WorldWideScience

Sample records for centaurea fraylensis asteraceae

  1. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Janaćković P.; Tešević V.; Marin P.D.; Milosavljević S.; Duletić-Laušević Sonja; Janaćković Slavica; Veljić M.

    2008-01-01

    Ether extracts of 15 Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae) methanol extracts of 12species, and cnicin isolated from C. derventana were tested for general bioactivity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Cnicin showed the most potent activity with LC50 0.2. Also, ether extract of C. splendens showed significant activity with LC50 7.3, as did methanol extract of C. arenaria with LC50 12.4.

  2. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

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    Devesa, J. A.; López, E

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea) in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau) E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aristifera (Pau...

  3. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae)

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    Shoeb M.; Macmanus S.M.; Kong-Thoo-Lin P.; Celik S.; Jaspars M.; Nahar L.; Sarker S.D

    2007-01-01

    Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae), commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ...

  4. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  5. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension to their...

  6. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  7. Centaurea wagenitziana (Asteraceae: Centaureinae), a new species from the Eastern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Bancheva, Svetlana; Vural, Mecit; Strid, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea wagenitziana Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to science. Its chromosome number of 2n = 30 is a first report. It closely resembles C. amplifolia with which i...

  8. A new species of Centaurea (Asteraceae) from the island of Samothraki (NE Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, Arne; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea samothracica (subgen. Acrolophus) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on (subgen. ) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on the North Aegean island of Samothraki, and appears most closely related to C. chalcidicaea from Mt Athos....

  9. Genetic guidelines for the conservation of the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of species of conservation concern requires designing strategies that should include genetic information as small population size and restricted geographic range can reduce genetic variation. We used AFLPs to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the endangered narrow endemic Centaurea borjae, and found no evidence for genetic impoverishment despite its 80 m to maximize genetic variation. PMID:22678690

  10. Nectar plant preferences of Hemaris (Sphingidae on co-occurring native Cirsium and non-native Centaurea (Asteraceae inflorescences

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    Elena S. Tartaglia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Preferences for certain nectar plants by moth pollinators have not been extensively studied, particularly seasonal switches in nectar diet. The genus Hemaris, found throughout North America and parts of other continents, is a useful new system to address questions of flower-insect interactions as the moths are relatively common and day-flying. In this study we address the following questions with a group of three Hemaris species. (1 Does Hemaris display a preference for foraging on the native swamp thistle, Cirsium discolor, over the non-native invasive knapweeds, Centaurea spp.? (2 What factors might be driving Hemaris’ preferences? The bloom periods of C. discolor and Centaurea overlap in the northeastern United States, with Centaurea blooming from approximately June through September and C. discolor blooming for approximately the first three weeks of August. Hemaris typically ecloses in the first week of July and fed on Centaurea until C. discolor bloomed. We tracked and recorded Hemaris visits to both plant species. During the co-blooming period of C. discolor and Centaurea, Hemaris visits significantly more C. discolor inflorescences, demonstrating a possible preference for the native species. Hemaris reverts to nectaring at the non-native Centaurea after native C. discolor’s bloom period ends. The nectar of C. discolor has a significantly higher sugar concentration than does the nectar of Centaurea; this difference may account for part of the moths’ preference for C. discolor.

  11. Patterns of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae): Implications for preserving genetic diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lua LOPEZ; Rodolfo BARREIRO

    2013-01-01

    A previous study with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints found no evidence of genetic impoverishment in the endangered Centaurea borjae and recommended that four management units (MUs) should be designated.Nevertheless,the high ploidy (6x) of this narrow endemic plant suggested that these conclusions should be validated by independent evidence derived from non-nuclear markers.Here,the variable trnT-F region of the plastid genome was sequenced to obtain this new evidence and to provide an historical background for the current genetic structure.Plastid sequences revealed little genetic variation; calling into question the previous conclusion that C.borjae does not undergo genetic impoverishment.By contrast,the conclusion that gene flow must be low was reinforced by the strong genetic differentiation detected among populations using plastid sequences (global FST =0.419).The spatial arrangement of haplotypes and diversity indicate that the populations currently located at the center of the species range are probable sites of long-persistence whereas the remaining sites may have derived from a latter colonization.From a conservation perspective,four populations contributed most to the allelic richness of the plastid genome of the species and should be given priority.Combined with previous AFLP results,these new data recommended that five,instead of four,MUs should be established.Altogether,our study highlights the benefits of combining markers with different modes of inheritance to design accurate conservation guidelines and to obtain clues on the evolutionary processes behind the present-day genetic structures.

  12. Bioactividad de los extractos y aislamiento de los lignanos de las semillas de Centaurea dealbata

    OpenAIRE

    Shoeb, M.; Jaspars, M.; Macmanus, S.M.; Thoo-Lin, P.K.; Celik, S; Sarker, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    La Centaurea dealbata Willd. (familia: Asteraceae) pertenece al g??nero Centaurea, que comprende unas 500 especies. Para evaluar la actividad antioxidante y la toxicidad general de los extractos de n-hexano, diclorometano (DCM) y metanol (MeOH) de las semillas de C. dealbata se han utilizado, respectivamente, el ensayo DPPH y el ensayo de letalidad de gambas en salmuera. Tanto el extracto de DCM como el de MeOH presentaron niveles signifi cativos de actividad antioxidante, con val...

  13. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  14. Chemical Constituents of Centaurea cuneifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Ümit

    1999-01-01

    The whole plant material fo Centaurea cuneifolia Sm. afforded three sesquiterpene lactones; cnicin (1), dehydromelitensin (2) and dehydromelitensin-8-[(2'-a-hydroxy-b- hydroxyethyl)-acryloyl)] (3), the lignan; (-)-arctigenin (4), flavonoids; salvigenin (5), eupatilin (6), jaceosidin (7), acacetin (8), kaemferol (9), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3-methylether (10), 5-hydroxy-3',',6,7-tetramethoxyflavone (11) and 5-hydroxy-3',4',7,8-tetramet hoxyflavone (12), a trite...

  15. AN AROMATIC COMPOUND from CENTAUREA PTOSIMOPAPPOIDES

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    A. ULUBELEN, S. ÖKSÜZ

    2015-01-01

    Centaurea ptosimopappoides was previously investigated by our groupand the presence of two new triterpenes were reported. The rare occurrence ofthis type compounds in the plants prompted us to further investigation of Centaureaptosimopappoides. In this work we report the isolation and structure determinationof an aromatic glycoside which was found in the genus Centaureafor the first time. The structure of the compound was determined by spectralmethods.Key words: Centaurea ptosimopappoides; Co...

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXI. New guaianolides in Centaurea bella Trautv. and Centaurea adjarica Alb.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine new guaianolides. I of which are chlorinated, were isolated from the dried, above-ground parts of Centaurea bella Trautv. They are: cebellin A. B, C, D, E. F, G, H and 1. l he known guaianolides centaurepensin and repdiolide were also found. The occurrence of repin. acroptillin and janerin was confirmed. Cebellin F. G. I and repin. acroptillin and janerin were chromatographically shown to occur in Centaurea adjarica Alb.

  17. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Koproń, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

  18. Determination of the relationship between some Centaurea species based on SDS-PAGE

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    Uysal, Tuna; Arslan, Emine; Tugay, Osman; ERTUĞRUL, Kuddisi

    2010-01-01

    The protein patterns of 47 Centaurea species from Turkey were obtained using SDS-PAGE methods. Relationships between Centaurea species and related genera were evaluated via use of a dendrogram. SDS-PAGE provided protein profiles for an important and applicable selection within Centaurea, particularly for the section Cheirolepis and its relatives. We determined that the technique could be used to resolve taxonomic and evolutionary problems in the genus Centaurea, as most of the Centaurea speci...

  19. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed A. Ahmed; Kamel, Emadeldin M.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone (2), along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3), Apigetrin (4), centaureidin...

  20. Chemical constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab.

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    Soumia Mouffok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab. allowed the isolation of nine secondary metabolites corresponding to five flavonoids: oroxylin A (1, chrysin (2, tenaxin II (3, 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4 and quercetin (5, and four triterpenoids: lupeol (6, taraxasterol (7, daucosterol (8 and β-sitosterol (9. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods such as 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, and ESI-MS, and comparison with literature data. The flavonoids tenaxin II (3 and 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4 are new for the genus Centaurea L.

  1. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

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    Sayed A. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8-flavone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8-flavone (2, along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3, Apigetrin (4, centaureidin (5, oroxylin A (6, 5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (7, atalantoflavone (8, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,8-trimethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7-flavone (9, and 3′,4′,5,8-tetramethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7-flavone (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic tools including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7. Compound 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells with an IC50 0.079 μM.

  2. Chemical constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab.

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    Soumia Mouffok; Hamada Haba; Catherine Lavaud; Christophe Long; Mohammed Benkhaled

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab. allowed the isolation of nine secondary metabolites corresponding to five flavonoids: oroxylin A (1), chrysin (2), tenaxin II (3), 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4) and quercetin (5), and four triterpenoids: lupeol (6), taraxasterol (7), daucosterol (8) and β-sitosterol (9). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods such as 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, and ESI-MS, ...

  3. Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.

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    Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2009-01-01

    An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it ...

  4. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from Centaurea arenaria

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    Csapi, Bence; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupko, Istvan; Berényi, Ágnes; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál Tam'S; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The antiproliferative effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of Centaurea arenaria M.B. ex Willd. were investigated against cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells, using the MTT assay. The chloroform extract displayed high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activity (higher than 85% at 10 ?g/ml concentration), and was therefore subjected to a bioassay-guide...

  5. Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Yener; Sezgin, Mehmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ozmen Guler, Gokalp; Aydin Sanda, Murad

    2010-12-01

    In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps and C. cariensis subsp. microlepis. Generally, C 18:2 ω6 linoleic acid, C 16:0 palmitic acid, C 18:3 ω3 linolenic acid and C 18:1 oleic acid were found to be the major fatty acids in all species. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in all species. PUFAs were determined at 55.10%, 50.25%, 51.41%, 41.02%, 46.18% and 58.80% in C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and C. iberica, respectively. PMID:21108113

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn. Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn. Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jenerin, centaurepensin and, in some, also cynaropicrin. dominated.

  7. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, El Hadj; Leon, Francisco; Benayache, Samir, E-mail: jfleon@ipna.csic.es, E-mail: sbenayache@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Synthese de Substances Bioactives, Equipe Associee a l' A.N.D.R.S., Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Benayache, Fadila [Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Estevez, Sara; Quintana, Jose; Estevez, Francisco [Departamento de Bioquimica, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria (Spain); Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Phytochemical research of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones, 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin, 4'-acetyl cebellin F and 15-acetyl dehydromelitensin, together with twelve known compounds, seven sesquiterpene lactones, two isoprenoids and three flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS, and by comparison with reported data in the literature. The effect of sesquiterpene lactones on the viability of the human tumor cell lines HL-60 and U937 was also investigated and 3-acetyl cynaropicrin, and 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds against human leukemia cells with an IC{sub 50} values of 2.0 =- 0.9 and 5.1 +- 0.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  8. Nectar plant preferences of Hemaris (Sphingidae) on co-occurring native Cirsium and non-native Centaurea (Asteraceae) inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Elena S. Tartaglia; Steven N. Handel

    2014-01-01

    Preferences for certain nectar plants by moth pollinators have not been extensively studied, particularly seasonal switches in nectar diet. The genus Hemaris, found throughout North America and parts of other continents, is a useful new system to address questions of flower-insect interactions as the moths are relatively common and day-flying. In this study we address the following questions with a group of three Hemaris species. (1) Does Hemaris display a preference for foraging on the nativ...

  9. Four new taxa of Asteraceae in Sumatra

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    Sri Sudarmiyati Tjitrosoedirjo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available TJITROSOEDIRDJO, SRI S. 2002. Four new taxa of Asteraceae in Sumatra. Reinwardtia 12(1: 125–128. ⎯ Four new taxa of Asteraceae in Sumatra are described: Prenanthes L. (2 species, Senecio L. (1 species and Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC. (1 variety.

  10. Four new taxa of Asteraceae in Sumatra

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    Sri Sudarmiyati Tjitrosoedirjo

    2003-01-01

    TJITROSOEDIRDJO, SRI S. 2002. Four new taxa of Asteraceae in Sumatra. Reinwardtia 12(1): 125–128. ⎯ Four new taxa of Asteraceae in Sumatra are described: Prenanthes L. (2 species), Senecio L. (1 species) and Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. (1 variety).

  11. DIGITAL MAPPING AND MONITORING OF CENTAUREA RUTHENICA SPECIES AT THE BONTIDA-JUCU SITE

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    Raluca DIODIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a short review about digital mapping and monitoring of a plant species. The plant species chosen for this purpose was Centaurea ruthenica, a very rare forest steppe species in both Romanian and Europe’s flora, being considered a postglacial relict. The monitoring and the data collected for digital mapping was realized at the Bontida-Jucu site of Centaurea ruthenica. The data obtained after monitoring the species for several years were compared with the already existing data in the literature.

  12. Poliploïdia, filogènia i biogeografia en "Centaurea" L. Secció "Acrocentron" ("Cass".) DC

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    Font Garcia, Mònica

    2008-01-01

    [cat] El grup Acrocentron s'ha anat classificant i estructurant de diferents maneres al llarg dels anys, però segons l'última definició del grup estaria format per Centaurea sect. Acrocentron, a més de dues seccions molt petites, Centaurea sect. Chamaecyanus i Centaurea sect. Stephanochilus. Aquest grup es caracteritza cariològicament per ser un grup amb un elevat número d'espècies poliploides.En aquest treball hem intentat establir l'origen de dues sèries poliploides dins d' Acrocentron , ex...

  13. First Report of Crown Gall Caused by Agrobacterium sp. on Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A specimen of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, DK) with crown gall-like symptoms was collected July 27, 2004, in Mosier, Wasco Co., OR (N 45.6842, W 121.4021), and sent to the USDA at Ft. Detrick, MD, for identification. A bacterium was isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar that caused hyperplasia a...

  14. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  15. Components from the Essential oil of Centaurea aeolica Guss. and C. diluta Aiton from Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben Jemia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from florets, leaves and stems and branches of Centaurea aeolica Guss. harvested in Lipari, Sicily, Italy, were analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were β-eudesmol, caryophyllene oxide, ( E -12-norcaryophyll-5-en-2-one and hexahydrofarnesylacetone in flowers, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, 2-methyloctadecane and tricosane in the leaves and hexadecanoic acid , caryophyllene oxide and β-eudesmol in the stems and branches . The analysis of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Centaurea diluta Aiton gave mainly fatty acids and derivatives, the main ones being hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester.

  16. Constituents of the Egyptian Centaurea scoparia; Part II. Guaianolides of the Aerial Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, D; Frahm, A W

    1994-12-01

    Aerial parts of CENTAUREA SCOPARIA Sieb. afforded a new chlorinated guaianolide with an unusual isobutyl structural feature, diain ( 1), together with three known guaianolides, janerin ( 2), cynaropicrin ( 3), and deacylcynaropicrin ( 4). Structural assignments of the isolated compounds are based on spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectroscopy. New and revised (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data are reported. PMID:17236083

  17. The case against (-)-catechin involvement in allelopathy of Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Stephen O; Franck E. Dayan; Bajsa, Joanna; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Blair, Amy C

    2009-01-01

    Proving allelopathic chemical interference is a daunting endeavor, in that production and movement of a phytotoxin from a donor plant to a receiving plant must be demonstrated in the substrate in which the plants grow, which is usually a complex soil matrix. The soil levels or soil flux levels of the compound generated by the donor must be proven to be sufficient to adversely affect the receiving plant. Reports of (-)-catechin to be the novel weapon used by Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)...

