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Sample records for central africa serological

  1. Mycological and serological study of pulmonary aspergillosis in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurhade A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and predisposing factors of Aspergillus infection and correlate microscopic, culture and serological findings along with drug sensitivity. METHODS: Sputum samples from 123 patients of pulmonary disease with clinical suspicion of having fungal, especially Aspergillus infections, were examined microscopically and for culture. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of itraconazole was tested against the isolates. Serum samples from these patients were tested for precipitin against Aspergillus antigen using immunodiffusion (ID technique. RESULTS: Aspergillus species were isolated in 20 (16.26% cases and Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated in 16 (80% cases. Precipitins were detected in 29 (23.58% cases. Serum samples collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as controls showed no precipitin against Aspergillus antigen galactomannan. This fungus was found to be sensitive to itraconazole with MIC range 0.125-1µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Serological tests have an edge over routine smear and culture methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis. Itraconazole is more effective than amphotericin B and fluconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis.

  2. Centralized electricity generation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaujay, J.

    2000-01-01

    In Africa, over 90 per cent of the suburban and rural populations do not have access to electricity, even if it represents the engine and consequence of change on the continent. A global approach represents the best way to meet the extensive needs of the continent. The author briefly reviewed the recent projects implemented in Africa to meet the increasing demand. Diesel generators were used to satisfy demand in small electrical sectors (less than 1000 MW), hydroelectricity or combustion turbines were used for medium electrical sectors (1000 to 5000 MW). A discussion of the technologies followed, touching on diesel electric stations and combustion turbines. Both methods meet environmental standards as they apply to emission control and noise control. The choice between the two technologies must be based on required unit power, site isolation, access to gas, and the cost of available combustibles. Hydroelectric power has great potential in the sub-Sahara region, and the challenges faced by each project are similar: difficulty in finding the required financing, meeting the environmental constraints, and the distribution of the energy. A modular nuclear reactor project for the generation of electricity is being developed by ESKOM Enterprises, in association with the British Nuclear Fuel Limited and PECCO and progress will be closely monitored. Decision makers must ensure that appropriate decisions are made in a reasonable time frame to allow sufficient time to develop a project to implementation. Demand requirements must be examined closely, technology adequately selected in order to come up with a financing plan. 4 tabs

  3. Shared breastfeeding in central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramharter, Michael; Chai, Sanders K.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Klöpfer, Anna; Längin, Matthias; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Issifou, Saadon; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, shared breastfeeding is described asa novel risk factor for vertical HIV transmission. This cross-sectional survey conducted in the central African country Gabon found that 40% of lactating mothers also breastfed other children than their own, and as many children were additionally

  4. Serological evidence of influenza A viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa.

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    Gudrun Stephanie Freidl

    Full Text Available Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated.

  5. Serological Survey of Zoonotic Viruses in Invasive and Native Commensal Rodents in Senegal, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, Christophe A; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Henttonen, Heikki; Sironen, Tarja; Brouat, Carine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa). Of the 672 rodents tested, we reported 22 seropositive tests for Hantavirus, Orthopoxvirus, and Mammarenavirus genera, and no evidence of viral coinfection. This study is the first to report serological detection of Orthopoxvirus in rodents from Senegal, Mammarenavirus in R. rattus from Africa, and Hantavirus in M. m. domesticus and in M. erythroleucus. Further specific identification of the viral agents highlighted here is urgently needed for crucial public health concerns.

  6. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  7. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

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    Paidashe Hove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs, which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  8. Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns

  9. Yellow Fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from outbreak and serological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F; Staples, J Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000-380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000-180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the

  10. Loiasis in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mawatari, Momoko; Itoh, Makoto; Akao, Nobuaki; Yotsu, Rie R.; Sugihara, Jun; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a probable case of loiasis in a returned traveler from Central Africa. A 52-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of discomfort in her eyes and skin. She reported having frequently visited Central Africa over many years and having been extensively exposed to the rainforest climate and ecosystem. Although no microfilariae were found in her blood, there was an elevated level of IgG antibodies against the crude antigens of Brugia pahangi, which have cross-reactivity with Loa loa. She was treated with albendazole for 21 days, after which the antigen-specific IgG level decreased and no relapse occurred. PMID:26161033

  11. Parasitological, serological and clinical evidence for high prevalence of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia.

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    Geshere Oli, Geleta; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Petros, Beyene

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia, is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. At house-to-house visits in 330 randomly selected households, all household members who had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health centre to confirm the presence of elephantiasis, check the presence of scrotal swelling and rule out the other causes of lymphoedema. A midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria. A daytime blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. Consistent with the features of podoconiosis, none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen were negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4% and it peaked in the third decade of life, the most economically active age. Midakegn District has a high prevalence of podoconiosis and no filarial elephantiasis. Prevention, treatment and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Environmental reform of West and Central Africa ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes-Dabban, Harry; Koppen, Van Kris; Mol, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    West and Central Africa ports have historically not paid much attention to environmental issues. In the past decade, however, environmental concerns are beginning to emerge with pockets of innovative responses to environmental risks as the ports undergo institutional and infrastructural reform –

  13. West and Central Africa — Addressing new challenges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... From his office in Dakar, Senegal, IDRC West and Central Africa Regional ... Privatization of former common land often spells trouble for herders and ... First, the region is increasingly dry, meaning that a source of water that is ...

  14. Microfinance and reducing poverty in Central Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In spite of an abundance of natural resources, including oil and minerals, poverty is increasing in Central Africa. About 40% of the people in Cameroon live below the poverty threshold, 55% in Chad, 50% in Congo and 43% in Gabon. A considerable amount of research has attempted to generate insight into the factors that ...

  15. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Eastern and Central Africa ... Results: Only results that answer the objective(s) should be presented in a logical manner. ... Titles of table and figure titles should be descriptive enough to allow ...

  16. Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will assist the Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA) by providing funding for succession planning, recruiting a regional coordinator (to be based in Mali) and strengthening the Network's capacity to mobilize resources with a view to long-term sustainability.

  17. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in Central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa Kalenga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyses the energy system of the Central African countries and evaluates the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for satisfying future demands in relation to other forms of energy available in the region. Finally, it discusses the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle (supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment). (author)

  18. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa Kalenga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyses the energetic system of Central African countries and evaluate the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for the satisfaction of future demand versus other forms of energy available in the region. It appreciates finally the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle (supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment) [fr

  19. Serological evidence of influenza a viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Freidl (Gudrun); T. Binger (Tabea); M.A. Müller (Marcel); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); J. van Beek (Janko); V.M. Corman (Victor); A. Rasche (Andrea); J.-F. Drexler (Jan-Felix); Sylverken, A. (Augustina); S. Oppong (Samuel); Y. Adu-Sarkodie (Yaw); M. Tschapka (Marco); V.M. Cottontail (Veronika); C. Drosten (Christian); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes - H17N10 and H18N11 - in Central and South American fruit bats.

  20. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India

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    Kiran Pote

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. Methodology: The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. Results: We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15 than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7% for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38% which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. Conclusion: IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  1. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India.

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    Pote, Kiran; Narang, Rahul; Deshmukh, Pradeep

    2018-01-01

    Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15) than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7%) for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38%) which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  2. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  3. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy-Lacaux, C; Delon, C

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000−2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NO x and NH 3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha −1 yr −1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha −1 yr −1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha −1 yr −1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated

  4. [Microbiological surveillance: viral hemorrhagic fever in Central African Republic: current serological data in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakounné, E; Selekon, B; Morvan, J

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted between 1994 and 1997 in forested areas of the Central African Republic (CAR) to determine the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against several haemorrhagic fever viruses present in the region. Sera were obtained from 1762 individuals in two groups (Pygmy and Bantu locuted populations) living in 4 forested areas in the south of the country. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against Ebola, Marburg, Rift Valley fever (RVF), Yellow fever (YF) and Hantaviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and against Lassa virus by immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of IgG antibodies was 5.9% for Ebola, 2% for Marburg, 6.9% pour RVF, 6.5% for YF, 2% for Hantaan. No antibodies were detected against Lassa, Seoul, Puumala and Thottapalayam viruses. No IgM antibodies were detected against RVF and YF viruses. The distribution of antibodies appears to be related to tropical rain forest areas. This study indicates that several haemorrhagic fever viruses are endemic in forested areas of the CAR and could emerge due to environmental modification.

  5. MNC reporting on CSR and conflict in Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in developing countries has received more attention. However, in this literature Africa is much less well represented than other regions, and existing studies about Africa have mainly focused on South Africa

  6. A new tectonic model for the Cameroon Line, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, C.; Regnoult, J.-M.; Déruelle, B.; Robineau, B.

    1987-10-01

    The Cameroon Line, a major geological feature in Central Africa, has been considered successively as a series of horsts and grabens, a continental rift and a mega-shear zone. It is marked out by about 60 anorogenic complexes and a dozen volcanic centres, all of which have alkaline affinity. Remote sensing allows us recognition of the main lineament trends: N70°, N-S, N135° and E-W, while autocorrelation analysis reveals a major fault zone striking N30° in western Cameroon and N15° in the northern region. A mega left-lateral shear zone is the model that best accounts for the fracture pattern and associated features such as linear and circular structures alignment of subvolcanic complexes, syntectonic leucogranites marking out older shear zones and vein dykes. The N70° Adamawa fault zone, a Pan-African fracture reworked during Albian-Aptian times, is the only shear zone of continental scale that could have initiated "en echelon" mega-tension gashes within the Cameroon Line during a Cainozoic left-lateral transcurrent movement.

  7. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  8. Call for Proposals in Eastern, Southern and Central Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... Knowledge management in the Middle East and North Africa ... one (or more) thematic priorities of the KariaNet project: food security, rural enterprise ... What are the place and the role of women in business creation and how ...

  9. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Laura D.; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  10. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Laura D; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A; Driscoll, Carlos A; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Tumenta, Pricelia N; Jirmo, Tuqa H; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted.

  11. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Bertola

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1 West/Central Africa, 2 East Africa, 3 Southern Africa and 4 India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the HIV-1 subtype G epidemic in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in West Africa, accounting for nearly 30% of infections in the region. There is no information about the spatiotemporal dynamics of dissemination of this HIV-1 clade in Africa. To this end, we analyzed a total of 305 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences isolated from 11 different countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 20 years (1992 to 2011). Evolutionary, phylogeographic and demographic parameters were jointly estimated from sequence data using a Bayesian coalescent-based method. Our analyses indicate that subtype G most probably emerged in Central Africa in 1968 (1956-1976). From Central Africa, the virus was disseminated to West and West Central Africa at multiple times from the middle 1970s onwards. Two subtype G strains probably introduced into Nigeria and Togo between the middle and the late 1970s were disseminated locally and to neighboring countries, leading to the origin of two major western African clades (G WA-I and G WA-II). Subtype G clades circulating in western and central African regions displayed an initial phase of exponential growth followed by a decline in growth rate since the early/middle 1990 s; but the mean epidemic growth rate of G WA-I (0.75 year-1) and G WA-II (0.95 year-1) clades was about two times higher than that estimated for central African lineages (0.47 year-1). Notably, the overall evolutionary and demographic history of G WA-I and G WA-II clades was very similar to that estimated for the CRF06_cpx clade circulating in the same region. These results support the notion that the spatiotemporal dissemination dynamics of major HIV-1 clades circulating in western Africa have probably been shaped by the same ecological factors.

  13. Anti HIV-2 serological screening in Portuguese populations native from or having had close contact with Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, F; Sidibe, S; Alves-Cardoso, E; Terrinha, A; Gessain, A; Poirot, Y; Montagnier, L; Peries, J

    1987-01-01

    To gather epidemiologic information on the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 in Portugal, sera were collected in 1985 from 156 healthy adults currently living in Portugal but natives of Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde Islands, Saint Tome/Prince, Angola, and Mozambique and from 321 native Portuguese men and women who had close contact with local African populations. As a control, sera were collected from 102 health Portuguese with no previous contact with Africa or African natives. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by Diagnostic Pasteur was used to screen for antibodies to HIV. No positive reactions were recorded in the control population. In contracts, 9 (6%) of the African natives and 7 (2%) of the contacts of Africans were HIV-positive, 6 of the positive sera were from women and 10 were from men. Significantly, 1 of the HIV-2-positive serum samples was from a native of Mozambique and 3 were from natives of Angola. This suggests that HIV-2 infection may have spread to other former Portuguese colonies, and foreign army soldiers who were at 1 time residents of Mozambique or Angola should be considered a risk group capable of spreading HIV-2 infection to other countries.

  14. Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis Transvaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis. Transvaal. P. R. MASON, M. R. JACOBS, P. J. FRIPP. •. In the. SUMMARY. Thirty-seven per cent of 605 samples of human sera col- lected from four ethnic groups in South Africa gave a positive Toxoplasma indir~ct fluorescent antibody test at a dilution 01 1/16 or higher. The incidences ...

  15. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  16. A prominent role of Hepatitis D Virus in liver cancers documented in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Atsama Amougou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is one of the commonest cancers in Central Africa, a region with the unusual peculiarity to be hyperendemic for infections with Hepatitis B, C and D viruses. However, data estimating the respective proportions of HCC cases attributable to these viruses are still limited in this area. The current study was undertaken to determine the role of these viruses in HCC compared to non-HCC Cameroonian patients. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Unit of Central Hospital of Yaounde in collaboration with Centre Pasteur of Cameroon. Blood samples of all HCC cases (n = 88 and matched control individuals without known liver disease (n = 85 were tested for serological markers of Hepatitis B, C and D viral infections using commercially available enzyme immune-assay kits. Hepatitis B and C viral loads were quantified for positive patients by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Results The mean age was 46.0 ± 18 and 42.1 ± 16 years old for HCC-patients and controls, respectively for a 2.3 Male/Female sex ratio. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to HCV and antibody to HDV were significantly higher in HCC patients (65.90, 20.26 and 26 % respectively than in control patients (9.23, 4.62 and 1 % (P < 2.5 10−5. The risk factors analysis showed that both HBV and HCV infections were strongly associated with HCC development in Cameroon with crude odds ratios of 15.98 (95 % CI 6.19-41.25 and 7.33 (95 % CI 2.09-25.77, respectively. Furthermore, the risk of developing HCC increased even more significantly in case of HBV and HDV co-infections with the odd ratio of 29.3 (95 % CI, 4.1-1231. HBV-DNA level was significantly higher in HBsAg-positive HCC-patients than in HBsAg-positive controls with (6.3 Log IU/mL and 5.7 Log IU/mL respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusion HBV and HCV infections are the mains factors of HCC development in Cameroon

  17. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Central Africa - DR of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Central Africa, comprising Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, was derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Central Africa (SOTERCAF ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based

  18. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakoun?, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopict...

  19. Book reviews:Bats of Southern and Central Africa: A Biogeographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book reviews:Bats of Southern and Central Africa: A Biogeographic and Taxonomic Synthesis by Ara Monadjem, Peter John Taylor, F.P.D. (Woody) Cotterill & M. Corrie Schoeman. Wits University Press, Johannesburg. 2010. Pp. 564. Price R591.00 (paperback).ISBN.

  20. Autosomal and mtDNA markers affirm the distinctiveness of lions in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L.D.; Tensen, Laura; Hooft, Van Pim; White, P.A.; Driscoll, C.A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, E.A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, T.H.; Snoo, De G.R.; Iongh, De H.H.; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers.

  1. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola L.D., Tensen, L., Hooft P. van, White P.A., Driscoll C.A., Henschel P., Caragiulo A., Dias-Freedman I., Sogbohossou E.A., Tumenta P.M., Jirmo T.H., Snoo G.R. de, Iongh H.H. de, Vrieling K.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion ( Panthera leo ) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers.

  2. There is no doubt. Muslim scholarship and society in 17th-century Central Sudanic Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, Dorrit van

    2015-01-01

    In central sudanic Africa, the seventeenth century was a period of upheaval and major social change. Relations of power shifted, as did trade-routes and the meaning of Islam for ruling elites. Islam spread from royal courts to rural communities, leading to new identities, new boundaries and new

  3. On business, conflict and peace: Interaction and collaboration in Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenfant, F.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores business interaction with peace and conflict in Central Africa. In the past few decades, the role of business in fueling conflict has received much attention from academics and practitioners. More recently, the debate on the role of business in conflict has broadened to

  4. On the causes of the partition of Central Africa, 1875-85

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with the partitioning of Central Africa between 1875 and 1885. The first part presents a brief summary of the process and the rivalries between the actors involved, the ensuing territorial conflicts and the diplomacy which led to the treaties between the European powers. The

  5. Bushmeat Hunting and Zoonotic Transmission of Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 in Tropical West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoun, Arsène; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Anoh, Augustin E; Pauly, Maude S; Driscoll, Daniel A; Michel, Adam O; Nazaire, Lavry Grah; Pfister, Stefan; Sabwe, Pascale; Thiesen, Ulla; Vogler, Barbara R; Wiersma, Lidewij; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Fruth, Barbara; Wittig, Roman M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Schubert, Grit

    2017-05-15

    Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) enters human populations through contact with nonhuman primate (NHP) bushmeat. We tested whether differences in the extent of contact with STLV-1-infected NHP bushmeat foster regional differences in prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Using serological and PCR assays, we screened humans and NHPs at two Sub-Saharan African sites where subsistence hunting was expected to be less (Taï region, Côte d'Ivoire [CIV]) or more (Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) developed. Only 0.7% of human participants were infected with HTLV-1 in CIV ( n = 574), and 1.3% of humans were infected in DRC ( n = 302). Two of the Ivorian human virus sequences were closely related to simian counterparts, indicating ongoing zoonotic transmission. Multivariate analysis of human demographic parameters and behavior confirmed that participants from CIV were less often exposed to NHPs than participants from DRC through direct contact, e.g., butchering. At the same time, numbers of STLV-1-infected NHPs were higher in CIV (39%; n = 111) than in DRC (23%; n = 39). We conclude that similar ultimate risks of zoonotic STLV-1 transmission-defined as the product of prevalence in local NHP and human rates of contact to fresh NHP carcasses-contribute to the observed comparable rates of HTLV-1 infection in humans in CIV and DRC. We found that young adult men and mature women are most likely exposed to NHPs at both sites. In view of the continued difficulties in controlling zoonotic disease outbreaks, the identification of such groups at high risk of NHP exposure may guide future prevention efforts. IMPORTANCE Multiple studies report a high risk for zoonotic transmission of blood-borne pathogens like retroviruses through contact with NHPs, and this risk seems to be particularly high in tropical Africa. Here, we reveal high levels of exposure to NHP bushmeat in two regions of Western and Central tropical Africa. We provide evidence

  6. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-03-31

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

  7. Shifts in Mycobacterial Populations and Emerging Drug-Resistance in West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Gehre

    Full Text Available In this study, we retrospectively analysed a total of 605 clinical isolates from six West or Central African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Guinea-Conakry, Niger and Senegal. Besides spoligotyping to assign isolates to ancient and modern mycobacterial lineages, we conducted phenotypic drug-susceptibility-testing for each isolate for the four first-line drugs. We showed that phylogenetically modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are more likely associated with drug resistance than ancient strains and predict that the currently ongoing replacement of the endemic ancient by a modern mycobacterial population in West/Central Africa might result in increased drug resistance in the sub-region.

  8. Initial impact of integrated agricultural research for development in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Kato, Edward; Oduol, Judith; Pali, Pamela; Farrow, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional agricultural research approaches have generated research results with limited adoption rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recently, a new research approach – integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) was introduced in SSA. The IAR4D approach goes beyond the conventional research focus on agricultural production technologies, as it includes marketing and development activities. This paper analyses the impact of IAR4D in the East and Central African region using pa...

  9. On business, conflict and peace: Interaction and collaboration in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lenfant, F.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores business interaction with peace and conflict in Central Africa. In the past few decades, the role of business in fueling conflict has received much attention from academics and practitioners. More recently, the debate on the role of business in conflict has broadened to include attention for the ways in which companies can help contribute to peace. To shed light on this topic, this dissertation looks at how different types of international companies perceive the opp...

  10. [The determination of serological markers of the hepatitis B virus in high-risk areas of the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzyme immunoassay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of anti-HBc and anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalence of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  11. NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

  12. Ecology of Becium homblei in Central Africa with special reference to metalliferous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard-Williams, C

    1970-01-01

    Becium homblei has attracted some attention as a plant associated with high copper soils. It has a peculiar discontinuous distribution in Central Africa which has been explained in terms of biotype depletion. A field investigation into the ecology of the species shows that it is able to tolerate soil copper concentrations of up to 15,000 ppm, and soil nickel concentrations of nearly 5000 ppm. B. homblei is also found on areas where soil metals are in trace quantities, and where soil bases, particularly calcium, are low. In spite of its tolerance to a wide range of edaphic conditions, the distribution of the species is very restricted in Rhodesia, and this is almost certainly due to severe interspecific competition with a closely related species B. obovatum, which is common on the more normal soils. B. homblei was also found to be confined to certain well-defined climatic boundaries in Central Africa, and so the ecology of the species is directly tied in with the three major components of the environment. The anomalous distribution of B. homblei in Central Africa is considered to be due to biotype depletion brought about initially by a climatic change which resulted in a decrease in the competitive ability of the species at the limits of its range of distribution.

  13. Sedimentary processes in the Carnot Formation (Central African Republic) related to the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, Claude; Lang, Jacques

    1999-08-01

    The depositional environment, provenance and processes of emplacement of the detrital material of the Mesozoic Carnot Formation are defined, by bedding and sedimentological analysis of its main facies, and are reconstructed within the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa. The clastic material was laid down between probably the Albian and the end of the Cretaceous, in a NNW-oriented braided stream fluvial system that drained into the Doba Trough (Chad) and probably also into the Touboro Basin (Cameroon). The material was derived from weathering of the underlying Devonian-Carboniferous Mambéré Glacial Formation and of the Precambrian schist-quartzite complex located to the south of the Carnot Formation. These results provide useful indications as to the provenance of diamonds mined in the southwest Central African Republic.

  14. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L.D.; Hooft, van W.F.; Vrieling, K.; Weerd, de D.R.U.; York, D.S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H.H.T.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; Leirs, H.; Haeringen, van W.A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P.N.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique

  15. Climate warming causes declines in crop yields and lowers school attendance rates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Njabo, Kevin Y; Tróchez, Anthony; Morgan, Katy; Meñe, Demetrio Bocuma; Anthony, Nicola M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Allen, Walter R; Hanna, Rachid; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0.8°C temperature increase over this 63-year period - a trend that is also observed in monthly temperatures in the last twenty years. From 1991 to 2011, there was a 43% decrease in plantain productivity in Central Africa, which was explained by shifts in temperature (R 2 =0.68). This decline may have reduced rural household wealth and decreased parental investment in education. Over the past two decades, there was a six month decrease in the duration of school attendance, and the decline was tightly linked to plantain yield (R 2 =0.82). By 2080, mean annual temperature is expected to increase at least 2°C in Central Africa, and our models predict a concomitant decrease of 39% in plantain yields and 51% in education outcomes, relative to the 1991 baseline. These predictions should be seen as a call-to-action for policy interventions such as farmer training programs to enhance the adaptive capacity of food production systems to mitigate impacts on rural income and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  17. Hepatitis C prevalence and risk factors in hemodialysis patients in Central Brazil: a survey by polymerase chain reaction and serological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Megmar AS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An hemodialysis population in Central Brazil was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and serological methods to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and to investigate associated risk factors. All hemodialysis patients (n=428 were interviewed in eight dialysis units in Goiânia city. Blood samples were collected and serum samples screened for anti-HCV antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Positive samples were retested for confirmation with a line immunoassay (LIA. All samples were also tested for HCV RNA by the PCR. An overall prevalence of 46.7% (CI 95%: 42-51.5 was found, ranging from 20.7% (CI 95%: 8.8-38.1 to 90.4% (CI 95%: 79.9-96.4 depending on the dialysis unit. Of the 428 patients, 185 were found to be seropositive by ELISA, and 167 were confirmed positive by LIA, resulting in an anti-HCV prevalence of 39%. A total of 131 patients were HCV RNA-positive. HCV viremia was present in 63.5% of the anti-HCV-positive patients and in 10.3% of the anti-HCV-negative patients. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that the number of previous blood transfusions, transfusion of blood before mandatory screening for anti-HCV, length of time on hemodialysis, and treatment in multiple units were associated with HCV positivity. However, multivariate analysis revealed that blood transfusion before screening for anti-HCV and length of time on hemodialysis were significantly associated with HCV infection in this population. These data suggest that nosocomial transmission may play a role in the spread of HCV in the dialysis units studied. In addition to anti-HCV screening, HCV RNA detection is necessary for the diagnosis of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients.

  18. HIV/AIDS in Central Africa: pathogenesis, immunological and medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Elopy Nimele; Stanczuk, Grazyna; Kasolo, Francis

    2003-11-01

    The estimated worldwide prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections topped 52.5 million in June 2003, a mere 20 years after the aetiological agent was shown to be a sexually transmissible virus with a predilection for CD4+ T lymphocytes. More than 22 million people have died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the condition has in one generation become the most devastating and persistent epidemics in recorded history. More than two thirds of the world total of HIV-infected people live in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Central and Southern Africa at least 20% of the adult population is infected. As these adults die, they leave increasing numbers of orphans. Life expectancy at birth declined by 10 years per decade since the late 1980s to 50 years in the late 1990s, and in Botswana it is estimated to be as low as 33 years by 2010. The epidemic is increasing unabated and prospects for a curative or protective vaccine remain remote. The impact on HIV in Africa has been so profound that it influences political, economic, agriculture/food security, social, education, defence, science and health considerations. The medical and in particular immunology communities in Central Africa have the invidious challenge of on the one hand diagnosing the condition, monitoring its impact and contributing to treatment and management efforts. The science and clinical practice of immunology is challenged to find answers to the epidemic, perhaps including a vaccine. In this review we address the peculiarities of the HIV epidemic in Africa, its epidemiology and immunopathogenesis. We address the effect of the epidemic on individual patients, in their homes, workplaces and the knock-on effects on families and friends of the infected. Respective specialists discuss special groups (women, children) that are predominantly seen in Africa. We also discuss the impact of the epidemic on the clinical practice of medicine in general and challenges faced in the introduction of

  19. Central bank independence and inflation in Africa: The role of financial systems and institutional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Mawuko Agoba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the effects of financial systems and the quality of political institutions on the effectiveness of central bank independence in achieving lower inflation. Drawing from the fiscal theory of price level (FTPL and political economy of macroeconomic policy (PEMP literature; we estimate a panel regression model, using Two Stage Least Squares instrumental variables procedure, on a sample of 48 African countries over the period 1970–2012. The study finds that central bank independence-inflation nexus is dependent on the model, sample and estimation technique used. After accounting for various control variables and introducing inflation targeting as an additional explanatory variable, the study shows that, unlike in developed countries, CBI is not sufficient in achieving lower inflation in Africa and the developing world. However, common to developed, developing and African countries, is that, higher central bank independence is more effective in lowering inflation in the presence of high levels of banking sector development and institutional quality. The findings of the study also show that while stock market development enhances the effectiveness of CBI in developed and developing countries, it has no significant effect on CBI effectiveness in Africa.

  20. Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, Byman H

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is

  1. First early hominin from central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma, and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25 from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma.

  2. First Early Hominin from Central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Skinner, Matthew M.; Bailey, Shara E.; Gunz, Philipp; Bortoluzzi, Silvia; Brooks, Alison S.; Burlet, Christian; Cornelissen, Els; De Clerck, Nora; Maureille, Bruno; Semal, Patrick; Vanbrabant, Yves; Wood, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma), and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine) branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25) from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma. PMID:24427292

  3. From Central Asia to South Africa: In Search of Inspiration in Rock Art Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozwadowski Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the story of discovering South African rock art as an inspiration for research in completely different part of the globe, namely in Central Asia and Siberia. It refers to those aspect of African research which proved to importantly develop the understanding of rock art in Asia. Several aspects are addressed. First, it points to importance of rethinking of relationship between art, myth and ethnography, which in South Africa additionally resulted in reconsidering the ontology of rock images and the very idea of reading of rock art. From the latter viewpoint particularly inspiring appeared the idea of three-dimensionality of rock art ‘text’. The second issue of South African ‘origin,’ which notably inspired research all over the world, concerns a new theorizing of shamanism. The paper then discusses how and to what extent this new theory add to the research on the rock art in Siberia and Central Asia.

  4. Tree cover in Central Africa: determinants and sensitivity under contrasted scenarios of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Julie C; Blarquez, Olivier; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bremond, Laurent; Favier, Charly

    2017-01-30

    Tree cover is a key variable for ecosystem functioning, and is widely used to study tropical ecosystems. But its determinants and their relative importance are still a matter of debate, especially because most regional and global analyses have not considered the influence of agricultural practices. More information is urgently needed regarding how human practices influence vegetation structure. Here we focused in Central Africa, a region still subjected to traditional agricultural practices with a clear vegetation gradient. Using remote sensing data and global databases, we calibrated a Random Forest model to correlatively link tree cover with climatic, edaphic, fire and agricultural practices data. We showed that annual rainfall and accumulated water deficit were the main drivers of the distribution of tree cover and vegetation classes (defined by the modes of tree cover density), but agricultural practices, especially pastoralism, were also important in determining tree cover. We simulated future tree cover with our model using different scenarios of climate and land-use (agriculture and population) changes. Our simulations suggest that tree cover may respond differently regarding the type of scenarios, but land-use change was an important driver of vegetation change even able to counterbalance the effect of climate change in Central Africa.

