping the spatial distribution of forest biomass across the region.

  12. [Serological and entomological study on yellow fever in Sierra Leone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Y; Mouchet, J

    1975-01-01

    In a serological and entomological survey on yellow fever carried out in Sierra-Leone in 1972, altogether 899 sera from children 0 to 14 years were tested with 12 antigens by haemagglutination-inhibition and complement fixation tests. Mouse neutralization test with yellow fever, West-Nile and Zika viruses were also performed on selected sera. Generally speaking, the incidence of arboviruses is low but the prevalence of antibodies for some viruses was found to vary considerably between different areas. As regards yellow fever, the virus has recently been in circulation in only two areas: Bafodia and Lalehun-Labour Camp and there is no risk for a yellow fever outbreak to occur in the near future. Due to the shortness of the survey, entomological prospections were confined to a search for Ae. aegypti larvae in and around dwellings: no breeding places are found in houses and Breteau indices are usually low, especially in forest villages. On the other hand, in urban settlements in the mining areas, breeding places around houses are numerous and are bound to increase in number. All the conditions necessary for the outbreak of an epidemic would be present within few years: such a situation would appear in Labour Camp where yellow fever virus has been circulating, where most of the population has no immunity and where Breteau indice goes as high as 34.4. As regards the other arboviruses, Zika virus is active in most areas and Chikungunya virus is particularly active in the plateau and savanna zones, in the North-East.

  13. Mortality in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Clinical and serological predictors.

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    Dickerson, Faith; Origoni, Andrea; Schroeder, Jennifer; Schweinfurth, Lucy A B; Stallings, Cassie; Savage, Christina L G; Katsafanas, Emily; Banis, Maria; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder have a reduced life expectancy due largely to death from natural causes. The reasons for this increased mortality have not been completely defined. We prospectively assessed a cohort of persons with schizophrenia and one with bipolar disorder with a clinical evaluation and a blood sample from which immune and infectious disease markers were measured. Mortality was determined with data from the National Death Index following a period of up to 14years. We examined the role of demographic, clinical, and serological factors on mortality in bivariate and multivariate models. A total of 43/710 (6.1%) persons with schizophrenia and 12/406 (3.0%) with bipolar disorder died of natural causes. In the schizophrenia group, mortality was predicted by the following variables in a multivariate model: cigarette smoking (RR=6.93, 95% CI 1.59, 30.1, p=0.0099); autoimmune disorder (RR=8.08, 95% CI 2.50, 26.1, p=0.00047); gastrointestinal disorder (GI) (RR=3.53, 95% CI 1.43, 8.69 p=0.0061); and reduced maternal education (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72, 0.97), p=0.018. The combination of smoking and an autoimmune disorder yielded an unadjusted relative risk of 18.1 for mortality, and the combination of smoking and a GI disorder an unadjusted relative risk of 9.45, compared with individuals with neither risk factor. In the bipolar disorder group, significant bivariate predictors of mortality included lower cognitive score (RR=0.95, p=.0085) and the presence of type 1 or 2 diabetes (RR=3.90, p=.026). Given the extraordinary high risk of death due to smoking in schizophrenia, smoking cessation remains an urgent priority. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Serological diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: a complicated puzzle

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    Alessandra Sensini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has a prominent role in respiratory tract infections, especially in children and young adults. Serological methods, in particular complement fixation test (CFT and enzyme immunoassays (ELISA, are most widely used for the diagnosis. However, a reliable diagnosis remains difficult to achieve. Study Design. The population study was subdivided in 2 groups. Group 1 52 serum samples from blood donors; group 2 50 serum samples from 50 patients (23 women, 27 men affected by atypical pneumonia. The mean age was 29.2 years (1 to 85 years and 48% was under 20 years.The following commercial products were used: Chorus M. pneumoniae ELISA IgG and IgM, Chorus CFT total Ig (DIESSE, Siena, Italy. Results. Group 1 67.3% of blood donors resulted positive for IgG and 19.2% positive or equivocal for IgM. Group 2 specific IgG were detected in 70% of the patients and IgM resulted positive or equivocal in 64%. Since the number of IgG positive subjects was similar in the 2 groups, the CFT test was added to better define acute stage of infection.The CFT test resulted positive in 92.3% of the IgG+IgM+, and in 41.7% of the IgG+IgM- serum samples, respectively. Conclusions. High titers of IgG do not necessarily identify acute or recent infection, as previously suggested. The CFT test showed a good correlation with ELISA test in IgG+IgM+ serum samples. Detection of IgM antibodies is still the most reliable test to define acute infection, especially if confirmed by a positive CFT test.