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  19. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea kilaea Boiss. and C. cuneifolia Sm. from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    POLATO?LU, Kaan; ?EN, Ali; Bulut, Gizem; B?T??, Leyla; GÖREN, Nezhun

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of Centaurea kilaea flowers, stems and C. cuneifolia flowers were investigated by GC, GC/MS. Flowers and stems of C. kilaea afforded very low essential oil yield <0.01% (v/w). Nineteen and twenty compounds were identified in the flower and stem oils which represent 59.5% and 77.6% of the C. kilaea oil respectively. The main components of the C. kilaea flower oil were hexadecanoic acid 26.2%, tetradecanoic acid 18.1%, ?-Eudesmol 3.3% and decanoic acid 3.1%. The ste...

  20. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion... primary infection. (C) Albino. (b) Other kinds in the sunflower family: Artichoke, cardoon,...

  1. In vitro antioxidant activities of Asteraceae Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaylakshmi, S.; Nanjan, M.J.; Suresh, B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) are important medicinal plants indigenous to Nilgiris. Since the related species Anaphalis morrisonicola and Cnicus benedictus were reported for its anti cancer activities, the above mentioned plants were screened for Invitro antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out by DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydrogen peroxide methods for the aerial part extracts of the plants. Different ...

  2. Comparative anatomical and ecological investigations on some centaurea (asteracae) taxa from turkey and their taxonomic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomical and ecological characteristics of 7 Centaurea L. s. l. taxa (C. urvillei DC. ssp. stepposa Wagenitz, C. pseudoreflexa Hayek, C. simplicicaulis Boiss. and Huet, C. pecho Albow, C. hypoleuca DC., C. cheiranthifolia Willd.var. purpurascens (DC.) Wagenitz, C. woronowii Bornm.), which three of them are endemic (C. pseudoreflexa, C. pecho, C. woronowii) to Turkey has been carried out. Cross sections of stem, leaf blade and midrib and peripheral sections of the leaves, and pH, total N, P, K and organic matter contents of soil samples have been investigated. Variance analysis and Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test were performed on ecological and anatomical data. Ecological characteristics obtained in this investigation were found mostly similar. On the other hand, anatomically important differences were determined in diversity of anticlinal cell walls, length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of bundles in the midrib and number of stomata per mm/sup 2/ both on the epidermis of the leaf, and the shape of transverse section of stem. According to Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test, especially length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of stomata both on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises have displayed three distinct groups. These results are in accordance with sectional delimitation in the Flora of Turkey and also support upgrading the sum of species of the genus Centaurea. (author)

  3. NOTES ON THE ASTERACEAE OF SUMATERA

    OpenAIRE

    SRI SUDARMIYATI TJITROSOEDIRDJO

    2002-01-01

    An account of the tribe composition, endemic taxa, comparison with ad jacent areas and weedy Asteraceae of Sumatera is given. Based on the records of January 2000, there are 133 species of 74 genera in 11 tribes. The tribe Heliantheae is the largest, with 28% of the total number of the genera, followed by Astereae with 15%, Inuleae 12%, Senecioneae 10%, Anthemideae, Eupatorieae and Lactuceae 8%, the other tribes are represented by 4% or less. The most diverse genus is Blumea with 14 specie...

  4. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  5. NOTES ON THE ASTERACEAE OF SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SUDARMIYATI TJITROSOEDIRDJO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An account of the tribe composition, endemic taxa, comparison with ad jacent areas and weedy Asteraceae of Sumatera is given. Based on the records of January 2000, there are 133 species of 74 genera in 11 tribes. The tribe Heliantheae is the largest, with 28% of the total number of the genera, followed by Astereae with 15%, Inuleae 12%, Senecioneae 10%, Anthemideae, Eupatorieae and Lactuceae 8%, the other tribes are represented by 4% or less. The most diverse genus is Blumea with 14 species. Other genera are only represented by 10 species or less, usually 4, or 3, or 2, and mostly by 1 species only. Thirty nine or about 53% are exotic genera and the native ones are less than half of the total number of the genera. In terms of indigenous and endemic species, Sumatera is richer than Java. There are 1 genus, 7 species and 2 varieties of Asteraceae endemic to Sumatera. A number of 43 important weed species were introduced from Tropical America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Among these Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha are reported as the most noxious ones. List of the genera and species recorded in Sumatera is provided in this paper.

  6. Ecological, morphological and allozymic differentiation between diploid and tetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea) from a contact zone in the Belgian Ardennes

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, O J; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Loose, M.; Meerts, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the northeastern part of Belgium, the Centaurea jacea complex shows extensive morphological variation and is represented by a diploid (2n = 22) and a tetraploid (2n = 44) cytotype. Polysomic inheritance of allozyme markers in the tetraploids, suggesting autopolyploidy, is here demonstrated for the first time. In order to test whether the tno cytotypes occupy distinct habitats and possess different gene pools, patterns of allozymic and morphological variation were investigated in relation t...

  7. Influence of plant phenostage and ploidy level on oviposition and feeding of two specialist herbivores of spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Alexandra R.; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    A caged field experiment was used to determine how Centaurea stoebe L. phenostage (rosette, single-stem, multiple-stem) and ploidy level (diploid = 2× and tetraploid = 4×) influence oviposition and feeding of two biological control agents, Agapeta zoegana (Lep.: Cochylidae) and Cyphocleonus achates (Col.: Curculionidae). Ploidy level did not influence oviposition patterns of A. zoegana but rosette and one-stem plants had significantly more eggs than multiple-stem (4×) plants. Differences in o...

  8. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. PMID:26164759

  9. Evaluating Antimicrobial Effects of Centaurea Plant’s Essential Oil on Pathogenic Bacteria: Staphylococcus Aureus, Staphylococcus Epidermidis, and Escherichia Coli Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haedeh Mobaiyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives :Nowadays, development of drug resistance against chemical antimicrobial drugs has attracted attention using medicinal plants in treatment of infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of two species of Centaurea plant’s essential oil on drug resistant clinical isolates of three pathogenic isolates. Materials & Methods :The studied plants were collected from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, Iran and were confirmed as Centaurea Depressa M.B. and Centaurea Cyanus L. by botanists of Iran Agriculture Organization. The essential oil of these plants (Stems and leaf were extracted via steam distillation method by Clevenger, and their antimicrobial effects were studied by well diffusion method in the abovementioned bacteria. The components of essential oil were identified by injection to gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/M. Results :The results of this study prove that the essential oils from the abovementioned plants have bactericidal effects. The most antibacterial effect is observed in Escherichia coli strains. The results of GC/MS chromatography reveal that the essential oils of Centaurea Depressa M.B. and Centaurea Cyanus L. have 28 and 32 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the grasses could be used in medicinal plants group with antibacterial properties. However, their effects in vivo must be evaluated and the most effective component of them must be identified carefully so that they can be applied commonly as an alternative synthetic drug in treating infections.

  10. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    Full Text Available Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1 rates of bee visitation, 2 viable seed set, and 3 the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set. We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  11. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  12. Bioactivity of two Turkish endemic Centaurea species, and their major constituents Bioatividade e os principais constituintes químicos de duas espécies de Centaurea, endêmicas da Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity, general toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Centaurea urvillei subs. armata and C. mucronifera have been assessed, respectively, by the DPPH assay, the brine shrimp lethality and the MTT cytotoxicity assays. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the methanol extracts afforded two bioactive dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans, matairesinoside (1 and arctiin (2. The structures of these lignans were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses as well as by the direct comparison of experimental data with respective literature data.A atividade antioxidante, a toxicidade geral e a citotoxidade dos extratos metanólicos de Centaurea urvillei subs. armata e C. mucronifera foram analisados, respectivamente, pelo ensaio DPPH e pelos ensaios de letalidade de Artemia salina e de citotoxidade MTT. A análise dos extratos metanólicos em CLAE de fase reversa apresentou duas lignanas biotivas do tipo dibenzilbutirolactona, matairesinosídeo (1 e arctiina (2. As estruturas destas lignanas foram elucidadas através de análises espectroscópicas completas bem como por comparação direta dos dados experimentais com os respectivos dados da literatura.

  13. Comparing susceptibility of eastern and western U.S. grasslands to competition and allelopathy from spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centaurea maculosa is native to Eurasia and is invasive in the western portion of the US. Negative impacts of C. maculosa present in the eastern US have not been recorded. In this study, we examine the effects of C. maculosa on species diversity on an eastern grassy bald, compare the competitive a...

  14. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  15. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  16. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Y.O. Bychkova; H.Y. Babaeva; A.G. Deviatov

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd.) D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.). Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  17. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.; Gemici, M.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  18. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. PMID:26979262

  19. Polyploidy in phenotypic space and invastion context: A morphometric study of Centaurea stoebe s.l

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mráz, Patrik; Bourchier, Robert S.; Treier, Urs;

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Centaurea stoebe complex is controversial. Diploid and tetraploid plants occur in its native European range, but to date only tetraploids have been recorded from its introduced range in North America. We examined morphological differentiation of C. stoebe using multivariate and...... univariate approaches to clarify the taxonomic status of the known cytotypes. We measured more than 40 morphological traits on plants originating from 78 populations, grown from seed under uniform glasshouse conditions. The ploidy of almost 300 plants from 2 native and 20 introduced populations from Canada...... and 4x plants and thus supported recognition of both cytotypes as separate taxa. Differences in the life cycle, the number of florets, the shape of capitula, and the shape of young rosette leaves were the best discriminant characters. Only minor differences were found between native and introduced...

  20. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  1. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  2. Presence of Senecio sylvaticus L. (Asteraceae in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunçkol Bilge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The annual plant Senecio sylvaticus L. (Asteraceae is regarded as a doubtfully recorded in Turkey. It has not been collected in the country since the first report of its occurrence in the north eastern Black Sea Region in 1875. This paper reconfirms the occurrence of Senecio sylvaticus in Turkey. New specimens were collected from the Ereğli and Alaplı regions (Zonguldak province, NW Turkey in 2014. The species description, distribution maps and photographs are given.

  3. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał, K.; Płachno, B. J.; Świątek, P.; Marciniuk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ...

  4. Evaluating Antimicrobial Effects of Centaurea Plant’s Essential Oil on Pathogenic Bacteria: Staphylococcus Aureus, Staphylococcus Epidermidis, and Escherichia Coli Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Haedeh Mobaiyen; Abolfazl Jafari Sales; Javad Sayyahi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives :Nowadays, development of drug resistance against chemical antimicrobial drugs has attracted attention using medicinal plants in treatment of infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of two species of Centaurea plant’s essential oil on drug resistant clinical isolates of three pathogenic isolates. Materials & Methods :The studied plants were collected from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, Iran and were confirmed ...

  5. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies. PMID:27172598

  6. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela morphology. The latter is proposed as a replacement name for Mikania dentata G.M.Barroso, a later homonym of M. dentata Spreng. Line drawings and comments about conservation status are made for bot...

  7. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and ...

  8. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  9. Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeara, R; Albuquerque, S; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C

    2003-01-01

    In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas' disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniques and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promising compound for use against T. cruzi in blood banks. PMID:13678232

  10. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  11. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment. PMID:23140532

  12. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  13. 矢车菊和大花金鸡菊的核型研究%THE KARYOTYPE STUDIES OF CENTAUREA CYANUS AND COREOPSIS GRANDIFLORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德奎

    2001-01-01

    对矢车菊和大花金鸡菊的染色体进行了研究,结果显示,矢车菊(Centaurea cyanus L.)染色体数目为2n=48,核型公式为K(2n)=4x=48=20m+28sm,相对长度组成为2n=48=4 L+24M2+12 M1+8 S,核型为“2A”;大花金鸡菊(Coreopsis,grandiflora Hogg.)的染色体数目为2n=26,核型公式为K(2n)=2X=26=26m,相对长度组成为2n=26=14M2+10M1+2S,核型为“1A”.%The results of some karyotype studies of Centaurea cyanus L. and Coreopsis grandi-flora Hogg. from Shandong are reported. The results showed: the chromosome number of Centaurea cyanus L. is 2 n = 48, its karyotype formula is K (2 n ) = 4X = 48 = 20 m + 28 sm, composition of rela-tive length of chromosome is 2n =48=4 L + 24 M2 + 12 M1 + 8 S,belonging to “2A” of Stebbins;the chromosome number of Coreopsis grandiflor Hogg. is 2n = 26,its karyotype formula is K (2n) = 2x=26 =26 m, composition of relative length of chromosome is 2n = 26 = 14 M2 + 10 M1 + 2 S,belonging to ”1A”of Stebbins.

  14. De ontrafeling van in Nederland ingeburgerde Amerikaanse herfstasters (Symphyotrichum Nees subg. Symphyotrichum sect. Symphyotrichum, Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, Gerard M.; Reijerse, Fons A.I.; Duistermaat, Leni H.

    2014-01-01

    De moeilijke determinatie van ingeburgerde Amerikaanse herfstasters (Symphyotrichum Nees subg. Symphyotrichum sect. Symphyotrichum, Asteraceae), als gevolg van uiteenlopende opvattingen over hun taxonomie, was voor ons aanleiding om deze planten beter te leren kennen. In september en oktober 2011 ve

  15. Species-specific effects of polyploidisation and plant traits of Centaurea maculosa and Senecio inaequidens on rhizosphere microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Aurélie; Frey, Beat; Mitchell, Edward A D; Buttler, Alexandre

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plant species represent a threat to terrestrial ecosystems, but their effects on the soil biota and the mechanisms involved are not yet well understood. Many invasive species have undergone polyploidisation, leading to the coexistence of various cytotypes in the native range, whereas, in most cases, only one cytotype is present in the introduced range. Since genetic variation within a species can modify soil rhizosphere communities, we studied the effects of different cytotypes and ranges (native diploid, native tetraploid and introduced tetraploid) of Centaurea maculosa and Senecio inaequidens on microbial biomass carbon, rhizosphere total DNA content and bacterial communities of a standard soil in relation to plant functional traits. There was no overall significant difference in microbial biomass between cytotypes. The variation of rhizosphere total DNA content and bacterial community structure according to cytotype was species specific. The rhizosphere DNA content of S. inaequidens decreased with polyploidisation in the native range but did not vary for C. maculosa. In contrast, the bacterial community structure of C. maculosa was affected by polyploidisation and its diversity increased, whereas there was no significant change for S. inaequidens. Traits of S. inaequidens were correlated to the rhizosphere biota. Bacterial diversity and total DNA content were positively correlated with resource allocation to belowground growth and late flowering, whereas microbial biomass carbon was negatively correlated to investment in reproduction. There were no correlations between traits of the cytotypes of C. maculosa and corresponding rhizosphere soil biota. This study shows that polyploidisation may affect rhizosphere bacterial community composition, but that effects vary among plant species. Such changes may contribute to the success of invasive polyploid genotypes in the introduced range. PMID:20229242

  16. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  17. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  18. A rare case of a natural contact zone in Morocco between an autopolyploid and an allopolyploid of Centaurea aspera with sterile tetraploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, A; Ferriol, M; Juarez, J; Zając, A; Kałużny, K; Merle, H

    2015-05-01

    A new contact zone between Centaurea aspera and Centaurea seridis was found in Morocco. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry showed that both taxa were tetraploid (4x = 44). A literature review and morphometric analysis established that C. aspera corresponds to the autopolyploid C. aspera subsp. gentilii and C. seridis corresponds to the allopolyploid C. seridis var. auriculata. This contact area was compared with the homologous contact zones in Spain formed by the diploid C. aspera subsp. stenophylla and the tetraploid C. seridis subsp. maritima. Natural hybrids between parental species were frequent in both areas. In Spain, hybrids were triploid (from reduced gametes A and gamete AB), highly sterile and exerted a 'triploid block'. In Morocco, cytometry showed that hybrids were tetraploid and, therefore, probably fertile, but all the capitula lacked achenes. It is likely that the resulting genome of the new tetraploid hybrid (AAAB), through the fusion of reduced gametes AA (from subsp. gentilii) and AB (from var. auriculata), could explain irregularities in meiosis through formation of aneuploid gametes and, therefore, infertility of the hybrid. Moroccan sterile tetraploid hybrids develop, but have the identical irregularities to Spanish triploids, probably due to the odd number of homologous chromosomes. The new hybrid is first described as C. x subdecurrens nothosubsp. paucispinus. In addition, distribution and ecological traits are analysed. PMID:25363815

  19. El género Pluchea (familia Asteraceae, tribu Plucheeae) en México The genus Pluchea (family Asteraceae, tribe Plucheeae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Villaseñor; José Ángel Villarreal

    2006-01-01

    El género Pluchea (Asteraceae, Plucheeae), distribuido principalmente en las regiones tropicales de América, África, Asia y Australia, registra en México 9 epecies, 2 de ellas endémicas del país. Se presenta una sinopsis del género para México, incluyendo una clave para la identificación de las especies y mapas de distribución obtenidos de los ejemplares revisados.The genus Pluchea (Asteraceae, Plucheeae) is mostly found in the tropical regions of America, Africa, Asia, and Australia; in Mexi...