  5. Blood cigarettes: cigarette smuggling and war economies in central and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeca, Kristof; Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To analyse cigarette smuggling practices in central and eastern Africa. Primary data were gathered during long-term qualitative field research in which about 400 interviews were conducted. Analysis of secondary sources included academic literature and reports from non-government organisations, multilateral organisations and the press. Our research suggests that the following factors play an important role in cigarette smuggling in eastern and central Africa: (1) government officials encounter difficulties monitoring the long and porous borders; (2) there is a general problem of corrupt government officials and particularly those who allow large-scale smugglers to operate; (3) criminal elements also play an important role in smuggling--cigarette smuggling has helped rebel groups to finance their activities, something illustrated through examples from the war economy in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our research suggests that cigarette smuggling in this region is not primarily the result of different taxation levels in neighbouring states, but rather the outcome of weak state capacity, high levels of corruption and the activities of rebel groups. Under these conditions smuggling cigarettes becomes an attractive option as taxation is so easily avoided. This explains why in the low-income countries in this study there are high levels of smuggling in spite of low cigarette prices. Comprehensive supply control and enforcement legislation, and cooperation at national, regional and global level are needed to tackle fraudulent practices facilitated by corruption at state level, and to effectively punish interaction between cigarette traders and rebel groups.

  6. GEOCHEMISTRY AND ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY OF AN URBAN AQUIFER, SUBTROPICAL AFRICA, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUSSEIN, M.F.; ISLAM, A.; GAMAL, S.; GAETAN, M.; DJEBEBE, C.

    2008-01-01

    Africa south of the Great Sahara has abundant water resources, however, its aquifers are seldom studied and/or inadequately managed. This study presents a geochemical and isotope hydrology study on the aquifer of Bangui city, the capital of the Central African Republic (RCA), on the northern borders of Congo with RCA.The obtained chemical data demonstrated the role of biogenic CO 2 gas, solid phases and cation exchange in the hydrochemistry of the studied groundwater. The conjunctive use of the major dissolved constituents and the isotope contents ( 18 O and 2 H) showed that the alteration of primary silicates and the dissolution of carbonates are the predominant processes that locally define the zones of dilute and relatively charged groundwater, respectively.The isotope data illustrated that evaporation is non-significantly contributing to the water loss from the aquifer, while transpiration (process that goes almost without isotopic fractionation) is prevailing in the water balance of the local drainage basin, with a significant fraction of the transpired vapour being recycled. An isotopic i nverse continental effect(eastward from Cameron to RCA) is explained through differences in air temperatures, amount and altitude of precipitation rather than by inverse movement of humid air masses westward in Central Africa

  7. Ocean climate data for user community in West and Central Africa: Needs, opportunities, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, S. O.

    1992-01-01

    The urgent need to improve data delivery systems needed by scientists studying ocean role in climate and climate characteristics has been manifested in recent years because of the unprecedented climatic events experienced in many parts of the world. Indeed, there has been a striking and growing realization by governments and the general public indicating that national economies and human welfare depend on climate and its variability. In West and Central Africa, for instance climatic events, which have resulted in floods and droughts, have caused a lot of concern to both governments and people of the region. In particular, the droughts have been so widespread that greater awareness and concern have become generated for the need to find solutions to the problems created by the consequences of the climatic events. Particularly in the southern border regions of the Sahara Desert as well as in the Sahel region, the drought episodes considerably reduced food production and led to series of socioeconomic problems, not only in the areas affected by the droughts, but also in the other parts of West Africa. The various climatic variabilities which have caused the climatic events are no doubt related to the ocean-atmosphere interactions. Unfortunately, not much has been done on the understanding of these interactions, particularly as they affect developing countries. Indeed, not much has been done to develop programs which will reflect the general concerns and needs for researching into the ocean-atmosphere systems and their implications on man-environmental systems in many developing countries. This is for example, true of West and Central Africa, where compared with the middle latitude countries, much less is known about the characteristics of the ocean-atmosphere systems and their significance on man-environmental systems of the area.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Polyomavirus JC in the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester C Chima

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus JC (JCV is ubiquitous in humans and causes a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system , progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy which is common in AIDS. JCV is excreted in urine of 30-70% of adults worldwide. Based on sequence analysis of JCV complete genomes or fragments thereof, JCV can be classified into geographically derived genotypes. Types 1 and 2 are of European and Asian origin respectively while Types 3 and 6 are African in origin. Type 4, a possible recombinant of European and African genotypes (1 and 3 is common in the USA. To delineate the JCV genotypes in an aboriginal African population, random urine samples were collected from the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu from the Central African Republic. There were 43 males and 25 females aged 4-55 years, with an average age of 26 years. After PCR amplification of JCV in urine, products were directly cycle sequenced. Five of 23 Pygmy adults (22% and four of 20 Bantu adults (20% were positive for JC viruria. DNA sequence analysis revealed JCV Type 3 (two, Type 6 (two and one Type 1 variant in Biaka Pygmies. All the Bantu strains were Type 6. Type 3 and 6 strains of JCV are the predominant strains in central Africa. The presence of multiple subtypes of JCV in Biaka Pygmies may be a result of extensive interactions of Pygmies with their African tribal neighbors during their itinerant movements in the equatorial forest.

  9. Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, Byman H.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is

  10. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin.Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups.The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwane Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 are the main vectors of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea and Gabon (Libreville. Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95 suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%. Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality. All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95 was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in

  12. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  13. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Boone Kauffman

    Full Text Available Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and 1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1 and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1. At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters. Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1 and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1 but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1. This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  14. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...

  15. Trend and variability in a new, reconstructed streamflow dataset for West and Central Africa, and climatic interactions, 1950-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, Moussa; Dieppois, Bastien; Mahé, Gil; Paturel, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoussou, Ernest; Anifowose, Babatunde; Lawler, Damian

    2018-06-01

    Over recent decades, regions of West and Central Africa have experienced different and significant changes in climatic patterns, which have significantly impacted hydrological regimes. Such impacts, however, are not fully understood at the regional scale, largely because of scarce hydroclimatic data. Therefore, the aim of this study is to (a) assemble a new, robust, reconstructed streamflow dataset of 152 gauging stations; (b) quantify changes in streamflow over 1950-2005 period, using these newly reconstructed datasets; (c) significantly reveal trends and variability in streamflow over West and Central Africa based on new reconstructions; and (d) assess the robustness of this dataset by comparing the results with those identified in key climatic drivers (e.g. precipitation and temperature) over the region. Gap filling methods applied to monthly time series (1950-2005) yielded robust results (median Kling-Gupta Efficiency >0.75). The study underlines a good agreement between precipitation and streamflow trends and reveals contrasts between western Africa (negative trends) and Central Africa (positive trends) in the 1950s and 1960s. Homogenous dry conditions of the 1970s and 1980s, characterized by reduced significant negative trends resulting from quasi-decadal modulations of the trend, are replaced by wetter conditions in the recent period (1993-2005). The effect of this rainfall recovery (which extends to West and Central Africa) on increased river flows are further amplified by land use change in some Sahelian basins. This is partially offset, however, by higher potential evapotranspiration rates over parts of Niger and Nigeria. Crucially, the new reconstructed streamflow datasets presented here will be available for both the scientific community and water resource managers.

  16. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  17. Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsobou, Roger; Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Van Damme, Patrick

    Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa. Approximately 80% of the African population uses traditional plants to deal with health problems, basically because of their easy accessibility and affordability. This study was carried out to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and elders in the treatment of reproductive health care in the Bamboutos Division of the West Region in Cameroon, Central Africa. The research methods used included semi-structured interviews and participative field observations. For the interviews, 70 knowledgeable respondents (40 traditional healers and 30 elders) were selected via purposive sampling. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of respondents, processed into the Cameroon National Herbarium in Yaoundé following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted to Department of Botany at the University of Dschang. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize ethnobotanical information obtained. Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to elucidate the agreement among informants on the species to be used in the treatment within a category of illness. The results showed that a total of 70 plant species from 37 families (mostly of the Asteraceae [8 species], Euphorbiaceae [7], and Acanthaceae and Bignoniaceae [4 each]) are used in the treatment of 27 reproductive ailments, with the highest number of species (37) being used against venereal diseases, followed by female (29) and male infertility (21), respectively. Leaves (47.3%) were the most commonly harvested plant parts and the most common growth forms harvested were the herbs (45.7%), followed by shrubs (30%). Sixty percent of plant material was obtained from the wild ecosystems. Herbal remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction (66.2%) and were taken mainly orally. Informant consensus about usages of

  18. Evolution and alteration in situ of a massive iron duricrust in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitom, Dieudonné; Volkoff, Boris; Abossolo-Angue, Monique

    2003-08-01

    A soil sequence with iron duricrust is described in an area covered by tropical rain forest in South Cameroon. The dismantling of the iron duricrust is documented through a close observation of a soft duricrust, which corresponds to a transitional stage in the degradation of a massive iron duricrust into a loose nodular horizon. In the initial massive and hematitic duricrust, nodular shapes are progressively formed. The nodules and the internodular matrix remain hematitic. The internodular matrix undergoes goethitization and a pronounced deferruginisation before loosening; the primary structure of the iron duricrust is maintained, however, due to internodular bridges, relics of internodular matrix which escaped the process of goethitization. The iron is gradually released from these hematitic bridges, which become softer. This leads to the collapse of the initial structures of the iron duricrust and to the formation of a loose nodular material with a clayey matrix containing kaolinite and goethite. Many loose nodular horizons, which are found all over Central Africa, may have been formed by such alteration of a former iron duricrust.

  19. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  20. Sensitivity experiments of a regional climate model to the different convective schemes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand J, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, version 4 of the regional climate model (RegCM4) is used to perform 6 years simulation including one year for spin-up (from January 2001 to December 2006) over Central Africa using four convective schemes: The Emmanuel scheme (MIT), the Grell scheme with Arakawa-Schulbert closure assumption (GAS), the Grell scheme with Fritsch-Chappell closure assumption (GFC) and the Anthes-Kuo scheme (Kuo). We have investigated the ability of the model to simulate precipitation, surface temperature, wind and aerosols optical depth. Emphasis in the model results were made in December-January-February (DJF) and July-August-September (JAS) periods. Two subregions have been identified for more specific analysis namely: zone 1 which corresponds to the sahel region mainly classified as desert and steppe and zone 2 which is a region spanning the tropical rain forest and is characterised by a bimodal rain regime. We found that regardless of periods or simulated parameters, MIT scheme generally has a tendency to overestimate. The GAS scheme is more suitable in simulating the aforementioned parameters, as well as the diurnal cycle of precipitations everywhere over the study domain irrespective of the season. In JAS, model results are similar in the representation of regional wind circulation. Apart from the MIT scheme, all the convective schemes give the same trends in aerosols optical depth simulations. Additional experiment reveals that the use of BATS instead of Zeng scheme to calculate ocean flux appears to improve the quality of the model simulations.

  1. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  2. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahé Antoine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947 were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1% were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004 and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05, being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c. Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed.

  3. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  4. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in western central Africa, Guinea Conakry, and Zimbabwe, 1955-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E.; Aziz Barry, A.; Brunet, M.; Ekang, L.; Fernandes, A.; Massoukina, M.; Mbah, J.; Mhanda, A.; Do Nascimento, D. J.; Peterson, T. C.; Thamba Umba, O.; Tomou, M.; Zhang, X.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how extremes are changing globally, regionally, and locally is an important first step for planning appropriate adaptation measures, as changes in extremes have major impacts. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's synthesis of global extremes was not able to say anything about western central Africa, as no analysis of the region was available nor was there an adequate internationally exchanged long-term daily data set available to use for analysis of extremes. This paper presents the first analysis of extremes in this climatically important region along with analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe. As per many other parts of the world, the analysis shows a decrease in cold extremes and an increase in warm extremes. However, while the majority of the analyzed world has shown an increase in heavy precipitation over the last half century, central Africa showed a decrease. Furthermore, the companion analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe showed no significant increases.

  5. Opportunities and constraints in the subsistence production and marketing of indigenous vegetables in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Rudy; Fereday, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    This report summarises the results of market and production surveys carried out in both the dry and wet seasons in Cameroon and Uganda during 1997/98 as part of the DFID fimded project "Opportunities and constraints in the subsistence production and marketing of indigenous vegetables in East and Central Africa (A0699)". The main objective of the study was to establish the socio-economic significance of indigenous vegetables compared to exotic ones. This project is a follow up to the strategy ...

  6. The Emerging Markets of Africa: Business Opportunities for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cook

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the increasing importance of emerging markets, particularly those in Africa, in terms of international business opportunities in the post-financial crisis period; while BRIC economies have received a lot of attention in the preceding decade, other emerging markets – especially in Africa – show indications of taking on more prominence in the upcoming period. In fact, at present, the continent of Africa represents one of the fastest growing markets in the world. This paper focuses on growth indicators and trends in the African markets as well as potential future international business opportunities; specifically, it examines the competitiveness of African nations, the business environments of countries in Africa, the continent’s international trade situation and urbanization in Africa. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on existing business opportunities together with some challenges which remain on the continent.

  7. A new species of Nyanzachoerus (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae from the late Miocene Toros-Ménalla, Chad, central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Renaud Boisserie

    Full Text Available During the latest Miocene and the early Pliocene, tetraconodontine suids were the most predominant large omnivorous mammals in Africa. Yet, new species were often identified on the grounds of limited evidence, a situation impacting their value for biochronological correlations as well as for environmental and biogeographical reconstructions. The description of the most abundant known collection of craniodental remains attributed to the tetraconodontine Nyanzachoerus helps to improve this situation. These specimens were collected in the upper Miocene deposits at Toros-Ménalla, northern Chad, central Africa, by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne. We compared them with Nyanzachoerus from eastern and southern Africa, using extant species as a reference for patterns of morphological variation. Thanks to a large sample of observations, our work focused as much on craniomandibular morphology as on dental morphology and metrics (improved by an index scoring for the complexity of distal third molars and a detailed investigation of premolar-molar ratios. We recognized two taxa at Toros-Ménalla: Nyanzachoerus khinzir nov. sp. and Ny. cf. australis. We also revised the taxonomic status for other species, including: the restriction of Ny. syrticus to its holotype specimen from Sahabi (Libya, the resurrection of the nomen Ny. tulotos, and the synonymy of Ny. kuseralensis with Ny. waylandi. At Toros-Ménalla, Ny. khinzir was the only suid coexisting with the anthracotheriid Libycosaurus and the hominid Sahelanthropus, whereas Ny. cf. australis was associated with a different, probably younger faunal context. Nyanzachoerus. khinzir, which probably had a diversified diet, supports a latest Miocene biogeographical distinction between central Africa and eastern Africa.

  8. Multiple caregivers' touch interactions with young children among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N

    2011-02-01

    The current study examined the use of three types of touch (caregiving, active social-affectionate, and passive social-affectionate) by caregivers with young children among the Bofi foragers, a seminomadic group of hunter-gatherers in Central Africa. With the purpose of providing a more holistic view of touch interactions in early childhood, compared to extant Western mother-centric views, this study documents stylistic touch patterns used by multiple caregivers (mother, father, adult relatives, and juvenile relatives) with Bofi forager children. Thirty-five Bofi forager children, between 18 and 59 months of age, and their various caregivers were naturalistically observed over 12 daylight hours using a focal child observational technique. Frequencies of each type of touch and the rank order of types of touch that children received were compared between caregivers and examined by child age and gender. Even though nonmaternal caregivers showed high physical involvement with children, mothers exemplified the highest level of involvement. Overall, passive social-affectionate touch was utilized the most by all types of caregivers. Mothers used more caregiving touch, and fathers and adult relatives had similar frequencies of caregiving touch and active social-affectionate touch. In contrast, juvenile relatives showed more active social-affectionate touch with focal children. This study highlights the importance of examining multiple caregivers and physical interactions when studying early childhood experiences. Furthermore, by focusing on multiple caregivers and multiple types of touch, this study provides a more thorough characterization of the touch experiences of young children than previous studies of touch. Finally, the current study exemplifies the value of considering non-Western populations when investigating touch interactions.

  9. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  10. Infections of the Central Nervous System and Child Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar Ali, A.

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases contribute significantly to child mortality in Africa; however, mortality rates only represent part of the problem. Among those who survive, cognitive, educational, and behavioral impairments have been reported. In the current chapter, I highlight the neurocognitive deficits,

  11. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927

  12. Geo-risk in Central Africa: integrating multi-hazards and vulnerability to support risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Francois; Nicolas, d'Oreye; Haventith, Hans-Balder; Kervyn, Matthieu; Caroline, Michellier; Trefon, Theodore; Wolff, Eleonore

    2013-04-01

    In some places, geo-hazards are a major concern for population, the assets, and the economy. This is especially the case in the East African Rift (EAR), where high volcanic and tectonic activities are sometimes coupled with geopolitical issues and dense population as in the Kivu rift area. That area is one of the most densely populated regions of Central Africa and is affected by decades of political instability and subsequent humanitarian crisis. In that region, geo-hazards are poorly assessed despite the numerous recent and historical events. Moreover, the relief of the rift also corresponds in this area to the main political boundaries, which complicates the coordination and the management of geo-hazards monitoring networks and related mitigation measures. Based on the experience acquired through several projects focused on hazard assessment and reinforcement of local monitoring capacity, the GeoRisCA project is addressing the assessment of the global risk related to the major geohazards that affect the region. Taking into account the identified factors, GeoRisCA's objective is to assess the risk from multi geohazards in a region which is subject to many (possibly combined) disasters every year and which could undergo a large impact disaster in the coming years. At regional scale, the high seismicity and the volcanic activity are the most important concerns. Possible eruptions of lethal gas in certain area around Goma, and the large number of reported and likely future mass movements as well as site-specific seismic amplification effects increase the danger at local scale. As both human lives and specific ecosystems are under threat, comprehensive methodologies are required to reliably assess multi geohazards over both short and long terms and to clearly outline and map related risk. These tools are needed by local and regional authorities as well as local and international stakeholders in management and mitigation processes. Developed methodologies in Geo

  13. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Yu, W L

    2010-01-01

    To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.

  14. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples - many more than have been previously identified - only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along...

  15. Associations between women's perceptions of domestic violence and contraceptive use in seven countries in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsaiye, Comfort Z; Brunner Huber, Larissa; Laditka, Sarah B; Kulkarni, Shanti; Boyd, A Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    This study examined associations of women's attitudes toward domestic violence (DV) and contraceptive use in West and Central Africa. We used data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys for women in seven countries in West and Central Africa (2009-2011, n=80,055). We measured contraceptive use as none, traditional, or modern contraceptives. DV approval was measured as no, low, or high tolerance of wife beating. Multinomial logistic regression estimated odds of using traditional or modern methods versus none, adjusting for age, education, wealth, residence, parity, marital structure, spousal age-difference, and religion. Many women had no or low DV tolerance (41%, 44%, respectively); most used no contraception (81%). In adjusted results, women with low DV tolerance had lower odds of using traditional contraceptive methods (odds ratio, OR=0.87; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78-0.98) or modern methods (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.78-0.95) compared to women with no tolerance. Women with high DV tolerance had 28% lower odds of traditional contraceptive use (95% CI: 0.60-0.90), and 38% lower odds of modern contraceptive use (95% CI: 0.59-0.88) compared to women with no tolerance. The high prevalence of DV approval may threaten the success of programs aimed at improving women's reproductive health, including contraceptive use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Marksmen and the bush: The affective micro-politics of landscape, sex and technology in precolonial South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. de Luna

    Full Text Available This essay explores what we can know about the micro-politics of knowledge production using the history of bushcraft as a case study. In many societies in central, eastern and southern Africa, practitioners of technologies undertaken away from the village, in the bush, enjoy a special status. Among the Botatwe-speaking societies of south-central Africa, the status accorded hunters, smelters and other technicians of the bush was crafted in the centuries around the turn of the first millennium by combining old ideas about the blustery character of fame and spirits, and the talk that engendered both with the observation that technicians working in the bush shared a kinesthetic experience of piercing, poking and prodding into action during the generative activities of working smelts and taking down game. Yet the micro-politics of bushcraft knowledge also involved the bodies and feelings of spearmen and metallurgists' wives, lovers, mothers, sisters, and sometimes those of the entire neighbourhood. The invention of a new landscape category, isokwe, and the novel status of these seasonal technicians marks the development of a new kind of virile masculinity available to some men; it was a status with deeply sensuous, material and social meanings for women as well.

  17. Animals′ Role in Proper Behaviour: Cheŵa Women′s Instructions in South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F Zubieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common role of animals in the Cheŵa culture of south-central Africa is twofold: they are regarded as an important source of food, and they also provide raw materials for the creation of traditional medicines. Animals, however, also have a nuanced symbolic role that impacts the way people behave with each other by embodying cultural protocols of proper — and not so proper — behaviour. They appear repeatedly in storytelling and proverbs to reference qualities that people need to avoid or pursue and learn from the moral of the story in which animals interplay with each other, just as humans do. For example, someone who wants to prevent the consequences of greed is often advised to heed hyena stories and proverbs. My contribution elaborates on Brian Morris's instrumental work in south-central Africa, which has permitted us to elucidate the symbolism of certain animals and the perception of landscape for Indigenous populations in this region. I discuss some of the ways in which animals have been employed to teach and learn proper behaviour in a particular sacred ceremony of the Cheŵa people which takes place in celebration of womanhood: Chinamwali.

  18. Changes in Intense Precipitation Events in West Africa and the central U.S. under Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kerry H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Vizy, Edward [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of the proposed project is to improve our understanding of the physical processes and large-scale connectivity of changes in intense precipitation events (high rainfall rates) under global warming in West Africa and the central U.S., including relationships with low-frequency modes of variability. This is in response to the requested subject area #2 “simulation of climate extremes under a changing climate … to better quantify the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme events under climate change and elucidate the role of low frequency climate variability in modulating extremes.” We will use a regional climate model and emphasize an understanding of the physical processes that lead to an intensification of rainfall. The project objectives are as follows: 1. Understand the processes responsible for simulated changes in warm-season rainfall intensity and frequency over West Africa and the Central U.S. associated with greenhouse gas-induced global warming 2. Understand the relationship between changes in warm-season rainfall intensity and frequency, which generally occur on regional space scales, and the larger-scale global warming signal by considering modifications of low-frequency modes of variability. 3. Relate changes simulated on regional space scales to global-scale theories of how and why atmospheric moisture levels and rainfall should change as climate warms.

  19. Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study.

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    Florian Kurth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on maternal age, parity, birth weight, gestational age, maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, use of bednets, and intake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy were collected in a cross-sectional survey in 775 women giving birth in three mother-child health centers in Gabon. Adolescent women (≤16 years of age had a significantly increased risk to deliver a baby with low birth weight in univariable analysis (22.8%, 13/57, vs. 9.3%, 67/718, OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5-5.6 and young maternal age showed a statistically significant association with the risk for low birth weight in multivariable regression analysis after correction for established risk factors (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5. In further analysis adolescent women were shown to attend significantly less antenatal care visits than adult mothers (3.3±1.9 versus 4.4±1.9 mean visits, p<0.01, n = 356 and this difference accounted at least for part of the excess risk for low birth weight in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the importance of adolescent age as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa.

  20. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Innovating for skills enhancement in agricultural sciences in Africa: The centrality of field attachment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Africa remains an intensely agrarian continent, with two-thirds of its people directly or indirectly deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Higher agricultural education has thus emphasised production of graduates with the requisite skills to drive agricultural development. Despite these efforts, too few graduates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have the employable skills necessary to transition to the labour market. A similar situation is observable among agricultural science graduates, who are vital to serving rural smallholder farmers. Most Colleges of Agriculture in Africa offer field attachment internships in agriculture and related fields but they are largely designed to cater for undergraduate students and are not part of the training programs at graduate level. To ameliorate this gap, the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM, a network of 55 member universities in SSA, designed and rolled out an innovative field attachment program award (FAPA, launched in 2010, to serve graduate students. The FAPA is competitively based and designed to encourage students to follow through with the dissemination of their research and to enable them to link more closely with the communities and agencies working in the geographical area where the research was undertaken. During the period 2010–2015, five grant cycles were successfully implemented and 114 graduate students from 17 countries in SSA awarded. This article discusses the lessons learned during this period by examining two key areas: (1 the application process and implementation of the awards; and (2 the reported outcomes and challenges for grantees. Establishing the award has generated key technical and implementation lessons that the network and individual universities have been able to use to improve and institutionalise processes. Grantees have reported gaining a range of cross-cutting skills in personal mastery, initiative leadership and innovativeness

  2. Trends in health surveillance and joint service delivery for pastoralists in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakar, M F; Schelling, E; Béchir, M; Ngandolo, B N; Pfister, K; Alfaroukh, I O; Hassane, H M; Zinsstag, J

    2016-11-01

    In most sub-Saharan African countries, pastoralism represents an important economic resource and contributes significantly to national growth; however, challenges remain, particularly in providing social services to pastoralists (especially health and education) and in avoiding conflict with local sedentary communities and local authorities. All of this takes place while pastoralists try to maintain their mobile lifestyle within a rapidly changing ecosystem. Transdisciplinary approaches, such as 'One Health', which covers both human and animal health, have proven effective in delivering services and reaching mobile pastoralists in remote areas. The pastoralist way of life could be described as being linked to both their livestock and their environment, which makes social science an important element when researching the delivery and adaptation of social services to pastoralists. Early or pre-diagnostic detection of emerging and endemic infectious disease remains a vital aspect of health surveillance targeted at preventing further transmission and spread. Community-based syndromic surveillance, coupled with visual mobile phone technology, adapted to the high levels of illiteracy among nomads, could offer an alternative to existing health surveillance systems. Such an approach could contribute to accelerated reporting, which could in turn lead to targeted intervention among mobile pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa. Although considerable efforts have been made towards integrating mobile pastoralists into social services, obstacles remain to the adoption of a clear, specific and sustainable policy on pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  4. Policies to improve the local impact from hydrocarbon extraction: Observations on West Africa and possible lessons for Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, Ulrich H.; Pastor, Gonzalo; Segura, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The paper offers specific inputs to the debate on local content promotion in the oil industries of West Africa and Central Asia. To this end, we document the international experience with local content promotion to derive best practices in the field. We then use a case study approach to devise a simple analytical framework for rationalizing the selection of viable sectors for local content promotion, in an attempt to make operational one of the best practice principles (efficiency) developed before. By proposing specific rules regarding the acceptability of a project, the analysis seeks to add rigor and address distortions on localization outcomes from rent-seeking. The emphasis is not on supporting efforts to 'pick winners' and subsidize them through a range of by and large discredited instruments. Rather, the paper focuses on the specific public inputs the government would have to provide to support an otherwise market-driven process

  5. Parenting and environmental risk : an examination of child loss and maternal involvement among Bofi foragers in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Hillary N; Silverman, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers' experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.

  6. Characteristics of HIV-Infected Children at Enrollment into Care and at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Adedimeji

    Full Text Available Despite the World Health Organization (WHO regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described.Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda. Measures include CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, age, and weight-for-age Z score (WAZ, each at enrollment into HIV care and at ART initiation. Changes in the medians or proportions of each measure by year of enrollment and year of ART initiation were assessed to capture potential impacts of changing ART guidelines.Median age at care enrollment decreased from 77.2 months in 2004-05 to 30.3 months in 2012-13. The median age at ART initiation (n = 2058 decreased from 83.0 months in 2004-05 to 66.9 months in 2012-13. The proportion of children ≤24 months of age at enrollment increased from 12.7% in 2004-05 to 46.7% in 2012-13, and from 9.6% in 2004-05 to 24.2% in 2012-13 for ART initiation. The median CD4 count at enrollment into care increased from 563 (IQR: 275, 901 in 2004-05 to 660 (IQR: 339, 1071 cells/μl in 2012-13, and the median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 310 (IQR:167, 600 in 2004-05 to 589 (IQR: 315, 1113 cells/μl in 2012-13. From 2004-05 to 2012-13, median WAZ improved from -2 (IQR: -3.4, -1.1 to -1 (IQR: -2.5, -0.2 at enrollment in care and from -2 (IQR: -3.8, -1.6 to -1 (IQR: -2.6, -0.4 at ART initiation.Although HIV-infected children ≤24 months of age accounted for half of all children enrolling in care in our cohort during 2012-13, they represented less than a quarter of all those who were initiated on ART during the same period

  7. Origin of HTLV-1 in hunters of nonhuman primates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanji, Mirdad; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Lekana-Douki-Etenna, Sonia; Caron, Mélanie; Makuwa, Maria; Mahieux, Renaud; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    Of 78 Gabonese individuals who had received bites from nonhuman primates (NHPs) while hunting, 7 were infected with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1). Five had been bitten by gorillas and were infected with subtype B strains; however, a 12-year-old girl who was severely bitten by a Cercopithecus nictitans was infected with a subtype D strain that was closely related to the simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV-1) that infects this monkey species. Her mother was infected with a subtype B strain. These data confirm that hunters in Africa can be infected by HTLV-1 that is closely related to the strains circulating among local NHP game. Our findings strongly suggest that a severe bite represent a risk factor for STLV-1 acquisition. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Overseas dispersal of Hyperolius reed frogs from Central Africa to the oceanic islands of Sao Tomé and Príncipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bell, R. C.; Drewes, R. C.; Channing, A.; Gvoždík, Václav; Kielgast, J.; Lötters, S.; Stuart, B. L.; Zamudio, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2015), s. 65-75 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Central Africa * Congo River * Gulf of Guinea * Hyperolius * long -distance dispersal * oceanic island * biogeography * phylogeography * Príncipe * Sao Tomé * species tree Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015

  9. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.