  15. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

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    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  16. Characterization and serologic analysis of the Treponema pallidum proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Melanie A; Edmondson, Diane G; Carroll, James A; Cook, Richard G; Orkiszewski, Ralph S; Norris, Steven J

    2010-06-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease characterized by widespread tissue dissemination and chronic infection. In this study, we analyzed the proteome of T. pallidum by the isoelectric focusing (IEF) and nonequilibrating pH gel electrophoresis (NEPHGE) forms of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. We determined the identity of 148 T. pallidum protein spots, representing 88 T. pallidum polypeptides; 63 of these polypeptides had not been identified previously at the protein level. To examine which of these proteins are important in the antibody response to syphilis, we performed immunoblot analysis using infected rabbit sera or human sera from patients at different stages of syphilis infection. Twenty-nine previously described antigens (predominantly lipoproteins) were detected, as were a number of previously unidentified antigens. The reactivity patterns obtained with sera from infected rabbits and humans were similar; these patterns included a subset of antigens reactive with all serum samples tested, including CfpA, MglB-2, TmpA, TmpB, flagellins, and the 47-kDa, 17-kDa, and 15-kDa lipoproteins. A unique group of antigens specifically reactive with infected human serum was also identified and included the previously described antigen TpF1 and the hypothetical proteins TP0584, TP0608, and TP0965. This combined proteomic and serologic analysis further delineates the antigens potentially useful as vaccine candidates or diagnostic markers and may provide insight into the host-pathogen interactions that occur during T. pallidum infection.

  17. Characterization and Serologic Analysis of the Treponema pallidum Proteome▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Melanie A.; Edmondson, Diane G.; Carroll, James A.; Cook, Richard G.; Orkiszewski, Ralph S.; Norris, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease characterized by widespread tissue dissemination and chronic infection. In this study, we analyzed the proteome of T. pallidum by the isoelectric focusing (IEF) and nonequilibrating pH gel electrophoresis (NEPHGE) forms of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. We determined the identity of 148 T. pallidum protein spots, representing 88 T. pallidum polypeptides; 63 of these polypeptides had not been identified previously at the protein level. To examine which of these proteins are important in the antibody response to syphilis, we performed immunoblot analysis using infected rabbit sera or human sera from patients at different stages of syphilis infection. Twenty-nine previously described antigens (predominantly lipoproteins) were detected, as were a number of previously unidentified antigens. The reactivity patterns obtained with sera from infected rabbits and humans were similar; these patterns included a subset of antigens reactive with all serum samples tested, including CfpA, MglB-2, TmpA, TmpB, flagellins, and the 47-kDa, 17-kDa, and 15-kDa lipoproteins. A unique group of antigens specifically reactive with infected human serum was also identified and included the previously described antigen TpF1 and the hypothetical proteins TP0584, TP0608, and TP0965. This combined proteomic and serologic analysis further delineates the antigens potentially useful as vaccine candidates or diagnostic markers and may provide insight into the host-pathogen interactions that occur during T. pallidum infection. PMID:20385758