  20. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  1. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  2. Chemical Constituents and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Senecio ventanensis Cabrera (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Paola Alza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents and acetylcholinesterase inhibition was investigated in both essential oil and dichloromethane subextract obtained from the aerial parts of Senecio ventanensis, an endemic Asteraceae. The chemical composition of the oil was determined by GC and GC-MS. The major constituents were a -terpinene (12.2%, limonene (11.9%, -humulene (10.5%, sabinene (9.1%, terpinolene (8.8%, p-cymene (8.1% and a -ocimene (7.3%. The bioassay guided isolation of the constituents of the active dichloromethane subextract (IC 50 = 361.6 µg/mL led us to the isolation of two diastereoisomers of a sesquiterpene endoperoxide 3,6-epidioxy-1,10-bisaboladiene (1 and 2, reported here for the first time in S. ventanensis. The identification was achieved by comprehensive analyses of its 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data (including 2D experiments and mass spectrometric data. Their absolute configuration is proposed on the basis of AM1 calculations and NOESY experiments. This is the first time that compounds 1 and 2 have been separated as well as the first phytochemical investigation of S. ventanensis.

  3. KONYA'DA YETİŞEN CENTAUREA PTEROCAULA TRUATV. 'IN FENOLİK YAPISI VE ANTİOKSİDAN ETKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    TEKELİ, Yener

    2009-01-01

    antioksidan aktivitesinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Centaurea Pterocaula 'u yağından uzaklaştırılmak için sokslet apareyi ile petrol eterinde ekstrakte edildi. Sonra materyal %70 lik metanolde tekrar ekstraksiyona tabi tutuldu ve çözücüsünden uzaklaştırıldı. Toplam fenolik madde konsantrasyonu Folin-Ciocalteu metoduna, serbest radikal süpürme etkisi DPPH metoduna göre ve indirgeme gücü ise Oyaizu metoduna göre yapıldı. Bitkinin fenolik yapısı HPLC ile belirlendi. Sonuçlar sen...

  4. CENTAUREA CARDUIFORMIS (PEYGAMBER ÇİÇEĞİ)'İN ANTİOKSİDAN AKTİVİTESİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    TEKELİ, Yener

    2009-01-01

    Özet: Bu çalışmada Konya civarından toplanan Centaurea Carduiformis DC. subsp. 'u yağından uzaklaştırılmak için sokslet apareyi ile petrol eterinde ekstrakte edildi. Sonra materyal %70 lik metanolde tekrar ekstraksiyona tabi tutuldu ve çözücüsünden uzaklaştırılarak liyofilize edildi. Antioksidan aktivitesi ölçülene kadar +4 oC de karanlıkta muhafaza edildi. Toplam fenolik madde konsantrasyonu gallik asit standardına göre Folin-Ciocalteu metoduna, serbest radikal süpürme etkisi DPPH (1,1-difen...

  5. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  6. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae. These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted. The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg. Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., E. aurantia Aristeg., E. brassicoidea var. macroclada, E. brassicoidea var. pedunculata, E. garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec. Cuatrec. are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec. Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given.

  7. Estudo fitoquímico da espécie Pterocaulon interruptum DC. (Asteraceae Phytochemical study of Pterocaulon interruptum Dc., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Winkler Heemann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Pterocaulon interruptum DC. (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento de cinco compostos: uma cumarina, sabandinol, dois esteróides, estigmasterol e 3-O-acetil-taraxasterol e dois flavonóides, quercetina e taxifolina 7-O-prenilada. As estruturas destas substâncias foram estabelecidas por análises espectroscópicas, sendo que este é o primeiro trabalho sobre o isolamento destes compostos em Pterocaulon interruptum DC.Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Pterocaulon interruptum DC., Asteraceae, resulted in the isolation of five compounds: one coumarin, sabandinol, two steroids, stigmasterol and 3-O-acetyl taraxasterol and two flavonoids, quercetin (flavonol and 7-O-prenyl taxifolin (dihydroxyflavonol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in Pterocaulon interruptum DC.

  8. El género Pluchea (familia Asteraceae, tribu Plucheeae en México The genus Pluchea (family Asteraceae, tribe Plucheeae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villaseñor

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Pluchea (Asteraceae, Plucheeae, distribuido principalmente en las regiones tropicales de América, África, Asia y Australia, registra en México 9 epecies, 2 de ellas endémicas del país. Se presenta una sinopsis del género para México, incluyendo una clave para la identificación de las especies y mapas de distribución obtenidos de los ejemplares revisados.The genus Pluchea (Asteraceae, Plucheeae is mostly found in the tropical regions of America, Africa, Asia, and Australia; in Mexico the genus records 9 species, 2 of them endemic. In this paper a synopsis of the genus in Mexico is presented; it includes a key to identify the species as well as distribution maps obtained from the specimens examined.

  9. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily. The...

  10. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan;

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distributi...

  11. Estudio de la propagación sexual del arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    William Escobar-Torres; Loyla Rodríguez-Perez; Marcela Tamayo-Rincón

    2010-01-01

    Sexual propagation of arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (Asteraceae). Objective. To develop sexual propagationmethodologies for Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (arboloco). Materials and methods. Seeds were harvested from treesgrown at the Chilaca environmental station (Geoambiente Ltda.) located in Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The study was carried out intwo phases: firstly, substrate effect on germination responses was evaluated in seedbed conditions. Substra...

  12. Cirsium semzinanicum (Asteraceae), a new species from Hakkâri, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fırat,Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Cirsium semzinanicum sp. nov. (Asteraceae) is described as a new species from Hakkâri, Turkey. The new species is a part of the sect. Epitrachys (Cardueae) and similar to Cirsium karduchorum, from which it differs in morphological characters such as leaves, involucre, phyllaries, corolla, achens and pollen morphology. Geographical distribution, habitat and IUCN conservation status of this species are given.

  13. Asteraceae in Strelitzia 14 (2003 and Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 41 (2006: updates and corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Herman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The distributions, endemism and tribal affiliations o f taxa in the family Asteraceae in southern Africa are updated. New ombinations and newly described species are added to the previously published lists.

  14. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  15. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A.; Chattopadhyay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  16. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Severino Martins; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Elane Sousa Bandeira; José Carréra Silva; Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites wi...

  17. Tree and tree-like species of Mexico: Asteraceae, Leguminosae, and Rubiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricker; Hernández, Héctor M.; Mario Sousa; Helga Ochoterena

    2013-01-01

    Trees or tree-like plants are defined here broadly as perennial, self-supporting plants with a total height of at least 5 m (without ascending leaves or inflorescences), and with one or several erect stems with a diameter of at least 10 cm. We continue our compilation of an updated list of all native Mexican tree species with the dicotyledonous families Asteraceae (36 species, 39% endemic), Leguminosae with its 3 subfamilies (449 species, 41% endemic), and Rubiaceae (134 species, 24% endemic)...

  18. ISOLATION AND ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF STEVIOSIDE FROM LEAVES OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERT; (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Inamake M.R.; Shelar P.D.; Kulkarni M.S.; Katekar S.M.; Tambe Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Stevioside a natural non caloric sweetener isolated from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae or compositae). It has been widely used in many countries, including Japan, Korea, China, Brazil and Paraguay, either as a substitute for sucrose in beverages and foods or as a household sweetening agent isolated from the dried leaves of Stevia. In the present work attempt was made to isolate stevioside from the dried leaves of Stevia in its purest form. Isolated stevioside w...

  19. Comparative study of closely related \\kur{Asteraceae} species with different invasive status

    OpenAIRE

    ŠAFARČÍKOVÁ, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Complex of 4 closely related Asteraceae species with different invasive status (native Bidens tripartita, casual aliens Cosmos bipinnatus, Coreopis tinctoria and invasive alien Bidens frondosa) was studied to clarify the invasive success of Bidens frondosa and to assess the invasive potential of both unsuccessful aliens. Among studied characteristics were included: reproductive traits (germination in different regimes, seed viability and seed production), growth characteristics (relative grow...

  20. Distribution of the most common weeds from fam. Asteraceae in Srem

    OpenAIRE

    Igić Ružica S.; Konstantinović Branko; Polić Dubravka; Anačkov Goran T.

    2002-01-01

    Weeds fall into a specific ecological group of plants and man should play the key role in controlling the process of their formation and the rate of their spreading. Damage caused by weeds is significant in both the agricultural and natural ecosystems. Therefore, special care should be paid to the current rate of their spreading, ensuring that the caused environmental changes do not become irreversible. The paper summarizes the locations in which the most common weed types of the Asteraceae f...

  1. Endive, Chicory, and their wild relatives. A systematic and phylogenetic study of Cichorium (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiers, Annemieke M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a systematic and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cichorium. Cichorium is a small genus within the Asteraceae family (tribe Lactuceae) and is well known because of its two widely cultivated species: C. endivia (endive) and C. intybus (chicory). The genus occurs in the Old World and has been introduced in temperate and semi-arid regions elsewhere. An important diagnostic character at the genus and species level is the unique structure of the pappus, which, at the same t...

  2. Estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule de Baccharis uncinella DC., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Manfron Budel Jane; Duarte, Márcia do Rocio

    2008-01-01

    Baccharis uncinella DC. belongs to the Asteraceae family and is included in the Spicata group. Its synonym is Baccharis discolor Baker and it is popularly known as vassoura and vassoura-lageana in Portuguese. The phytochemical screening has shown the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. Baccharis uncinella has presented antiviral activity against Herpes simplex type I. The volatile oil of the aerial organs has exhibited antimicrobial a...

  3. Leaf and stem microscopic identification of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia do Rocio Duarte; Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    2012-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray is an Asteraceae shrub, popularly known as Mexican sunflower and cultivated for ornamental and therapeutic uses in different countries. In folk medicine, it is of value for treating diabetes, malaria and infectious diseases. These indications have been corroborated by various pharmacological assays. Given the lack of data on anatomical aspects of T. diversifolia, this work aimed to investigate the leaf and stem microscopic characters of this medicinal pl...

  4. Musteranalysen an ausgewählten variegaten Formen der Araceae, Asteraceae, Ericaceae, Marantaceae und Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Ibanez, David

    2001-01-01

    Der Ursprung, die Entwicklung und die Formierung von Laubblatt-Mustern konnten bei ausgewählten variegaten Formen der Araceae, Asteraceae, Ericaceae, Maranthaceae und Rosaceae erklärt werden. Die Pflanzen wurden je nach Problematik untersucht und in drei verschiedene Gruppen verteilt: In der ersten Gruppe, Blattmuster mit unregelmäßiger makulater Musterung, Monstera deliciosa, Syngonium podophyllum und die Sorten 'Pirol' und 'Luyona' von Dendranthema grandiflorum zeigen ein unregelmäßiges Lau...

  5. Clinal differentiation during invasion: Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae) along altitudinal gradients in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Mahy, Grégory

    2009-01-01

    Plant population differentiation may play a role in decreasing the ability to predict whether, where, and when an introduced species will invade. However, few studies have addressed the level of genetic change an alien species may undergo during range expansion, e.g. in response to climatic variation with altitude. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that invasive populations of Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae) differentiated during migration from two independent introduction sites...

  6. Chromosomal organization and phylogenetic relationships in Hypochaeris species (Asteraceae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudete de Fátima Ruas; André L.L. Vanzela; Melissa O. Santos; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Paulo Maurício Ruas; Nelson I. Matzenbacher; Margarida L.R. Aguiar-Perecin

    2005-01-01

    The association of cytogenetic and molecular techniques has contributed to the analysis of chromosome organization and phylogeny in plants. The fluorochrome GC-specific CMA3, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers were used to investigate chromosome structure and genetic relationships in Hypochaeris (Asteraceae). Seven species native to South America, and two species introduced from Europe (H. glabra and Hypochaeris sp) were studied. FISH ...

  7. Larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extracts of plant, Chromolaena odorata L. (Asteraceae) against vector mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jagruti H. Sukhthankar; Hemanth Kumar; M. H. S. Godinho; Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit malaria, filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, etc. Repeated use of insecticides for mosquito control has caused development of resistance, adverse effects on non-target organisms and serious environmental concerns. Hence alternative control measures are being explored inter alia plant based insecticides. We carried out larvicidal bioassays with methanolic extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata (family Asteraceae) against late instar larvae of disease vectors Anopheles stephe...

  8. A Database of Antidiabetic Plant Species of Family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Tanu Sharma; Sidhu, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the ph...

  9. A Metabolomic Approach to Target Compounds from the Asteraceae Family for Dual COX and LOX Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Chagas-Paula

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of metabolomics in phytochemical analysis is an innovative strategy for targeting active compounds from a complex plant extract. Species of the Asteraceae family are well-known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory (AI activity. Dual inhibition of the enzymes COX-1 and 5-LOX is essential for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, but there is not much investigation reported in the literature for natural products. In this study, 57 leaf extracts (EtOH-H2O 7:3, v/v from different genera and species of the Asteraceae family were tested against COX-1 and 5-LOX while HPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis of the extracts indicated high diversity in their chemical compositions. Using O2PLS-DA (R2 > 0.92; VIP > 1 and positive Y-correlation values, dual inhibition potential of low-abundance metabolites was determined. The O2PLS-DA results exhibited good validation values (cross-validation = Q2 > 0.7 and external validation = P2 > 0.6 with 0% of false positive predictions. The metabolomic approach determined biomarkers for the required biological activity and detected active compounds in the extracts displaying unique mechanisms of action. In addition, the PCA data also gave insights on the chemotaxonomy of the family Asteraceae across its diverse range of genera and tribes.

  10. Pollen–pistil interactions and self-incompatibility in the Asteraceae: new insights from studies of Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M.; Thorogood, Christopher J.; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen–pistil interactions are an essential prelude to fertilization in angiosperms and determine compatibility/incompatibility. Pollen–pistil interactions have been studied at a molecular and cellular level in relatively few families. Self-incompatibility (SI) is the best understood pollen–pistil interaction at a molecular level where three different molecular mechanisms have been identified in just five families. Here we review studies of pollen–pistil interactions and SI in the Asteraceae, an important family that has been relatively understudied in these areas of reproductive biology. Scope We begin by describing the historical literature which first identified sporophytic SI (SSI) in species of Asteraceae, the SI system later identified and characterized at a molecular level in the Brassicaceae. Early structural and cytological studies in these two families suggested that pollen–pistil interactions and SSI were similar, if not the same. Recent cellular and molecular studies in Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort) have challenged this belief by revealing that despite sharing the same genetic system of SSI, the Brassicaceae and Asteraceae molecular mechanisms are different. Key cellular differences have also been highlighted in pollen–stigma interactions, which may arise as a consequence of the Asteraceae possessing a ‘semi-dry’ stigma, rather than the ‘dry’ stigma typical of the Brassicaceae. The review concludes with a summary of recent transcriptomic analyses aimed at identifying proteins regulating pollen–pistil interactions and SI in S. squalidus, and by implication the Asteraceae. The Senecio pistil transcriptome contains many novel pistil-specific genes, but also pistil-specific genes previously shown to play a role in pollen–pistil interactions in other species. Conclusions Studies in S. squalidus have shown that stigma structure and the molecular mechanism of SSI in the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae are different. The

  11. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  12. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  13. Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) possess antioxidant properties on Fe2+-initiated peroxidation of rat brain microsomes

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Alejandro; Barberón, Javier; Leaden, Patricio; Zeinsteger, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) extract (CO) on the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, chemiluminescence and unsaturation index of microsomes isolated from brain rat, are presented. After incubation of microsomes in an ascorbate (0.4 mM)-Fe2+ (2.15 μM) system (180 min at 37 °C) it was observed that the total cpm/mg protein originated from light emission:chemiluminescence was lower in brain microsomes obtained from CO group compared to the control group ...