    2012-01-01

    of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current...

  10. Detecting recent changes in the demographic parameters of drosophilid populations from western and central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiges, Axelle; Yassin, Amir; Ikogou, Maya; Lelarge, Clément; Sikoa, Axelle-Rolande; Mona, Stefano; Veuille, Michel

    2013-07-01

    Previous genetic studies showing evidence of past demographic changes in African drosophilids suggested that these populations had strongly responded to Quaternary climate changes. We surveyed nine species of Zaprionus, a drosophilid genus mostly present in Africa, in forests located between southern Senegal and Gabon. The mitochondrial COI gene showed contrasted levels of sequence variation across species. Populations of the only cosmopolitan species of the genus, Z. indianus, and of its closely related sibling species, Z. africanus, are highly polymorphic and appear to have undergone a continuous population expansion beginning about 130,000 years ago. Five less variable species probably underwent a population expansion beginning only about 20,000-30,000 years ago. One of them, Z. taronus, was significantly structured between forest blocks. The last two species were nearly monomorphic, probably due to infection by Wolbachia. These results are similar to those obtained in three species from the melanogaster subgroup, and may be typical of the responses of African drosophilid populations to glacial cycles.

  11. Dioxin-like chemicals in soil and sediment from residential and industrial areas in central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Quinn, Laura P; Pieters, Rialet; Jordaan, Ilse; Visser, Maret; Kylin, Henrik; Borgen, Anders R; Giesy, John P; Bouwman, Henk

    2009-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding POPs from South Africa. Here we report and interpret concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar-biphenyls (PCBs) in soils and sediments collected from central South Africa. High resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the H4IIE-luc bio-assay were used to identify and quantify individual PCDD/F congeners and to report the total concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), respectively. TCDD-EQs determined by use of the bio-assay, and concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ (toxic equivalents) determined by chemical analysis, were similar. The limit of detection (LOD) for the bio-assay was 0.82 and 2.8 ng TCDD-EQ kg(-1), dw for sediment and soil, respectively. EQ20 concentrations determined by use of the bio-assay ranged from industrial area of Vanderbijlpark and the residential area of Klerksdorp contained the greatest concentrations. Based on the congener-specific HRGC/HRMS analyzes, concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ ranged from 0.12 to 32 ng WHO(2005)-TEQ kg(-1), dw in sediments, and between 0.34 and 20 ng WHO(2005)-TEQkg(-1), dw in soils. The sources, processes and threats that govern and are associated with the lesser concentrations in sediment and greater concentrations in soils need further investigation.

  12. Geochemical mapping using stream sediments in west-central Nigeria: Implications for environmental studies and mineral exploration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, Dan J.; Knights, Katherine V.; Key, Roger M.; Johnson, Christopher C.; Ayoade, Emmanuel; Adekanmi, Michael A.; Arisekola, Tunde M.; Okunlola, Olugbenga A.; Backman, Birgitta; Eklund, Mikael; Everett, Paul A.; Lister, Robert T.; Ridgway, John; Watts, Michael J.; Kemp, Simon J.; Pitfield, Peter E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of regional geochemical mapping using stream sediments from central and south-western Nigeria. A total of 1569 stream sediment samples were collected and 54 major and trace elements determined by ICP-MS and Au, Pd and Pt by fire assay. Multivariate statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to explore the data, following appropriate data transformation, to understand the data structure, investigate underlying processes controlling spatial geochemical variability and identify element associations. Major geochemical variations are controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as chemical weathering and winnowing processes, more subtle variations are a result of land use and contamination from anthropogenic activity. This work has identified placer deposits of potential economic importance for Au, REE, Ta, Nb, U and Pt, as well as other primary metal deposits. Areas of higher As and Cr (>2 mg/kg and >70 mg/kg respectively) are associated with Mesozoic and younger coastal sediments in SW Nigeria. High stream sediment Zr concentrations (mean >0.2%), from proximal zircons derived from weathering of basement rocks, have important implications for sample preparation and subsequent analysis due to interferences. Associated heavy minerals enriched in high field strength elements, and notably rare earths, may also have important implications for understanding magmatic processes within the basement terrain of West Africa. This study provides important new background/baseline geochemical values for common geological domains in Nigeria (which extend across other parts of West Africa) for assessment of contamination from urban/industrial land use changes and mining activities. Regional stream sediment mapping is also able to provide important new information with applications across a number of sectors including agriculture, health, land use and planning.

  13. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  14. Phylogeography, risk factors and genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Gabon, central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Njouom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological and molecular characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the general population have been poorly investigated in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and epidemic history of HCV in the Gabonese general population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4042 sera collected from adults in 220 villages in all nine administrative areas of the country were screened for antibodies to HCV. HCV NS5B region sequencing was performed for molecular characterization and population genetic analyses. Of 4042 tested sera, 455 (11.2% were positive. The seroprevalence of HCV varied significantly by administrative area, with the highest rate in Ogooué-Lolo province (20.4% and the lowest in Ogooué-Maritine province (3.7%. History of parenteral injections, past hospital admission and age over 55 years were independent risk factors for HCV infection (p<0.0001. Phylogenetic analyses showed that 91.9% of the strains were genotype 4 (HCV-4, 5.7% genotype 1 and 2.2% genotype 2. HCV-4 strains were highly heterogeneous, with more than eight subtypes; subtype 4e predominated (57.3%. Coalescence analyses indicated that subtype 4e was the oldest, with an estimated most recent common ancestor of 1702 [95% CI, 1418-1884]. The epidemic profile indicated that it spread exponentially during the first part of the 20th century, probably by iatrogenic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the endemicity of HCV subtype 4e in Gabon and show that its spread is due to a cohort effect, with previous, possibly iatrogenic events. More extensive epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize the route of transmission and the dissemination of HCV in Gabon.

  15. SEX AND SEARCHING FOR CHILDREN AMONG AKA FORAGERS AND NGANDU FARMERS OF CENTRAL AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    HEWLETT, Barry S.; HEWLETT, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Few systematic studies exist on the sexual behavior of hunter-gatherers and rural central Africans. This study examines the reasons for having sex, the frequency of sex (coitus) per night, sexual practices during the post-partum sex taboo, and beliefs and practices regarding homosexuality, masturbation, the use of sexual stimulants and a variety of other sexual behaviors. Thirty-fi ve Aka and twenty-one Ngandu adults who were or had been married were interviewed. For adults 18–45 years of age...

  16. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Georg; Kumar, P Lava; Sankung, Sagnia B; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed.

  17. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  18. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  19. Brucellosis in West and Central Africa: A review of the current situation in a changing landscape of dairy cattle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, L; Meyer, A; Chengat, B; Musallam, I; Akakpo, J; Kone, P; Guitian, J; Häsler, B

    2018-03-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected endemic zoonosis in West and Central Africa. In this narrative review, evidence of livestock and human infection is presented along with details of past and current control strategies in 14 selected countries. Data from available literature is combined with expert opinion elicited during a regional workshop on brucellosis diagnostics. Demographic changes that affect both the epidemiology of brucellosis and the success of control or surveillance are also considered. The evidence suggests that brucellosis prevalence in emerging peri-urban dairy cattle systems may be higher than that found in traditional transhumant extensive systems. Accurate microbiological and epidemiological evidence across the region is lacking but it appears there is inherent interest in controlling the disease. There are many data gaps which require collaborative future research to evaluate fully the social and economic impact of the disease in an evolving livestock sector heavily influenced by high rates of urbanisation and regional population growth. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular characterization of complete genome of a canine distemper virus associated with fatal infection in dogs in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganga, Gael D; Labouba, Ingrid; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Nkili-Meyong, Andriniaina A; Obame Ondo, Daniel; Leroy, Eric M; Berthet, Nicolas

    2018-03-02

    Canine distemper (CD) is the most deadly disease in dogs with mortality rates reaching 50%. The pathological agent, the CD virus (CDV), generally causes a severe systemic disease, although the nervous form can coexist with the acute catarrhal form in the same individual. In this study, we describe an outbreak of 18 cases of CD that occurred in 2015 in a German Shepherd dog population in northwestern Gabon. In addition, we determined the sequence of the CDV genotype associated with this fatal distemper infection in Gabon and compared it with other published CDV sequences. The CDV was detected using RT-PCR on cDNA from RNA of harvested brains and other organs. The identification was confirmed by sequencing amplicons. Moreover, we obtained the whole genome sequence using high-throughput sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gabonese CDV strain clustered with European strains belonging to the Europe genotype. This study provided the first molecular detection of the CDV strain associated with this fatal distemper infection in Central Africa region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over Central Africa: influences of trade winds, subtropical high, ITCZ and vertical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Wang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), is used to simulate the transport of smoke aerosol over the Central Africa during February 2008. Smoke emission used in this study is specified from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS true color images, measured Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from space-borne MODIS (550 nm) and ground-based AERONET (500 nm), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) level 1 and 2 products. The simulated smoke transport is in good agreement with the validation data. Analyzing from three smoke events, smoke is constrained in a narrow belt between the Equator and 10°N near the surface, with the interplay of trade winds, subtropical high, and ITCZ. At the 700 hpa level, smoke expands farther meridionally. Topography blocks the smoke transport to the southeast of study area, because of high mountains located near the Great Rift Valley region. The simulation with injection height of 650 m is consistent with CALIOP measurements. The particular phenomenon, aerosol above cloud, is studied statistically from CALIOP observations. The total percentage of aerosol above cloud is about 5%.

  2. Getting ready for REDD+: Recognition and Donor-country Project Development Dynamics in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen M Walters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ (Reducing Emissions, Deforestation and forest Degradation+ is a United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC process through which governments reduce the impacts of climate change through forest conservation in a results-based payments scheme. Distinct from international negotiations about the REDD+ framework under the UNFCCC, there are also REDD+ projects that help governments to set up the institutional architecture, plans and strategies to implement REDD+. These capacity-building projects, in the first phase of 'REDD+ readiness', involve negotiations among national and international actors in which recognition and authority claims are used by participants to influence project-level negotiations. This study analyses the project development negotiations in a World Bank-led REDD+ capacity building regional project, involving six Central African countries between 2008 and 2011. It explores how the project created a 'negotiation table' constituted of national and regional institutions recognised by the donors and governments, and how this political space, influenced by global, regional and national political agendas led to 'instances' of recognition and misrecognition – in which some negotiating parties' claims of representation were acknowledge and affirmed, while others' claims were not. Focusing on Cameroon and Gabon, this article analyses how negotiations shaped full participation by Cameroon and only partial engagement by Gabon.

  3. Calibration of hydroclimate proxies in freshwater bivalve shells from Central and West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Zita; Gillikin, David P.; Graniero, Lauren E.; Havel, Holly; Darchambeau, François; Borges, Alberto V.; Yambélé, Athanase; Bassirou, Alhou; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater bivalve shell oxygen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ18O, δ13C) may act as recorders of hydroclimate (e.g., precipitation-evaporation balance, discharge) and aquatic biogeochemistry. We investigate the potential of these hydroclimate proxies measured along the growth axis of shells collected from the Oubangui River (Bangui, Central African Republic) and the Niger River (Niamey, Niger). Biweekly water samples and in situ measurements collected over several years, along with daily discharge data from both sites allowed a direct comparison with proxies recorded in the shells. Data from a total of 14 unionid shells, including three species (Chambardia wissmanni, Aspatharia dahomeyensis, and Aspatharia chaiziana), confirmed that shells precipitate carbonate in oxygen isotope equilibrium with ambient water. Because water temperature variations were small, shell δ18O values (δ18Oshell) also accurately record the seasonality and the range observed in water δ18O (δ18Ow) values when calculated using an average temperature. Calculated δ18Ow values were in good agreement over the entire record of measured δ18Ow values, thus δ18Oshell records can be reliably used to reconstruct past δ18Ow values. Discharge and δ18Ow values from both rivers fit a logarithmic relationship, which was used to attempt reconstruction of past hydrological conditions, after calculating δ18Ow values from δ18Oshell values. A comparison with measured discharge data suggests that for the two rivers considered, δ18Oshell data are good proxies for recording discharge conditions during low(er) discharge levels, but that high discharge values cannot be accurately reconstructed due to the large scatter in the discharge-δ18Ow relationship. Moreover, periods of bivalve shell growth cessation due to high turbidity or air exposure should be taken into account. While δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in both rivers showed clear seasonality and correlated well with discharge

  4. Tropical forest recovery from logging: a 24 year silvicultural experiment from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Mortier, Frédéric; Fayolle, Adeline; Baya, Fidèle; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Bénédet, Fabrice; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Large areas of African moist forests are being logged in the context of supposedly sustainable management plans. It remains however controversial whether harvesting a few trees per hectare can be maintained in the long term while preserving other forest services as well. We used a unique 24 year silvicultural experiment, encompassing 10 4 ha plots established in the Central African Republic, to assess the effect of disturbance linked to logging (two to nine trees ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) and thinning (11-41 trees ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 50 cm DBH) on the structure and dynamics of the forest. Before silvicultural treatments, above-ground biomass (AGB) and timber stock (i.e. the volume of commercial trees greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) in the plots amounted 374.5 ± 58.2 Mg ha⁻¹ and 79.7 ± 45.9 m³ ha⁻¹, respectively. We found that (i) natural control forest was increasing in AGB (2.58 ± 1.73 Mg dry mass ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) and decreasing in timber stock (-0.33 ± 1.57 m³ ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹); (ii) the AGB recovered very quickly after logging and thinning, at a rate proportional to the disturbance intensity (mean recovery after 24 years: 144%). Compared with controls, the gain almost doubled in the logged plots (4.82 ± 1.22 Mg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) and tripled in the logged + thinned plots (8.03 ± 1.41 Mg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹); (iii) the timber stock recovered slowly (mean recovery after 24 years: 41%), at a rate of 0.75 ± 0.51 m³ ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ in the logged plots, and 0.81 ± 0.74 m³ ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ in the logged + thinned plots. Although thinning significantly increased the gain in biomass, it had no effect on the gain in timber stock. However, thinning did foster the growth and survival of small- and medium-sized timber trees and should have a positive effect over the next felling cycle.

  5. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Notowicz, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific diagnostic procedures are indispensable. Interpretation of the results of serological syphilis tests often poses problems in actual practice. Apart from possibly inadequate knowledge of the natural histor...

  6. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    the intra-annual variability of precipitation in estimating the severity of events that can impact on seasonal activities. The MDSI is standardized in space and time, and considers the relative monthly precipitation deficits and the seasonal influence of precipitation regimes in the meteorological drought severity computation. In this study, the calculation of the MDSI is performed with monthly precipitation totals from the Full Data Reanalysis Monthly Product Version 6.0 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). This dataset provides a global analysis at 0.5 dd latitude/longitude grid spacing of monthly precipitation over land from operational in situ rain gauges collected between January 1901 and December 2010. Using the MDSI, we estimated the severity of drought events that occurred in the past 100 years in Africa and South-Central America, and produced drought hazard maps based on the probability of exceedance the median historical severity. Overall, results indicate that drought hazard is high for semiarid areas, such as Northeastern and Southern South America, as well as Eastern and Southwestern Africa. Since available water resources in semiarid areas are already insufficient to permanently meet the demands of human activities, the outcomes highlight the aggravated risk for food security and confirm the need for the implementation of disaster mitigation measures in those regions.

  7. Reproductive biology knowledge, and behaviour of teenagers in East, Central and Southern Africa: the Zimbabwe case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Rusakaniko, S; Gumbo, J; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Sebina-Zziwa; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1995-11-01

    Sexuality in the teenager is often complicated by unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the risks of STDs including AIDS. There is therefore a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, risk awareness and subsequent behavioural outcomes. A multicentre study of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour followed by a health education intervention was undertaken amongst teenagers in selected countries of East, Central and Southern Africa. Reported here are findings at baseline derived from the Zimbabwe component on reproductive biology knowledge and behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used among 1 689 adolescent pupils drawn from rural, urban, co-education, single sex, boarding and day secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Correct knowledge on reproductive biology as measured by the meaning and interpretation of menstruation and wet dreams varied by school from 68 pc to 86 pc, with a significant trend (p < 0,01) based on level of education at baseline. The reported mean age at which menarche took place was 13,5 years +/- 1,3 (mean +/- SD). First coitus was reported to have taken place at the mean age of 12 years for boys and 13,6 years for girls. Seventeen pc of the adolescent pupils reported that they were sexually experienced and 33,2 had relationships. There were misconceptions reported on menstruation with 23 pc reporting that it was an illness. Peers, followed by magazines were the first sources of information on various aspects of reproductive biology, both of which might not provide the correct first information. Among pupils reporting that they were sexually experienced, the largest proportion (56 pc) had unprotected sex. The findings point to the need for targeting the adolescent pupils for information on reproductive biology and increased awareness on the risks of pregnancy, STDs and HIV.

  8. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  9. From Little Rock Central High School to Laerskool Potgitersrus: Education and Racial Change in the United States and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Catsam, Derek

    2007-01-01

    In both South Africa and the United States South, education stands and has stood historically as a vital cultural and economic center for its people. In both cases school integration has proved to be profoundly contentious. Certainly much of the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S. was centered on integrating schools from the elementary school playground to the university campus. An interesting and important parallel between South Africa's segregationists and those in America also emerged in the...

  10. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  11. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  12. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  13. Consequences of 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming levels for temperature and precipitation changes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokam Mba, Wilfried; Longandjo, Georges-Noel T.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Bell, Jean-Pierre; James, Rachel; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Haensler, Andreas; Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Merlin Guenang, Guy; Djiotang Tchotchou, Angennes Lucie; Kamsu-Tamo, Pierre H.; Takong, Ridick R.; Nikulin, Grigory; Lennard, Christopher J.; Dosio, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Discriminating climate impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming levels is particularly important for Central Africa, a vulnerable region where multiple biophysical, political, and socioeconomic stresses interact to constrain the region’s adaptive capacity. This study uses an ensemble of 25 transient Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations from the CORDEX initiative, forced with the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, to investigate the potential temperature and precipitation changes in Central Africa corresponding to 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming levels. Global climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) are used to drive the RCMs and determine timing of the targeted global warming levels. The regional warming differs over Central Africa between 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming levels. Whilst there are large uncertainties associated with projections at 1.5 °C and 2 °C, the 0.5 °C increase in global temperature is associated with larger regional warming response. Compared to changes in temperature, changes in precipitation are more heterogeneous and climate model simulations indicate a lack of consensus across the region, though there is a tendency towards decreasing seasonal precipitation in March–May, and a reduction of consecutive wet days. As a drought indicator, a significant increase in consecutive dry days was found. Consistent changes of maximum 5 day rainfall are also detected between 1.5 °C vs. 2 °C global warming levels.

  14. Protecting breastfeeding in West and Central Africa: over 25 years of implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Ellen; Clark, David; Aguayo, Victor M

    2008-09-01

    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes out of concern that inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes was contributing to the alarming decline in breastfeeding worldwide and the increase in child malnutrition and mortality, particularly in developing countries. To document progress, challenges, and lessons learned in the implementation of the International Code in West and Central Africa. Data were obtained by literature review and interviews with key informants. Twelve of the 24 countries have laws, decrees, or regulations that implement all or most of the provisions of the Code, 6 countries have a draft law or decree that is awaiting government approval or have a government committee that is studying how best to implement the Code, 3 countries have a legal instrument that enacts a few provisions of the Code, and 3 countries have not taken any action to implement the Code. International declarations and initiatives for child nutrition and survival have provided impetus for national implementation of the Code. National action to regulate the marketing of breastmilk substitutes needs to be linked to national priorities for nutrition and child survival. A clearly defined scope is essential for effective implementation of national legislation. Leadership and support by health professionals is essential to endorse and enforce national legislation. Training on Code implementation is instrumental for national action; national implementation of the Code requires provisions and capacity to monitor and enforce the legislative framework and needs to be part of a multipronged strategy to advance national child nutrition and survival goals. Nations in West and Central Africa have made important progress in implementing the International Code. More than 25 years after its adoption by the WHA, the Code remains as important as ever for child survival and development in West and Central Africa.

  15. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific

  16. Zoonotic Transmission of Two New Strains of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 4 in Hunters Bitten by a Gorilla in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Betsem, Edouard; Filippone, Claudia; Nerrienet, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad; Gessain, Antoine

    2016-09-15

    Molecular screening of 300 at-risk people from Central Africa identified 2 human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-4-infected individuals. A zoonotic origin of infection was suggested, as both individuals reported being severely bitten by a gorilla during hunting activities. One strain was highly divergent and was designated as the HTLV-4 subtype-b prototype. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a program...

  18. Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual persuasions and various ...

  19. Removal of helminth eggs by centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho: health implications for direct and indirect exposure to the effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Reddy, Poovendhree; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater may contain contaminants harmful to human health; hence, there is the need for treatment before discharge. Centralized wastewater treatment systems are the favored treatment options globally, but these are not necessarily superior in reduction of pathogens as compared to decentralized wastewater treatment systems (collectively called DEWATS). This study was therefore undertaken to assess the soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Taenia sp. egg reduction efficiency of selected anaerobic baffled reactors and planted gravel filters compared to centralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho. The risk of ascariasis with exposure to effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants was also assessed using the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. Eggs of Ascaris spp., hookworm, Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., and Toxocara spp. were commonly detected in the untreated wastewater. The DEWATS plants removed between 95 and 100% of the STH and Taenia sp. eggs, with centralized plants removing between 67 and 100%. Helminth egg concentrations in the final effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were consistently higher than those in the WHO recommended guideline (≤ 1 helminth egg/L) for agricultural use resulting in higher risk of ascariasis. Therefore, in conclusion, DEWATS plants may be more efficient in reducing the concentration of helminth eggs in wastewater, resulting in lower risks of STH infections upon exposure.

  20. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  1. Geological and Structural evolution of the Eurasia Africa plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz Central Eastern Atlantic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    D’Oriano, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Iberia Africa plate boundary, cross, roughly W-E, connecting the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Azores triple junction to the Continental margin of Morocco. Relative movement between the two plate change along the boundary, from transtensive near the Azores archipelago, through trascurrent movement in the middle at the Gloria Fracture Zone, to transpressive in the Gulf of Cadiz area. This study presents the results of geophysical and geological analysis on the plate boundary area offshore Gibral...

  2. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments in the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, and correlation with the main Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzförster, Frank; Stollhofen, Harald; Stanistreet, Ian G.

    1999-07-01

    The dissected landscape of the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, exposes Karoo-equivalent strata deposited in basins that occur throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Although many are of economic interest, including coal-bearing strata, their depositional history is not well understood. This study of the Waterberg-Erongo area provides detailed lithostratigraphical data, which suggest sedimentation from the late Early Triassic to the Early Jurassic in a fault-bounded depository. Subsidence and sediment supply were controlled predominantly by the northeast-southwest trending Waterberg-Omaruru Fault Zone, which defines the northwestern margin of the depository. Facies development and thickness distribution of the Karoo strata in the Waterberg-Erongo area, perhaps the most continuous of any of the Karoo basins, indicate a northeastwardly-migrating depocentre alongside that fault, in response to major extensional movements in the early pre-South Atlantic rift zone. Periodic fault movements repeatedly caused basinward progradation of the alluvial facies, which are reflected by stacked fining-upward cycles in the lithological record. On a broader scale, the results of this study suggest that the northward propagation of the rift zone between Southern Africa and South America, was partially accommodated by transfer lineaments. Local depocentres developed along these lineaments, such as those in the Waterberg-Erongo area, with localised enhanced subsidence greater than that revealed in other Namibian onshore exposures, dominated by the rifting itself.

  3. Volcano-tectonic deformation in the Kivu Region, Central Africa: Results from six years of continuous GNSS observations of the Kivu Geodetic Network (KivuGNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Mashagiro, Niche; Syauswa, Muhindo; Celli, Gilles; Kadufu, Benjamin; Smets, Benoît; Kervyn, François

    2017-10-01

    We present an overview of the installation, operation, and initial results of the 15-station KivuGNet (Kivu Geodetic Network) in the Kivu Region, Central Africa. The network serves primarily as a research and monitoring tool for active volcanic, earthquake, and plate boundary processes in the region. Continuous operation of in-situ measurement networks in naturally and politically harsh environments is challenging, but has proven fruitful in this case. During the operation of the network since 2009, KivuGNet has captured: co-eruptive deformation from two eruptions of Nyamulagira (in 2010 and 2011-2012); inter-eruptive deformation, which we interpret as a combination of plate motion across the Western - East Africa Rift, and decreasing deep-seated magma accumulation under the Nyiragongo-Nyamulagira region; co-seismic deformation from the Mw5.8 August 7, 2015 Lwiro earthquake at the western border of Lake Kivu. We hope that this study will serve as a motivation for further implementation of in-situ geodetic networks in under-monitored and under-studied sections of the East African Rift.

  4. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  5. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  6. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  7. Challenges for molecular and serological ZIKV infection confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira; Azevedo, Renata Campos; Thompson, Nathália; Gomes, Leonardo; Guida, Letícia; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance. The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. However, short viremia window periods and asymptomatic infections diminish the success rate for RT-PCR positivity. Beyond molecular detection, all serology tests in areas where other Flavivirus circulates proved to be a difficult task due to the broad range of cross-reactivity, especially with dengue pre-exposed individuals. Altogether, lack of serological diagnostic tools brings limitations to any retrospective evaluation. Those studies are central in the context of congenital infection that could occur asymptomatically and mask prevalence and risk rates.

  8. On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Karen D.; Schmitt, Dave N.; Kiahtipes, Christopher A.; Ndanga, Jean-Paul; Young, D. Craig; Simiti, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production on par with other archaeological and historically-known iron fabrication areas. These data document the first evidence of intensive iron mining and production spanning approximately 90 years prior to colonial occupation (circa AD 1889) and during an interval of time that is poorly represented in the archaeological record. Additional site areas pre-dating these remains by 3-4 centuries reflect an earlier period of iron production on a smaller scale. Microbotanical evidence from a sediment core collected from an adjacent riparian trap shows a reduction in shade-demanding trees in concert with an increase in light-demanding species spanning the time interval associated with iron intensification. This shift occurs during the same time interval when many portions of the Central African witnessed forest transgressions associated with a return to moister and more humid conditions beginning 500-100 years ago. Although data presented here do not demonstrate that iron smelting activities caused widespread vegetation change in Central Africa, we argue that intense mining and smelting can have localized and potentially regional impacts on vegetation communities. These data further demonstrate the high value of pairing archeological and paleoenvironmental analyses to reconstruct regional-scale forest histories. PMID:26161540

  9. On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Karen D; Schmitt, Dave N; Kiahtipes, Christopher A; Ndanga, Jean-Paul; Young, D Craig; Simiti, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production on par with other archaeological and historically-known iron fabrication areas. These data document the first evidence of intensive iron mining and production spanning approximately 90 years prior to colonial occupation (circa AD 1889) and during an interval of time that is poorly represented in the archaeological record. Additional site areas pre-dating these remains by 3-4 centuries reflect an earlier period of iron production on a smaller scale. Microbotanical evidence from a sediment core collected from an adjacent riparian trap shows a reduction in shade-demanding trees in concert with an increase in light-demanding species spanning the time interval associated with iron intensification. This shift occurs during the same time interval when many portions of the Central African witnessed forest transgressions associated with a return to moister and more humid conditions beginning 500-100 years ago. Although data presented here do not demonstrate that iron smelting activities caused widespread vegetation change in Central Africa, we argue that intense mining and smelting can have localized and potentially regional impacts on vegetation communities. These data further demonstrate the high value of pairing archeological and paleoenvironmental analyses to reconstruct regional-scale forest histories.

  10. Clinical Application Of Serological Tests For Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Lawee, David

    1980-01-01

    This article differentiates and describes the serological tests for syphilis— antitreponemal antibody tests (TPI, FTA-ABS, TPHA), non-treponemal antigen test (VDRL)—their clinical and serological correlation, the responses to therapy and the biologically false positive syndrome.

  11. Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North, West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource for improving farmers’ income in Africa. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of village chickens across a subset of African countries. Four hundred seventy-two chickens were sampled in 23 administrative provinces across Cameroon, Benin, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. Geographical coordinates were recorded to analyze the relationships between geographic distribution and genetic diversity. Molecular characterization was performed with a set of 22 microsatellite markers. Five commercial lines, broilers and layers, were also genotyped to investigate potential gene flow. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Results High heterozygosity levels, ranging from 0.51 to 0.67, were reported for all local populations, corresponding to the values usually found in scavenging populations worldwide. Allelic richness varied from 2.04 for a commercial line to 4.84 for one population from Côte d’Ivoire. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and local populations was observed in Morocco and in Cameroon, which could be related to long-term improvement programs with the distribution of crossbred chicks. The impact of such introgressions seemed rather limited, probably because of poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions, and because of the consumers’ preference for local chickens. No such gene flow was observed in Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, where improvement programs are also less developed. The clustering approach revealed an interesting similarity between local populations found in regions sharing high levels of precipitation, from Cameroon to Côte d’Ivoire. Restricting the study to Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, did not result in a typical breed structure but a south-west to north-east gradient was observed. Three genetically differentiated areas (P  Conclusions

  12. Older Adults Accessing HIV Care and Treatment and Adherence in the IeDEA Central Africa Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Newman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very little is known about older adults accessing HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from 18,839 HIV-positive adults at 10 treatment programs in Burundi, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We compared characteristics of those aged 50+ with those aged 18–49 using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine if age was associated with medication adherence. Results. 15% of adults were 50+ years. Those aged 50+ were more evenly distributed between women and men (56% versus 44% as compared to those aged 18–49 (71% versus 29% and were more likely to be hypertensive (8% versus 3% (P<0.05. Those aged 50+ were more likely to be adherent to their medications than those aged 18–49 (P<0.001. Adults who were not heavy drinkers reported better adherence as compared to those who reported drinking three or more alcoholic beverages per day (P<0.001. Conclusions. Older adults differed from their younger counterparts in terms of medication adherence, sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics.