  18. The serological status of Solomon Island blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Faoagali, J L

    1999-09-01

    The serological status of Solomon Island blood donors in 1995 and in particular the seroprevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis B and C and prevalence of risk factors for these chronic infections was studied. A questionnaire of risk factors for Hepatitis B and C was undertaken. All blood donors had been previously screened for HIV antibody without any positive cases recorded. 598 donors had serum collected of which 36 samples (6.0%) were third generation HCV EIA antibody positive and 3 samples were RIBA positive but none were PCR positive. 25.1% of samples were positive for HBsAg and anti-HBc antibody was found in 84.4%. Elevated ALT levels (>35 U/l) were found in 6.5% of samples but there was no statistically significant association with HCV or HBsAg status. 15.4% were TPHA positive and 5.4% had RPR titers more than or equal to 1. Anti-HTLV-1 antibody was positive in 12.3% randomly selected samples. All 10 positive samples were then found to be antibody indeterminate with Western blot assay. Of the 585 samples with completed questionnaires, analysis of the relationship between anti-HCV status with tattoo status and ear piercing also failed to reach statistical significance. Consistent with other studies from tropical malaria-prone countries, a positive anti-HCV antibody test even by the third generation EIA is probably a false positive test in most cases. In addition, high prevalence rates of HBV, yaws or syphilis infection were demonstrated.

  19. Serologic autoantibodies as diagnostic cancer biomarkers--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenker, Pauline; Ziman, Melanie R

    2013-12-01

    Current diagnostic techniques used for the early detection of cancers are successful but subject to detection bias. A recent focus lies in the development of more accurate diagnostic tools. An increase in serologic autoantibody levels has been shown to precede the development of cancer disease symptoms. Therefore, autoantibody levels in patient blood serum have been proposed as diagnostic biomarkers for early-stage diagnosis of cancers. Their clinical application has, however, been hindered by low sensitivity, specificity, and low predictive value scores. These scores have been shown to improve when panels of multiple diagnostic autoantibody biomarkers are used. A five-marker biomarker panel has been shown to increase the sensitivity of prostate cancer diagnosis to 95% as compared with 12.2% for prostate-specific antigen alone. New potential biomarker panels were also discovered for lung, colon, and stomach cancer diagnosis with sensitivity of 76%, 65.4%, and 50.8%, respectively. Studies in breast and liver cancer, however, seem to favor single markers, namely α-2-HS-glycoprotein and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin with sensitivities of 79% and 89% for the early detection of the cancers. The aim of this review is to discuss the relevance of autoantibodies in cancer diagnosis and to outline the current methodologies used in the detection of autoantibodies. The review concludes with a discussion of the autoantibodies currently used in the diagnosis of cancers of the prostate, breast, lung, colon, stomach, and liver. A discussion of the potential future use of autoantibodies as diagnostic cancer biomarkers is also included in this review. ©2013 AACR.

  20. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN DOGS AND CATS

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    Faiz Ahmad, Azhar Maqbool, Ashar Mahfooz and Sikandar Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in dogs (n=40 and cats (n= 10 was conducted by using a Latex agglutination test (LAT. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was 50%. Out of total 9 dogs were found seropositive at 1:256, giving an evidence of presence of infection. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was inversely related to the age i.e., 52% at 6 months and 33.33% at 4 years of age. Little variation in seropositivity was observed between males (57.89% and females (42.85% or between exotic (46.15% and local (57.14% breeds. However, tremendous variation in seropositivity was found between stray dogs (78.57% and pet dogs (34.61 % and between dogs having close contact with cats (50% and without contact {16.16%. Out of the tested bitches, 66.66% were seropositive, mostly at I: 16 indicating residual immunity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was 60%, three at screening dilution of 1:256, suggesting recent exposure to Toxoplasma. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was directly related to age. A significant difference in seropositivity was observed between stray cats (66.66% and indoor cats (57.14% and between females (70% and males (40%.The seropositive rate in local breeds of cats was high (66.66% as compared with exotic (50%. This test might give false positive results due to interfering factors (rheumatoid factor and IgG class antibodies. So it is not a "Gold standard" test for the concrete diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.