  14. Composition of the essential oil from leaves of Smallanthus quichensis (Asteraceae) from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Chaverri; José F. Cicció

    2015-01-01

    Smallanthus es un género de plantas perteneciente a la familia Asteraceae que contiene aproximadamente 24 especies, la mayoría ubicadas desde el sur de México, América Central y hasta la cordillera de los Andes en América del Sur. El objetivo del prese nte estudio fue el de identifica r la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas de S. quichensis . La extracción se realizó mediante el método de hidrodestilación, empleando un instrumento de tipo Cleve...

  15. Una nueva especie de Pentacalia (Senecioneae: Asteraceae del Norte de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Es descrita e ilustrada una nueva especie de Pentacalia Cassini (Senecioneae: Asteraceae procedente del Departamento de La Libertad, Perú, y aparentemente endémica de la Provincia de Santiago de Chuco, denominada Pentacalia vallejiana Sagást. & E. Rodr. sp. nov. Esta nueva especie es suigéneris entre las especies peruanas y dentro del género. Se compara con sus relacionados y adicionalmente se presentan datos sobre su distribución geográfica y ecológica.

  16. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  17. Matricaria L. (Anthemideae, Asteraceae in Iran: a chemotaxonomic study based on flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Matricaria L. belongs to the tribe Anthemideae and the subtribe Matricineae (Asteraceae and comprises 7 species of which 2 species grow wild in Iran. This study was aimed to characterize the Iranian materials of Matricaria using profiles of flavonoid spots and determination of skeletons of major flavonoids in each species. Twelve bulked population samples from Matricaria aurea and M. recutita were examined. Presence -absence data from two dimensional maps (2DM of their flavonoid spots were processed using Cluster and PCA analyses. Differences at species level in flavonoid skeleton properties were investigated and a taxonomic review of close taxa was provided.

  18. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Macêdo

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  19. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  20. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  1. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of eight Asteraceae and two Rubiaceae plants from colombian biodiversity Atividades antibactariana, antifúngica e citotóxica de oito plantas Asteraceae e duas Rubiaceae da biodiversidade colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crude extracts of eight plants belonging to Asteraceae and two to Rubiaceae families collected at different places from the Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (RNPU, Colombia, were tested for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi. Both the antibacterial and the antimycotic activities were tested by the agar well diffusion method. The cytotoxic activity on the same plant extracts was determined through the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The extracts from the Asteraceae family were more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The extracts of both families studied were bioactive against the fungi Candida albicans and Fusarium solani. In addition, the extracts of Asteraceae species displayed the greatest cytotoxic activities. However, the most important specie in this research was Gonzalagunia rosea Standl (Rubiaceae because of the strong and moderate activities of the methanol and dichloromethane extracts against C. albicans and F. solani, respectively; as well as the strong cytotoxic activity of the methanol extract. None of these ten plants has previously been reported for their biological activities.Trinta extratos crus de oito plantas da família Asteraceae e a duas plantas da família Rubiaceae, coletadas em diferentes lugares do Parque Natural Regional Ucumarí (PNRU, Colombia, foram avaliadas quanto à atividade contra duas bactérias Gram-positivas, duas Gram-negativas e três fungos. As atividades antibacteriana e antimicótica foram determinadas pelo método de difusão em agar. A atividade citotóxica dos mesmos extratos foi determinada através do bioensaio de Artemia salina. Os extratos da família Asteraceae foram os mais bioativos contra Bacillus subtilis e Staphylococcus aureus. Os extratos de ambas famílias estudadas foram bioativos contra os fungos Candida albicans e Fusarium solani. Os extratos da família Asteraceae exibiram maior

  2. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier Lucy; Bellec Arnaud; Blassiau Christelle; Prat Elisa; Helmstetter Nicolas; Rambaud Caroline; Huss Brigitte; Hendriks Theo; Bergès Hélène; Quillet Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries ...

  3. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne.(Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaiz; Ahmad; Lone; Ajay; Kumar; Bhardwaj; Kunwar; Wajahat; Shah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich and temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods: Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called "Bhoeris" and tribals(Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results: During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L.,(Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.

  4. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. (Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaiz Ahmad Lone; Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj; Kunwar Wajahat Shah

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich and temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods:Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called“Bhoeris”and tribals (Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results:During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L., (Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.

  5. Influence of different substrates on the germination of jambu (Spilanthes oleracea L. – Asteracea

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    Isabela Cristina Gomes Honório

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of different substrates on the germination of Spilanthes oleracea L. (Asteraceae seeds, a native species of northern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications, with 25 seeds each. The treatments consisted of the following substrates: commercial substrate Plantmax®, soil + manure (2:1, soil, washed sand, partially carbonized rice peel and germitest paper. We evaluated the germination (%, the germination rate index (GRI, and the radicle length. The results presented significant differences for the parameter radicle length, and lower values were shown when substrate soil or sand was utilized. With the exception of soil, that had lower averages for all analyzed parameters, the other substrates were found to be suitable for the germination of S. oleracea.

  6. ISOLATION AND ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF STEVIOSIDE FROM LEAVES OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERT; (ASTERACEAE

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    Inamake M.R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stevioside a natural non caloric sweetener isolated from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae or compositae. It has been widely used in many countries, including Japan, Korea, China, Brazil and Paraguay, either as a substitute for sucrose in beverages and foods or as a household sweetening agent isolated from the dried leaves of Stevia. In the present work attempt was made to isolate stevioside from the dried leaves of Stevia in its purest form. Isolated stevioside was purified, analyzed & characterized by using various chromatographic & analytical methods including TLC, UV, FTIR, NMR and HPLC methods. The Rf value for TLC was 0.32, λmax of UV spectra was obtained at 333 nm and HPLC showed the sharp peak with 1.958 min retention time. The isolated stevioside was also compared with standard stevioside with all analytical methods.

  7. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  8. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract). PMID:26828806

  9. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubée, Daniel B Montesinos

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to Senecio ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of Senecio subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos. PMID:25197221

  10. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae from South Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montesinos Tubée

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of S. subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos.

  11. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  12. Larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extracts of plant, Chromolaena odorata L. (Asteraceae against vector mosquitoes

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    Jagruti H. Sukhthankar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes transmit malaria, filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, etc. Repeated use of insecticides for mosquito control has caused development of resistance, adverse effects on non-target organisms and serious environmental concerns. Hence alternative control measures are being explored inter alia plant based insecticides. We carried out larvicidal bioassays with methanolic extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata (family Asteraceae against late instar larvae of disease vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The highest mortality was observed in Cx. quinquefasciatus [LC50 = 43 ppm, (95% CI: 34 - 48 ppm; LC90 = 110 ppm (CI: 94 - 135 ppm] followed by Ae. aegypti [LC50 = 138 ppm, (CI: 121 - 157 ppm; LC90 = 463 ppm (CI: 386 - 584 ppm] and An. stephensi [LC50 = 1613 ppm (CI: 1364 - 1890 ppm; LC90 = 8306 ppm (CI: 6598 - 11076 ppm]. Being larvicidal, leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata could be explored further.

  13. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. PMID:26642998

  14. Inbreeding effects on fitness traits in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis L. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, F. X.; Koubek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Heterocarpic plants are characterized by the production of distinct types of fruits that usually differ in their ecological behavior. In the Asteraceae, differences are mainly found between peripheral non-dispersal and central dispersal achenes (single-seeded fruits). Inbreeding depression is considered as an evolutionary force as it may reduce several fitness traits, and in the case of heterocarpic plants, it could influence fitness traits (e.g., seed set, germination rate, growth rate) of each fruit morph, which may have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. In particular, differential effects on fitness traits and dispersal of selfed and outcrossed progeny can strongly determine the viability of extant populations and the potential to colonize new habitats. We conducted a hand-pollination experiment in greenhouse conditions to test whether inbreeding affects the fitness of achene morphs in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis (Asteraceae). Results show that achene morphs significantly differ in their ecological behavior, peripheral achenes germinating more and faster than central achenes. The significant interaction between pollination treatment and achene morph for germination probability might indicate a link between dormancy and mating system in L. autumnalis: germination was higher for outcrossed achenes in central achenes whereas the opposite pattern was exhibited by peripheral achenes. Selfing dramatically reduced seed set, probably as a consequence of strong self-incompatibility mechanisms rather than inbreeding effects. Inbreeding depression significantly affected late life-cycle traits, such as growth rate and biomass at flowering. Overall, results suggest that inbreeding depression seems to be an important selective force maintaining outcrossing in L. autumnalis.

  15. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of eight Asteraceae and two Rubiaceae plants from colombian biodiversity Atividades antibactariana, antifúngica e citotóxica de oito plantas Asteraceae e duas Rubiaceae da biodiversidade colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Niño; Narváez, Diana M.; Oscar M. Mosquera; Yaned M Correa

    2006-01-01

    Thirty crude extracts of eight plants belonging to Asteraceae and two to Rubiaceae families collected at different places from the Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (RNPU), Colombia, were tested for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi. Both the antibacterial and the antimycotic activities were tested by the agar well diffusion method. The cytotoxic activity on the same plant extracts was determined through the brine shrimp lethalit...

  16. Estudo farmacobotânico de partes vegetativas aéreas de Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae Pharmacobotanical study of aerial vegetative parts of Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Budel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Baccharis pertence à família Asteraceae e se destaca por incluir espécies medicinais. Baccharis anomala DC., conhecida como "uva-do-mato" e "cambará-de-cipó", é utilizada popularmente como diurético e estudos fitoquímicos constataram a presença de taninos e saponinas. Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule dessa espécie. O material foi submetido a microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. A lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada revestida por cutícula delgada e estriada. Estômatos anomocíticos ocorrem somente na face abaxial. Em ambas as faces aparecem dois tipos de tricomas tectores pluricelulares unisseriados, um com ápice agudo e outro com célula apical flageliforme. O mesofilo é isobilateral e a nervura central é plano-convexa, sendo percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral. O pecíolo mostra três feixes vasculares que se dispõem em arco aberto. O caule tem secção circular e epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas similares aos da folha. Colênquima angular e clorênquima alternam-se no córtex e fibras perivasculares apõem-se ao floema. Evidencia-se uma zona cambial, cujas células formam xilema no sentido centrípeto e floema, centrifugamente, e a medula compõe-se de células parenquimáticas. Dutos secretores acompanham o sistema vascular na folha e no caule.The genus Baccharis belongs to the family Asteraceae and includes medicinal species. Baccharis anomala DC., popularly known as "uva-do-mato" and "cambará-do-cipó" in Portuguese, is used as diuretic in folk medicine and phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of tannins and saponins. This work has aimed at studying the macro and microscopic aspects of the leaf and stem of this species. The botanical material was prepared according to standard light and scanning microtechniques. The leaf blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with a thin and striate cuticle. Anomocytic stomata are

  17. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  18. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  19. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  20. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, James B.; John C. Semple

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 19...

  1. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia do Rocio Duarte; Ariane Gonçalves Silva

    2013-01-01

    Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem mi...

  2. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana;

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...... and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Podospermic acid is the first naturally occurring dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid derivative. The chemosystematic impact and the radical scavenging activity of the new compound are discussed briefly. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Elena HUNKOVA; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that...

  4. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

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    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  5. Leaf and stem microscopic identification of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray is an Asteraceae shrub, popularly known as Mexican sunflower and cultivated for ornamental and therapeutic uses in different countries. In folk medicine, it is of value for treating diabetes, malaria and infectious diseases. These indications have been corroborated by various pharmacological assays. Given the lack of data on anatomical aspects of T. diversifolia, this work aimed to investigate the leaf and stem microscopic characters of this medicinal plant and potential vegetal drug. Samples of mature leaves and young stems were sectioned and stained. Histochemical tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The leaf has anomocytic stomata on both sides, dorsiventral mesophyll and several collateral vascular bundles arranged as a ring in the midrib. The stem shows angular-tangential collenchyma, an evident endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The main characters for anatomical identification are the different types of trichome (non-glandular, capitate and non-capitate glandular, the midrib features and the localization of the secretory ducts near the vascular system.Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray é um arbusto da família Asteraceae, popularmente conhecido como girassol-mexicano e cultivado como ornamental e medicinal em vários países. Tradicionalmente, é usado no tratamento de diabetes, malária e doenças infecciosas. Essas indicações têm sido corroboradas por diversos ensaios farmacológicos. Em razão das escassas informações sobre aspectos anatômicos de T. diversifolia, este trabalho objetivou investigar os caracteres microscópicos foliares e caulinares dessa planta medicinal e potencial droga vegetal. Amostras de folhas adultas e caules jovens foram fixadas, seccionadas e coradas. Testes histoquímicos e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram também realizados. A folha apresenta estômatos anomocíticos em ambas as superfícies, mesofilo

  6. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is Brazil. PMID:26667031

  7. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources. PMID:16028970

  8. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora. PMID:17066366

  9. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry

  10. Preliminary Results on the Phytophagous Insect Fauna on Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae in Bulgaria

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    Vili Harizanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae has the Eurasian origin and represents an invasive weed in the USA and Australia. It is a serious problem in pastures,along roadsides, rangeland, etc. The weed is very common in Bulgaria and in 2009-2010several sites with large populations of O. acanthium have been located. The weekly surveys of some of the sites, mainly in the region of Plovdiv, revealed a significant diversity of phytophagous insect species, some of which had very high population density.More than 30 species have already been identified and observations on the phenology and biology of some of them have been conducted. For some of the species, such as endophagous Larinus latus, Lixus cardui, Eublemma amoena, Trichosirocalus briesei, or ectophagous Cassida rubiginosa etc. found during our surveys, there are reports in the literature describing them as having been already introduced as successful biocontrol agents in Australia. Endophagous species like lepidopteran Myelois circumvoluta and Pyroderces argyrogrammos which feed on the stems and the head, and the tephritid flies ephritis postica and Chaetostomella cylindrica which feed on the capitula, seem quite destructive for the weed, but need to be further studied regarding host specificity. Species like Vanessacardui and Brachycaudus cardui were found regularly, but in low population density, mainly due to the high rate of parasitism.

  11. Anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of lnula helenium L (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectaries of Inula helenium L. only occurred in disc florets and were situated above the inferior ovary. The shape of the investigated glands (five-armed star with rounded tips and deep incisions - observed from above clearly differed from the shape of the nectaries of other Asteraceae, also the height of nectary was much lower (129 µm. The glandular tissue of the nectaries of elecampane was composed of a single-layered epidermis and 5--9 layers of secretory cells. Nectar was released through modified stomata, mainly arranged in the top part of the gland. The secretory cells were characterised by granular cytoplasm and the presence of a large, often lobate, cell nucleus. In the cytosol, numerous amoeboid plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes were present. In small vacuoles, myelin-like structures, fibrous material and vesicles with the content of substances which can be secretion, were observed. The plastid stroma showed different electron density and the presence of internal tubules and plastoglobules. Vesicular extensions forming bright zones were visible between the membranes of the nuclear envelope. Adjacent to the plasmalemma, as well as between the plasmalemma and the cell wall, secretory vesicles occurred, indicating the granulocrine mechanism of nectar secretion.