  13. Towards the development of a regional electricity market in Central Africa: Issues and Challenges; Vers la realisation d'un marche regional de l'electricite en Afrique Centrale: Enjeux et defies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, Rheaume; Mbadinga, David; Kitoko Senghi, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    This article gives a short description of the African continent. It then describes the 5 energy pools covering 54 countries: COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. More specifically, the article looks at the main strategies and methods to be put in place in order to implement the electricity market, in particular the regional market of Central Africa. The current interconnecting projects and studies between different African countries, made by RSW international in collaboration with different partners, are presented, and in a more comprehensive way, the one related to the Interconnexion of the electrical networks of the member countries of the ECCAS. [French] Cet article presente une courte description du continent africain. Par la suite, on decrit les 5 pools energetiques couvrant les 54 pays : COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. Plus specifiquement, on aborde les principales strategies et moyens a mettre en place pour implanter et developper le marche de l'electricite, plus particulierement le marche regional de l'Afrique centrale. Les projets ou etudes d'interconnexion en cours entre differents pays de l'Afrique, realises par RSW International de concert avec differents partenaires, sont presentes et, de facon plus exhaustive, celle relative au projet de l'Interconnexion des Reseaux Electriques des Pays Membres de la CEEAC.

  14. Strengthening laboratory capacity through the surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Africa: the Surveillance Épidémiologique en Afrique Centrale (SURVAC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Esona, Mathew D; Pukuta, Elizabeth; Gouandijka-Vasilache, Ionela; Boula, Angeline; Dahl, Benjamin A; Mondonge, Vital; Mekontso, David; Guifara, Gilbert; Mbary-Daba, Regis; Lewis, Jamie; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Mwenda, Jason M; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Koki-Ndombo, Paul; Bowen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SURVAC pilot project was to strengthen disease surveillance and response in three countries; Cameroon (CAE), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR). Seven laboratories involved in rotavirus surveillance were provided with equipment, reagents and supplies. CDC and WHO staff provided on-site classroom and bench training in biosafety, quality assurance, quality control (QC), rotavirus diagnosis using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and genotyping of rotavirus strains using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). All laboratory data were reported through WHO/AFRO. Twenty-three staff members were trained on RT-PCR for rotavirus genotyping which was introduced for the first time in all three countries. In CAE, the number of samples analysed by EIA and RT-PCR increased tenfold between 2007 and 2013. In DRC, this number increased fivefold, from 2009 to 2013 whereas in CAR, it increased fourfold between 2011 and 2013. All laboratories passed WHO proficiency testing in 2014. Laboratory capacity was strengthened through equipping laboratories and strengthening a subregional laboratory workforce for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Each of the three countries generated rotavirus surveillance and genotyping data enabling the mapping of circulating genotypes. These results will help monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccination in these countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to rhinovirus in serum. The...

  17. Epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers, their clients, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papworth, Erin; Ceesay, Nuha; An, Louis; Thiam-Niangoin, Marguerite; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Holland, Claire; Dramé, Fatou Maria; Grosso, Ashley; Diouf, Daouda; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The West and Central Africa (WCA) sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systematic review of HIV literature among key populations in WCA was conducted since the onset of the HIV epidemic. Methods We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL and others for peer-reviewed articles regarding FSWs, MSM and PWID in 24 countries with no date restriction. Inclusion criteria were sensitive and focused on inclusion of any HIV prevalence data among key populations. HIV prevalence was pooled, and in each country key themes were extracted from the literature. Results The search generated 885 titles, 214 abstracts and 122 full articles, of which 76 met inclusion and exclusion criteria providing HIV prevalence data. There were 60 articles characterizing the burden of disease among FSWs, eight for their clients, one for both, six for MSM and one for PWID. The pooled HIV prevalence among FSWs was 34.9% (n=14,388/41,270), among their clients was 7.3% (n=435/5986), among MSM was 17.7% (n=656/3714) and among PWID from one study in Nigeria was 3.8% (n=56/1459). Conclusions The disproportionate burden of HIV among FSWs appears to be consistent from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in WCA. While there are less data for other key populations such as clients of FSWs and MSM, the prevalence of HIV is higher among these men compared to other men in the region. There have been sporadic reports among PWID, but limited research on the burden of HIV among these men and women. These data affirm that the HIV epidemic in WCA appears to be far more concentrated among key populations than the

  18. Pathogen-Host Associations and Predicted Range Shifts of Human Monkeypox in Response to Climate Change in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Fuller, Trevon; Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Shiplacoff, Julia A. G.; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Blumberg, Seth; Johnston, Sara C.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Kinkela, Timothée L.; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; LeBreton, Matthew; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Buermann, Wolfgang; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Smith, Thomas B.; Rimoin, Anne W.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX). Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts. PMID:23935820

  19. Nursing and midwifery regulation and HIV scale-up: establishing a baseline in East, Central and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carey F; Voss, Joachim; Verani, Andre R; Vidot, Peggy; Salmon, Marla E; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-03-25

    Shifting HIV treatment tasks from physicians to nurses and midwives is essential to scaling-up HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa. Updating nursing and midwifery regulations to include task shifting and pre-service education reform can help facilitate reaching new HIV targets. Donor-supported initiatives to update nursing and midwifery regulations are increasing. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of current practice and education regulations and a lack of information to target and implement regulation strengthening efforts. We conducted a survey of national nursing and midwifery councils to describe current nursing and midwifery regulations in 13 African countries. A 30-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 13 national nursing and midwifery regulatory body leaders in attendance at the PEPFAR-supported African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative meeting in Nairobi, Kenya on 28 February, 2011. The survey contained questions on task shifting and regulations such as registration, licensure, scope of practice, pre-service education accreditation, continuing professional development and use of international guidelines. Survey data were analyzed to present country-level, comparative and regional findings. Task shifting to nurses and midwives was reported in 11 of the 13 countries. Eight countries updated their scope of practice within the last five years; only one reported their regulations to reflect task shifting. Countries vary with regard to licensure, pre-service accreditation and continuing professional development regulations in place. There was no consistency in terms of what standards were used to design national practice and education regulations. Many opportunities exist to assist countries to modernise regulations to incorporate important advancements from task shifting and pre-service reform. Appropriate, revised regulations can help sustain successful health workforce strategies and contribute to further scale-up HIV services

  20. Classification of JERS-1 Image Mosaic of Central Africa Using A Supervised Multiscale Classifier of Texture Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sassan; DeGrandi, Franco; Simard, Marc; Podest, Erika

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a multiscale approach is introduced to classify the Japanese Research Satellite-1 (JERS-1) mosaic image over the Central African rainforest. A series of texture maps are generated from the 100 m mosaic image at various scales. Using a quadtree model and relating classes at each scale by a Markovian relationship, the multiscale images are classified from course to finer scale. The results are verified at various scales and the evolution of classification is monitored by calculating the error at each stage.

  1. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud-prone areas with complex mountainous terrain and a landscape that is heterogeneous at a scale of approximately 10 m, is an important challenge in the remote sensing of tropical regions in developing nations, due to the small plot sizes. Persistent monitoring of natural resources in these regions at multiple spatial scales requires development of tools to identify emerging land cover transformation due to anthropogenic causes, such as agricultural expansion and climate change. Along with the cloud cover and obstructions by topographic distortions due to steep terrain, there are limitations to the accuracy of monitoring change using available historical satellite imagery, largely due to sparse data access and the lack of high quality ground truth for classifier training. One such complex region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. This work addressed these problems to create an effective process for monitoring the Lake Kivu region located in Central Africa. The Lake Kivu region is a biodiversity hotspot with a complex and heterogeneous landscape and intensive agricultural development, where individual plot sizes are often at the scale of 10m. Procedures were developed that use optical data from satellite and aerial observations at multiple scales to tackle the monitoring challenges. First, a novel processing chain was developed to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification, using the state-of-the-art machine learning classifier Random Forest, was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps

  2. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  3. Cocirculation of Two env Molecular Variants, of Possible Recombinant Origin, in Gorilla and Chimpanzee Simian Foamy Virus Strains from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric; Njouom, Richard; Buseyne, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-12-01

    Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. In the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central Africa infected with zoonotic SFVs. Analysis of the complete sequences of five SFVs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. Furthermore, recombinant SFV strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identified. Here, we investigated the variability of the env genes of zoonotic SFV strains and searched for possible recombinants. We sequenced the complete env gene or its surface glycoprotein region (SU) from DNA amplified from the blood of (i) a series of 40 individuals from Cameroon or Gabon infected with a gorilla or chimpanzee foamy virus (FV) strain and (ii) 1 gorilla and 3 infected chimpanzees living in the same areas as these hunters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two env variants among both the gorilla and chimpanzee FV strains that were present in zoonotic and NHP strains. These variants differ greatly (>30% variability) in a 753-bp-long region located in the receptor-binding domain of SU, whereas the rest of the gene is very conserved. Although the organizations of the Env protein sequences are similar, the potential glycosylation patterns differ between variants. Analysis of recombination suggests that the variants emerged through recombination between different strains, although all parental strains could not be identified. SFV infection in humans is a great example of a zoonotic retroviral infection that has not spread among human populations, in contrast to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). Recombination was a major mechanism leading to the emergence of HIV. Here, we show that two SFV molecular envelope gene variants circulate among ape populations in Central Africa and that both can be transmitted to

  4. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  5. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.Y.; Macey, P.H.; Delor, C.; Amelin, Y.; Armstrong, R.A.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen-Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52-2.48. Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha Groups) each with a common and diagnostic signature of Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.2-1.8. Ga). The central domain (Ikalamavony-Itremo) consists of two distinct parts. The Itremo Sub-domain, in the east, is a structurally intercalated sequence of Neoarchean gneiss and shallow marine metasedimentary rocks of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic age (Itremo Group), the latter with Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons ranging in age between 2.2 and 1.8. Ga. The Ikalamavony Sub-domain, to the west, contains abundant volcano-clastic metasediments and lesser quartzite (Ikalamavony Group), formed between 1.03. Ga and 0.98. Ga, and intruded by igneous rocks (Dabolava Suite) of Stenian-Tonian age. Structurally intercalated with these are sheets of Neoarchean gneiss (~2.5. Ga) and Neoproterozoic metaclastic rocks (Molo Group). Like the Itremo Group, quartzite of the Ikalamavony Group has detrital zircons of Paleoproterozoic age (2.1-1.8. Ga). The southern domain of Anosyen-Androyen consists of a newly recognized suite of Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks (2.0-1.8. Ga), and stratified supracrustal rocks also having Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.3-1.8. Ga). The contact between the Anosyen-Androyen and Ikalamavony-Itremo domains, formerly known as the Ranotsara-Bongolava shear zone, is a tightly folded and highly flattened boundary that was ductilely deformed in Ediacaran time. It is roughly equivalent to the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone in south India, and it defines approximately the boundary between the Archean

  8. The relationship between future time perspective, self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour in the Black youth of central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2016-01-01

    An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Poliovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500 Rickettsia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rickettsia serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  16. Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic Methods For The Definitive ... Consideringthe relative significance of these methods in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, we ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ari.v1i3.40835.

  17. Mixed-forest species establishment in a monodominant forest in central Africa: implications for tropical forest invasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin S-H Peh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart. Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement-revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement and population-level characteristics (relative abundance may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species.

  18. Population genetics of IFITM3 in Portugal and Central Africa reveals a potential modifier of influenza severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Susana; Correia, Vanessa; Antunes, Liliana; Faria, Ricardo; Ferrão, José; Faustino, Paula; Nunes, Baltazar; Maltez, Fernando; Lavinha, João; Rebelo de Andrade, Helena

    2018-03-01

    Influenza epidemics are a serious global public health and economic problem. The IFITM3 allele (rs12252-C) was suggested as a population-based genetic risk factor for severe influenza virus infection by A(H1N1)pdm09. We analyzed the population genetics of IFITM3 variants in the Portuguese general population (n = 200) and Central Africans (largely Angolan) (n = 148) as well as its association to influenza severity in Portuguese patients (n = 41). Seven SNPs, within the 352 bp IFITM3 amplicon around rs12252, were identified. SNP distributions in the Portuguese appeared at an intermediate level between the Africans and other Europeans. According to HapMap, rs34481144 belongs to the same linkage disequilibrium (LD) block as rs12252 and is in strong LD with rs6421983. A negative association with severe relative to mild disease was observed for allele rs34481144-A, indicating a protective effect under the dominant model. Moreover, haplotype Hap4 with rs34481144-A, not including rs12252-C, was significantly associated to mild influenza. Conversely, although with borderline significance, haplotype Hap1 with rs34481144-G, not including rs12252-C, was associated to severe disease. Moreover, in comparison to the general Portuguese population, statistical significant differences in the frequencies of the protective allele rs34481144-A in the severe disease group, the deleterious Hap1 in the mild disease group, and the protective Hap4 in the severe disease group were observed. The population attributable risk (PAR) for the targeted rs34481144 allele or genotype was of 55.91 and 64.44% in the general population and the mildly infected individuals, respectively. Implication of these variants in disease phenotype needs further validation, namely through functional analysis as is discussed.

  19. Mixed-Forest Species Establishment in a Monodominant Forest in Central Africa: Implications for Tropical Forest Invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Séné, Olivier; Djuikouo, Marie-Noël K.; Nguembou, Charlemagne K.; Taedoumg, Hermann; Begne, Serge K.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm) within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450–800 m apart). Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement–revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement) and population-level characteristics (relative abundance) may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species. PMID:24844914

  20. Tracing Improving Livelihoods in Rural Africa Using Local Measures of Wealth: A Case Study from Central Tanzania, 1991–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Östberg

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied livelihood changes and poverty dynamics over a 25-year period in two villages in central Tanzania. The villages were, from the early 1990s and 2000s, strikingly poor with between 50% and 55% of families in the poorest wealth groups. 25 years later much has changed: people have become substantially wealthier, with 64% and 71% in the middle wealth groups. The new wealth had been generated locally, from farming, particularly of sunflowers as a cash crop. This goes against a conventional view of small-scale farming in Tanzania as being stagnant or unproductive. The area of land farmed per family has increased, almost doubling in one village. People have made money, which they invest in mechanised farming, improved housing, education of their children, livestock, and consumer goods. Improved infrastructure and local entrepreneurs have played key roles in the area’s transformation. Locally identified wealth rankings showed that most villagers, those in the middle wealth groups and above, can now support themselves from their land, which is a notable change to a time when 71% and 82% in each village respectively depended on casual labour for their survival. This change has come at a cost to the environment. By 2016, the village forests have largely gone and been replaced by farms. Farmers were concerned that the climate was turning drier because of deforestation. Studying the mundane—the material used in roofs, the size of farms, and so on made it possible to trace and understand the radical transition the area has experienced.

  1. Combined use of random access and ELISA analyzers in the microbiological serology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Moroni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the trend of centralizing small laboratories in large reference centers led to a careful evaluation of the diagnostic profiles. In the serology laboratory of Microbiology Unit, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy the choice has been to combine random access analyzers (ARCHITECT Abbott and ELISA analyzers (BEPIII Dade Behring.

  2. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P E; Roux, V; Caumes, E; Donzel, M; Raoult, D

    1998-08-01

    African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, is an emerging rickettsiosis in southern Africa. Because of increased tourism to this area, several cases in tourists have been reported recently. We report 13 cases of R. africae infection diagnosed in France that occurred in competitors returning from an adventure race in South Africa and compare our data with previously reported findings. Most of our patients presented with fever, headache, multiple inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenopathies, but only 15.4% had a cutaneous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed either by isolation of R. africae from an eschar biopsy specimen or by serological methods, including cross-adsorption between R. africae and Rickettsia conorii. The purpose of this study was to raise physicians' awareness of R. africae infections in an attempt to facilitate the rapid diagnosis and treatment of imported African tick-bite fever in developed countries.

  3. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  4. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  5. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle T. Mbaveng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2 as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1, human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae, Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr. Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51

  6. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T.; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  7. Genesis of the vein-type tungsten mineralization at Nyakabingo (Rwanda) in the Karagwe-Ankole belt, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, S.; De Clercq, F.; Hulsbosch, N.; Piessens, K.; Boyce, A.; Burgess, R.; Muchez, Ph.

    2016-02-01

    The vein-type tungsten deposit at Nyakabingo in the central Tungsten belt of Rwanda is located in the eastern flank of the complex Bumbogo anticlinal structure. The host rock is composed of alternating sequences of sandstones, quartzites, and black pyritiferous metapelitic rocks. Two types of W-mineralized quartz veins have been observed: bedding-parallel and quartz veins that are at high angle to the bedding, which are termed crosscutting veins. Both vein types have been interpreted to have been formed in a late stage of a compressional deformation event. Both vein types are associated with small alteration zones, comprising silicification, tourmalinization, and muscovitization. Dating of muscovite crystals at the border of the veins resulted in a maximum age of 992.4 ± 1.5 Ma. This age is within error similar to the ages obtained for the specialized G4 granites (i.e., 986 ± 10 Ma). The W-bearing minerals formed during two different phases. The first phase is characterized by scheelite and massive wolframite, while the second phase is formed by ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite. These minerals occur late in the evolution of the massive quartz veins, sometimes even in fractures that crosscut the veins. The ore minerals precipitated from a H2O-CO2-CH4-N2-NaCl-(KCl) fluid with low to moderate salinity (0.6-13.8 eq. wt% NaCl), and minimal trapping temperatures between 247 and 344 °C. The quartz veins have been crosscut by sulfide-rich veins. Based on the similar setting, mineralogy, stable isotope, and fluid composition, it is considered that both types of W-mineralized quartz veins formed during the same mineralizing event. Given the overlap in age between the G4 granites and the mineralized quartz veins, and the typical association of the W deposits in Rwanda, but also worldwide, with granite intrusions, W originated from the geochemically specialized G4 granites. Intense water-rock interaction and mixing with metamorphic fluids largely overprinted the

  8. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic

  9. Sorption Kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp on Two Soil Layers Associated with a Groundwater Table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kemka

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study has been carried out on two soil layers (HX and HY located above a groundwater table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa. The main purpose of this study was to assess the retention potential or sorption kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. on these soil layers. For both soil layers, bacterial sorption on soil particles occurred rapidly during the first 30 minutes of incubation of bacteria and soil particles in aqueous media, and increased gradually with incubation time up to 300 min. In some cases, adsorption rates fluctuated after 30 min of incubation, probably due to bacterial cell sorption to and de-sorption from soil particles. Using Freundlich isotherms, it was noted that adsorption coefficient related to adsorption capacity varied from 19 to 4026 E. coli.mg-1 of soil, and from 506 to 847 Salmonella sp.mg-1 of soil. For both bacterial species, the adsorption coefficient of layer HY (located in close proximity of the water table was greater than that of HX (located above layer HY and seemed to positively correlate with the pH values and N/P ratios, and to negatively correlate with the values of C/N and C/P ratios. The linearity coefficient related to adsorption intensity varied from 0.5841 to 1.0023 for E. coli, and from 0.7068 to 1.5236 for Salmonella sp. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil particles seemed to influence the sorption kinetics of bacteria on soil.

  10. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  11. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. PMID:27874827

  12. Cross-sectional description of nursing and midwifery pre-service education accreditation in east, central, and southern Africa in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carey F; Gross, Jessica M; Verani, Andre R; Nkowane, Annette M; Wheeler, Erica L; Lipato, Thokozire J; Kelley, Maureen A

    2017-07-24

    In 2013, the World Health Organization issued guidelines, Transforming and Scaling Up Health Professional Education and Training, to improve the quality and relevance of health professional pre-service education. Central to these guidelines was establishing and strengthening education accreditation systems. To establish what current accreditation systems were for nursing and midwifery education and highlight areas for strengthening these systems, a study was undertaken to document the pre-service accreditation policies, approaches, and practices in 16 African countries relative to the 2013 WHO guidelines. This study utilized a cross-sectional group survey with a standardized questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of approximately 70 nursing and midwifery leaders from 16 countries in east, central, and southern Africa. Each national delegation completed one survey together, representing the responses for their country. Almost all countries in this study (15; 94%) mandated pre-service nursing education accreditation However, there was wide variation in who was responsible for accrediting programs. The percent of active programs accredited decreased by program level from 80% for doctorate programs to 62% for masters nursing to 50% for degree nursing to 35% for diploma nursing programs. The majority of countries indicated that accreditation processes were transparent (i.e., included stakeholder engagement (81%), self-assessment (100%), evaluation feedback (94%), and public disclosure (63%)) and that the processes were evaluated on a routine basis (69%). Over half of the countries (nine; 56%) reported limited financial resources as a barrier to increasing accreditation activities, and seven countries (44%) noted limited materials and technical expertise. In line with the 2013 WHO guidelines, there was a strong legal mandate for nursing education accreditation as compared to the global average of 50%. Accreditation levels were low in the programs that produce

  13. CZO perspective in Central Africa : The Lopé watershed, Lopé National Park, Ogooué River basin, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J. J.; Jeffery, K.; Koumba Pambo, A. F.; Paiz, M. C.; Richter, D., Jr.; John, P.; Jerome, G.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) in equatorial regions are seldom (see e. g. http://www.czen.org/, USA and http://rnbv.ipgp.fr/, France). The equatorial zone of Central Africa is almost free of them with the exception of the CZO of the Upper Nyong river basin (organic-rich river on the lateritic plateau of South Cameroon; SO BVET, http://bvet.omp.obs-mip.fr/). On both sides of the Equator line, the Ogooué River Basin (215,000 km2) stretches on about 80% of the total area of Gabon and drains various geological and morpho-pedological contexts and feeds the sedimentation areas of the Central African passive margin (Guillochaux et al., 2014). The Upper Ogooué (up to Lambaréné) drains the stepped planation surface of the Congo craton while the Lower Ogooué drains Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary terrains. The climate is equatorial (Pmean = 2500 mm/yr; Tmean = 26 °; %humidity > 80%). Continuous hydro-climatic chronicles exist for the period 1953-1974 (managed by ORSTOM, now IRD). The runoff at Lambaréné (92% of the basin area) is very high (714 mm/yr). With a rural density of 1 inhabitant/km2, it is one of the last largely pristine tropical forested ecosystems on the Planet. In addition, the basin will be, in the coming decades, the theatre of important anthropogenic changes (dams, agriculture, mining, urbanisation, …). However, a conservation plan with an ambitious sustainable development policy is set up. This plan articulates the environmental issues related to the emergence of the country. Because of these characteristics, the basin offers ideal conditions for studying the changes in equatorial region of hydro-climate, weathering/erosion regimes and regolith production based on morpho-pedological contexts and associated physical, chemical and biological processes. It is thus germane to launch an integrated CZO initiative at both regional scale and local scale. At the regional scale, we plan to reactivate some of the hydro-climatic stations located on the

  14. The Meteorology of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-11-01

    JxUüha^tiGb-bväSt ’" PiM "•" *• i—By taking. law agreosBfe Lhu w:ul- PBJfc3aE5fe„gäfcfia^and fcJa& £ao4 +hn+ *hri rgewfcaga treHr-afcrere i-iin...point to the right and by the constant Ott O-CCoUvit erf; equivalent potential temperature in the lowest layer. « *he low relative humidities

  15. Serologic evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus detected in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to reovirus in serum. The identification...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3850... devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680... devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza... that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to parainfluenza...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus... consist of antigens and antisera used in various serological tests to identify antibodies to Aspergillus...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus... serological tests to identify mumps viruses from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...

  7. HIV-infected children living in Central Africa have low persistence of antibodies to vaccines used in the Expanded Program on Immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathurin C Tejiokem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI is the most cost-effective measures to control vaccine-preventable diseases. Currently, the EPI schedule is similar for HIV-infected children; the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART should considerably prolong their life expectancy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the persistence of antibodies to the EPI vaccines in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children who previously received these vaccines in routine clinical practice, we conducted a cross-sectional study of children, aged 18 to 36 months, born to HIV-infected mothers and living in Central Africa. We tested blood samples for antibodies to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis (DTwP, the measles and the oral polio (OPV vaccines. We enrolled 51 HIV-infected children of whom 33 were receiving ART, and 78 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. A lower proportion of HIV-infected children than uninfected children had antibodies to the tested antigens with the exception of the OPV types 1 and 2. This difference was substantial for the measles vaccine (20% of the HIV-infected children and 56% of the HIV-exposed uninfected children, p<0.0001. We observed a high risk of low antibody levels for all EPI vaccines, except OPV types 1 and 2, in HIV-infected children with severe immunodeficiency (CD4(+ T cells <25%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Children were examined at a time when their antibody concentrations to EPI vaccines would have still not undergone significant decay. However, we showed that the antibody concentrations were lowered in HIV-infected children. Moreover, antibody concentration after a single dose of the measles vaccine was substantially lower than expected, particularly low in HIV-infected children with low CD4(+ T cell counts. This study supports the need for a second dose of the measles vaccine and for a booster dose of the DTwP and OPV vaccines to maintain the

  8. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central Africa schools of public health: enhancing capacity to design and implement teaching programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of health systems research (HSR) in informing and guiding national programs and policies has been increasingly recognized. Yet, many universities in sub-Saharan African countries have relatively limited capacity to teach HSR. Seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa undertook an HSR institutional capacity assessment, which included a review of current HSR teaching programs. This study determines the extent to which SPHs are engaged in teaching HSR-relevant courses and assessing their capacities to effectively design and implement HSR curricula whose graduates are equipped to address HSR needs while helping to strengthen public health policy. Methods This study used a cross-sectional study design employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. An organizational profile tool was administered to senior staff across the seven SPHs to assess existing teaching programs. A self-assessment tool included nine questions relevant to teaching capacity for HSR curricula. The analysis triangulates the data, with reflections on the responses from within and across the seven SPHs. Proportions and average of values from the Likert scale are compared to determine strengths and weaknesses, while themes relevant to the objectives are identified and clustered to elicit in-depth interpretation. Results None of the SPHs offer an HSR-specific degree program; however, all seven offer courses in the Master of Public Health (MPH) degree that are relevant to HSR. The general MPH curricula partially embrace principles of competency-based education. Different strengths in curricula design and staff interest in HSR at each SPH were exhibited but a number of common constraints were identified, including out-of-date curricula, face-to-face delivery approaches, inadequate staff competencies, and limited access to materials. Opportunities to align health system priorities to teaching programs include existing networks. Conclusions Each SPH has key

  9. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  10. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  11. Serological pregnancy diagnosis of syphilis in pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.N. Naicker, J. Moodley, A. Van Middelkoop, R.C. Cooper. Abstract. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. The prevalence of ... The TPHA test is therefore advocated for screening patients for syphilis.

  12. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...

  14. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    B. Modu; B. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9%...

  15. Bibliographic Control in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiker, Reuben

    1972-01-01

    The author sets as his task the consideration of the present state of bibliographical control of South Africa's bookstock with special reference to centralization and decentralization. (20 references) (Author/SJ)

  16. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambarene, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500

  17. Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, B. J.; Carter, T. F.; Greenbaum, E.; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, D. B.; McLaughlin, P. J.; Pauwels, O. S. G.; Portik, D. M.; Stanley, E. L.; Tinsley, R. C.; Tobias, M. L.; Blackburn, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), č. článku e0142823. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : host-defense peptides * genus Xenopus * skin secretions * South Africa * evolutionary relationships * model organism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  18. Serological evidence of herpesvirus infection in gibbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanakorn Parntep

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesviruses are not only infectious agents of worldwide distribution in humans, but have also been demonstrated in various non-human primates as well. Seventy-eight gibbons were subjected to serological tests by ELISA for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV. Results The prevalence of IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28.2%, 28.2%, 14.1% and 17.9%, respectively. Conclusions Antigenic cross-reactivity is expected to exist between the human herpesviruses and gibbon herpesviruses. Gibbons have antibodies to human herpesviruses that may reflect zoonotic infection with human herpesviruses or infection with indigenous gibbon herpesviruses. Therefore, it is difficult to draw concrete conclusions from serological studies alone. Identification should be based on further isolation and molecular characterization of viruses from seropositive animals.

  19. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Galkin; A. G. Komar; A. A. Grigorenko

    2015-01-01

    In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO...