  12. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  13. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150μg/ml) prior exposure to 100Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. PMID:26848834

  14. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits. PMID:26871494

  15. Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans. PMID:24224247

  16. Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae, aqueous extracts

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    Saulo M. Sousa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The yarrow, Achillea millefoilum L. is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in folk medicine of many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from yarrow leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies, since studies of this nature do not exist for the yarrow extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72 h with different concentrations of yarrow aqueous extracts (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL. The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index (MI, the seed germination and the root development of L. sativa. More yet, the extracts also induced chromosome aberrations (CA and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa indicating precaution in the therapeutic use of A. millefolium and reinforcing the utilization of L. sativa in the screening of cytogenotoxic substances once that this species showed a good sensibility to the extract application.

  17. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. PMID:26528674

  18. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae

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    Frederico Severino Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods : The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA and maceration dynamic (MD showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  19. Determinants of extinction in fragmented plant populations: Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornier, Antoine; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Local populations are subject to recurrent extinctions, and small populations are particularly prone to extinction. Both demographic (stochasticity and the Allee effect) and genetic factors (drift load and inbreeding depression) potentially affect extinction. In fragmented populations, regular dispersal may boost population sizes (demographic rescue effect) or/and reduce the local inbreeding level and genetic drift (genetic rescue effect), which can affect extinction risks. We studied extinction processes in highly fragmented populations of the common species Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban habitats exhibiting a rapid turnover of patches. A four-year demographic monitoring survey and microsatellite genotyping of individuals allowed us to study the determinants of extinction. We documented a low genetic structure and an absence of inbreeding (estimated by multilocus heterozygosity), which suggest that genetic factors were not a major cause of patch extinction. On the contrary, local population size was the main factor in extinction, whereas connectivity was shown to decrease patch extinction, which we interpreted as a demographic rescue effect that was likely due to better pollination services for reproduction. This coupling of demographic and genetic tools highlighted the importance of dispersal in local patch extinctions of small fragmented populations connected by gene flow. PMID:22200853

  20. Effects of Pterocaulon polystachyum DC. (Asteraceae on onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells

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    Michelle Frainer Knoll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil leaf infusions of the plant Pterocaulon polystachyum DC (Asteraceae are used to treat digestive problems. We used plants from six P. polystachyum populations to prepare fresh aqueous leaf infusions at the concentration normally used in Brazil (2.5 g L-1 and at twice (5 g L-1 and four times (10 g L-1 this concentration. We rooted onion bulbs in a water control or one of the infusions for 24 h and used the in vivo onion (Allium cepa root-tip cell test to investigate the potential mutagenicity of the infusions by calculating the mitotic index for the control and the experimental treatments and comparing them using the Chi-squared test (chi2, p = 0.05. There was a highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of root-tip cells treated with infusion as compared to those exposed to water only. These results indicate that P. polystachyum infusions present cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity and therefore have therapeutic potential.

  1. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  2. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia Amygdalina (Asteraceae and Alstonia Boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae

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    Ketor, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris. The worms were directly exposed to 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml of aque-ous and ethanolic bark extracts of Alstonia boonei and leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and piperazine citrate in a petri dish and in an organ bath. The control group was exposed to distilled water. The time of paralysis and death were determined within a period of 6 h in the petri dish method whiles spontaneous movements of the worms before and after drug administration were recorded on a slow moving kymograph drum in the organ bath method. All doses of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.001 reduced the time of paralysis and time of death compared to the vehicle treated group. The time of paralysis and time of death in the tissue bath method corresponded to that obtained by direct exposure. The extracts exhibited anthelmintic ac-tivity and thus could be an inexpensive and readily available source of anthelmintic treatment.

  3. Difference in defense strategy in flower heads and leaves of Asteraceae: multiple-species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2014-01-01

    Although a vast number of studies have investigated defenses against herbivores in leaves, relatively little is known about defenses in flowers. Using wild individuals of 34 species of Asteraceae, we investigated differences in five traits that are thought to affect the intensity of herbivory (C, N, P, water, and total phenolic contents). Combinations of these traits between flower heads and leaves were studied as well. We also evaluated phylogenetic patterns of flower head and leaf traits. Flower heads had higher P and lower total phenolics than leaves. Water and C contents were negatively correlated both in the flower heads and leaves. N, P, and water contents were positively correlated in the flower heads, whereas this pattern was not found in the leaves. Thus, the traits we measured were more tightly inter-correlated in flower heads than in leaves. Because the flower heads had a lower total phenolic content, the relative allocation of defensive compounds could not be explained solely by fitness values of the organs. Perhaps plants employ an escape strategy rather than a defense strategy to cope with floral herbivores and higher allocation in P may enhance their escape from herbivores by improving the growth rate of flower heads, though our result might be affected in part by the plasticity of plants growing at different sites. Moreover, we found weak phylogenetic signals in the defensive traits. Because we found significant differences in the flower head traits, these weak signals may imply that the traits we measured evolved frequently. PMID:24036932

  4. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian asteraceae plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelaaty A Shahat; Abeer Y Ibrahim; Mansour S Elsaid

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of differentAsteraceae plants. Methods:The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities.Results:Picris cyanocarpa(P. cyanocarpa) andAnthemis deserti(A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima(A. fragrantissima) andArtemissia monosperma(A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator(100% at100,200 and400 μg/mL)A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum(R. appoposum) showed100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at200 and400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed100 and95% inhibition percentage at400 μg/mL, respectively.Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. Conclusions:In most testsP. cyanocarpa andA. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger.

  5. Estudio de la propagación sexual del arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus Asteraceae

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    William Escobar-Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual propagation of arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (Asteraceae. Objective. To develop sexual propagationmethodologies for Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (arboloco. Materials and methods. Seeds were harvested from treesgrown at the Chilaca environmental station (Geoambiente Ltda. located in Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The study was carried out intwo phases: firstly, substrate effect on germination responses was evaluated in seedbed conditions. Substrates evaluated were: local soil,local soil mixed with worm humus, and peat. Additionally, two spatial arrangements were assessed: seeds sown at random and at 0.5 cmin depth. Secondly, in nursery conditions the effect of the substrates local soil, local soil mixed with worm humus and peat, as well as theeffect of developmental stages of the plants (with 2, 4, and 6 leaves on their further growth and development were evaluated. Results. Inseedbed conditions, the germination capacity was highly influenced by peat substrate (83.67% whereas in local soil the germinationcapacity was 40.83%. In nursery conditions, 6-leaf plants grown in local soil mixed with worm humus showed the best responses onparameters such as plant total length (9.51 cm, leaf area (36.69 cm2, and total dry weight (0.10 g. Conclusions. The type of substrateused in seedbed conditions influenced the germination capacity of M. quadrangularis seeds. The substrate and the developmental stage ofthe plant had a significant influence on the growth and development of arboloco plants.

  6. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

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    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  7. Análise de amostras de flores de Calêndula (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) comercializadas na grande Curitiba

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Mondadori Otramario Santos; Luciana Aparecida de Oliveira; Eliane Patrícia Sichinel Tibulo; Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    A espécie Calendula officinalis L. é uma planta herbácea pertencente à família Asteraceae, suas flores apresentam propriedades antimicrobianas, emolientes, antiinflamatórias e tonificantes da pele. Os flavonoides são utilizados como marcadores para avaliar a qualidade da droga vegetal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a identidade e qualidade de seis amostras de flores de C. officinalis L. comercializadas na Grande Curitiba (PR). Foram realizados os ensaios de identificação macrosc...

  8. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  9. Morfoanatomia do eixo vegetativo aéreo de Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    M.I.S. Nery; R.C.V. Potiguara; T.Y.S. Kikuchi; T.B. Garcia; A.L.F.A. Lins

    2014-01-01

    Ayapana triplinervis (Asteraceae) é uma erva medicinal da Amazônia conhecida como "Japana branca" e "Japana roxa" utilizada como tônico, digestivo, antidiarréico dentre outros. Objetivou-se caracterizar neste estudo a morfoanatomia caulinar e foliar de A. triplinervis, para corroborar se esta espécie apresenta morfotipos, além de fornecer dados para sua identificação. Amostras foram coletadas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia e Embrapa Amazônia Oriental,...

  10. Genetics of colonization in Hypochaeris tenuifolia (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) on Volcán Lonquimay, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, K; Stuessy, T F; Samuel, R M; Baeza, C M; Fay, M F

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the genetics of colonizing populations has been, and continues to remain, an important focus in evolutionary biology. Different theoretical models predict varying levels of genetic variation in colonizing populations depending upon strength of founder effect, gene flow and rate of population growth and immigration following colonization. We analyse overall genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in colonizing populations of Hypochaeris tenuifolia (Asteraceae) in the southern Andes. Volcán Lonquimay newly erupted on 25 December 1988, producing a side cone, La Navidad, and sent lava and ash into surrounding areas. Many domesticated animals (estimated at 10 000) and many natural plant populations were destroyed. Into this new open habitat have come immigrant populations of several angiosperm species, most conspicuously H. tenuifolia that forms leaf rosettes with flowering scapes to 15 cm and orange-yellow heads 1-2 cm in diameter. Genetic diversity in five founder populations in the eruption zone is compared with that from five nearby survivor populations, as well as with eight isolated northern and four southern populations from throughout the entire range of the species in Chile. Results from 477 individuals representing 447 different multilocus phenotypes, yielded 170 DNA fragments of which 144 (85%) were polymorphic. Genetic diversity within founder populations is neither lower than in survivor populations nor in isolated populations throughout the range of the species, but it is lower among founder populations than among other populations immediately and distantly outside the zone of disturbance. Closest genetic similarity occurs between founders and nearby survivor populations as well as those in adjacent southern regions. PMID:12969468

  11. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds. PMID:21162007

  12. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  13. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. PMID:25269662

  14. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18. ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  15. Identity and generic placement of Phestinia costella Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) reared on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide descriptions and illustrations for identification of Phestinia costella Hampson, a stem gall producer on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Robinson (Asteraceae) that has been investigated for biological control measures. Specimens collected from C. odorata on Tr...

  16. (Un)targeted metabolomics in Asteraceae: probing the applicability of essential-oil profiles of senecio L. (Senecioneae) taxa in chemotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Mladenović, Marko Z; Blagojević, Polina D

    2014-09-01

    The possible applicability of (un)targeted metabolomics (volatile metabolites) for revealing taxonomic/evolutionary relationships among Senecio L. species (Asteraceae; tribe Senecioneae) was explored. Essential-oil compositional data of selected Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae taxa (93 samples in total) were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analysis (MVA), i.e., agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. The MVA input data set included the very first compositional data on the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of S. viscosus L. as well as on four different Serbian populations of S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. (oils from aerial parts and roots; eight samples in total). This metabolomic screening of Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae species (herein presented results and data from the literature) pointed to short-chain alk-1-enes (e.g., oct-1-ene, non-1-ene, and undec-1-ene), with up to now restricted general occurrence in Plantae, as characteristic chemotaxonomic markers/targets for future metabolomic studies of Senecio/Senecioneae taxa. The MVA additionally showed that the evolution of the terpene metabolism (volatile mono- and sesquiterpenoids) within the Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae was not genera specific. However, the MVA did confirm plant-organ specific production/accumulation of volatiles within S. vernalis and suggested the existence of at least two volatile chemotypes for this species. PMID:25238075

  17. CHROMOSOME STUDIES IN VERNONIA CINCTA AND V. SCORPIOIDES (ASTERACEAE, VERNONIEAE ESTUDIOS CROMOSÓMICOS EN VERNONIA CINCTA y V. SCORPIOIDES (ASTERACEAE, VERNONIEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Vernonia eineta Griseb. and V. seorpioides (Lam. Pers. (Asteraeeae, Vernonieae are two closely related taxa which have been considered by different authors either the same species or two varieties of the same species or two different species. In the present study a detailed chromosome analysis was carried out in an attempt to clarify the status and relationships of these two taxa. The cytological study revealed that Vernonia eineta has 2n=60 chromosomes and a
    karyotype formula composed of 36m + 16sm + St, whereas V. seorpioides presents 2n=66 and a karyotype with 34m + 20sm + 12t. Besides, V. eineta showed two chromosome pairs bearing satellites on the short arms, one m pair with linear satellite and one t pair with macrosatellite; while V. seorpioides presented one mchromosome pair carrying a linear satellite in the long armo In addition to the chromosome number, these species showed certain other karyotypic differences, mainly in theirformula, total chromosome length and asymmetry leve!. Chromosomal information here reported supports the specific status of both taxa. The presence of telocentric chromosomes in V. cincta and V. seorpioides would distinguish them from the remainder New World species of Vernoniawhich commonly have metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes.
    The karyotypic differences between V. cincta and V. seorpioides may be explained by the occurrence of structural rearrangements such as centric fusions or traslocations. This hypothesis is well supported by the similar total karyotype length of both taxa and the higher mean chromosome length of V. cincta, which presents a lower number of telocentric chromosomes than V. seorpioides.
    Vernonia cincta Griseb. y V. seorpioides V. (Lam. Pers.. (Asteraceae, Vernonieae son dos taxones estrechamente relacionados que han sido considerados por diferentes

  18. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by the burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulino Loretti

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos moídos de Xanthium cavanillesii foram administrados por via oral, em doses únicas ou fracionadas, a 15 ovinos adultos. Nove ovinos morreram. Doses a partir de 2 g/kg em uma única administração foram letais para os ovinos. Doses únicas de 1,25 g/kg e doses de 2,5 g/kg subdivididas em duas administrações diárias (1,25 g/kg em dois dias consecutivos não causaram a intoxicação. Sinais clínicos foram observados apenas nos animais que morreram. Iniciavam entre 5 horas e 20 horas após o início da administração dos frutos. A evolução do quadro clínico foi superaguda (90 minutos a 3 horas ou aguda (9 a 13 horas. Sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, anorexia, hipomotilidade ruminal, tremores musculares generalizados, incoordenação motora, andar rígido, relutância em caminhar, instabilidade, quedas e decúbito. Muitos animais apresentavam corrimento nasal seromucoso que dificultava a respiração. Nas fases terminais havia tiques, sialorréia, convulsões, nistagmo, movimentos de pedalagem e períodos de apnéia seguidos de morte. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular do fígado acompanhada de petéquias distribuídas aleatoriamente na superfície capsular e de corte, distensão da vesícula biliar associada a edema e hemorragias na parede, ascite, hidrotórax, edema gelatinoso e translúcido da região perirrenal, conteúdo do ceco e alça proximal do cólon ascendente ressequido, compactado, recoberto por muco e estrias de sangue coagulado. Havia petéquias e sufusões disseminadas. A principal lesão microscópica consistia em acentuada necrose coagulativa hepatocelular centrolobular ou massiva acompanhada de congestão e hemorragia e vacuolização ou tumefação dos hepatócitos remanescentes.The ground burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae were force fed to 15 adult sheep in single doses or divided in two doses. Nine sheep died. Doses of 2 g/kg and above were lethal for the

  19. Chromosomal organization and phylogenetic relationships in Hypochaeris species (Asteraceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete de Fátima Ruas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of cytogenetic and molecular techniques has contributed to the analysis of chromosome organization and phylogeny in plants. The fluorochrome GC-specific CMA3, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers were used to investigate chromosome structure and genetic relationships in Hypochaeris (Asteraceae. Seven species native to South America, and two species introduced from Europe (H. glabra and Hypochaeris sp were studied. FISH with rDNA probes identified one or two loci of 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA in the South American Hypochaeris species and one locus in the European species. Only one 5S rDNA locus was seen in all species studied. Blocks of GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA-positive bands associated to 18S-5.8S-25SrDNA loci were detected in all species investigated. Co-location of 5S rDNA and CMA bands was also observed, except for three South American species and Hypochaeris sp. In two South American species, additional CMA bands not related to rDNA were observed on the long arm of chromosome 2, near to the centromere. Hypochaeris glabra exhibited additional CMA-positive signals distributed at pericentromeric regions, on the short arms of all chromosomes. A total of 122 RAPD markers were used to determine the genetic relationships among species. The level of polymorphism was very high, revealing two genetic groups comprising the South American and the European species, thus supporting a previous hypothesis of monophyly of the South American Hypochaeris species. The coefficients of genetic similarity between European and South American species were 0.35, on average. Polymorphism was also high within the two groups. The genetic associations observed with RAPD markers were consistent with chromosome characteristics. Species carrying similar distribution of 45S rDNA loci and CMA-positive signals were included in the same group revealed by RAPDs. Cytogenetic and molecular data support the view that

  20. Patogenicidade de Alternaria cichorii sobre espécies da família Asteraceae no Brasil

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    Lima Milton L. Paz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 2001, plantas de chicória (Cichorium endivia originárias do município de Catalão-GO apresentando sintomas de manchas e queima foliar foram recebidas na Clínica Fitopatológica da Embrapa Hortaliças (CNPH. Tecidos submetidos à câmara úmida produziram esporulação fúngica, de onde foi obtida cultura monospórica em BDA + cloranfenicol. Para o teste de patogenecidade, o fungo foi multiplicado em meio de cultura suco de tomate ágar (ST e inoculado em plantas de chicória da cultivar comercial AG-3804, em casa-de-vegetação. Após dez dias de incubação, verificou-se nas plantas inoculadas a presença de sintomas, semelhantes àqueles observados inicialmente. O patógeno foi reisolado a partir destas lesões, completando os postulados de Koch. Em seguida, visando testar a possibilidade deste patógeno infetar outras plantas da família Asteraceae, conídios produzidos em ST e atomizados em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa (três variedades, almeirão (Cichorium intybus (duas variedades, Catalonha (Cichorium intybus folha fina, serralha (Sonchus oleraceus e uma outra variedade de chicória. Houve infecção em todas as plantas inoculadas, sendo que os sintomas variaram nas espécies e nas variedades testadas. Em chicória os sintomas surgiram mais cedo e se desenvolveram rapidamente. O fungo foi caracterizado morfológica e morfometricamente permitindo identificá-lo como sendo Alternaria cichorii. Não se encontra registro desta espécie de Alternaria infetando plantas da família Asteraceae no Brasil. Neste trabalho relata-se pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de A. cichorii infetando chicória no Brasil e o potencial deste fungo como patógeno de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.