  20. Health screening of migrant workers- serological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper review the serological investigations for parasitic infection among migrant workers. The tests were performed on serum samples for parasitic infection. The serum samples were found to be positive for antibody for Ameobiasis [28%], Malaria [27 percentage], Echonococcus [18 percentage] and Schistosomiasis [12 percentage]. Female samples were positive for Ameobiasis [39 percentage], and Filariasis [W.b] 33.3 percentage. Foreign workers from Bangladesh showed the highest percentage on seropositive for most parasitic diseases. (author)

  1. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Galkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO 13485 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Regulatory requirements”, and DSTU ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories”. Similar requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine which are used for drug standardization can not be directly applied to the medical devises for in vitro diagnostics due to a number of features, namely, the serological diagnosis products pre-designed to determine the unknown concentration of a particular analyte in a biological material, the diagnostic kits has to include the control samples (internal standard systems that need to be calibrated. It was determined following parameters of bioanalytical standardization and validation characterization for of qualitative (semi quantitative test-kits for serological diagnosis: precision (convergence, intralaboratory precision and reproducibility, diagnostic and analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity. It’s necessary to inspect additional parameters for quantitative test-kits such as accuracy (precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity and range.

  2. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  3. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  4. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  5. Serologic survey in animals of 'Q' fever in Nuevo Leon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Melédez, J A; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Riojas-Valdez, V; Kawas-Garza, J; Fimbres-Durazo, H; Hernández-Vidal, G

    2002-01-01

    The serological prevalence of Q fever in Mexico is unknown. A serological survey for Coxiella burnetii was undertaken on a randomly selected population of dairy cattle, beef cattle, goats and sheep flocks. Serological examination of animal sera for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii was carried out by the ELISA technique. The 28% of the dairy cattle and 10% of beef cattle examinated were antibody positive. Sera from goats and sheep also had antibodies against this rickettsia, 35% and 40% respectively.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma... (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Toxoplasma gondii from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3165... clinical specimens or from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480... respiratory syncytial viruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140.... from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3250... Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270.... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus... echoviruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3220... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Entamoeba histolytica directly from clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320... capsulatum from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella... from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3010... this bacterium from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  2. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  3. Synthetic review on the genetic relatedness between North Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soumaya

    the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. ... threatened until the Islamic Arabs expanded their religion and culture to the Maghreb, ... decline from the Middle East toward Central Asia, Caucasus, North Africa and Europe.

  4. Strangers but for Stories: The Role of Storytelling in the Construction of Contemporary White Afrikaans-Speaking Identity in Central South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Conrad Kotze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the application of an integral framework for sociological practice to a case study of White Afrikaans-speaking identity in South Africa. In addition to the introduction of the framework, identity is conceived as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which is formed and shaped biologically, psychologically and socially. Using the empirical examples of the case study, the socially constructed aspects of identity are interpretively investigated. The stories and their narrative repertoires, structures and contents are integrally reconstructed and analysed by means of an approach that includes in-depth interviews, a hermeneutical interpretation and the contextualisation of these stories within the broader meta-narrative of South African history. The analysis demonstrates that White Afrikaans-speaking identity has diversified since the end of apartheid in 1994, i.e. the self-definitions and self-understandings of White Afrikaans-speakers do not (exclusively refer anymore to the formerly dominant notion of the Afrikaner. The analysis concludes that there exist three contemporary White Afrikaans-speaking identities in South Africa, namely the Afrikaners, the Afrikaanses, and the Pseudo-Boers. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501201

  5. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  6. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and three serologic assays for the detection of B. bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospect...

  7. Internal quality control in serological tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasley, G D

    1985-01-01

    The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.

  8. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  10. Clinical phenotypes and the biological parameters of Congolese patients suffering from sickle cell anemia: A first report from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikobi, Tite M; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel N; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Mvumbi-Lelo, Georges; Mbuyi-Muamba, Jean Marie

    2017-11-01

    The influence of phenotype on the clinical course and laboratory features of sickle cell anemia (SCA) is rarely described in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa. A clinical phenotype score was built up. The following definitions were applied: asymptomatic clinical phenotype (ACP; score≤5), moderate clinical phenotype (MCP; score between 6 and 15), and severe clinical phenotype (SCP; score≥16). ANOVA test were used to compare differences among categorical variables. We have studied 140 patients. The mean body mass index (BMI) value of three groups was lower (Sickle cell patients with ACP have a high mean steady-state hemoglobin concentration compared to those with MCP and SCP (Psickle cell anemia clinical and biological variability in our midst. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenfeld, O.; Parrott, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  12. Africa was still far south in the Late Ypresian: Paleomagnetic study on the early Eocene ‘Minia’ formation in central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotfy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paleomagnetic study was carried out on three sections of the Late Ypresian “Minia” formation limestone, in order to shed light on the paleolatitude of northeast Africa upon the end of the Early Eocene. The initial study on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility [AMS] helped in confining the paleomagnetic sampling to the virtually isotropic limestone beds. The subsequent stepwise thermal demagnetization of the three-axis isothermal remanence acquired in one sample of each sampled site, revealed the limited contribution of goethite and hematite with the main remanence carrier magnetite in most samples.The assessment of the natural remanence during the progressive stepwise thermal demagnetization [15–17 steps] of all samples, elucidated the early decay [<150 °C] of a present- day field [PDF] overprint component scattered around the magnetic field direction of the study area. Despite that, the anchored component in most samples was carried in magnetite, yet hematite was recorded in few sites. The visual inspection of the decay spectra in the orthogonal projections, followed by the determination of the best-fit line of every component using the principal component analysis [PCA] technique, differentiated between the magnetite- and hematite- remanence components: 1. The magnetite-anchored component, which was overwhelming in most samples, was antipodal with shallow to medium inclination, yielding a paleomagnetic North poles at 73.8°N/197.5°E. This component, which successfully passed the reversal test at 95% confidence level, was considered as the characteristic primary remanent direction of the “Minia” formation. This paleomagnetic pole was, consequently, considered as representing the African Plate in the Late Ypresian. 2. On the other hand, the hematite component had normal north-direction clustered around the present-day field [PDF] in the study area. The hematite paleomagnetic pole at 88.7°N/78.8

  13. Provenance of Austroalpine basement metasediments: tightening up Early Palaeozoic connections between peri-Gondwanan domains of central Europe and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Oriolo, S.; Heinrichs, T.; Basei, M. A. S.; Nolte, N.; Hüttenrauch, F.; Schulz, B.

    2018-03-01

    New U-Pb and Lu-Hf detrital zircon data together with whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd data were obtained for paragneisses of the Austroalpine basement south of the Tauern Window. Geochemically immature metasediments of the Northern-Defereggen-Petzeck (Ötztal-Bundschuh nappe system) and Defereggen (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) groups contain zircon age populations which indicate derivation mainly from Pan-African orogens. Younger, generally mature metasediments of the Gailtal Metamorphic Basement (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system), Thurntaler Phyllite Group (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) and Val Visdende Formation (South Alpine Basement) were possibly derived from more distant sources. Their significantly larger abundances of pre-Pan-African zircons record a more advanced stage of downwearing of the Pan-African belts and erosion of older basement when the Austroalpine terrane was part of the Early Palaeozoic Northern Gondwana passive margin. Most zircon age spectra are dominated by Ediacaran sources, with lesser Cryogenian, Tonian and Stenian contributions and subordinate Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. These age patterns are similar to those recorded by Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary sequences in northeastern Africa between Libya and Jordan, and in some pre-Variscan basement inliers of Europe (e.g. Dinarides-Hellenides, Alboran microplate). Therefore, the most likely sources seem to be in the northeastern Saharan Metacraton and the Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (Sinai), further supported by whole-rock Sm-Nd and zircon Lu-Hf data.

  14. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the 8° discontinuity beneath the major tectonic units of Central Europe from regional seismicity in Europe and northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, B.; Perchuc, E.; Thybo, H.; Maguire, P.; Denton, P.

    2004-12-01

    We evaluate the existence and the depth of the '8° discontinuity' beneath the Alpine orogen using the natural seismicity of Europe and northern Africa as well as events induced by mining activity. For this analysis, the regional events (1) must have epicenters further than 1000 km from the structure being imaged, and (2) the magnitude of body waves must be higher than 4.0 to obtain a favourable signal to noise ratio. The events satisfying the above conditions have epicentres in Algeria, Spain, Bulgaria, Greece and in the Lubin Copper Basin in Poland. The last region is characterised by high seismicity resulting from mining activity. We base our analysis on P-wave traveltime residuals compared to the general iasp91 model. The 8° discontinuity seems to be attributed to the observed P-wave traveltime delays at epicentral distances around 800 km. The analysis of events from the Lubin Coper Basin and the events from other regions mentioned above, gives P-wave delays of 3 s at the Alpine stations in comparison with stations in the Variscan areas to further north. We attribute this variation in travel time to the difference between 'fast' and 'slow' uppermost mantle structures in Europe.

  16. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  17. Development of in-house serological methods for diagnosis and surveillance of chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, Saira Saborío; González, Karla; Téllez, Yolanda; García, Nadezna; Pérez, Leonel; Gresh, Lionel; Harris, Eva; Balmaseda, Ángel

    2017-08-21

    To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA) for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM) to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014-2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative) with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA). For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%-95.9%. Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.

  18. Development of in-house serological methods for diagnosis and surveillance of chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Saborío Galo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Methods Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014–2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA. For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. Results All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%–95.9%. Conclusion Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.

  19. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  20. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  1. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  2. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  3. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  4. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-11-15

    Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF). The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP's infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), complementary feeding (CF), and children's linear growth. A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359) and non-NIP sites (n = 415) from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs) in the Northwest (NWR) and Southwest Regions (SWR) of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children's linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94) more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver, children were five times more likely to be stunted at

  5. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Reinsma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers’ knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children’s linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP’s infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, complementary feeding (CF, and children’s linear growth. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359 and non-NIP sites (n = 415 from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs in the Northwest (NWR and Southwest Regions (SWR of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children’s linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. Results After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94 more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver

  6. [Matrimonial changes in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, V; Pilon, M

    1997-01-01

    A database of census and survey information on fertility and nuptiality in Africa being assembled by the French Center for Population and Development (CEPED) was the source for this analysis of changing marriage patterns. Early marriage for girls, nearly universal marriage for both sexes, rapid remarriage of reproductive-age widows and divorcees, polygamy, and a frequently large difference in the ages of the spouses are typical of African marriage. But a great variety of situations coexist. In the 1960s, the female age at first marriage was under 17.5 years on average in West Africa, while the male age was over 26. Nearly everyone married, and one-fourth to one-third of married men were polygamous. In South Africa, at the other extreme, the average age at first marriage was 20-23 for women and 26-30 for men, over 5% never married, and polygamy was rare. Nuptiality patterns were intermediate in North, Central, and East Africa. The most recent round of censuses and surveys show the geographic differences to be shrinking. Average age at first marriage for women is increasing everywhere and often exceeds 19 years. It remains lower than 17.5 in only two countries. The increase amounts to at least a half year for 30 countries and over 1 year for 15. Marriage remains nearly universal except in South Africa. Male age at marriage is rising more slowly than female age, causing the average age gap to decline. Economic difficulties and unemployment appear to play a significant role in the delay of marriage, with increased female school attendance also a factor, although secondary and higher education for females in sub-Saharan Africa is too uncommon to have perceptible effects on the national scale. In North Africa, the age at first birth has increased in tandem with increasing marriage age, but in sub-Saharan Africa the relationship has been less marked. In Lome, for example, the increasing age at first marriage for females has had no effect on age at first birth. The

  7. The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karim Yousri Welaya

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... Pretreatment evaluation included serological testing for HCV. FAC Adjuvant ... National Cancer Institute; IRB, Institutional Research Board; LVEF, ..... Mild Skin changes, including skin discoloration and nail changes, not ...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125 Citrobacter... isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West Nile...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  12. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  13. Multiple sclerosis and positive lyme serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available As Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may clinically mimick multiple sclerosis (MS the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum of patients with a MS-like disease in non-edemic areas for Lyme disease may be troublesome. We report the case of a 45-year-old white female with the diagnosis of relapsing/ remitting form of MS due to a 15-year history of optic neuritis and recurrent episodes of motor and sensation disturbance in the upper right limb and in both lower extremites associated with bladder dysfunction. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple high intensity periventricular white matter lesions. The patient had been exposed to ticks but did not recall the presence of erythema migrans. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive in two different laboratories and the positive serology was confirmed by Western blotting. No convincing reponse followed treatment with ceftriaxone. Although it is clear that the patient had been infect by Borrelia burgdorferi the relationship of this spirochetal infection with the neurological disease could not be ascertained.

  14. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Results: Among the 509 donors, 295 (58% were male, and 420 (82.50% belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5% died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9% cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3% were nonreactive, 12 (2.4% donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and 1 (0.2% was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12% donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32% donors were accepted and 34 (6.67% were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00. Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00. Conclusion: The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4% and 1 (0.2%, respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling

  15. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in donor cornea.

  16. Serology for human papillomavirus Serología para el virus del papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coursaget

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.

  17. Serologic surveillance of wild and pen-reared ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as a method of understanding disease reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Ian; Coates, Peter S.; Stoute, Simone T.; Senties-Cue, C. Gabriel; Gharpure, Radhika V.; Pitesky, Maurice E.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated exposure to infectious diseases in wild (n=33) and pen-reared (n=12) Ring-necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in the Central Valley of California during 2014 and 2015. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against hemorrhagic enteritis (HE), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in both wild and pen-reared pheasants.

  18. Chemistry for sustainable development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius); Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas (eds.) [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Faculty of Veterinary Science

    2013-07-01

    Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa' gives an insight into current Chemical research in Africa. It is edited and written by distinguished African scientists and includes contributions from Chemists from Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern, Central and Island state African Countries. The core themes embrace the most pressing issues of our time, including Environmental Chemistry, Renewable Energies, Health and Human Well-Being, Food and Nutrition, and Bioprospecting and Commercial Development. This book is invaluable for teaching and research institutes in Africa and worldwide, private sector entities dealing with natural products from Africa, as well as policy and decision-making bodies and non-governmental organizations.

  19. New insights into prevalence, genetic diversity, and proviral load of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women in Gabon in equatorial central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etenna, Sonia Lekana-Douki; Caron, Mélanie; Besson, Guillaume; Makuwa, Maria; Gessain, Antoine; Mahé, Antoine; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2008-11-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is highly endemic in areas of central Africa; mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission are considered to be the predominant routes. To determine the prevalence and subtypes of HTLV-1/2 in pregnant women in Gabon, we conducted an epidemiological survey in the five main cities of the country. In 907 samples, the HTLV-1 seroprevalence was 2.1%, which is lower than that previously reported. Only one case of HTLV-2 infection was found. The HTLV-1 seroprevalence increased with age and differed between regions (P cosmopolitan subtype A. The new strains of subtype B exhibited wide genetic diversity, but there was no evidence of clustering of specific genomes within geographical regions of the country. Some strains were closely related to simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains of great apes, suggesting that in these areas some HTLV-1 strains could arise from relatively recent interspecies transmission. The sole HTLV-2 strain belonged to subtype B. In this study we showed that the prevalence of HTLV-1 in the southeast is one of the highest in the world for pregnant women.

  20. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  1. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  2. Multiplex serology of paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Peter; Brouwer, Eric; Hulsenboom, Esther; VanDuijn, Martijn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Smitt, Peter A E Sillevis

    2013-05-31

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are devastating neurological disorders secondary to cancer, associated with onconeural autoantibodies. Such antibodies are directed against neuronal antigens aberrantly expressed by the tumor. The detection of onconeural antibodies in a patient is extremely important in diagnosing a neurological syndrome as paraneoplastic (70% is not yet known to have cancer) and in directing the search for the underlying neoplasm. At present six onconeural antibodies are considered 'well characterized' and recognize the antigens HuD, CDR62 (Yo), amphiphysin, CRMP-5 (CV2), NOVA-1 (Ri), and Ma2. The gold standard of detection is the characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern on brain tissue sections combined with confirmation by immunoblotting using recombinant purified proteins. Since all six onconeural antibodies are usually analyzed simultaneously and objective cut-off values for these analyses are warranted, we developed a multiplex assay based on Luminex technology. Reaction of serial dilutions of six onconeural standard sera with microsphere-bound antigens showed lower limits of detection than with Western blotting. Using the six standard sera at a dilution of 1:200, the average within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 4% (range 1.9-7.3%). The average between-run within-day CV was 5.1% (range 2.9-6.7%) while the average between-day CV was 8.1% (range 2.8-11.6%). The shelf-life of the antigen coupled microspheres was at least two months. The sensitivity of the multiplex assay ranged from 83% (Ri) to 100% (Yo, amphiphysin, CV2) and the specificity from 96% (CV2) to 100% (Ri). In conclusion, Luminex-based multiplex serology is highly reproducible with high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of onconeural antibodies. Conventional immunoblotting for diagnosis of onconeural antibodies in the setting of a routine laboratory may be replaced by this novel, robust technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.

  4. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    NESDA: Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa .... Some of the key natural resources of the region are transboundary—case of surface ..... The goals of the present study on the risk-sharing approach to regional ...... The reserve includes a World Heritage Site (Djoudj) and 5 Ramsar sites (Djoudj,.

  5. Drought in Africa 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalby, D; Harrison-Church, R J; Berzaz, F [eds.

    1977-01-01

    The second edition of Drought in Africa is reviewed. The book, which has been greatly expanded, looks at the Sahelian and Ethiopian droughts from a long-term perspective. Among the subjects included are: a description of the meteorological aspects of the drought; changes in animal and human populations; overpopulation of areas of nomadic pastoralism and of crop-producing areas; and mechanisms by which people survived. Cash crops, taxes, the market economy and over-centralized planning receive much of the blame for the effects of the drought.

  6. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (ρ, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ρ: a group with very low ρ (ρ 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ρ may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  7. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania infection in dogs from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Hugo; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Schallig, Henk D F H; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

    2014-03-24

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a global zoonosis endemic in more than 70 countries in Europe, North Africa, Asia and America; however, data on this infection is scarce from southern Africa. The aim of this study was to survey dogs in Luanda, Angola, for Leishmania infection. One hundred-and-three dogs presented to a veterinary medical centre in Luanda were serologically and molecularly assessed for Leishmania with the direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two dogs were seropositive, with DAT titres of 800 and ≥6400; the latter was also found to be PCR-positive and confirmed to be infected with L. infantum by DNA sequence analysis. No other dog was found to be PCR-positive. The first dog had been imported from Portugal, but the latter had never left Angola (neither had its parents), strongly suggesting an autochthonous infection. Although other cases of CanL have previously been described in the country, this is the first reported study of canine Leishmania infection at the population level, as well as the first report on the molecular characterization of L. infantum in dogs from Angola.

  8. Relevance of and New Developments in Serology for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  11. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in South Africa for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  12. Electricity in Africa or the continent of paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuraux, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article first proposes an overview of the present situation of the electricity sector in Africa: the continent is an energy giant because of all the resources it possesses, but an electricity dwarf regarding its present and actual capacities. The author outlines the differences between potential and actual productions, gives an overview of the current status of supply and of production capacities. She comments the status of electricity demand, electricity consumption and electricity markets in the different parts of Africa (data of electricity consumption, of global, urban and rural electrification in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa with or without South Africa), and issues related to costs and tariffs. She proposes some explanations for the observed discrepancies between African regions and countries: history, too small markets supported by too fragile economies, political and economic failures. Then, she discusses how to favour a durable development of the African electricity sector

  13. West and Central Africa Symposium infographic charts

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ghana? States, local communities and populations, and development partners should: Address unemployment, especially for young men and women. Support local structures and inclusive security that promote resocialization of young criminals. Promote compulsory.

  14. Serological prevalence of celiac disease in Brazilian population of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pérola; de Carvalho, Daniel Rocha; Brandi, Ivar Viana; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    Comorbidity of celiac disease with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system has been reported since the 1960s. The objective of this study was to determine the serological prevalence of celiac disease in the largest series of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or myelitis. A prevalence study was conducted with patients evaluated at Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals between March 2012 and September 2013. They were previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or idiopathic myelitis. The serum levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were assessed. Of the 379 patients evaluated, 249 (65.70%) were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, 37 (9.56%) with neuromyelitis optica, and 96 (24.54%) with idiopathic myelitis. Two patients (0.53%), one with multiple sclerosis and other with myelitis, tested positive for both antibodies. Our study do not confirm the relationship between celiac serological antibodies with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and inflammatory myelitis of an unknown etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  16. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  17. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  18. Microbiological and Serological Studies of some Poultry Pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Serological surveillance of 24 different species of wild water birds living around water sewage plants and fresh wetland water area in Khartoum state (Sudan) were carried out in the period from September 2011 to March 2012 during ringing operation. The presence of selected avian diseases including ...

  19. empiric treatment based on helicobacter pylori serology cannot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMPIRIC TREATMENT BASED ON. HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROLOGY. CANNOT SUBSTITUTE FOR EARLY. ENDOSCOPY IN THE. MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPTIC. RURAL BLACK AFRICANS. Stephen JD O'Keefe, B Salvador, J Nainkin, S Majikir H. Stevens, A Atherstone. Background_ Evidence that chronic gastric ...

  20. Empiric treatment based on Helicobacter Pylori serology cannont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma has led to the suggestion that all serologically positive dyspeptic patients should be treated empirically with antibiotics to eradicate the infection, without ...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... serological tests to identify Haemophilus spp. directly from clinical specimens or tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  2. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya. Ibrahim Eldaghayes, Abdunaser Dayhum, Abdulwahab Kammon, Monier Sharif, Giancarlo Ferrari, Christianus Bartels, Keith Sumption, Donald P. King, Santina Grazioli, Emiliana Brocchi ...

  3. Serological analysis and therapy in patients with early syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhifen

    2000-01-01

    Sixty one patients with early syphilis were treated with benzathine penicillin under guide of serological analysis, the results showed that benzathine penicilline was able to cure indurated chancre and skin rashes in a month, flat condyloma in one and a half month, and PRP were all negative in 18 month

  4. Sklerodermi--systemisk sklerose. Serologi, lungefunktion og overlevelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullman, S; Halberg, P; Wiik, A

    1999-01-01

    %, anti-Scl-70 antibodies in 13% and anti-U1-RNP antibodies in 6.5%. These serological groups were associated with limited SSc, diffuse SSc, and myositis/arthritis, respectively. The most prevalent finding at first lung function test was isolated reduction of diffusion capacity (47%). Further...

  5. Leishmania serology in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashood, A.H.; Malik, N.; Abbasi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The gold standard to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis is histopathology, but there has always been a need of a rapid, reliable, cheap and convenient laboratory investigation. Serological tests fulfill the above criteria. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in detection of leishmania antibodies, in comparison with the histopathology. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 1st November 2010 to 30th June 2011. Patients and methods: The study population included the patients who were clinically diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis. All of them were biopsied and serum was sent for leishmania serology. Results: A total of 47 patients were included. They were all adult males. The histopathology was positive in 31/47 patients (65.95%), while the leishmania serology was positive in 36/47 cases (76.59%). The sensitiuites was 74.19%, specificity was 18.75%, positive predictive value has 63.88%, negative predicative value was 27% and accuracy was 55%. Conclusion: In the light of sensitivity analysis, it may be concluded that leishmania serology has moderate sensitivity and low specificity; hence it is not a reliable test for cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)

  6. Conventional and serological detection of Fasciolosis in ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was ...

  7. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.

  8. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a ... EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3145... fluorescent dye that are used to identify coxsackievirus from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of coxsackievirus...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus... Clinical Laboratory Standards': (i) 1/LA6 “Detection and Quantitation of Rubella IgG Antibody: Evaluation... Products in the Clinical Laboratory, October 1997,” (ii) 1/LA18 “Specifications for Immunological Testing...

  14. Serological markers of hepatitis B infection in infants presenting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-29

    Dec 29, 2012 ... birth. Key words: Serological markers, hepatitis B. first infant immuniza- tion. Introduction. Universal infant immunization has been recommended since 1992 by the World ... to the inhabitants of Benin City, the capital of Edo state,. Nigeria. .... Of the 13(52%) that were done at home 5(38.5%) were carried out ...

  15. Comparison of radioimmunology and serology methods for LH determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, W.; Jakowicki, J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is presented of LH determinations by immunoassay and radioimmunoassay using the 125 I-labelled HCG double antibody system. The results obtained by both methods are well comparable and in normal and elevated LH levels the serological determinations may be used for estimating concentration levels found by RIA. (L.O.)

  16. PRODUKSI ANTISERUM DAN KAJIAN SEROLOGI CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G.R.M. Temaja, G. Suastika S.H. Hidayat & U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiserum production and serological assay of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB. Virus identification based on spesific reaction between antigen and antibody  in serological assay has been widely applied as a tool for plant virus detection. The aims of this research is  to produce  antiserum of the CVB by  guinea pig immunization using  purified CVB of Cianjur isolate. The antiserum   was used further  for  the  serological test. Serological methods for detection of CVB were I-ELISA, TBIA, western blot and ISEM. The result showed that  guinea pig immunization  using 150 µg of purified virus was able to produce 10.75 ml of antiserum. The antiserum produced had high sensitivity for detection of CVB when examined by I-ELISA and TBIA. Besides its low cost, TBIA allows the samples to be blotted on the nitrocellulose membranes in the field and storage of the membranes for later processing in the laboratory. This feature makes it the metode of  choice for large-scale CVB surveying.

  17. Clinical, serologic, and immunogenetic features of familial idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rider, L. G.; Gurley, R. C.; Pandey, J. P.; Garcia de la Torre, I.; Kalovidouris, A. E.; O'Hanlon, T. P.; Love, L. A.; Hennekam, R. C.; Baumbach, L. L.; Neville, H. E.; Garcia, C. A.; Klingman, J.; Gibbs, M.; Weisman, M. H.; Targoff, I. N.; Miller, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, serologic, and immunogenetic features of familial idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and to compare these with the features of sporadic IIM. METHODS: Clinical signs and symptoms, autoantibodies, HLA-DRB1 and DQA1 alleles, and GM/KM phenotypes were compared

  18. Serological detection of Brucella suis antibodies amongst pigs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing reports of poor production associated with swine brucellosis necessitated this serological study. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of swine brucellosis in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Three hundred (300) sera were randomly collected from porcine species between July – December, 2012 from ...

  19. Serological survey of Brucellosis in livestock animals and workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers was conducted in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between May and August 2004. A total of 1,210 cattle, 54 sheep, 496 goats, 200 pigs and 21 humans (i.e. butchers and herdsmen) were screened using the Rose Bengal test (RBT).From the results ...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or total...

  1. Using standard serology blood tests to diagnose latent syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Katunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To conduct a comparative assessment of the results of regulated serological tests obtained as a result of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis. Materials and methods. The authors examined 187 patient medical records with newly diagnosed latent syphilis in FGBU GNTsDK (State Research Center for Dermatology, Venereology and Cosmetology, Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, in 2006-2015. The results of patient blood tests were analyzed with the use of non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR and treponemal (passive hemagglutination test, immune-enzyme assay (IgA, IgM, IgG, IFabs, immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test serology tests. Results. According to the results of blood tests of latent syphilis patients, the largest number of positive results was obtained as a result of treponemal serology tests such as immune-enzyme assay (100%, passive hemagglutination test (100% and IFabs (100%. The greatest number of negative results was observed in non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR serology tests: in 136 (72.7% patients; evidently positive results (4+ test results were obtained in 8 (4.3% patients only. According to the results of a comparative analysis of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis obtained with the use of treponemal serology tests, the greatest number of evidently positive results (4+ was noted for the passive hemagglutination test (67.9%. Negative treponemal test results were obtained with the use of the immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test (21.9% and 11.8% of cases, respectively. Moreover, weakly positive results prevailed for the immunofluorescence test: in 65 (34.7% patients. Conclusion. These data confirm that the following treponemal tests belong to the most reliable ones for revealing patients suffering from latent syphilis: immune-enzyme assay, passive hemagglutination test and IFabs.

  2. Isolation of Bartonella henselae from a serologically negative cat in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Pretorius

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sera collected from apparently healthy 6-12-month-old cats (n = 31 presented to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Veterinary Clinic in Bloemfontein for neutering were tested for antibodies reactive to Bartonella henselae (Houston-1 strain by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Whole blood collected from the cats was used in isolation experiments and subsequent identification of Bartonella species was based on comparison of the nucleotide base sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified citrate synthase gene fragments. While none of the cats had antibodies reactive with B. henselae at titres > 1/64, an organism with a partial citrate synthase gene sequence identical to that of B. henselae (Houston-1 was isolated from 1 cat.

  3. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  4. [Analysis for serological diagnostic results of syphilis among entry personnel in Beijing port during 2012-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M X; Sun, F J; Wang, F; Wang, K L; Liu, M

    2016-06-18

    To analyze the results of syphilis specific serological tests among entry personnel in Beijing port during year 2012-2014 in order to provide evidence for the prevention and control of syphilis. Demographics data and syphilis specific test results of entry personnel were obtained from the information system of Beijing International Travel Healthcare Center and input into Excel 2016. Database for entry personnel was built up accordingly and was analyzed by IBM SPSS22.0. The number of entry personnel in Beijing port during year 2012-2014 was 106 302 person-time. According to the evaluation criteria, 71 308 persons were recruited and analyzed, of whom 277 were tested serologically positive and the total prevalence was 0.39% (95% CI: 0.34%-0.43%). The prevalence was highest in the persons aged 40-49 years (0.81%) and was higher in males (0.50%) than in females (0.23%). The persons from Africa held higher prevalence (1.27%) than from other five regions. As multivariate logical regression analysis indicated that the risk of syphilis infection was 10.38 times more in the persons aged 40-49 years than in the persons 0.05). Twenty-seven seropositive cases were found within 6 246 entry persons who were tested repeatedly during the research period, 9 of which were seroconversion cases so that the cumulative conversion rate was 0.14% (9/6 228). The average conversion time was (6.3±3.0) months. There was no statistical significance between the cumulative seroconversion rates of the persons with different genders and nationalities (P of Fisher's exact test>0.05). Serological detection of syphilis for entry personnel in Beijing port and syphilis-related health education should be reinforced to reduce the risk of disease importing and spreading, protect susceptible subjects and promote health.

  5. Quantitative serology assays for determination of antibody responses to Ebola virus glycoprotein and matrix protein in nonhuman primates and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hong; Shulenin, Sergey; Grolla, Allen; Audet, Jonathan; He, Shihua; Kobinger, Gary; Unfer, Robert C; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad; Holtsberg, Frederick W

    2016-02-01

    The West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has reached unprecedented magnitude and caused worldwide concerns for the spread of this deadly virus. Recent findings in nonhuman primates (NHPs) demonstrate that antibodies can be protective against EVD. However, the role of antibody response in vaccine-mediated protection is not fully understood. To address these questions quantitative serology assays are needed for measurement of the antibody response to key Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. Serology enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA's), using a reference detection antibody, were developed in order to standardize the quantitation of antibody levels in vaccinated NHPs or in humans exposed to EBOV or immunized with an EBOV vaccine. Critical reagents were generated to support the development of the serology ELISAs. Recombinant EBOV matrix protein (VP40) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Two variants of the glycoprotein (GP), the ectodomain lacking the transmembrane domain (GPΔTM), and an engineered GP lacking the mucin-like domain (GPΔmuc) were expressed and purified from mammalian cell systems. Using these proteins, three ELISA methods were developed and optimized for reproducibility and robustness, including stability testing of critical reagents. The assay was used to determine the antibody response against VP40, GPΔTM, and GPΔmuc in a NHP vaccine study using EBOV virus-like particles (VLP) vaccine expressing GP, VP40 and the nucleoprotein. Additionally, these ELISAs were used to successfully detect antibody responses to VP40, GPΔTM and GPΔmuc in human sera from EBOV infected individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  7. Africa assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, J

    1984-06-01

    The population problem in Africa is compounded by attitudes and traditions that favor large families. Children give status, and male children are desired to carry on the ancestral line because, dedpite women's dominance in agriculture, traditional education has inculcated male supremacy in African society. Traditional African attitudes equate having many children with male pride, social status, and security. For women, bearing children is in most instances the best and often the only way to achieve some status in their community. Education and modernization have begun to change these attitudes for a few people, particularly in urban settings, yet the desire for large families is deep rooted and remains widespread among African society. Declining infant mortality has had very little impact on fertility. Crude birthrates have changed little in the past 30 years, dropping only from 48 to 46/1000 population. The momentum of population growth is likely to continue as those under the age of 15, now almost half of Africa's population, grow into adults and start to have their own children. Despite the traditional influences on childbearing, powerful forces for change have been at work during the past decade. More and more governments are becoming acutely aware that many national problems are prompted or exacerbated by a rapidly growing population. The interaction between population and development is now well understood, and policy planners in Africa no longer take for granted the notion that development will help check population growth. Many African governments have initiated programs to ensure that more and better trained health personnel are bringing family planning information and services to rural areas, where pronatalist traditions are especially pervasive. 1 model for this approach is in Kenya where family planning services are now offered within the concept of "district focus." National family planning activities will be planned and implemented at the district

  8. English in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English in Africa was founded in 1974 to provide a forum for the study of African literature and English as a language of Africa. The Editor invites contributions, including unsolicited reviews, on all aspects of English writing and the English language in Africa, including oral traditions. English in Africa is listed in the Journal of ...

  9. Serological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Fengmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological markers have the features of noninvasiveness and simple operation and thus have become a research hotspot in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article briefly introduces the role of the conventional serological marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in assisting the diagnosis and predicting the prognosis of HBV-related liver cancer, as well as the clinical value of new markers such as alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and abnormal prothrombin/des-γ-carboxy prothrombin. Based on literature review, the possibility of serum Golgi protein 73 used for laboratory auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma has been denied. The results of the author′s experiment suggest that serum GP73 measurement can be used as a laboratory diagnostic index for progressive liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.

  10. Serological screening for cysticercosis in mentally altered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzón, Fernando; Osorio, Ana M; Morales, José P; Isaza, Rodrigo; Cardona, Edgar; Moncayo, Luis C; Villota, Guido E; Zapata, Olga T; Palacio, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2002-06-01

    The parasitic infection neurocysticercosis may give rise to a variety of psychiatric manifestations that resemble, but are different from, primary psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if among individuals from a neurocysticercosis-endemic area of Colombia who apparently had a psychiatric manifestation with associated neurological finding ('cases'), some could have been infected with Taenia solium cysticerci. This case-control study was done in individuals hospitalized in two mental institutions. The control-1 individuals were those classified with primary psychiatric disease, and the control-2 group consisted of healthy, non-hospitalized individuals. A serological test for cysticercosis was positive in 5/96 (5.1%) cases, 4/153 (2.6%) psychiatric controls, and 5/246 (2%) healthy controls. The data analysis indicated a weak association between the cases and a positive serology for neurocysticercosis (odds ratio > 2; P > 0.05). The lower education level of the cases influenced this association.

  11. Serological variability of the Pellia endiviifolia-P. megaspora complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of antigenic proteins in populations of terrestrial and aquatic forms of P. endiviifolia and populations from Japan revealed the antigenic differentiation of the examined samples into two distinct groups. Pellia megaspora from the eastern part of the USA also exhibits a significant antigenic devergence and bears the most resemblance to the group of populations of the aquatic form of P. endiviifolia from Poland and samples from Japan. The observed serological distances between terrestrial and aquatic forms of P. endiviifolia are of the same rank as differences between remaining species of the genus Pellia. Clarification of the nature of the detected serological differentiation in the Pellia megaspora-P, endiviifoliacomplex will require further studies.

  12. Serologic detection of coccidioidomycosis antibodies in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; da Costa, Ana Karoline Freire; Nagao, Maria Aparecida Tiemi Dias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2009-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in Brazil but its incidence is underreported as it is not a notifiable disease. This article presents the results of a serologic survey carried out with 229 volunteers in northeast Brazil by the immunodiffusion (ID) test with commercial Coccidioides spp. antigens. The commercial ID test detected 15 individuals without clinical diagnosis of the disease and two individuals in treatment for coccidioidomycosis. Regarding the epidemiological data, most of the positive individuals were male, between 18 and 65 years of age and were engaged in armadillo hunting. Three women who had never participated in armadillo hunts also displayed positive results for coccidioidal antibodies. Besides armadillo hunts, exposure to environmental dust in endemic areas may account for the serologic response detected in the study. The data from this study suggest the importance of performing epidemiological surveys for coccidioidomycosis in order to understand the prevalence of this disease in Brazil.

  13. Recent trends in the serologic diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Singh, Ameeta E

    2015-02-01

    Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Serologic activity of G immunoglobulin of irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A.; Nevinnaya, A.P.; Mozhajskij, A.M.; Snisar', N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Serologic immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins G (IgG) isolated from blood serum of normal rabbits and those given lethal and midlethal doses of radiation have been comparatively studied. A marked increase in the IgG level was detected in the recovery period of radiation sickness. The number of complement-binding antitissue antibodies in IgG grew in that period, and the anticomplementary activity and the catabolism rate of IgG increased in normal organism

  15. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....

  16. Recent Trends in the Serologic Diagnosis of Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ameeta E.

    2014-01-01

    Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. PMID:25428245

  17. Serological diagnosis of syphilis: a comparison of different diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simčič, Saša; Potočnik, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Serological tests' limitations in syphilis diagnosis as well as numerous test interpretations mean that patients with discordant serology results can present diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians. We analyzed three common diagnostic algorithms for detecting suspected syphilis in high-prevalence populations in Slovenia. The prospective study included a total of 437 clinical serum samples from adults throughout Slovenia tested with Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA), and an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In addition to percent agreement, kappa coefficients were calculated as a secondary measure of agreement between the three algorithms. Overall, of 183 subjects that had seroreactive results, 180 were seroreactive in both the reverse sequence and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. The traditional algorithm had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 30.0%, the overall percent agreement between the traditional and the reverse algorithm (or the ECDC algorithm) was 87.6%, and the kappa value was 0.733. However, the reverse and ECDC algorithm failed to detect three subjects with positive serodiagnosis determined by additional confirmative treponemal assays. Our results supported the ECDC algorithm in the serodiagnosis of syphilis in high-prevalence populations and the use of nontreponemal serology to monitor the response to treatment.

  18. SPECIFICITY OF MANIFACTURING PROCESS VALIDATION FOR DIAGNOSTIC SEROLOGICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze recent scientific literature, as well as national and international legislature on manifacturing process validation of biopharmaceutical production, in particular devices for serological diagnostics. Technology validation in the field of medical devices for serological diagnostics is most influenced by the Technical Regulation for Medical Devices for in vitro Diagnostics State Standards of Ukraine – SSU EN ISO 13485:2015 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Requirements for regulation”, SSU EN ISO 14971:2015 “Medical devices. Instructions for risk management”, Instruction ST-N of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine 42-4.0:2014 “Medications. Suitable industrial practice”, State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine and Instruction ICH Q9 on risk management. Current recommendations for validations of drugs manufacturing process, including biotechnological manufacturing, can not be directly applied to medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. It was shown that the specifics of application and raw materials require individual validation parameters and process validations for serological diagnostics devices. Critical parameters to consider in validation plans were provided for every typical stage of production of in vitro diagnostics devices on the example of immunoassay kits, such as obtaining protein antigens, including recombinant ones, preparations of mono- and polyclonal antibodies, immunoenzyme conjugates and immunosorbents, chemical reagents etc. The bottlenecks of technologies for in vitro diagnostics devices were analyzed from the bioethical and biosafety points of view.

  19. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. New serological markers in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Márta; Müller, Katalin Eszter; Papp, Mária; Lakatos, Péter László; Csöndes, Mihály; Veres, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of serological markers associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly growing. Due to frequently delayed or missed diagnoses, the application of non-invasive diagnostic tests for IBD, as well as differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), would be useful in the pediatric population. In addition, the combination of pancreatic autoantibodies and antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies/perinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) improved the sensitivity of serological markers in pediatric patients with CD and UC. Some studies suggested that age-associated differences in the patterns of antibodies may be present, particularly in the youngest children. In CD, most patients develop stricturing or perforating complications, and a significant number of patients undergo surgery during the disease course. Based on recent knowledge, serum antibodies are qualitatively and quantitatively associated with complicated CD behavior and CD-related surgery. Pediatric UC is characterized by extensive colitis and a high rate of colectomy. In patients with UC, high levels of anti-CBir1 and pANCA are associated with the development of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Thus, serologic markers for IBD can be applied to stratify IBD patients into more homogeneous subgroups with respect to disease progression. In conclusion, identification of patients at an increased risk of rapid disease progression is of great interest, as the application of early and more aggressive pharmaceutical intervention could have the potential to alter the natural history of IBD, and reduce complications and hospitalizations. PMID:24803798

  1. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as `Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ∼20 million population, is commonly regarded as 'Africa in miniature' due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and ...

  2. Strengthening Africa's science granting councils as champions of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science granting councils are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation, particularly in national science systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The availability of reliable indicators—to monitor Africa's scientific and technological developments, implement science policies and strategies, track public investment in ...

  3. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  4. Serological follow-up of infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology - real-world experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Harriet E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Isitt, Catherine E; Miall, Lawrence S; Wilson, Janet D

    2016-11-01

    The 2008 UK syphilis guideline recommends infants born to women with any positive syphilis serology be followed up until both treponemal and nontreponemal tests are negative to exclude congenital syphilis, whereas Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend using only nontreponemal tests. Historically, we had low infant follow-up rates with no coherent pathways. We initiated a change in multidisciplinary team practice of infant testing for syphilis in 2011 and evaluated the results before and after by retrospective review of testing of infants born to women with positive syphilis serology between 2005 and 2012. A total of 28 infants' mothers were treated in pregnancy (termed 'high risk'); 26 had adequate treatment prior to pregnancy (termed 'low risk'). There was a significant increase in serological testing after 2011 compared with before (83% versus 48%; OR 5.07 [95% CI 1.22-22.77] p = 0.01) but mainly in low risk infants with no significant improvement in high risk infants who are the priority group. Using nontreponemal tests only in the infants would have reduced the tests required by at least 50%, allowing health resources to be concentrated on achieving adequate follow-up for those infants most at risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  6. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    .... national security objectives in Africa and in its surrounding waters. U.S. military involvement on the continent is currently divided among three commands: European Command (EUCOM), Central Command (CENTCOM...

  7. Association of Mean Platelet Volume with Severity, Serology & Treatment Outcome in Dengue Fever: Prognostic Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kritika; Yadav, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue fever (DF) with its severe manifestations such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) has emerged as a major public health problem of international concern. Thrombocytopenia and bleeding are common complications of dengue fever, hence besides platelet counts, there is a need to assess the role of mean platelet volume. Studying association of mean platelet volume (MPV) with severity, serology & treatment outcome to assess its prognostic utility, which can be of great help in limiting morbidity & mortality associated with dengue fever. The present study was conducted in Central Pathology Lab of SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan from the period of March 2013 till October 2013. Blood samples were collected from 200 patients with NS 1 Antigen positivity experiencing febrile illness, clinically consistent with dengue infection. Evaluation of platelet counts, MPV, IgM and IgG antibodies was done in all these cases. Categorical data were presented as numbers (percent) and were compared among groups using Chi-square test. Groups compared for demographic data were presented as mean and standard deviation and were compared using student t-test, ANOVA and Post-Hoc Test, Tukey Test using SPSS, version 20 for Windows. A total of 200 Dengue fever cases were studied. Out of which, 68% cases were of DF, 23% DHF & 9% DSS i.e. classical dengue fever was most common presentation. Maximum (44%) cases were in age group of 15-24 years. Fever was the presenting complaint in all cases (100%). 98% cases of dengue had thrombocytopenia. MPV showed no significant correlation with severity, serology & treatment outcome, thus excluding its role in dengue cases. Mean platelet volume is not important as prognostic parameter in dengue fever.

  8. Central African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed general medical journal which seeks to promote the practice and science of medicine in Africa. Emphasis is placed on general medical topics, reflecting common and important conditions in the region. The journal also covers related medical fields. Submissions ...

  9. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica: comparative findings and serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Gilad, Matan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit

    2017-03-13

    Infection and clinical disease associated with Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica, two common agents of human cutaneous leishmaniosis, have rarely been reported in dogs. This study describes dogs infected with these Leishmania spp. prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, and compares the serological response of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum, L. major or L. tropica to whole promastigote antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of each species and to rK39 dipstick. Leishmania major infection in a 5-month-old male dog was associated with alopecic and ulcerative periocular and limb skin lesions which responded to allopurinol treatment. Infection was detected by skin and blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed by DNA sequencing but the dog was seronegative. Leishmania tropica infection was detected in a 3-month-old female dog co-infected with Babesia vogeli and Anaplasma platys and with no skin lesions. PCR and DNA sequencing of the blood and parasite culture were positive for L. tropica. Sera from 11 dogs infected with L. infantum, L. major or L. tropica were reactive with all three Leishmania spp. antigens except for sera from a dog with L. major infection. No significant differences were found between reactivity of dog sera to the antigen of the infecting species, or to the other Leishmania spp. antigens. Sera from dogs infected with L. infantum and L. tropica were positive with the rK39 antigen kit, while dogs with L. major infection were seronegative. Skin lesions in L. major infected dogs from this study and previous reports (n = 2) were ulcerative and located on the muzzle, feet and foot pads and not associated with generalized lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. In previous L. tropica infections, skin lesions were proliferative mucocutaneous in young dogs (n = 2), or associated with widespread dermatitis, lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly in older dogs with similarity to L. infantum infection (n = 2). This

  10. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  11. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that a suitable central unit situated outside of it should ... initially by the World Health Organisation, provision ... clear that for national AIDS surveillance to focus exclu- ... The following were the strata identified: the four ..... distribution and time trend in South Africa. .... pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato-.

  12. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Macdonald, David W.; Packer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    At a regional scale, lion populations in West, Central, and East Africa are likely to suffer a projected 50% decline over the next two decades, whereas lion populations are only increasing in southern Africa. Many lion populations are either now gone or expected to disappear within the next few decades to the extent that the intensively managed populations in southern Africa may soon supersede the iconic savannah landscapes in East Africa as the most successful sites for lion conservation. Th...

  13. World review: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) in some parts of Africa in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Algeria, Angola, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia

  14. Africa's Petroleum Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldwyn, David L

    2005-01-01

    .... Africa's importance to U.S. energy security is rising due to Africa's expanding role as an incremental supplier of oil in a tight global oil market, its relative openness to foreign investment, increasing levels of U.S...

  15. Evaluating the utility of serological testing in laryngotracheal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S Ryan; Allen, Clint T; Merati, Albert L; Mayerhoff, Ross M

    2017-06-01

    Whereas mechanical (traumatic) causes of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) are identified based on history, autoimmune laryngotracheal stenosis (aLTS) and idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (iLTS) are often more difficult to differentiate. The objective of this study was to evaluate serologic testing in a large cohort of nonmechanical LTS patients to determine which tests, if any, lead clinicians to the etiology of the LTS. Retrospective chart review. This study reviewed nonmechanical LTS patients seen at a tertiary medical center from 2007 to 2014. Data were obtained on patient demographics, associated preexisting autoimmune conditions, comorbidities, intubation history, and serologic testing. Ninety-two records were reviewed. Twenty-three (25%) patients were found to have autoimmune disease; 69 (75%) met criteria for iLTS. A history of cigarette smoking was more significant in the aLTS group than the iLTS group (P testing was equivocal between the two cohorts. Differentiating iLTS from aLTS has proven difficult. The lack of information about the two entities has resulted in variability in the diagnostic workup to distinguish them. This study's finding of a more significant smoking history in the aLTS group correlates with the literature, which suggests an inflammatory effect of smoking cigarettes and an association with autoimmune disease. The only significant cohort of patients in this study found to have positive serological testing correlated with a diagnosable condition responsible for LTS was GPA patients with positive ANCA. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1408-1412, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome accompanied by panhypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Min; Yoon, Na-Ra; Kim, Choon-Mee

    2018-03-05

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) was detected in a patient with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) who had been molecularly and serologically diagnosed with Hantaan virus infection. We recommend that clinicians differentiate central DI in HFRS patients with a persistent diuretic phase even when pituitary MRI findings are normal.

  17. History of meningococcal vaccines and their serological correlates of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipond, Caroline; Care, Rory; Feavers, Ian M

    2012-05-30

    For over a hundred years Neisseria meningitidis has been known to be one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis. However, effective vaccines were not developed until the latter part of the 20th century. The first of these were based on purified high molecular weight capsular polysaccharides and more recently the development of glycoconjugate vaccines has made paediatric immunisation programmes possible. The prevention of group B meningococcal disease has remained a challenge throughout this period. This review charts the history of the development of meningococcal vaccines and the importance of serological correlates of protection in their evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  19. Africa Insight: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the Department of Higher ... Abstract: All articles should be accompanied by an abstract of between 100 and 125 words stating the main research problem, major findings and conclusion(s).

  20. Serological survey on Leptospira infection in slaughtered swine in North-Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, F; Turchi, B; Vattiata, E; Viola, P; Pardini, S; Cerri, D; Fratini, F

    2018-05-30

    Swine can act as asymptomatic carriers of some Leptospira serovars. In this study, 1194 sera from 61 farms located in five different Regions of North-West Italy were collected from slaughtered healthy pigs. Presence of antibody against four Leptospira serovars was evaluated. Overall, 52.5% of analysed farms presented at least one positive animal and 34.4% presented at least one positive swine with titre ⩾1:400. A percentage of 16.6% sera was positive and 5.9% samples presented a positive titre ⩾1:400. Tuscany and Lombardy showed the highest percentage of positive farms (64.3% and 54.6%, respectively) and sera (28.5% and 13.3%, respectively), probably due to environmental conditions and potential risk factors, which promote maintenance and spreading of Leptospira in these areas. The main represented serogroups were Australis (21.3% positive farms, 8.2% positive sera) and Pomona (18.0% positive farms, 8.1% positive sera). In swine, these serogroups are the most detected worldwide; however, our results seem to highlight a reemerging of serogroup Pomona in pigs in investigated areas. A low percentage of sera (0.6%) scored positive to Canicola, leaving an open question on the role of pigs in the epidemiology of this serovar. Higher antibody titres were detected for serogroups Australis and Pomona. Swine leptospirosis is probably underestimated in Italy and could represent a potential risk for animal and human health.

  1. Serological Tests for Acquired Syphilis in Immuno-competent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golušin Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serological tests represent a valuable tool for the diagnosis and monitoring the syphilis treatment. Non-treponemal antibodies are nonspecific to detect the infection, but antibody titers are used to monitor the effects of syphilis treatment. A definitive diagnosis of syphilis is made using treponemal tests, because they detect specific antibodies to the treponemal strains or treponemal fragments, which cause syphilis. These tests may remain reactive for years, sometimes for life, regardless of the therapy outcome. Even after successful treatment, approximately 85% of patients remain positive for treponemal antibodies for the rest of their lives. However, treponemal tests cannot differentiate past infections from a current infection. Therefore, we use a combination of specific and non-specific tests, the two most frequently used diagnostic algorithms. The traditional algorithm begins with a non-treponemal assay, and if it is positive, the treponemal test is done. A positive treponemal test indicates syphilis. The reverse serology algorithm detects early, primary, and treated syphilis that may be missed with traditional screening. However, non-treponemal test is necessary to detect patients with active syphilis.

  2. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  3. Brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park bison: Quantitative serology and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.; Gidlewski, T.; Hennager, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    We collected complete sets of tissues, fluids, and swabs (approx 30) from 37 Yellowstone National Park (YNP) female bison (Bison bison) killed as a result of management actions by the Montana Department of Livestock and YNP personnel. Our goal was to establish the relation between blood tests demonstrating an animal has antibody to Brucella and the potential of that animal to be infected during the second trimester of pregnancy, the time when most management actions are taken. Twenty-eight of the 37 bison were seropositive adults (27) or a seropositive calf (1). We cultured samples using macerated whole tissues plated onto 4 Brucella-selective media and incubated with added CO2 for 1 week. Specimens from 2 adult seropositive females were contaminated, thus eliminating them from our data. Twelve of the remaining 26 seropositive adult and calf female bison (46%) were culture positive for Brucella abortus from 1 or more tissues. Culture positive adult females had high serologic titers. All 11 adults measured 3+ at 1:40 for 10 of 11 (91%) animals. All culture positive female adults had either a PCFIA ???0.080 or a CF reaction ???4+ at 1:80. However 5 (36%) bison with high titers were culture negative for B. abortus. Our findings on the relation between Brucella serology and culture are similar to those reported from studies of chronically infected cattle herds.

  4. Regional responses: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereko-Brobby, C.Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the theory that for Africa to work towards reduction of global warming, it must first address its environmental problems; i.e. land use, deforestation, desertification, poverty and hunger. He argues that Africa should aim for growth in the productivity and quantity of energy use. The following suggestions were made: Africa must shift from low-quantity biomass to secondary sources in the short term; developed countries must avoid pushing experimental and frontier technologies on Africa; with financial and technical help, Africa could develop its largely untapped reserves of hydropower. Nuclear power should not be an option because reliable production is not possible at present

  5. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa: Implications for Control, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A

    2016-04-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide a scientific basis for different FMD control measures in Africa. Review of literature, published reports and databases shows that there is more long distance spread of FMD virus serotypes within North, West, Central and East Africa than in southern Africa. In North, West, Central and East Africa migratory animal husbandry systems often related with search for grazing and water as well as trade are practiced to a greater extent than in southern Africa. In southern Africa, the role of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is more extensively studied than in the other parts of Africa, but based on the densities of African buffalo in Central and East Africa, one would assume that buffalo should also play a role in the epidemiology of FMD in this part of Africa. More sampling of buffalo is necessary in West, Central and East Africa. The genetic analysis of virus strains has proven to be valuable to increase our understanding in the spread of FMD in Africa. This review shows that there is a difference in FMD occurrence between southern Africa and the rest of the continent; this distinction is most likely based on differences in animal husbandry and trade systems. Insufficient data on FMD in wildlife outside southern Africa is limiting our understanding on the role wildlife plays in the transmission of FMD in the other buffalo inhabited areas of Africa. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Developing energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energy and economic growth are connected and the wealth of Western countries is based on a high availability of energy. Africa is a continent vast by its size, well populated and well supplied with fossil energy (oil, gas, coal) and renewable energy (hydroelectric, biomass, solar). But consumption is limited, without distribution infrastructures and initially, without capitals for necessary investments. The situation is particularly critical in Sub-Sahara Africa since the African energy consumption is mainly concentrated in South Africa and North Africa. An annual conference, the Energy Summit in Africa, brings together all players in the sector, from all the continent's countries, from Europe and America, in an attempt to establish recommendations for more availability and a better use of energy in Africa. The next summit is scheduled for November 23 to 25, 2004 in Dakar. The program relies on the Association for the Development of Energy in Africa, which will be created shortly. (author)

  7. Serological detection and molecular characterization of piroplasmids in equids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maria Isabel Botelho; Costa, Márcio Machado; de Oliveira, Mateus Tonial; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2018-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease caused by the hemoparasites Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and is considered to be the most important parasitic infection affecting Equidae. The objective of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological molecular and serological survey for the presence of these two protozoal organisms in equids from the northwestern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), south Brazil. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 90 equids in the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. Those were animals used for sport activities, outdoor recreational riding, and work including cattle herding and mounted patrol. Anti-T. equi and anti-B. caballi IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of those animals by commercial ELISA kits. The molecular diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis due to T. equi or B. caballi (or both) consisted in the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene by nested PCR followed by sequencing of the amplified PCR product and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the isolates; 17 (18.9%) and 5 (5.55%) out of the 90 serum samples tested in this study were positive for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. Piroplasmid 18S rRNA gene fragments were detected by PCR in 24.4% (22/90) of the samples analysed and shared 99-100% identity with sequences of T. equi by BLASTn. Samples for the phylogenetic analysis were divided into 2 groups. In group A, there was close phylogenetic relationship between 4 sequences and sequences previously reported along the US-Mexico border, in South Africa, and in Brazil. There was a phylogenetic proximity between 5 samples from group B and samples tested by other authors in the US and Spain. Variation of the 18S rRNA gene allowed the identification of 9 new T. equi genotypes in the geographical region studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization and evaluation of an influenza A (H5) pseudotyped lentiviral particle-based serological assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Jean-Michel; Lagarde, Nadège; Ma, Edward S. K.; de Jong, Menno D.; Peiris, J. S. Malik

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Novel serological methods provide alternative options for sero-diagnosis, sero-epidemiology and for determining evidence of naturally acquired or vaccine induced immunity. Micro-neutralization tests are currently the gold standard for serological studies of highly pathogenic avian

  9. Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal

  10. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Serological Assay Based on Luminex Technology for Detection of Antibodies to Zaire Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayouba, Ahidjo; Touré, Abdoulaye; Butel, Christelle; Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Binetruy, Florian; Sow, Mamadou S; Foulongne, Vincent; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2017-01-01

    The recent Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa illustrates clearly the need for additional studies with humans and animals to elucidate the ecology of Ebola viruses (EBVs). In this study, we developed a serological assay based on the Luminex technology. Nine recombinant proteins representing different viral regions (nucleoprotein [NP], 40-kDa viral protein [VP40], and glycoprotein [GP]) from four of the five EBV lineages were used. Samples from 94 survivors of the EBOV outbreak in Guinea and negative samples from 108 patients in France were used to calculate test performance for EBOV detection and cross-reaction with other Ebola virus lineages. For EBOV antibody detection, sensitivities of 95.7%, 96.8%, and 92.5% and specificities of 94.4%, 95.4%, and 96.3% for NP, GP, and VP40, respectively, were observed. All EBOV-negative samples that presented a reaction, except for one, interacted with a single antigen, whereas almost all samples from EBOV survivors were simultaneously reactive with NP and GP (90/94) or with NP, GP, and VP40 (87/94). Considering as positive for past EBOV infection only samples that reacted with EBOV NP and GP, sensitivity was 95.7% and specificity increased to 99.1%. Comparing results with commercial EBOV NP and GP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Alpha Diagnostic, San Antonio, TX), lower sensitivity (92.5%) and high specificity (100%) were observed with the same positivity criteria. Samples from EBOV survivors cross-reacted with GP from Sudan Ebola virus (GP-SUDV) (81.9%), GP from Bundibugyo Ebola virus (GP-BDBV) (51.1%), GP from Reston Ebola virus (GP-RESTV) (9.6%), VP40-SUDV (76.6%), and VP40-BDBV (38.3%). Overall, we developed a sensitive and specific high-throughput serological assay, and defined an algorithm, for epidemiological surveys with humans. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Systematic screening for novel, serologically reactive Hepatitis E Virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterman Andreas

    2012-01-01

    not necessarily improve sensitivity and specificity, but broaden the overall quality of existing test systems. ORF2 and ORF3-antigens are still commonly used in diagnostic assays and possibly hold the potential to serologically differentiate between genotype 1 and 3 infections. Our systematic approach is a suitable method to investigate HEV domains for their serologic antigenicity. Epitope screening of native viral domains could be a preferable tool in developing new serologic test components.