  1. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  2. Análise morfoanatômica das partes aéreas de Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata), Asteraceae Morphoanatomic analysis of aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata), Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Thaisa Baccarin; Czepula, Alexandra I.; Renê A. Ferreira; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estabelecimento de parâmetros para análise morfo-anatômica das partes aéreas (caule e folhas) da planta Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. A droga vegetal e o respectivo pó foram submetidos às análises macro e microscópica após preparação de lâminas semi-permanentes de cortes transversais e paradérmicos. O pó foi analisado após diafanização com cloral hidratado. É uma planta herbácea com caule castanho-avermelhado, folhas opostas, curto-pecioladas e memb...

  3. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  4. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) based on ITS and cpDNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Marcus; Pornpongrungrueng, Pimwadee; Gustafsson, Mats; Anderberg, Arne A.

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) were investigated. DNA sequence data from three chloroplast regions (ndhF, trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were analysed separately and in combination using parsimony and...... Bayesian inference. A total of 163 ingroup taxa were included, of which 60 were sampled for all four markers. Conflicts between chloroplast and nuclear data were assessed using partitioned Bremer support (PBS). Rather than averaging PBS over several trees from constrained searches, individual trees were...... considered by evaluating PBS ranges. Criteria to be used in the detection of a significant conflict between data partitions are proposed. Three nodes in the total data tree were found to encompass significant conflict that could result from ancient hybridization. Neither of the large, heterogeneous and...

  5. Evaluation of the Main Polyphenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants of Asteraceae and Solanaceae Families of Bulgarian Origin

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    M. Docheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian specimens of Asteraceae and Solanaceae families are very scarce studied concerning the polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this investigation was to obtain fingerprint chromatographic profiles and to quantify the main polyphenols. HPLC–PDA on Kromasil and Purospher columns was employed for the separation of the components by applying two methods (TFA and AcAc. Better separation and reliable quantification of the polyphenols in Achillea species were obtained by the TFA method on Kromasil column. Chromatographic profiling and quantification of polyphenols in A. campestris was successful by using the TFA method on both columns. The polyphenols of A. vulgaris were better separated by AcAc method on Purospher column. Caffeoylquinic acids and rutin were present in higher quantities in Achillea asplenifolia and tobacco (Djebel. Fingerprint chromatographic profiles and reliable quantification of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved by considering the differences in the polyphenol complex and the specificity of the plant matrix.

  6. In vitro antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of phenolics and triterpenoids from Baccharis dracunculifolia D. C. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Filho, A A; Resende, D O; Fukui, M J; Santos, F F; Pauletti, P M; Cunha, W R; Silva, M L A; Gregório, L E; Bastos, J K; Nanayakkara, N P D

    2009-12-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), the most important plant source of the Brazilian green propolis (GPE), displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani, with an IC(50) value of 45 microg/mL, while GPE presented an IC(50) value of 49 microg/mL. Among the isolated compounds of B. dracunculifolia, ursolic acid, and hautriwaic acid lactone showed IC(50) values of 3.7 microg/mL and 7.0 microg/mL, respectively. Uvaol, acacetin, and ermanin displayed moderate antileishmanial activity. Regarding the antiplasmodial assay against Plasmodium falciparum, BdE and GPE gave similar IC(50) values (about 20 microg/mL), while Hautriwaic acid lactone led to an IC(50) value of 0.8 microg/mL (D6 clone). PMID:19540316

  7. Distribución geográfica y riqueza del género Cosmos (Asteraceae: Coreopsideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Vargas-Amado; Arturo Castro-Castro; Mollie Harker; José Luis Villaseñor; Enrique Ortiz; Aarón Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Cosmos es uno de los géneros monofiléticos más diversos de la tribu Coreopsideae (Asteraceae). El grupo incluye 35 especies y 4 taxa infraespecíficos restringidos al continente americano. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la distribución geográfica y la riqueza de Cosmos a través de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG). Se estimó el área de distribución geográfica de los taxa con más de un registro. También se evaluó la riqueza de las especies de Cosmos por región política, p...

  8. Cytological study on the genus Syncalathium (Asteraceae-Lactuceae), an endemic taxon to alpine scree of the Sino-Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen ZHANG; Ze-Long NIE; Hang SUN

    2009-01-01

    Cytological characters of four species in Syncalathium (Asteraceae: Lactuceae), a small genus with six identified species endemic to alpine scree of the Sino-Himalayan region, are surveyed in this report. Three species ( Syncalathium pilosum, Syncalathium chrysocephalum, and Syncalathium disciforme ) are examined for the first time. Combined with our previous counts, five species have been cytologically investigated from the genus and the results indicated that all species are diploid with the basic somatic chromosome number of x=8. The karyotype asymmetry of Syncalathium souliei is 2A, distinct from the other four species of 1 A, and the remaining species are divided into two subgroups with different karyotypes, consistent with their morphological features. The significance of the cytological evolution of Syncalathium is briefly discussed.

  9. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  10. Preliminary results on the conservation of Lamyropsis Microcephala (Moris) Dittrich & Greuter (Asteraceae), a threatened endemic species of the Gennargentu massif, Sardinia (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Fenu, Giuseppe; Mattana, Efisio; Ulian, Tiziana

    2007-01-01

    Lamyropsis microcephala (Moris) Dittrich & Greuter (Asteraceae) is a perennial species, narrow endemic of Sardinia (Italy) and known only in two sites of the Gennargentu massif. The aims of this study are to investigate characteristics of the ecology and biology of the species which might be important for its conservation and reassess its conservation status. Here we show the preliminary results of this study, with a focus on the abundance and distribution of the species, its reproductive ...

  11. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae), an Andean medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    K. Schorr; F.B. Da Costa

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae) is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands wer...

  12. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Juan Carlos

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo científico y práctico con plantas, identificar las especies es fundamental. Esta identificación se realiza con el uso de claves, las cuales proporcionan la identidad correcta de una especie a través de un proceso de eliminación por contraste. En este trabajo se planteó elaborar una clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae reportados en la Reserva Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia, como herramienta para el reconocimiento de la flora local. Se obtuvo una clave interactiva en formato DELTA para los 31 géneros de la familia Asteraceae registrados en la reserva, con un listado de 173 caracteres diagnósticos para la familia, que engloban la variabilidad de las 57 especies estudiadas. Además, fue ilustrada con fotografías y dibujos de las especies y de los caracteres para facilitar el proceso de identificación, y se preparó para ser publicada en Internet de manera que pueda ser utilizada desde la red o quemada en un CD sin necesidad de conexión. La clave demostró ser eficiente para identificar los géneros de
    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  13. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae Efeitos quimiopreventivo e antibacteriano concomintantes de algumas plantas iranianas do gênero Cousinia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p Durante os últimos anos, várias espécies de Cousinia (Asteraceae têm sido identificadas no Irã. No entanto, dados acerca de suas atividades biológicas permanecem limitados. O principal propósito desta pesquisa foi avaliar a potencial citotoxidade e os efeitos inibitórios de metaloproteinases da matriz (MMP de sete extratos etanólicos de Cousinia utilizando um modelo de linhagem celular (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. Além disso, investigamos a atividade antibacteriana destes extratos etanólicos de Cousinia, utilizando o método de difusão em disco. Dentre os extratos etanólicos, o extrato total de C. sulabadensis promoveu inibição significativa da atividade de MMP de maneira dose-resposta (49,2 ± 0,51, p < 0,05. Todavia, este extrato exibiu o menor efeito de citotoxicidade em todas as concentrações testadas. A concentração necessária para produzir uma taxa de 50% de morte celular (IC50 com C. shulabadensis foi 304,5 ± 0,61 µg/mL. A IC50 calculada para a citotoxicidade dos outros extratos de espécies de Cousinia situou-se entre 18,4 ± 0,59 e 87,9 ± 0,58 µg/mL. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi observada para o extrato total de Cousinia phyllocephala. Em conclusão, este estudo corrobora que espécies de Cousinia mostram uma notável inibição da atividade de metaloproteinases da

  14. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae = Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Jesus Dematei Gregio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  15. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  16. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA in the Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Sònia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae, a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing, gene copy number (quantitative PCR and chromosomal position (FISH of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in ~200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Results Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases, tribe Gnaphalieae (100% and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%. The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic

  17. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  18. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Midgley, J

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae), which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Male flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania, Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies. PMID:21708596

  19. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  20. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Geraldo; Castro, Luana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; de Freitas, Loreta Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment. PMID:27007907

  1. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  2. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae: evaluation of antinutrients and effect on glycosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia P. de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to confirm the traditional use of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae, for the reduction of weight, plant extracts were evaluated on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL, an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet for its subsequent absorption. The aqueous and infused extracts did not show inhibitory activity on the PL, the ethanol inhibited 16% (66 ALI/g and methanol extract inhibited 78% (241 ALI/g. The methanol extract of B. trimera (MEB was subjected to a wash with decreasing solvent polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and only the methanol fraction inhibited the lipase by 72% (230 ALI/g. We evaluated the MEB and infused inhibitory activity on the enzymes α-amylase and α and β-glycosidases. The α-amylase was not inhibited by any of the extracts, the enzyme α-glucosidase was inhibited by both extracts in the same proportion (46.9±0.1 and β-glucosidase was inhibited by 73% by the methanol extract and 65% by the infused. We also evaluated the presence of anti-nutrients. We detected the presence of saponins, polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors in the two samples. Tests performed in vivo can assess at which therapeutic concentration the presence of these anti-nutrients can be harmful to health.

  3. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  4. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  5. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. PMID:24735437

  6. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity

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    Narjara Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K. Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae, three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1, N-(2-phenethyl-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2 and (2E,7Z-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3. While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM.

  7. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae

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    Geraldo Mäder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae, a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment.

  8. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Geraldo; Castro, Luana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Freitas, Loreta Brandão de

    2016-03-01

    Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment. PMID:27007907

  9. Studies on the potential antioxidant properties of Senecio stabianus Lacaita (Asteraceae) and its inhibitory activity against carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This study showed for the first time the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from Senecio stabianus Lacaita, a plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The antioxidant activities were carried out using two different in vitro assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 35.5 and 32.7 µg mL(-1) on DPPH test and ABTS test, respectively. This activity may be related to a good total phenol and flavonoid content. All extracts were also tested for their potential inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase digestive enzymes. The n-hexane extract exhibited the highest α-amylase inhibition with an IC(50) value of 0.21 mg mL(-1). Through bioassay-guided fractionation processes seven fractions (A-G) were obtained and tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of n-hexane extract may be related to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. PMID:21644170

  10. Morfoanatomia do eixo vegetativo aéreo de Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

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    M.I.S. Nery

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayapana triplinervis (Asteraceae é uma erva medicinal da Amazônia conhecida como "Japana branca" e "Japana roxa" utilizada como tônico, digestivo, antidiarréico dentre outros. Objetivou-se caracterizar neste estudo a morfoanatomia caulinar e foliar de A. triplinervis, para corroborar se esta espécie apresenta morfotipos, além de fornecer dados para sua identificação. Amostras foram coletadas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia e Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, analisadas morfologicamente e segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal. O caule é cilíndrico branco ou roxo, com epiderme unisseriada persistente e endoderme com bainha amilífera e estrias de Caspary. As folhas são simples, opostas, triplinervadas, com base atenuada ou decorrente. Possuem estômatos anomocíticos, cera em placas ou granular, glândulas peroladas, mesofilo dorsiventral com feixes colaterais e ductos secretores. A. triplinervis apresentou caracteres morfoanatômicos diferentes entre os tipos branca e roxa, o que possibilita a distinção dos dois morfotipos.

  11. Next-generation sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae transcriptome permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

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    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59% unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera.

  12. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae, better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

  13. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S; Ranđelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  14. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  15. Análise morfoanatômica das partes aéreas de Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae Morphoanatomic analysis of aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae

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    Thaisa Baccarin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estabelecimento de parâmetros para análise morfo-anatômica das partes aéreas (caule e folhas da planta Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. A droga vegetal e o respectivo pó foram submetidos às análises macro e microscópica após preparação de lâminas semi-permanentes de cortes transversais e paradérmicos. O pó foi analisado após diafanização com cloral hidratado. É uma planta herbácea com caule castanho-avermelhado, folhas opostas, curto-pecioladas e membranáceas, apresentando pêlos nas duas faces, estreitada em direção à base acima do meio provida de dois pequenos lobos laterais e um terminal, maior e denteado. A planta apresenta secção circular de caule, que em crescimento primário, possui epiderme, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical e cilindro vascular, assim como oxalato de cálcio (várias drusas e alguns cristais prismáticos. A folha é simples, contendo tricomas tectores e estômato anomocítico. O mesofilo possui organização dorso-ventral e a nervura central, em corte transversal, apresenta-se côncavo-convexo com três feixes colaterais e presença de drusas de oxalato de cálcio nas células parenquimáticas. No pó obtido da droga vegetal foram verificadas as mesmas estruturas microscópicas observadas na droga vegetal rasurada. Os parâmetros morfo-anatômicos estabelecidos neste trabalho permitem o controle de qualidade macro e microscópico da planta tanto rasurada como na forma de pó.This study aimed to establish parameters for morphoanatomical analysis of the aerial parts (stem and leaves of the plant Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. The drug and its respective powder were characterized by macro and microscopic analysis after obtaining semi-permanent lamina of transverse and paradermal sections. The powder was analyzed after being cleared with chloral hydrate. It is an herbaceous plant with reddish-brown stems, opposite leaves, short-petiolated and

  16. Desenvolvimento de dentifrícios com extratos fluidos de CALENDULA OFFICINALIS l., (ASTERACEAE) e CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS Sw., (FLACOURTIACEAE),destinado ao tratamento de periodontias

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Angela Bonjorno

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) e a Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae), são exemplares da flora medicinal que possuem propriedades terapêuticas destacandose as atividades antiinflamatória, antimicrobiana e cicatrizante, atribuídas ao sinergismo de seus constituintes químicos. No intuito de usufruir destes beneficios desenvolveu-se uma formulação dentifrícia, na forma gel, com seleção criteriosa de matérias-primas e excipientes que atendessem os requisitos farmacotécnicos...