  12. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a relatively recently discovered bacterium and its role in the pathology of avian respiratory infections has not yet been clarified. Since there was no data relating to the prevalence of this infection in Serbia at the time of carrying out our investigations, we decided to explore the prevalence of the infection in broilers and its influence on clinical manifestations at the selected apizootiological area with developed poultry industry. A total of 430 blood samples from 26 flocks of broilers of different ages, from five municipalities were taken for examination. The serum samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies to the agent. Epizootiological investigation was carried out based on the results obtained with serological testing and epizootiological data, collected from the farms. The data were analyzed statistically to identify association between the infection and manifestation of clinical symptoms by Fisher’s exact test. Seropositive chickens were detected in 16 out of 26 examined broiler flocks at the age of 3 to 56 days. The percentage of seropositive samples per flock was 5-30%. The titer values of specific antibodies ranged from 946 to 6886. Serological response to O. rhinotracheale was evidenced in five flocks which had clinical symptoms in the form of respiratory tract disorders or stunting. However, specific antibodies against the agent were discovered in 11 flocks which did not show clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms (p = 0.1213. The results are in agreement with those of other authors who investigated the prevalence of this infection and its manifestations in other countries. The present investigation determined indirectly, serologically a presence of O. rhinotracheale in the majority of examined broiler flocks (61,54% and a small average number of individual

  13. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  14. Influenza serological studies to inform public health action: best practices to optimise timing, quality and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Karen L; Huston, Patricia; Riley, Steven; Katz, Jacqueline M; Willison, Donald J; Tam, John S; Mounts, Anthony W; Hoschler, Katja; Miller, Elizabeth; Vandemaele, Kaat; Broberg, Eeva; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Nicoll, Angus

    2013-03-01

    Serological studies can detect infection with a novel influenza virus in the absence of symptoms or positive virology, providing useful information on infection that goes beyond the estimates from epidemiological, clinical and virological data. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, an impressive number of detailed serological studies were performed, yet the majority of serological data were available only after the first wave of infection. This limited the ability to estimate the transmissibility and severity of this novel infection, and the variability in methodology and reporting limited the ability to compare and combine the serological data.   To identify best practices for conduct and standardisation of serological studies on outbreak and pandemic influenza to inform public policy. An international meeting was held in February 2011 in Ottawa, Canada, to foster the consensus for greater standardisation of influenza serological studies. Best practices for serological investigations of influenza epidemiology include the following: classification of studies as pre-pandemic, outbreak, pandemic or inter-pandemic with a clearly identified objective; use of international serum standards for laboratory assays; cohort and cross-sectional study designs with common standards for data collection; use of serum banks to improve sampling capacity; and potential for linkage of serological, clinical and epidemiological data. Advance planning for outbreak studies would enable a rapid and coordinated response; inclusion of serological studies in pandemic plans should be considered. Optimising the quality, comparability and combinability of influenza serological studies will provide important data upon emergence of a novel or variant influenza virus to inform public health action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Readership survey. A big welcome for Diagnostics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnock, P

    1994-09-01

    Targeted to physicians, Africa Health is circulated free to 5600 readers in 23 African countries. Diagnostics in Africa (DIA) is a young publication included as a supplement of Africa Health aimed at laboratory personnel. Readers of DIA were surveyed in the first two issues to find out what they thought of the supplement, how it could be improved, and which problems they currently faced in their work. 98 questionnaires were returned from twelve African countries. 46% of respondents were qualified in laboratory science and 41% were physicians; the others were unqualified laboratory staff and other medical personnel. 73% responded that DIA was very useful and 27% useful, with 80% finding the articles of appropriate depth and complexity. Respondents would like to read about clinical chemistry, histopathology/histology, immunology, management issues, serology, and education/professional development, and would particularly enjoy material in the form of readers' letters and quizzes. Readers responded variously that they were regularly exposed to either Medicine Digest, Dialogue on Diarrhea, Postgraduate Doctor, Labmedica, Lancet, International Diabetes Digest, New England Journal of Medicine, British Medical Journal, or ARI News. Problems typically faced in their work include lack of resources, problems related to HIV testing/screening, poor access to literature, problems with professional development, and difficulty understanding the theory and practice of Western blot tests. These findings confirm assessments of the situation in Africa's medical labs which led to the launching of DIA.

  16. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  18. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysary, Avi; Amram, Lili; Keren, Gershon; Sthoeger, Zev; Potasman, Israel; Jacob, Amir; Strenger, Carmella; Dawson, Jacqueline E.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective serosurvey of 1,000 persons in Israel who had fever of undetermined cause to look for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies. Four of five cases with antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis were diagnosed in the summer, when ticks are more active. All patients had influenzalike symptoms with high fever. None of the cases was fatal. Three serum samples were also seroreactive for antibodies to E. canis, and one was also reactive to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. The titer to the HGE agent in this patient was higher than the serum titer to E. chaffeensis, and the Western blot analysis also indicated that the HGE agent was the primary cause of infection. We present the first serologic evidence that the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and HGE are present in Israel. Therefore, human ehrlichiosis should be included in the differential diagnoses for persons in Israel who have been exposed to ticks and have influenzalike symptoms. PMID:10603210

  19. Serological evidence for brucellosis in Bos indicus in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Hassan, Moses; Mwankon, Esther; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Ior, Daniel D.; Husseini, Bakari A.; Ibrahim, Gideon; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to

  20. [Serological and cellular reactivity to mycobacterial proteins in Hansen's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elsa; Aranzazu, Nacarid; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Borges, Rafael; Convit, Jacinto

    2010-09-01

    The study was designed for evaluating immunological reactivity to various mycobacterial protein preparations using serological and cell-mediated immunological tests in patients with clinical leprosy signs, predominantly, with the multibacillary forms. All patients were adults with ages between 20 and 30 years. Fifty eight (n = 81) percent corresponded to Lepromatous Leprosy (LL), 29% (n = 41) to Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy (BL) and 10% (n = 41) to Borderline Borderline Leprosy (BB); only 3% were Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) patients: 74% males and 26% females. The most frequent reactional phenomenon was of the Erythema Nodosum (ENL) type. The mycobacterial proteins tested were: total crude Mycobacterium leprae antigens (MISA); Mycobacterium bovis (MbSA and excretion MbSA); partially purified excretion protein antigen, with a 30 kDa relative movility (Ml30); and recombinant M. leprae proteins (Mt70, Mb 65, Ml 36, 28, 18 and 10 kDa). Two of the recombinant proteins (Ml10 and Ml 36 kDa) presented a statiscally significant higher serological reactivity, directly related with a larger bacillary load (p = 0.0051 and 0.050 respectively). The 30 kDa protein was predominantly recognized by antibodies from multibacillary patients. Results show that mean antibody values were higher in non reactional patients when tested against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) when compared with the group of patients who presented reactional phenomena (p = 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). Comparing reactional with non reactional patients, it was seen that mean antibody values against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) were higher in non reactional individuals (p = 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). This same behavior occurred towards individual mycobacterial proteins (30, 10 and 36 kDa). The T lymphocyte prolypherative response in reactional and non reactional patients towards mycobacterial proteins (MlSA, Ml 10 kDa, MbSA, ex MbSA) was negative.

  1. STATUS SEROLOGIS TIDAK MEMPENGARUHI PROFIL HEMATOLOGI ANAK TERINFEKSI VIRUS DENGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibodi anti dengue bersifat autoantibodi yang bisa merusak self antigen. Respon imun humoral terhadap DENV adalah terbentuknya IgM dan IgG yang spesifik terhadap sub tipe DENV penyebab. Jika IgG dan IgM anti degue bersifat autoantibodi maka secara teoritis pasien dengan status serologis IgM (+ dan IgG + akan mempunyai profil hematologi yang lebih buruk dari pada pasien dengan IgG (+.Penelitian ini bertjuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan profil hematologi menurut status serologi pada anak terinfeksi virus dengue. Penelitian menggunakan desian analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Data diambil dari pasien anak di RSUD Surakarta dari bulan September 2016 – Januari 2017. Kriteria pasien yang diikutkan dalam penelitian adalah semua pasien anak dengan usia kurang dari 14 tahun dan memenuhi kriteria infeksi virus dengue menurut WHO 2009. Pasien dengan riwayat kelainan hematologi dan pasien dengan riwayat immunocompremised dikeluarkan dari penelitian.Hasil penelitian ditemukan 65 pasien dengan IVD yang memenuhi kriteria.Tujuh belas pasien dengan IgM dan IgG positif sedangkan sisanya hanya IgG positif Hasil penelitian perbedaan profil hematologi jumlah leukosit, trombosit, hematokrit, dan hemoglobin berdasarkan status IgM (+ IgG (+ dengan IgG (+ didapatkan nilai p masing-masing 0.833, 0,865, 0,137, 0,086, dan 0,223. Dapat disimpilkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan profil hematologi antara pasien dengan IgM (+ IgG (+ dengan pasien IgG (+.   Kata Kunci: infeksi virus dengue, antibodi anti dengue, autoantibodi, profil hematologi.

  2. Serological evidence for human cystic echinococcosis in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotar Tadeja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapeworm eggs, excreted with the feces of these animals. In the intestine, the larvae released from the eggs are nested in the liver, lungs or other organs of livestock as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant hosts. The aim of this study was to examine serologically whether some of the patients in Slovenia, suspected of CE by imaging findings in the liver or lungs had been infected with the larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Methods Between January 1, 2002 and the end of December 2006, 1323 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA. For confirmation and differentiation of Echinococcus spp. infection, the sera of IHA-positive patients were then retested by western blot (WB. Results Out of 127 IHA-positive sera, 34 sera were confirmed by WB and considered specific for CE. Of 34 sera of CE-positive patients sera, 32 corresponded to the characteristic imaging findings of a liver cysts and 2 to those of lung cysts. The mean age of CE-positive patients was 58.3 years. No significant differences were found between the CE-positive patients in regard to their sex. Conclusion In the study, it was found out that CE was mostly spread in the same area of Slovenia as in the past, but its prevalence decreased from 4.8 per 105 inhabitants in the period 1956–1968 to 1.7 per 105 inhabitants in the period 2002–2006. In spite of the decreased prevalence of CE in the last years, it is suggested that clinicians and public health authorities, especially in the eastern parts of Slovenia where the most CE patients come from, should pay greater attention to this disease in the future.

  3. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  4. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  5. Autoimmune liver serology: current diagnostic and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios-P; Invernizzi, Pietro; Mackay, Ian-R; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver-related autoantibodies are crucial for the correct diagnosis and classification of autoimmune liver diseases (AiLD), namely autoimmune hepatitis types 1 and 2 (AIH-1 and 2), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and the sclerosing cholangitis variants in adults and children. AIH-1 is specified by anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and smooth muscle antibody (SMA). AIH-2 is specified by antibody to liver kidney microsomal antigen type-1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1). SMA, ANA and anti-LKM antibodies can be present in de-novo AIH following liver transplantation. PBC is specified by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) reacting with enzymes of the 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes (chiefly pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit) and disease-specific ANA mainly reacting with nuclear pore gp210 and nuclear body sp100. Sclerosing cholangitis presents as at least two variants, first the classical primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) mostly affecting adult men wherein the only (and non-specific) reactivity is an atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA), also termed perinuclear anti-neutrophil nuclear antibodies (p-ANNA) and second the childhood disease called autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC) with serological features resembling those of type 1 AIH. Liver diagnostic serology is a fast-expanding area of investigation as new purified and recombinant autoantigens, and automated technologies such as ELISAs and bead assays, become available to complement (or even compete with) traditional immunofluorescence procedures. We survey for the first time global trends in quality assurance impacting as it does on (1) manufacturers/purveyors of kits and reagents, (2) diagnostic service laboratories that fulfill clinicians' requirements, and (3) the end-user, the physician providing patient care, who must properly interpret test results in the overall clinical context.

  6. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Agreement Between Serology and Histology for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Fatima, S.; Raheem, A.; Khan, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the percentage agreement between serology and histology for detection of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, The Aga Khan University and Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2009. Methodology: Fifty subjects were selected by non-probability purposive sampling from laboratory data who had serological testing of H. pylori IgG antibody, prior to histological evaluation of endoscopic gastric or/and duodenal biopsies. Serological Quantification of H. pylori IgG was carried out with HpG screen ELISA kit (Genesis Diagnostics, UK), using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies against H. pylori. Manufacturer's recommended cutoff value was used and results were considered positive when greater than 7 U/ml. For histological diagnosis, an expert histopathologist characterized the presence of spiral bacteria in the mucosal layer or the surface of epithelial cells on microscopic examination, as a positive test. Results: An agreement of 0.72 was found by Kappa statistics between serology and histopathology results and a good diagnostic accuracy (86%) of serological testing was observed for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Conclusion: A substantial agreement was found between serology and histopathology results to detect the H. pylori infection. Laboratory-based serologic testing using ELISA technology to detect IgG antibodies is inexpensive, noninvasive and convenient method to detect the H. pylori infection in primary care setting. (author)

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis in a tribal Xhosa population in the Transkei, Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, O L; Daynes, G; Beighton, P

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was undertaken in a tribal Xhosa community in the Transkei of Southern Africa. 577 respondents aged 18 and over were examined clinically and of these, 549 were investigated radiologically and 482 serologically. The presence of RA was then assessed by means of a modification of the Rome criteria, as used in previous comparable surveys. The prevalence of 'definite' RA in the adults aged 18 and over in this population was 0-68% and of 'probable' RA, 1-6%. The combined 'definite' and 'probable' prevalence was 2-2%. The relatively low prevalence of RA in this population is consistent with the results of other surveys in unsophisticated African Negro populations in West Africa and South Africa, and contrasts with the higher prevalence encountered in an urbanized South African Negro community and in populations in Europe and the USA. PMID:843113

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa...

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report on Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, and Swaziland, contains...

  11. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Ghana, Lesoto, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, contains articles...

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zambia, and South Africa, the articles deal mainly with Politics, Sociology...

  13. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Sahara Africa, Angola, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda...

  14. REGIONAL COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Metzger

    2008-01-01

    Africa has a long tradition of regional cooperation, its trade and monetary integration schemes being the oldest in the developing world. This paper analyses the state of regional integration with respect to trade and financial relations in selected regional schemes in Central, Southern and West Africa. The paper concludes that in particular regional monetary integration offers advantages in terms of monetary stability, growth, competitiveness, deepening of financial markets and ownership com...

  15. Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and southern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... and bottom water physico-chemistry were determined at a significantly larger spatial scale.

  16. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  17. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  18. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak

  19. Banking in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Cull, R.; Berger, A.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are

  20. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  1. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  2. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 assistance from the National Olympic Committee of South. Africa (NOCSA), while an overwhelming proportion (89%) received no financial support. Of the 45 swimmers surveyed,. 8 respondents were financially supported by Swimming South. Africa, whilst 8 indicated that they were sponsored privately. Twenty-one of the ...

  3. Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus circulation in sheep and goats in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fafetine

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is endemic in most parts of Africa and has also been reported to occur in the Arabian Peninsula. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in livestock, but also in humans. During the last two decades several outbreaks of RVF have been reported in countries in Southern Africa. In contrast to other countries, no clinical disease has been reported in Mozambique during this period. In a serological study conducted in 2007 in five districts of Zambézia Province, Mozambique, of a total of 654 small ruminants sampled (277 sheep and 377 goats, 35.8% of sheep sera and 21.2% of goat sera were positive for RVF virus (RVFV antibodies in a virus neutralization test (VN and in an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 313 sheep and 449 goats in two districts of the same province. This study revealed an overall seropositivity rate of 9.2% in sheep and 11.6% in goat and an increased likelihood of being seropositive in older animals (OR = 7.3; p<0.001 using an IgG ELISA. 29 out of 240 animals assessed for RVF specific IgM by ELISA were positive, suggesting recent exposure to RVFV. However, a longitudinal study carried out between September 2010 and April 2011 in a cohort of 125 of these animals (74 sheep and 51 goats failed to demonstrate seroconversion. The results of the study indicate that RVFV circulates sub-clinically in domestic small ruminants in Zambézia Province.

  4. Substantial regional differences in human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa: insights on the origin of the "Kaposi's sarcoma belt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Sheila C; Butler, Lisa M; Jones, Alison M Graves; Mermin, Jonathan H; Chidzonga, Midion; Chipato, Tsungai; Shiboski, Caroline H; Brander, Christian; Mosam, Anisa; Kiepiela, Photini; Hladik, Wolfgang; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2010-11-15

    Equatorial Africa has among the highest incidences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world, thus earning the name "KS Belt." This was the case even before the HIV epidemic. To date, there is no clear evidence that HHV-8 seroprevalence is higher in this region but interpretation of the available literature is tempered by differences in serologic assays used across studies. We examined representatively sampled ambulatory adults in Uganda, which is in the "KS Belt," and in Zimbabwe and South Africa which are outside the Belt, for HHV-8 antibodies. All serologic assays were uniformly performed in the same reference laboratory by the same personnel. In the base-case serologic algorithm, seropositivity was defined by reactivity in an immunofluorescence assay or in 2 enzyme immunoassays. A total of 2,375 participants were examined. In Uganda, HHV-8 seroprevalence was high early in adulthood (35.5% by age 21) without significant change thereafter. In contrast, HHV-8 seroprevalence early in adulthood was lower in Zimbabwe and South Africa (13.7 and 10.8%, respectively) but increased with age. After age adjustment, Ugandans had 3.24-fold greater odds of being HHV-8 infected than South Africans (p Africa. These findings help to explain the high KS incidence in the "KS Belt" and underscore the importance of a uniform approach to HHV-8 antibody testing.

  5. Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M; Bertu, W J; Matope, G; Cadmus, S; Conde-Álvarez, R; Gusi, A M; Welburn, S; Ocholi, R; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and affecting domestic and wild mammals. In this paper, the bacteriological and serological evidence of brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its epidemiological characteristics are discussed. The tools available for the diagnosis and treatment of human brucellosis and for the diagnosis and control of animal brucellosis and their applicability in the context of SSA are presented and gaps identified. These gaps concern mostly the need for simpler and more affordable antimicrobial treatments against human brucellosis, the development of a B. melitensis vaccine that could circumvent the drawbacks of the currently available Rev 1 vaccine, and the investigation of serological diagnostic tests for camel brucellosis and wildlife. Strategies for the implementation of animal vaccination are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. One Health capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwego, Innocent B; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide; Musotsi, Protus; Nzietchueng, Serge; Tiambo, Christian Keambo; Kabasa, John David; Naigaga, Irene; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Pelican, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Africa of late has been faced with challenges that require a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach to address them, and academic and non-academic institutions have played a key role in training and conducting research that would promote the One Health approach. The objective of this review was to document networks and organizations conducting One Health training, research, and outreach in Africa, as one of a series of articles around the world. Data for this review were collected from organizations through key contacts of the authors and their knowledge of networks they have worked with. Web searches were conducted using One Health, training, and research as key words for work done in Africa. Africa has major networks involved in One Health training, research, and outreach, with participation of both academic and non-academic institutions. This review highlights an effort in Africa to form networks to conduct multidisciplinary training and research. The main networks include Afrique One, Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS), and One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA). Both academic and non-academic institutions and organizations have shown an interest to conduct multidisciplinary training and research in Africa for managing challenges that Africa is facing currently, especially the outbreak of infectious diseases.

  7. Development and evaluation of modern enzyme immunoassays for comprehensive syphilis serology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.E. IJsselmuiden

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn the previous Chapters of this dissertation the major shortcomings of the current serological tests for syphilis were investigated. These include an insufficient sensitivity and specificity, reactivity of a diagnostic test long after the syphilitic infection had been

  8. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children a...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3390... Neisseria spp. directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused...

  10. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis with Doxycycline Compared with Penicillin in HIV-infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hoffmann, Steen; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Serological response to treatment of syphilis with orally administered doxycycline or intramuscularly administered penicillin was assessed in patients with concurrent HIV. All HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with syphilis attending 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark were included. Odds ratios...... (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with serological outcome were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted logistic regression analysis. In total, 202 cases were treated with doxycycline or intramuscular penicillin. At 12 months, serological failure was observed in 12 cases (15......%) treated with doxycycline and in 8 cases (17%) treated with penicillin (OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.16-3.88), p = 0.76). The serological cure rate at 12 months was highest in patients with primary syphilis (100%), followed by patients with secondary (89%), early latent (71%) and late latent (67%) syphilis (p = 0...

  11. An Outbreak of Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection and Serological Cross-Reactivity with SARS Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In summer 2003, a respiratory outbreak was investigated in British Columbia, during which nucleic acid tests and serology unexpectedly indicated reactivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV.

  12. Use of serological diagnostic techniques in the control and eradication of caprine arthritis encephalitis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE is a chronic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV, which causes significant losses in goat breeding. The actual state of animal infection with SRLV is difficult to determine due to a complex pathogenesis of the virus, including factors such as delayed or intermittent seroconversion in serological tests. Several serological techniques are available for disease diagnosis, such as screening or confirmation tests, which are different in sensitivity and specificity. Regarding the choice of the test to be applied, availability of commercial immunoreagents, team training, antigen used, and cost of techniques must be considered. This review presents the serological methods available for use in different stages of CAE control and eradication programs, and management measures to be adopted in conjunction with serological diagnosis of the disease.

  13. Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H

    1992-08-01

    Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.

  14. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  15. [Diagnostic serology of swine leptospirosis in Mexico 1995-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    Results obtained from sample testing of 1970 swines from a number of Mexican farms were analyzed. Such samples had been received in the Leptospira Lab of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana de Xochimilco from 1995 to 2000. Sera with titers equal to or higher than 1:1000 were considered positive; 39,8% of the animals were seropositive (784) and the most frequent serovarieties were bratislava, 22.5%; icterohaemorrhagiae strain Palo Alto, 14,5%; portland vere strain Sinaloa ACR, 13,8%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 11,1%; grippotyphosa, 8,9%; hardjo strain H89,7.2%; tarassovi,7.1%; panama, 5.8%, pomona and hardjo, 5.1%; wolffi, 3%; shermani, 2.4%; pyrogenes, 1.2%; canicola, 0.8%; hebdomadis, 0,5%. The bratislava serovariety has been reported as the cause of reproductive failure in several countries and it holds the first place in serological studies. Therefore, the present paper provides information for stating that this is one of the most significant serovarieties in Mexico.

  16. Serological differentiation of microsporidia with special reference to Trachipleistophora hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheney S.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Myositis is a common clinical syndrome in advanced stages of AIDS. Trachipleistophora hominis (phylum Microspora has been detected in several cases of painful, immobilising myositis in AIDS patients. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and Western blotting of protein profiles separated by SDS PAGE were used to determine whether this species could be detected and differentiated by serology. Sixteen microsporidia, including several species known to infect man and species infecting fish, crustaceans and a mosquito, were used as antigen. Each species had a unique profile of SDS PAGE-separated proteins. In Western blots, mouse antiserum, raised to T. hominis and selected for its high ELISA specificity, bound to antigens ranging from less than 25 kDa to greater than 250 kDa with major bands at 39-44 kDa and 98-150 kDa on T. hominis protein profiles. The serum also recognised some high molecular weight antigens in the profiles of Vavraia culicis, Heterosporis anguillarum, and three species of Pleistophora but none in the remaining genera examined. It was concluded that ELISA and Western blotting could be used to detect and differentiate T. hominis in muscle biopsy tissue from patients with myositis. However, sera from T. hominis infected patients in the terminal stages of AIDS would not be useful for detection of infections because of a sharp decline in antibody level.

  17. Serological study of brucellosis in Argentine Creole sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo E; Peña, Sabrina; Escobar, Gabriela I; Hasan, Déborah B; Lucero, Nidia E

    2018-01-05

    Ovine cattle was introduced into America during the Spanish conquest with the second journey of Columbus to the Antilles and was disseminated throughout the region. In 1587, sheep were introduced into Argentina, later developing into the "Creole" breed. We selected 486 animals from different Argentine provinces with the aim of determining the serological status of brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis. For the detection of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp., the Rose Bengal test (RBT) was performed as screening test while the serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2 mercapto-ethanol (2ME) were run as a confirmatory technique. Moreover, for the detection of antibodies against rough Brucella spp., we used the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) for screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA) as confirmatory assay. This study showed that the total positive percentage of brucellosis due to B. ovis was 2.9%. Excluding the animals mixed with the Suffolk breed; seropositivity would be 0.6%. All animals tested negative for brucellosis caused by B. melitensis. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of seven serological assays for diagnosing tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tularemia is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Serology is frequently the preferred diagnostic approach, because the pathogen is highly infectious and difficult to cultivate. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tularemia specific tests. Methods The Serazym®Anti-Francisella tularensis ELISA, Serion ELISA classic Francisella tularensis IgG/IgM, an in-house ELISA, the VIRapid® Tularemia immunochromatographic test, an in-house antigen microarray, and a Western Blot (WB) assay were evaluated. The diagnosis tularemia was established using a standard micro-agglutination assay. In total, 135 sera from a series of 110 consecutive tularemia patients were tested. Results The diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity of the tests were VIRapid (97.0% and 84.0%), Serion IgG (96.3% and 96.8%), Serion IgM (94.8% and 96.8%), Serazym (97.0% and 91.5%), in-house ELISA (95.6% and 76.6%), WB (93.3% and 83.0%), microarray (91.1% and 97.9%). Conclusions The diagnostic value of the commercial assays was proven, because the diagnostic accuracy was >90%. The diagnostic sensitivity of the in-house ELISA and the WB were acceptable, but the diagnostic accuracy was <90%. Interestingly, the antigen microarray test was very specific and had a very good positive predictive value. PMID:24885274

  19. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  20. Serological Diagnosis of Liver Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Rui; Wang, Li-ping

    2012-01-01

    To diagnose and explore the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer before symptoms occur. A total of 430 female in-patients with breast cancer of stages 0 to IIIC who came to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2003 to January 2004 were studied and followed up until May 2011. Serum levels of biochemical markers for tumor and liver were measured at the time of diagnosis. Liver metastasis was more likely to occur in patients with stage III cancer or c-erbB-2-positive expression. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) levels were significantly higher in patients with liver metastasis than those without liver metastasis. Diagnostic indices of LDH, GGT, and CA153 were 174 U/L, 32 U/L, and 26.48 µg/L, respectively. The areas under the curves of LDH, GGT, and CEA were 0.795, 0.784, and 0.661, respectively, and sensitivities of parallel tests for LDH and CA153 and for GGT and CA153 were 88.6% and 85.7%, respectively. The specificity of serial tests for both pairs of enzymes was 97.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of combined tumor and biochemical markers could be used as indicators during screening for breast-liver metastasis

  1. Cross-sectional serological survey of human fascioliasis in haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnamey, P; Fortes-Lopes, E; Raccurt, C P; Boncy, J; Totet, A

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216). The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%), 42 kDa (64%), 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%). This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.

  2. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agnamey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216. The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%, 42 kDa (64%, 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%. This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti.

  3. Retrospective Review of Treponema pallidum PCR and Serology Results: Are Both Tests Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Anna; Gassiep, Ian; Whiley, David; Norton, Robert

    2018-05-01

    There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum PCR test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemiluminescence immunoassay [CMIA], Treponema pallidum particle agglutination [TPPA] assay, and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] flocculation test). A retrospective audit of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017 was conducted; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, and results from T. pallidum PCR, syphilis serology, and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 PCRs. A total of 441 T. pallidum PCR tests were performed; on average, 3 T. pallidum PCRs per month were requested in 2011, and this rate increased to 17.2 requests per month in 2017. A total of 323 patients had both T. pallidum PCR and syphilis serology performed, with 67% of swabs taken from the genitals. T. pallidum PCR gave positive results for 61/323 (19%) patients; of these 61 patients, 59 (97%) also had positive syphilis serology results ( T. pallidum PCR sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 99%; positive predictive value, 97%; negative predictive value, 89%). Syphilis serology was positive for 91/323 patients (28%); of these 91 patients, 61 (66%) were also T. pallidum PCR positive (syphilis serology sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 88%; positive predictive value, 60%; negative predictive value, 99%). The Cohen's kappa value was 0.74, indicating substantial agreement between the two tests. Our results show that most patients with positive T. pallidum PCR results also had positive syphilis serology. Therefore, T. pallidum PCR adds little clinical value over serology for the diagnosis of syphilis in certain clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Serologic and molecular biomarkers for recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob Hornstrup Frølunde; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of mortality. Knowledge on biomarkers may contribute to better surveillance based on the patients' risk of recurrence. Reviewing the literature, we aimed to identify serological...... and molecular biomarkers for recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. METHODS: A literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and Scopus to identify observational studies evaluating serological or molecular biomarkers for recurrence of HCC after LT using adjusted analysis...

  5. A study using an isotope probe comparing immunoassay with serology in detection of Brucella Abortus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, J.G.; Redington, F.; Stephenson, M.

    1986-01-01

    We report a comparison of radio-immunoassay with conventional serology in the detection of brucella abortus antibody from three laboratories. Overall agreement by Chi squared analysis is 5%. There are significant differences between laboratories and a significant number of sero negative suspect sera (from 20% - 60%) were positive by ratio-immunoassay test. We suspect that conventional serology under-reports the incidence of antibody to brucella abortus. (author)

  6. [The results of serological studies in different foci of tropical and tertiary malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleĭmanov, G D; Doan, Kh N; Le, T T; Chan, B; Chan, T U

    1991-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine the value of serologic indices of malaria surveys. Following uniformed methodological and technical approaches 3 foci of P. vivax and 6 foci of P. falciparum malaria were surveyed in different endemic zones of Vietnam and the USSR. It was shown that the most objective criteria for a foci classification is its serologic mean geometric titre. The latter in its turn directly depends of transmission longevity in a foci.

  7. Second International Diagnostic Accuracy Study for the Serological Detection of West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchini, Andrea; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Papa, Anna; Sambri, Vittorio; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have increased. Serological diagnosis of WNV infection can be performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) neutralization test (NT) and by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The aim of this study is to collect updated information regarding the performance accuracy of WNV serological diagnostics. Methodology/Principal findings: In 2011, the E...

  8. Four concepts of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Fourie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available What makes the words ‘Africa’ and ‘African’ possible and useful? In this article it is argued that at least four internally coherent concepts of Africa exist, and that none of these concepts are ethically neutral. The article is presented as a contribution to attempts at using the term ‘Africa’ in self-critical, reflexive and constructive ways. It could therefore be of interest to all researchers, particularly those in the humanities and theology, who locate their research within the context of ‘Africa’. It is argued that Africa can be conceived of as a place, a commodity, a condition and an ideal. By drawing on mostly primary sources it is shown that the term ‘Africa’ only relatively recently came to refer to a continent, that Africa as a place and Africa as a condition in need of betterment formed the foundation for its commodification, and that Africa only very recently became a self-description of the people who live on the continent of Africa. Each of these concepts of Africa is shown to be based on a particular logic with both strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem; Macaulay-Adeyelure, O C

    2016-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics' invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of 'African bioethics,' which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for 'bioethics in Africa'. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics.

  10. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  11. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Sexton, V.S.; Msiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation

  12. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  13. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of community-acquired bloodstream infection in Africa. The contribution of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars to invasive disease varies considerably in place and time, even within the same country. Nonetheless, many African countries are now thought to experience typhoid fever incidence >100 per 100,000 per year with approximately 1% of patients dying. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease was estimated to cause 3.4 million illnesses and 681 316 deaths in 2010, with the most disease in Africa. Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing problem in S. enterica that threatens to further compromise patient outcomes. Reservoirs for nontyphoidal Salmonella and the predominant routes of transmission for typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella are not well understood in Africa, hampering the design of evidence-based, non-vaccine- and vaccine-based prevention measures. It is difficult to distinguish clinically invasive Salmonella disease from febrile illnesses caused by other pathogens. Blood cultures are the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis, but lack sensitivity due to the low magnitude of bacteremia, do not produce results at point of care, and are not widely available in Africa. Serologic approaches to diagnosis remain inaccurate, and nucleic acid amplification tests are also compromised by low concentrations of bacteria. High-throughput whole-genome sequencing, together with a range of novel analytic pipelines, has provided new insights into the complex pattern of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and host adaptation. Concerted efforts are therefore needed to apply these new tools in the context of high-quality field surveillance to improve diagnosis, patient management, control, and prevention of invasive Salmonella infections in Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  15. China’s Outward FDI in Africa: Enterprises with Different Ownership Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Tao Tsao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of China’s outward direct investments in Africa in terms of enterprises with different ownership types. First, this paper contributes to the examination of a large number of Chinese enterprises’ investment projects in Africa. Second, in addition to the investment activities of central state-owned enterprises, investment activities initiated by local state-owned enterprises and private enterprises are also addressed in this paper. Third, this paper demonstrates the diversity ofChinese investment in Africa through the discussion of a large number of cases. We find that the motives of central state-owned enterprises comply with government policies. However, most private enterprises and non-central state-owned enterprises invest in Africa for profit considerations. This paper concludes that China’s investments in Africa are diverse and complex and cannot be explained using a single model of the extant theories.

  16. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  17. Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J Akombi

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa.Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016 of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used. The countries were grouped into four sub-regions (East Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa and Central Africa, and a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of each malnutrition indicator within each of the sub-regions. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the various surveys (I2 >50%, hence a random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed, to examine the effects of outliers. Stunting was defined as HAZ<-2; wasting as WHZ<-2 and underweight as WAZ<-2.Stunting was highest in Burundi (57.7% and Malawi (47.1% in East Africa; Niger (43.9%, Mali (38.3%, Sierra Leone (37.9% and Nigeria (36.8% in West Africa; Democratic Republic of Congo (42.7% and Chad (39.9% in Central Africa. Wasting was highest in Niger (18.0%, Burkina Faso (15.50% and Mali (12.7% in West Africa; Comoros (11.1% and Ethiopia (8.70% in East Africa; Namibia (6.2% in Southern Africa; Chad (13.0% and Sao Tome & Principle (10.5% in Central Africa. Underweight was highest in Burundi (28.8% and Ethiopia (25.2% in East Africa; Niger (36.4%, Nigeria (28.7%, Burkina Faso (25.7%, Mali (25.0% in West Africa; and Chad (28.8% in Central Africa.The prevalence of malnutrition was highest within countries in East Africa and West Africa compared to the WHO Millennium development goals target for 2015. Appropriate nutrition interventions need to be prioritised in East Africa and West Africa if sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the WHO global nutrition target

  18. Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeque, B G P; Lindeque, A M; Hausner, H; Le Roux, T L B

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between different Organ Donation Organisations. Through collaboration, a dramatic increase in the number of donors was noted over the years. Concurrently, there was a dramatic increase in the usage of different allograft products and now necessitates the development of new graft materials for expanding patient options. As an ongoing concern, the Tissue Bank in South Africa experienced an ever increase in costs to enhance quality/safety controls: increase in historical patient information, documentation and serological testing in a population struggling to control HIV. To date, the South African Tissue Bank has not experienced any untoward patient incidence since the 1960s and currently is getting over 500 donors per year.

  19. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  20. [Toxoplasmic central chorioretinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, S; Hulpuş, A; Rusu, I

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the most frequent cause of chorioretinitis in immunocompetent patients. This paper highlights the case of a 15 years old girl, an immunocompetent patient, with an active chorioretinal focus in the LE and a chorioretinal scar in the RE. Serologically, the IgG antiToxoplasma titre is increased, but the IgM antibodies are negative. It is the bilateral character of the lesions and the serology found that make this case special.

  1. Four concepts of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... to benefit from its problematic socio-political history is an indication that there are different and often contradictory .... This is illustrated by the early geographical .... West Africa and Togo, with the acquisition of German East.

  2. Student Power in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, USA. ... publication, the book Student Politics in Africa: Representation and Activism, published .... reference to two moments in the country's student political history: the 1973 student.

  3. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    challenges remain. ... such issues as environmental preserva- tion, new ... women's access to land. ... Youth in South Africa face many hurdles, ... works like family and friends to overcome chal- ... representatives, local businesses, and gov-.

  4. Africa's Young Entrepreneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in statistics from the university of ibadan, holds a master's degree in business administration and in ... institute of business science (gibs), university of Pretoria, south africa. Rilwan is a. Fellow of .... the pace of economic and social development ...

  5. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  6. Childhood Autism In Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Victor

    1978-01-01

    Mentally handicapped children were screened in 5 countries in Africa in order to explore the usefulness of Western criteria for the recognition of childhood autism in children from developing countries. (CM)

  7. Serological Evidence of Orthopoxvirus Circulation Among Equids, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara A. Borges

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 Vaccinia virus (VACV outbreaks involving bovines and humans have been reported in Brazil; this zoonosis is known as Bovine Vaccinia (BV and is mainly an occupational disease of milkers. It was only in 2008 (and then again in 2011 and 2014 however, that VACV was found causing natural infections in Brazilian equids. These reports involved only equids, no infected humans or bovines were identified, and the sources of infections remain unknown up to date. The peculiarities of Equine Vaccinia outbreaks (e.g., absence of human infection, the frequently shared environments, and fomites by equids and bovines in Brazilian farms and the remaining gaps in BV epidemiology incited a question over OPV serological status of equids in Brazil. For this report, sera from 621 equids - representing different species, ages, sexes and locations of origin within Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil – were examined for the presence of anti-Orthopoxvirus (OPV antibodies. Only 74 of these were sampled during an Equine Vaccinia outbreak, meaning some of these specific animals presented typical lesions of OPV infections. The majority of sera, however, were sampled from animals without typical signs of OPV infection and during the absence of reported Bovine or Equine Vaccinia outbreaks. Results suggest the circulation of VACV among equids of southeast Brazil even prior to the time of the first VACV outbreak in 2008. There is a correlation of OPVs outbreaks among bovines and equids although many gaps remain to our understanding of its nature. The data obtained may even be carefully associated to recent discussion over OPVs history. Moreover, data is available to improve the knowledge and instigate new researches regarding OPVs circulation in Brazil and worldwide.

  8. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  9. Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L.D.; Jongbloed, H.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; Yamaguchi, N.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Bauer, H.; Henschel, P.; White, P.A.; Driscoll, C.A.; Tende, T.; Ottosson, U.; Saidu, Y.; Vrieling, K.; de Iongh, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of African savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in West/Central Africa are distinct from populations in East/Southern Africa. However, for the lion, all African populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (Panthera leo leo), while

  10. The development of electric power supply systems in Britain and South Africa - a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, N.

    1990-01-01

    The history and progress of the electricity supply industry in Britain and South Africa display many similarities despite differences in climate, population and geography. The more interesting and outstanding features of the Central Electricity Generating Board in Britain and Eskom in South Africa have been compared, and a particularly close likeness was found. 6 tabs

  11. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  12. Climate strategy for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn

    1995-01-01

    1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...

  13. Physics in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allotey, F.K.A.

    1996-09-01

    The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  14. Physics in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allotey, F K.A.

    1996-09-01

    The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs.

  15. Oil is killing Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, with its mining and petroleum resources, is still the object of covetous desires from developed countries. The Gulf of Guinea is a promising area and probably the future battlefield of the 21. century. The fighters of this war are the African people and the big powers, the USA and China at the head, who call upon mercenaries to get their share of this fabulous treasure. Oil was a chance for Africa, but now oil is killing it

  16. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  17. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay-Adeyelure, O.C.

    2017-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics’ invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of ‘African bioethics,’ which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for ‘bioethics in Africa’. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics. PMID:28344985

  18. La libre circulation des personnes au sein de l’espace de la C.E.M.A.C : entre mythes et réalités Free movement of people within the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community : between myths and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Loungou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La question de la libre circulation des personnes est une des pierres d’achoppement entre les Etats membres de la Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (C.E.M.A.C. Cette mésentente est liée à une multitude de raisons, dont certaines participent de constructions imaginaires développées en particulier au Gabon et en Guinée équatoriale. Trois grands mythes sous-tendent le refus manifeste de ces deux Etats d’appliquer le principe communautaire de la libre circulation des personnes ; il s’agit des mythes de l’invasion démographique, de la spoliation économique et de la perversion sociale associée à la délinquance d’origine étrangère. Fortement ancrées dans les consciences nationales, ces représentations s’expriment à travers des politiques migratoires et des pratiques frontalières particulièrement discriminatoires à l’égard des ressortissants de la sous-région.The issue of free movement of people is one of the stumbling blocks between the Members of the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community (C.A.E.M.C. This disagreement is related to many reasons, some of which are part of imaginary constructions developed especially in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Three great myths are underlying the apparent reluctance of these two states to apply the principles of free movement of people: the myth of demographic invasion and the myths of economic and social perversion associated with the crime of foreign origin. Deeply rooted in the national consciousness, these representations are expressed through migration policies and border practices which are particularly discriminatory against nationals of the sub region.

  19. Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akombi, Blessing J; Agho, Kingsley E; Merom, Dafna; Renzaho, Andre M; Hall, John J

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight) within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016) of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used. The countries were grouped into four sub-regions (East Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa and Central Africa), and a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of each malnutrition indicator within each of the sub-regions. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the various surveys (I2 >50%), hence a random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed, to examine the effects of outliers. Stunting was defined as HAZAfrica; Niger (43.9%), Mali (38.3%), Sierra Leone (37.9%) and Nigeria (36.8%) in West Africa; Democratic Republic of Congo (42.7%) and Chad (39.9%) in Central Africa. Wasting was highest in Niger (18.0%), Burkina Faso (15.50%) and Mali (12.7%) in West Africa; Comoros (11.1%) and Ethiopia (8.70%) in East Africa; Namibia (6.2%) in Southern Africa; Chad (13.0%) and Sao Tome & Principle (10.5%) in Central Africa. Underweight was highest in Burundi (28.8%) and Ethiopia (25.2%) in East Africa; Niger (36.4%), Nigeria (28.7%), Burkina Faso (25.7%), Mali (25.0%) in West Africa; and Chad (28.8%) in Central Africa. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest within countries in East Africa and West Africa compared to the WHO Millennium development goals target for 2015. Appropriate nutrition interventions need to be prioritised in East Africa and West Africa if sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the WHO global nutrition target of improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition by 2025.

  20. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  1. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  2. Epilepsy and tropical parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa is associated with the high prevalence of parasitic infections affecting the central nervous system. Though epidemiological evidence suggests an association between parasitic infections and epilepsy, the biological causal ...

  3. Seroprevalence and epidemiological correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infections among patients referred for hospital-based serological testing in Doha, Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Molawi Naema

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The city of Doha in Qatar has a high density of feral cats and there is a high risk of toxoplasmosis for the resident human population. No data currently exist for the prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in the city. Methods We analysed the serological response to Toxoplasma gondii of 1625 subjects referred for routine hospital based serological tests in Doha, Qatar. Prevalence of current/recent infection was assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and previous history of infection through IgG. Results Overall prevalence of IgG responses was 29.8% and this did not differ between the sexes nor between the three years of the study although there was a marked age effect. Among children less than 1 year old prevalence was 22.9%, but then dropped to in utero from immune mothers. Prevalence then increased steadily to peak at 41.2% among the oldest age class (>45 years. The prevalence of IgG antibody also varied significantly with region of origin, with higher rates for subjects from Africa, followed by those from the Eastern Mediterranean or Asia and lowest rates for subjects from the Arabian Peninsula. No IgM antibodies were detected in any subjects younger than 19 years, but prevalence increased to plateau at 7 – 9% in subjects aged over 20 years, and also varied with region of origin. In this case prevalence was highest among subjects from the Arabian Peninsula and least among those from Asia. Prevalence of IgM was higher among male subjects but did not vary between the three years of the study. Conclusion Although these data are based on a selected subset of the population, they nevertheless provide the first evidence that toxoplasmosis is endemic in Qatar in the human population, and that both age and region of origin play a role in the epidemiology of the infection. Concerns relating to the role of high density of feral cats in

  4. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaguedje, Diondoh

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author) [fr

  5. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, M.; Jones, E. R.; Eriksson, Anders; Siska, V.; Arthur, K. W.; Arthur, J. W.; Curtis, M. C.; Stock, J. T.; Coltorti, M.; Pieruccini, P.; Stretton, S.; Brock, F.; Higham, T.; Park, Y.; Hofreiter, M.; Bradley, D. G.; Bhak, J.; Pinhasi, R.; Manica, A.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

  6. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, M.

    2015-10-09

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

  7. Serological evidence of ebolavirus infection in bats, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Junfa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Ebolavirus of the family Filoviridae currently consists of five species. All species, with the exception of Reston ebolavirus, have been found in Africa and caused severe human diseases. Bats have been implicated as reservoirs for ebolavirus. Reston ebolavirus, discovered in the Philippines, is the only ebolavirus species identified in Asia to date. Whether this virus is prevalent in China is unknown. Findings In this study, we developed an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for ebolavirus using the recombinant nucleocapsid protein and performed sero-surveillance for the virus among Chinese bat populations. Our results revealed the presence of antibodies to ebolavirus in 32 of 843 bat sera samples and 10 of 16 were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of any filovirus infection in China.

  8. Africa: signs of hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Leonidovich Maslaynski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a classic autoimmune disease associated with the production of wide range of autoantibodies, and their detection has diagnostic and prognostic implication. The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of antibodies against modified citrullinated vimentin (AMCV and nuclear antigen RA33 of the IgA rheumatoid factor (RF versus the value of routinely used profile of autoantibodies in diagnostic work-up of RA. Material and methods. 253 patients with RA prehistory of varying duration were included into the study group. The control group was comprised of 92 patients, including patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies and diffuse connective tissue diseases, as well as sex and age matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM and IgA RF, antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP, ACMV, anti-keratin antibodies (AKA, antibodies against RA33 antigen (ARA33 and antinuclear factor (ANF were measured in all patients and controls. Results and discussion. Diagnostic sensitivity of AMCV equaled 78%, ACCP — 77%, IgM RF — 71%, IgA RF — 43%, AKA — 43%, ARA33 — 31% and ANF — 31%. All anti-citrullinic antibodies (AKA, ACCP, ACMV were significantly more commonly associated with IgM RF. Among RF and ACCP seronegative patients ACMV were found in 24% cases with 20 IU/Ml detection threshold, and in 21% — with 30 IU/Ml, allowing to increase diagnostic specificity of the test up to 91% with the increment of diagnostic threshold. Incidence of ARA33 was not significantly different among the RF and ACCP positive or negative subgroups, thus making ARA33 an independent RA marker. Specificity of this marker was 87,9%, thus making it inferior to RF and ACCP by a composite of diagnostic characteristics. Conclusions. Integrated measurement of ACMV and ARA33 is a rational approach at the second stage of serologic testing work-up in suspected cases of RA onset, when initial RF and ACCP tests were negative.

  10. [Serological diagnosis of congenital infections and algorithms to improve diagnostic efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermejo, Isabel; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Congenital infection is those transmitted by the mother to the fetus before delivery. It can occur transplacentally or by direct contact with the pathogen during birth or in the immediate postnatal period. Congenital infection can be due to viruses (rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, hepatitis B and C virus, human inunodeficiencia, erythrovirus B19) as bacteria (Treponema pallidum) and parasites (Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi). Serological diagnosis of congenital infection is based on both the knowledge of infectious serology in the mother, including the systematic serological screening and diagnostic aspects of the determination of IgM and confirmatory methods, IgG avidity tests, establishment of antibody profiles, and in the diagnosis the neonate. Serological diagnosis of congenital infection in the newborn is mainly based on the detection of specific IgM usually by immunoenzymatic assays or immunochemiluminescence techniques. In some instances it is important to perform the serological follow up of the newborn to confirm the congenital infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. U.S. Africa Command: Shaping Africa for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sholley, Hans

    2006-01-01

    .... It is argued the current Unified Command Plan is ill designed to address the complexities of the continent of Africa and that a proposed United States Africa Command would be better positioned...

  12. Africa: the new family planning frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat

    2002-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the twentieth century, fertility transition was under way in Southern Africa and a few countries elsewhere. Successful regional family planning in the twenty-first century will depend upon stronger political leadership, the development of family planning programs that meet the needs of all segments of society and not only currently married women, assistance to the market, and a recognition of the central importance of hormonal methods, especially injectables. Problems include stagnation in economic growth and in child mortality decline, as well as the persistence of the AIDS epidemic.

  13. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa | Mokgoro | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not ... In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a ... Ubuntu can therefore become central to a new South African jurisprudence ...

  14. Taxonomic-linguistic study of plantain in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossel, G.

    1998-01-01

    Plantain is a cooking banana (Musa spp. AAB group (Musaceae)) that is grown as a major food crop in many parts of Africa, especially in the Central-African and West-African rain forest areas. The crop originated in Asia, but its greatest diversity is to be found in

  15. Dealing with the dilemma facing higher education in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's institutions of higher education have been accorded the responsibility of serving as catalyst in the process of knowledge production that is central to a country's success in the evolution towards globalisation. The need for increased numbers of skilled professionals in technology and business is one that ideally ...

  16. Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa (PALM Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa depends on learning materials published elsewhere, and has serious difficulty acquiring, producing and distributing them. In order to facilitate citizen access to these materials, the publishing sector in Africa needs to explore new business models and technologies. Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa ...

  17. China and Africa: human rights perspective | Osondu-Oti | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of the twenty-first century, China emerged as a major player in Africa's international relations. This emergence has attracted a lot of attention in literature on what it portends for Africa. Studies have pointed that China's involvement in Africa undermines human rights. Of important note was China's support for the ...

  18. South Africa comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1993-01-01

    South African President F. W. de Klerk made headlines on March 24 when he admitted to a joint session of parliament that South Africa had once had a supply of nuclear weapons; six of seven planned devices had been completed. South African spokesmen had previously said that Pretoria was capable of building weapons, but they had remained deliberately vague about whether or not any had been built. According to de Klerk, the weapons were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on July 10, 1991. De Klerk's revelation came in response to charges by the African National Congress and U.S. government officials that South Africa had possibly hidden atomic bomb components and manufacturing plants and that it had been evasive about its stockpile of weapon-grade uranium. A more complete discussion of de Klerk's disclosure and events leading to the admission are explored in this article

  19. Africa Center for Strategic Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Africa Center for Strategic Studies supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military...

  20. Serological tools for detection of Trichinella infection in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a serious foodborne zoonotic disease. It is an important threat to public health in both developing and developed countries. Human infections are strongly associated with consuming undercooked meat containing infective Trichinella larvae. The development of serological tools has enabled seroepidemiological studies and contributed to our knowledge on the importance of this parasite. Serological tests can also help the diagnosis of parasite infections in humans and the surveillance of animals. Generally speaking, serological techniques include detection methods for specific antibodies and for circulating parasite antigens in the serum or tissue fluids. Here, we present a comprehensive review of various methods used in the detection of antibodies against Trichinella and circulating parasite antigens in animals and humans.

  1. Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, L. D.; Jongbloed, H.; van der Gaag, K. J.; de Knijff, P.; Yamaguchi, N.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Bauer, H.; Henschel, P.; White, P. A.; Driscoll, C. A.; Tende, T.; Ottosson, U.; Saidu, Y.; Vrieling, K.; de Iongh, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography of African savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in West/Central Africa are distinct from populations in East/Southern Africa. However, for the lion, all African populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (Panthera leo leo), while the only remaining population in Asia is considered to be distinct (Panthera leo persica). This distinction is disputed both by morphological and genetic data. In this study we introduce the lion as a model for African phylogeography. Analyses of mtDNA sequences reveal six supported clades and a strongly supported ancestral dichotomy with northern populations (West Africa, Central Africa, North Africa/Asia) on one branch, and southern populations (North East Africa, East/Southern Africa and South West Africa) on the other. We review taxonomies and phylogenies of other large savannah mammals, illustrating that similar clades are found in other species. The described phylogeographic pattern is considered in relation to large scale environmental changes in Africa over the past 300,000 years, attributable to climate. Refugial areas, predicted by climate envelope models, further confirm the observed pattern. We support the revision of current lion taxonomy, as recognition of a northern and a southern subspecies is more parsimonious with the evolutionary history of the lion.

  2. Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, L D; Jongbloed, H; van der Gaag, K J; de Knijff, P; Yamaguchi, N; Hooghiemstra, H; Bauer, H; Henschel, P; White, P A; Driscoll, C A; Tende, T; Ottosson, U; Saidu, Y; Vrieling, K; de Iongh, H H

    2016-08-04

    Comparative phylogeography of African savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in West/Central Africa are distinct from populations in East/Southern Africa. However, for the lion, all African populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (Panthera leo leo), while the only remaining population in Asia is considered to be distinct (Panthera leo persica). This distinction is disputed both by morphological and genetic data. In this study we introduce the lion as a model for African phylogeography. Analyses of mtDNA sequences reveal six supported clades and a strongly supported ancestral dichotomy with northern populations (West Africa, Central Africa, North Africa/Asia) on one branch, and southern populations (North East Africa, East/Southern Africa and South West Africa) on the other. We review taxonomies and phylogenies of other large savannah mammals, illustrating that similar clades are found in other species. The described phylogeographic pattern is considered in relation to large scale environmental changes in Africa over the past 300,000 years, attributable to climate. Refugial areas, predicted by climate envelope models, further confirm the observed pattern. We support the revision of current lion taxonomy, as recognition of a northern and a southern subspecies is more parsimonious with the evolutionary history of the lion.

  3. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  4. Pleistocene Palaeoart of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This comprehensive review of all currently known Pleistocene rock art of Africa shows that the majority of sites are located in the continent’s south, but that the petroglyphs at some of them are of exceptionally great antiquity. Much the same applies to portable palaeoart of Africa. The current record is clearly one of paucity of evidence, in contrast to some other continents. Nevertheless, an initial synthesis is attempted, and some preliminary comparisons with the other continents are attempted. Certain parallels with the existing record of southern Asia are defined.

  5. Symptoms and signs in individuals with serology positive for celiac disease but normal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Lena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody serology is an important tool in the investigation of celiac disease (CD, but does not always correlate with mucosal appearance in the small intestine. Patients with positive CD serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0 are at increased risk of future CD. In this study we describe a model for identifying and characterizing individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Such individuals are sometimes referred to as having latent CD. Methods The records of ten Swedish pathology departments were used to identify individuals with biopsies indicating normal duodenal/jejunal mucosa. Using the national personal identification number, these data were linked with CD serology data (antigliadin, antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies; and we thereby identified 3,736 individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Two independent reviewers then manually reviewed their biopsy reports to estimate comorbidity. We also randomly selected 112 individuals for validation through patient chart review. Results The majority of the 3,736 individuals were females (62%. Children (0–15 years made up 21.4%. The median number of biopsy specimen was 3. Our review of biopsy reports found that other gastrointestinal comorbidity was rare (inflammatory bowel disease: 0.4%; helicobacter pylori infection: 0.2%. Some 22% individuals selected for patient chart review had a relative with CD. The most common symptoms among these individuals were diarrhea (46% and abdominal pain (45%, while 26% had anemia. Although 27% of the individuals selected for validation had been informed about gluten-free diet, only 13% were adhering to a gluten-free diet at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Individuals with positive CD serology but normal mucosa often have CD-like symptoms and a family history of CD.

  6. Diagnosis of Lyme-associated uveitis: value of serological testing in a tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Alexia; Kodjikian, Laurent; Abukhashabh, Amro; Roure-Sobas, Chantal; Boibieux, Andre; Denis, Philippe; Broussolle, Christiane; Seve, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in patients with uveitis and to assess the value of Borrelia burgdorferi serological testing. Retrospective study on all patients with uveitis who were referred to our tertiary hospital were serologically tested for Lyme in our laboratory between 2003 and 2016. Screening consisted of determining B. burgdorferi serum IgG and IgM by ELISA method. The patient's serology was considered as positive if the ELISA-positive result in IgM and/or IgG was confirmed by an immunoblot positive in IgM and/or IgG. Lyme-associated uveitis was diagnosed based on serological results as well as response to antibiotics and exclusion of other diagnosis. Of the 430 patients with uveitis (60% women, mean age 49 years) fulfilling inclusion criteria, 63 (14.7%) had an ELISA-positive serology, confirmed by immunoblot for 34 patients (7.9%). The diagnosis of Lyme-associated uveitis was finally retained in seven patients (1.6%). These patients reported either a previous exposure including tick bite or forest walks (n=5), symptoms suggestive of Lyme disease (n=5) and resistance to local and/or systemic steroids (n=7). Among the remaining 27 positive patients, 22 had other established aetiologies and 5 other were unclassified. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi among our patients with uveitis was 7.9% compared with 6 to 8.5% in the general French population which leads to a low predictive value of serological testing. Its use should be reserved for patients with unexplained uveitis, an exposure history, systemic findings suggestive of Lyme disease and steroids resistance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Effect of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status on Serological Response to Influenza Vaccine in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224

  8. Request for HIV serology in primary care: A survey of medical and nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen; Álvarez-Castillo, M Carmen; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro

    2018-01-15

    In the Community of Madrid there is 42.7% late HIV diagnosis. Primary care is the gateway to the health system and the frequency of serological tests requested by these professionals is unknown. The objectives were to establish the frequency of requests for HIV serology by medical and nursing primary care professionals in the Community of Madrid and the factors associated with these requests. An 'on-line' survey was conducted, asking professionals who participated in the evaluation study of strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV in primary care in the Community of Madrid (ESTVIH) about the number of HIV-serology tests requested in the last 12 months. The association between HIV-serology requesting and the sociodemographic and clinical practice characteristics of the professionals was quantified using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) according to logistic regression. 264 surveys (59.5% physicians). Eighty-two point two percent of medical and 18.7% of nursing professionals reported requesting at least one HIV-serology in the last 12 months (median: 15 and 2 HIV-serology request, respectively). The doctors associated the request with: being male (aOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 0.82-10.56), being trained in pre-post HIV test counselling (aOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.84-6.93) and the nurses with: age (13 years; aOR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.07-8.52). It is necessary to promote HIV testing and training in pre-post HIV test counselling for medical and nursing professionals in primary care centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  10. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  11. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    by Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found......A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year...

  12. Microbiological and serological monitoring in hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in the Region Lombardia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.

  13. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  14. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  15. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  16. 9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. 130.16 Section 130.16 Animals... USER FEES § 130.16 User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding...

  17. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  18. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To strengthen competition authorities in the region, IDRC supported the creation of the African Competition. Forum in 2010. IDRC-funded research also helped ... Saving lives, money, and ecosystems. Funding: $675,000. Duration: 2013–2016. Grantee: University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Environmental economists seek to ...

  19. Africa population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.B.; Omme, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million

  20. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…