  17. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nara O. dos Santos; Bruna Mariane; João Henrique G. Lago; Patricia Sartorelli; Welton Rosa; Marisi G. Soares; Adalberto M. da Silva; Harri Lorenzi; Vallim, Marcelo A.; Pascon, Renata C.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41%) as well as (−)-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential ...

  18. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  19. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae

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    Gonthier Lucy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Findings Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. Conclusions This

  20. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

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    Jackson Borgo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  1. Underestimated diversity in one of the world’s best studied mountain ranges: The polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) contains four species in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARCÍA, PEDRO ESCOBAR; HÜLBER, KARL; SONNLEITNER, MICHAELA; WINKLER, MANUELA; SAUKEL, JOHANNES; SCHNEEWEISS, GERALD M.; SCHÖNSWETTER, PETER

    2015-01-01

    Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) is an intricate polyploid complex distributed in the European Alps (di-, tetra- and hexaploids) and Carpathians (hexaploids only). Molecular genetic, ecological, and crossing data allowed four evolutionary groups within S. carniolicus to be identified. Here, we establish that these four groups (two vicariant diploid lineages, tetraploids and hexaploids) are also morphologically differentiated. As a consequence, we draw taxonomic conclusions by characterizing four species, including the more narrowly circumscribed S. carniolicus (lectotypified here), the taxonomically elevated S. insubricus comb. nov. (lectotypified here), and the two newly described species S. disjunctus and S. noricus. PMID:26190915

  2. Actividades biológicas e estruturas secretoras de três espécies de Asteraceae da flora aromática portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Ana Margarida Colaço, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 A Flora Portuguesa é muito rica em espécies aromáticas, utilizadas desde há séculos, em medicina tradicional sob a forma de “chás”, extractos aquosos obtidos por infusão ou decocção de partes de plantas pertencentes maioritariamente às famílias Asteraceae e Lamiaceae. Realizou-se um estudo de actividades biológicas e metabolismo in vitro de decocções de caules/folhas e flores ...

  3. Assessment of plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in different cultivation treatments of Calendula officinalis L: , Asteraceae

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    Luis Fernando Nunes Alves Paim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cultivation treatments on plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. The cultivation treatments were liming (LIM, liming + organic fertilizer (LORG and liming + NPK chemical fertilizer (LCHEM. The experiment was completely randomized with sixty repetitions and the means were compared by ANOVA and Duncan's test (significance of 95%. The results show that LORG and LCHEM produced greater plant development compared with LIM treatment. The LORG treatment also produced plants with greater homogeneity, fresh mass, and higher numbers of flowers per plant, but lower biomass of flower produced by each individual. Morphoanatomical variations were also observed with tubular flowers with yellow centres (TCA and tubular flowers with brown centres (TAC that produced a higher content of flavonoids (1.41 and 1.44% respectively, compared with ligulate flowers with yellow centres (LCA and ligulate flowers with brown centres (LAC (0.89 and 0.95% respectively. The chemical compounds in the flowers of calendula viewed by thin-layer chromatography showed that the treatments did not have any influence on the qualitative chemical profile of the plant. However, cultivars of calendula that underwent treatment LCHEM produced a greater quantity of total flavonoids (1.14% against 1.04% for LORG and 1.03% for LIM.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos tratos culturais no desenvolvimento vegetal, morfologia e teor de flavonóides para Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. Os tratos culturais foram: calagem (CA, calagem + adubação orgânica (CAO e calagem + adubação química NPK (CAQ. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado com sessenta repetições e a comparação das médias realizada por ANOVA e teste de Duncan (significância de 95%. Os resultados apontam que CAO e CAQ apresentaram maior desenvolvimento vegetal comparados com tratamento CA. O

  4. Not only size matters: achene morphology affects time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic species of Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae

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    Torices, Rubén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of two or more distinct fruit types by an individual, i.e. heterocarpy, is considered as a mixed dispersal strategy in which a proportion of the offspring is able to colonize new sites, whilst others remain near the maternal location. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of achene morphology (winged vs. unwinged achenes and achene size –measured here as achene mass– on post-dispersal life-history traits (probability and time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic Anacyclus species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Morphology, size and germination performance were studied in achenes from six populations of Anacyclus clavatus (Desf. Pers., A. homogamos (Maire Humphries, and A. valentinus L. Our results show that achene morphology and size were related to their position within the capitulum, such that outer, winged achenes were significantly heavier than the inner, unwinged ones. Additionally, winged achenes germinated faster than unwinged ones. This pattern may be related to the sequential achene time of release displayed by these species. Finally, our findings cast doubt on the role of wings as structures that favor dispersal by wind in these three species of Anacyclus.La producción de dos o más tipos de frutos diferentes por un mismo individuo, i.e. heterocarpia, es considerada como una estrategia mixta de dispersión en la que una parte de la descendencia es capaz de colonizar nuevos sitios, mientras que la otra permanece cerca de la planta madre. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue explorar los efectos de la morfología del aquenio (aquenios alados vs. no alados y de su tamaño –medido aquí como masa del aquenio– en la etapa del ciclo de vida siguiente a la dispersión (probabilidad de germinación y tiempo de emergencia de las plántulas de tres especies heterocárpicas del género Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Se estudió la morfología, el tamaño y la germinación en aquenios de seis poblaciones de Anacyclus

  5. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

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    Benedí i González, Carles

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as the corresponding synonyms are given. A dichotomic key of the recognized taxa and a list of the herharium sheets studied are provided.

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturles: Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herbario estudiados.

  6. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family. PMID:27323082

  7. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed. PMID:25652809

  8. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  9. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  10. The selective cytotoxicity elicited by phytochemical extract from Senecio graveolens (Asteraceae) on breast cancer cells is enhanced by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Alfaro-Lira, Susana; Brown, Nelson; Salas, Cristian O; Cuellar, Mauricio; Santander, Javier; Ogalde, Juan Pablo; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer‑related deaths in woman and the incidence of the disease has increased worldwide, in part due to improvements in early detection. Several drugs with anticancer effects have been extracted from plants in the last 20 years, many of which are particularly effective against breast cancer cells. In particular, we have become interested in the ethanolic extract from Senecio graveolens (synonym of S. nutans), a plant commonly called Chachacoma, in an effort to isolate compounds that could demonstrate cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Senecio (Asteraceae) is the largest gender in Chile comprising approximatly 200 species. These herbs inhabit areas over 3,500 meters above the sea level in the Andes Mountains. S. graveolens is commonly used by local communities for its medicinal properties, particularly its capacity to ameliorate high-altitude-associated sickness. The cytotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract from S. graveolens, as well as its most abundant compound 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, were tested in the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231, and non-tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. We show that the phytochemical extract was able to induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells but not in MCF-10F. Importantly, this effect was enhanced under hypoxic conditions. However, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, the main compound, did not by itself show an effective anticarcinogenic activity in comparison to the whole extract. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the phytochemical extract was dependent on the basal MnSOD protein expression. Thus, cytotoxicity was increased when MnSOD levels were low, but resistance was evident when protein levels were high. Additionally, the crude extract seems to trigger cell death by a variety of processes, including autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis, in MCF-7 cells. In summary, S. graveolens extract possess anticancer activity displaying a specific

  11. The antiprotozoal activity of sixteen asteraceae species native to Sudan and bioactivity-guided isolation of xanthanolides from Xanthium brasilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Amal M M; Khalid, Sami A; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Abdallah, Wai'l E; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    In vitro screening of the dichloromethane extracts of 16 Asteraceae species native to Sudan for activity against major protozoan pathogens revealed that a Xanthium brasilicum Vell. [syn. X. strumarium var. brasilicum (Vell.) Baker in Mart.] extract was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the etiological agent of East African human trypanosomiasis (IC(50) = 0.1 microg/mL). This plant extract also exhibited noticeable activities against T. cruzi (Chagas disease), Leishmania donovani (Kala-Azar) as well as Plasmodium falciparum (Malaria tropica). Bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of four bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STL) of the xanthanolide series (4,5-seco-guaianolide-type). They were identified by spectroscopic means as 8-epixanthatin (1), 8-epixanthatin 1beta,5beta-epoxide (2), and as the dimers pungiolide A (4) as well as pungiolide B (5). Two further modified xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactones, xanthipungolide (3) and 4,15-dinor-1,11(13)-xanthadiene-3,5beta:12,8beta-diolide (6) were isolated. While xanthipungolide turned out to be inactive against the tested parasites, the dinor-xanthanlide showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and L. donovani. All isolated compounds were previously known from other Xanthium species but this is the first report on their occurrence in X. brasilicum, and, most notably, on their antiprotozoal activity. As the most active single compound from this extract, 8-epixanthatin 1beta,5beta-epoxide showed IC(50) values of 0.09, 2.95, 0.16 and 1.71 microg/mL (0.33, 11.3, 0.6 and 6.5 microM) against T. brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum, respectively, while its cytotoxicity against rat myoblast cells used as control was determined at 5.8 microg/mL (22.1 microM). Besides assessment of their antiprotozoal activity, the structural assignments for the dimeric xanthanolides pungiolide A and B were reinvestigated and fully established. PMID:19431098

  12. Regionalización biogeográfica de Zacatecas, México, con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Asteraceae The biogeographical regions of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico, based on distribution patterns of the family Asteraceae

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    José de Jesús Balleza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de 456 especies de Asteraceae (Magnoliophyta nativas de Zacatecas, con el fin de proponer una regionalización biogeográfica estatal. Para ello su territorio se dividió en 28 unidades geográficas operativas (UGOs y se determinó el número de especies y el número de ejemplares recolectados en cada UGO, así como los tipos de vegetación y el intervalo altitudinal. Utilizando el coeficiente de Jaccard, se determinaron las similitudes florísticas entre las UGOs. La distribución del total de especies de Asteraceae varió desde 190 en la UGO más diversa (UGO 28 hasta 32 en la menos diversa (UGO 5; por su parte, la distribución de las especies endémicas de México también varió, desde 98 (UGO 28 hasta ocho (UGOs 5 y 6. Las UGOs con más tipos de vegetación y con intervalo altitudinal más amplio son también las que registran el número mayor de especies. El 34% de las especies se consideraron como raras, pues se registran en sólo una UGO. Los resultados indican que las Asteraceae se pueden dividir en dos grupos de especies: i aquellas que prosperan preferentemente en las condiciones de aridez que se presentan en la Altiplanicie y ii aquellas que se distribuyen básicamente en hábitats con climas templados y cálidos de la Sierra Madre Occidental. El análisis permite identificar dos «distritos» biogeográficos, subordinados a las provincias florísticas propuestas por Rzedowski (1978.The geographic distribution patterns of 456 species of Asteraceae (Magnoliophyta native to Zacatecas were analysed. The aim was to propose a state's biogeographic zonation. The state was divided in 28 operational geographic units (OGUs and for each one the number of species, the number of specimens collected, the vegetation types and the altitudinal range were determined. Floristic similarities among OGUs were obtained by using a classificatory procedure and the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The richest OGU

  13. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de inflorescências de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela") sobre agentes bacterianos de interesse em alimentos In vitro antibacterial activity of inflorescences of Achyroclines satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela") on bacterial agents of interest in food

    OpenAIRE

    F.M Mota; H.H.C. Carvalho; J.M. Wiest

    2011-01-01

    Através de Testes de diluição em sistema de tubos múltiplos determinou-se in vitro, atividade antibacteriana em inflorescências de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela"), expressa como Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB/bacteriostasia) e Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia), a partir de formas de extração etanólica (hidroalcoolaturas) e hídrica (decoctos), sobre inóculos padronizados de Enterococcus faecalis...

  14. Eficiência nutricional do Nitrogênio e produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) em condições de casa de vegetação Nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Serra; M.E Marchetti; M.C. Vieira; A.D. Robaina; C.O. Veronesi; J.M. Nascimento; Matos, F.; V.A. Conrad; H.S. Morais; F.C.N. Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de nitrogênio no solo e de épocas de coleta sobre a eficiência nutricional do nitrogênio e a produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) em condições de casa de vegetação. O substrato utilizado foi a camada de 0 - 20 cm de Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de N (0, 21...

  15. Números cromosómicos de Asteraceae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), México, Distrito Federal Chromosome numbers in Asteraceae of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), Mexico City, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Soto-Trejo; Guadalupe Palomino; José Luis Villaseñor

    2011-01-01

    Se registraron los números cromosómicos mitóticos o meióticos de 31 especies de Asteraceae en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), y por primera vez, los conteos cromosómicos de 3 especies endémicas de México: Acourtia cordata (2n= 54), Ageratina cylindrica (2n= 34) y Viguiera buddleiiformis (n= 17). Se discuten los resultados obtenidos de acuerdo con los datos disponibles para cada especie analizada.Mitotic or meiotic chromosome numbers are recorded for 31 species of Aster...

  16. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  17. Leaf trichome density may explain herbivory patterns of Actinote sp. (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in a montane humid forest (Nor Yungas, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Ávila, Pamela; Hurtado, Rosember; Valdivia, Alejandra I.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence shows that most insect herbivores of tropical forests show specific associations with their hosts. Environmental factors as well as foliar characters can modify insect preference. In the present work, we evaluated in a montane humid forest the preference and herbivory rate of Actinote sp. caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on mature and young leaves of their specific host plant Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in two contrasting sites. Additionally, the density of non-glandular trichomes in young and mature leaves of plant at each site was evaluated. Analysis of variance of herbivory showed significant effects of site, leaf age, and the interaction of these factors. Higher herbivory levels were found on leaves from the site with lower levels of radiation and on mature leaves. On the other hand, trichome density was significantly higher in leaves from the site with higher levels of radiation and in young leaves. This suggests trichomes may explain the observed pattern of herbivory.

  18. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  19. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  20. Evaluation of reproductive success and conservation strategies for Senecio coincyi (Asteraceae, a narrow and threatened endemic plant of central western Spain

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    Pérez-García Félix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Senecio coincyi (Asteraceae is a threatened endemic plant of central western Spain. The reproductive biology of this species in relation to the characteristics of its habitats and the possible strategies for its conservation, were studied. The area of occupancy, habitat types and size of 13 known subpopulations of S. coincyi was evaluated. Germination tests were carried out to assess the effect of temperature and light regimes, and the possible intraspecific variation on the cypsela germination. Cypselas reached very high germination percentages (90-100% from 15ºC to 30ºC. However, the germination decreased (by about 19% at 10ºC. The light conditions assayed did not significantly affect cypsela germination. In conclusion, S. coincyi showed high sexual reproduction ability, and therefore its conservation problems are not due to agents related to its reproductive biology, but to others, such as the alteration of its habitat caused by the presence of livestock.

  1. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

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    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y septiembre-período seco del 2012. Para la cuantificación de bacterias heterótrofas cultivables y BSF se empleó el método de recuento en placa en los medios Agar Tripticasa de Soya y Pikovskaya (PVK respectivamente. La capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos de las cepas aisladas se estimó a partir del diámetro de los halos formados alrededor de las colonias en el medio de cultivo PVK después de 7 días de incubación a 28 °C. Los ensayos de inoculación en B. macrantha se realizaron con las BSF más eficientes. La inoculación de las BSF B. firmus y P. fluorescens de forma individual y como inoculante combinado mostro un efecto benéfico, incrementando significativamente el porcentaje de germinación de semillas, la altura de la plántula, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco de B. macrantha. La inoculación de BSF podría ser considerada una estrategia para mejorar el crecimiento y establecimiento de B. macrantha en pastizales abandonados.Growth Promotion of Baccharis macrantha (Asteraceae by Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizosphere Bacteria     The objectives of this research was to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria (BSF associated to the rhizosphere of Baccharis macrantha and Viburnum triphyllum, and to assess their ability to solubilize phosphate under conditions in vitro. Furthermore to determine the effect of inoculation of the strains BSF more efficient on the growth of B. macrantha. Rhizosphere soil samples of B

  2. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  3. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  4. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  5. Activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) suggests conserved protein-protein and protein-promoter interactions between the anciently diverged monocots and eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Paula; Uimari, Anne; Mehto, Merja; Albert, Victor A; Laitinen, Roosa A E; Teeri, Teemu H

    2003-12-01

    We have identified an R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) that shares high sequence homology to and is phylogenetically grouped together with the previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and Arabidopsis. GMYB10 is able to induce anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), especially in vegetative parts and anthers. In G. hybrida, GMYB10 is involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in leaves, floral stems, and flowers. In flowers, its expression is restricted to petal epidermal cell layers in correlation with the anthocyanin accumulation pattern. We have shown, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay, that GMYB10 interacts with the previously isolated bHLH factor GMYC1. Particle bombardment analysis was used to show that GMYB10 is required for activation of a late anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoter, PGDFR2. cis-Analysis of the target PGDFR2 revealed a sequence element with a key role in activation by GMYB10/GMYC1. This element shares high homology with the anthocyanin regulatory elements characterized in maize (Zea mays) anthocyanin promoters, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been conserved for over 125 million years not only at the level of transcriptional regulators but also at the level of the biosynthetic gene promoters. PMID:14605235

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of the Espeletia complex (Asteraceae): evidence from nrDNA ITS sequences on the closest relatives of an Andean adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Jason T

    2002-07-01

    The subtribe Espeletiinae (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) comprises morphologically and ecologically diverse plants endemic to the tropical montane paramos of the Andes of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Though the ecophysiology and ecology of this adaptive radiation have been well studied, relationships among taxa in the subtribe and between the subtribe and other taxa in the Heliantheae are poorly known. In this study, sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA are used to test previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic position of the Espeletiinae within the Heliantheae and to determine which taxa are the subtribe's closest relatives. Gene phylogenies based on maximum parsimony analyses reveal that the Espeletiinae clade is nested well within the subtribe Melampodiinae and thus should be considered a monophyletic complex of species, not a separate subtribe. The most parsimonious gene trees suggest that the genus Ichthyothere may be the sister taxon to the Espeletia complex and that the genus Smallanthus and a species of Rumfordia are likely among the complex's other closest living relatives. These data offer preliminary insights into the origins of this adaptive radiation and the broader phylogenetic context in which it occurred. PMID:21665707

  7. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds. PMID:26936046

  8. Characterisation of sunflower-21 (SF21) genes expressed in pollen and pistil of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) and their relationship with other members of the SF21 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-09-01

    Two related flower-expressed gene copies belonging to the SF21 (sunflower-21) gene family have been isolated from Senecio squalidus (Oxford Ragwort, Asteraceae). These gene copies are differentially expressed in pollen and pistil tissues; ORSF21B (Oxford Ragwort SF21B) is expressed exclusively in mature pollen, whereas ORSF21A (Oxford Ragwort SF21A) is expressed in the transmitting tissue of the style, where it is developmentally regulated. Despite differences in expression, the coding regions of ORSF21A and ORSF21B are highly similar. Amino acid sequence alignments of SF21 genes from a number of angiosperm species indicate that this gene family is conserved in flowering plants and may play an important role in reproductive processes in a wide range of taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of SF21 nucleotide sequence alignments supports this theory, and indicates a complicated history of evolution of this gene family in angiosperms. The putative roles of SF21 genes in reproduction and pollen-pistil interactions are discussed. PMID:20182753

  9. Preferência alimentar de Phaedon confinis Klug (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae frente a quatro espécies de Senecio (Asteraceae de interesse pecuário

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    Julianne Milléo

    2014-12-01

    Abstract. One of the main causes of death in cattle is related to poisoning by plants of Senecio spp. (Asteraceae. Thus, alternatives for reduction of these plants in the Southern region of Brazil are necessary to diminish losses in livestock. Studies have demonstrated the chrysomelid Phaedon confinis Klug as a potential biological agent of Senecio brasiliensis Less. Our study aimed to evaluate the feeding preference of larvae and adults of P. confinis by the species S. brasiliensis, Senecio madagascariensis Poiret, Senecio oxyphyllus DC and Senecio selloi DC. Previously, the insects were fed on S. brasiliensis to the experiment at 22 ± 1oC temperature, 60 ± 5% relative humidity and 12h photophase. Results obtained indicate that injury caused by P. confinis depended on the species of Senecio offered to the insect, with higher consumption of S. brasiliensis. The developmental stage of the insect influences the feeding preference, since neonate larvae demonstrated higher selectivity to the plant host than adults. In addition to S. brasiliensis, adults can be used to control other species of Senecio, especially S. madagascariensis, since there is oviposition on these plants.

  10. The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae): avoidance of mating constraints imposed by low S-allele number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2003-01-01

    Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has been the subject of several ecological and population genetic studies due to its well-documented history of introduction, establishment and spread throughout Britain in the past 300 years. Our recent studies have focused on identifying and quantifying factors associated with the sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) system of S. squalidus that may have contributed to its success as a colonist. These findings are of general biological interest because they provide important insights into the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a plant mating system. The number of S-alleles in populations and their dominance interactions were investigated in eight wild British populations using cross-diallel studies. The numbers of S-alleles in British S. squalidus populations are typically low (average of 5.3 S-alleles) and the entire British population is estimated to possess no more than 7-11 S-alleles. Such low numbers of S-alleles are most probably a consequence of population bottlenecks associated with introduction and colonization. Potential evolutionary impacts on SSI caused by a paucity of S-alleles, such as restricted mate availability, are discussed, and we suggest that increased dominance interactions between S-alleles may be an important short-term means of increasing mate availability when S-allele numbers are low. PMID:12831471

  11. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-03-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids. PMID:25859328

  12. Modelado de distribución de las especies argentinas de Smallanthus (Asteraceae), el género del “yacón”: un cultivo potencial para la agricultura familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali, Maira Soledad; Katinas,Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Smallanthus connatus (este de Argentina) y S. macroscyphus (noroeste de Argentina), dos especies pertenecientes al género del yacón (Asteraceae), poseen un importante valor alimenticio y medicinal que, junto con su poca exigencia de crecimiento, constituyen cultivos potenciales para la agricultura familiar. Se llevó a cabo un estudio biogeográfico de distribución potencial mediante el método de Máxima Entropía en ambas especies, que permite analizar los factores ecológicos que las afectan y h...

  13. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-01-01

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided. PMID:25781249

  14. Extrato etanólico de representantes de cinco famílias de plantas e óleo essencial da família Asteraceae sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides coletados de frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Bonett, Lucimar Pereira; Muller, Giovana Mayara; Wessling, Cláudia Regina; Gamelo, Fernanda Pompermeyer

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides é o agente causal da antracnose, principal doença pós-colheita do mamoeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a fungitoxicidade do extrato etanólico de representantes de cinco famílias de plantas e óleo essencial da família Asteraceae sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides coletados de frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). Na produção dos extratos etanólico foi utilizado onze plantas, sendo duas para a obtenção do óleo essencial. Os extratos foram o...

  15. Revisión sistemática, análisis cladístico y biogeografía del género Stomatanthes R.M. Kimg & H. Rob (Asteraceae, Eupatorieae)

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Mariana Andrea

    2011-01-01

    El género Stomatanthes pertenece a la familia Asteraceae, tribu Eupatorieae. Fue descripto en el año 1970 por King y Robinson como una segregación de Eupatorium sensu lato, el cual contiene cerca de 1000 especies. Originalmente fue definido para acomodar una especie de Eupatorium (Eupatorium africanum) de África, y posteriormente se agregaron 12 especies sudamericanas y dos más fueron reconocidas para África. Stomatanthes comprende 17 especies que se distribuyen en dos áreas disyuntas: Sur...

  16. El género Chromolaena DC. (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae) en Colombia: revisión taxonómica y evaluación de su estatus genérico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cabeza, Betsy Viviana

    2013-01-01

    El género Chromolaena DC. (Asteraceae-Eupatorieae) está conformado por cerca de 170 especies que se distribuyen desde el sur de los Estados Unidos hasta el sur de Argentina, con la mayor concentración de especies en Brasil. Este trabajo presenta la revisión taxonómica de Chromolaena para Colombia y somete a prueba la hipótesis de monofilia del género con base en caracteres moleculares de la región ITS del genoma nuclear. Para la revisión taxonómica se estudiaron 1422 especímenes de especies d...

  17. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politi Flávio Augusto Sanches

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS, using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

  18. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents. PMID:25970043

  19. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara O. dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41% as well as (−-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16% as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z-caryophyllene (17.98%, germacrene D (17.35%, and viridiflorol (14.13%; whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%, γ-terpinene (14.74%, carvacrol (37.70%, and (Z-caryophyllene (14.07%. The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (−-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (−-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  20. In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. using cell sensitivity and flow cytometry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Shahidi-Hakak, Fatemeh; Asgari, Qasem; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ramin; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected human diseases with an estimated global burden ranking second in mortality and fourth in morbidity among the tropical infections. Chemotherapy involving the use of drugs like glucantime is the mainstay treatment in endemic areas of Iran. Drug resistance is increasingly prevalent, so search for alternative therapy is gathering pace. Medicinal herbs, like wormwood Artemisia, have chemical compounds effective against a number of pathogens. In this study, the efficacy of ethanol extract from Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. was investigated in vitro. The outcome of different effective doses (1-40 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts from this medicinal herb, A. absinthium, on a standard Iranian parasite strain of L. major was examined. The L. major promastigote cell sensitivity and mortality or viability effects due to the addition of herbal extract were measured using the MTT assay and the flow cytometry technique, respectively. There was complete agreement between the two assays. The lethal concentration (LC50) was measured as 101 mg/ml. Some contrasting relationships between the medicinal herb concentrations and the viability of parasites were observed; so that there was an increased multiplication of the parasite at low concentrations of the drug, but an anti-parasitic apoptotic effect was seen at high concentrations of A. absinthium. It was concluded that there might be one or more chemical constituents within the herbal extract of wormwood which at high concentration controlled cell division and affected the relevant activity within the only one giant mitochondrion in this flagellate parasite. At low doses, however, it showed the opposite effect of leading to mitotic cell divisions. PMID:27605775

  1. Ecological relationships between non-cultivated plants and insect predators in agroecosystems: the case of Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikis, Dionyssios; Favas, Charalampos; Lykouressis, Dionyssios; Fantinou, Argyro

    2007-05-01

    Species of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are thought to be effective predators in reducing the numbers of several pests in vegetable crops. These predators are omnivorous as in addition to prey they also utilize plant sap for growth and development. Populations of these predators build in non-crop host plants and provide inoculum that augments natural control of insect pests in adjacent crops. However, to enhance their effectiveness in crops requires knowledge of their trophic relationships with host plants. In this study, the ecological relationships between the predator Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa) ( = M. caliginosus Wagner) and its most important natural host plant Dittrichia viscosa L. (W. Greuter) (Asteraceae) were investigated in the laboratory and in field studies. A 2-year field study of M. melanotoma populations on D. viscosa was made using the percentage of plants infested by C. inulae as a measure of aphid prey abundance. The field studies revealed that M. melanotoma populations were present throughout the year on D. viscosa reaching highest numbers in June and July despite very low levels of aphid infested plants. Laboratory life table studies were used to compare the survival and reproduction of the predator on D. viscosa leaves alone and leaves plus aphid prey ( Capitophorus inulae (Passerini)). Predators reared on D. viscosa leaves plus aphid prey had an average developmental time of 16.73 days, fecundity was 69.55 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0614/day. When fed only leaves, the developmental time was 21.13 days, fecundity was 10.80 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0229/day. The results of the two studies suggest an important role for D. viscosa in conserving and augmenting M. melanotoma in agro ecosystems, and in the development of natural control augmentation strategies in vegetable crops.

  2. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. PMID:25399425

  3. Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Flatscher, Ruth; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Krejčíková, Jana; Suda, Jan; Hülber, Karl; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organism's Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end, we used AFLPs, nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and analysed them, among others, within a graph theoretic framework and using novel Bayesian methods of phylogeographic inference. On the basis of patterns of genetic diversity, occurrence of rare markers, distribution of distinct genetic lineages and patterns of range connectivity both interior refugia in the formerly strongly glaciated central Alps and peripheral refugia along the southern margin of the Alps were identified. The presence of refugia congruently inferred by markers resolving at different time levels suggests that these refugia acted as such throughout several glacial cycles. The high degree of range persistence together with gradual range expansion, which contrasts with the extent of range shifts implied for other Alpine species, is likely responsible for incipient lineage differentiation evident from the genetic data. Replacing a simplistic peripheral vs. interior refugia dualism by more complex models involving both types of refugia and considering different time levels will help identifying common phylogeographic patterns with respect to, for instance, location of refugia and colonization routes and elucidating their underlying genetic and/or ecological causes. DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. FR796701–FR797793 and nos. HE614296–HE614583. PMID:22276934

  4. Identificação de espécies da família Asteraceae, revisão sobre usos e triagem fitoquímica do gênero Eremanthus da Reserva Boqueirão, Ingaí-MG Asteraceae species identification, use revision and phytochemical screening of Eremanthus genus in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, Ingaí - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar espécies da família Asteraceae, revisar seus usos e realizar triagem fitoquímica preliminar do gênero Eremanthus procederam-se coletas botânicas semanais de espécimes na Reserva Boqueirão, localizada em Ingaí, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram herborizadas e identificadas utilizando-se bibliografia especializada e comparação com espécimes disponíveis no Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A revisão dos usos foi feita através de consulta a obras clássicas e artigos científicos contendo relatos sobre levantamentos etnobotânicos realizados na área de estudo. Para triagem fitoquímica empregaram-se reagentes específicos para cada grupo de metabólito. Foram levantadas 102 espécies da família Asteraceae, sendo 32 delas úteis para o homem. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos hidroalcoólicos indicaram a presença de açúcares redutores, carboidratos, aminoácidos, taninos, flavonóides, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, carotenóides, esteróides e triterpenóides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados de cumarina, saponinas espumídicas, alcalóides, purinas, polissacarídeos e antraquinonas. Não foram detectados ácidos orgânicos, catequinas, lactonas sesquiterpênicas e azulenos.To identify Asteraceae species, review the utilization and perform a preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Eremanthus genus, plants were weekly collected in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, located in Ingaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The samples were herborized and identified by using a specialized bibliography and comparison with the species available in the Herbarium ESAL of the Federal University of Lavras. The utilization review was carried out by means of bibliographical research and ethnobotanical surveys in the sampling area. Specific reagents for each group of compounds were used for phytochemical screening. From the 102 Asteraceae species investigated, 32 were reported to be of use to

  5. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  6. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  7. Interferência de extratos da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre a atividade de antibióticos usados na clínica Interference from extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, on the activity of antibiotics used in the clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilde Canton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência da fração polar e apolar, bem como do óleo essencial da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica médica. Os ensaios foram realizados com vinte e nove antibióticos em associação com os dois extratos [uma fração polar (HA 50% e uma da fração apolar (EA 25%] e com o óleo essencial. O método utilizado foi o método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando os discos de antibióticos, adquiridos comercialmente. Os resultados mostraram interferência na ação esperada do antibiótico quando associado aos extratos e ao óleo essencial da B. dracunculifolia. Em alguns casos não houve alteração da ação do antibiótico, no entanto, na maioria dos casos houve interferência sinérgica ou antagônica da ação do antibiótico. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The objective of this study was to investigate the interference of the polar and apolar fraction as well the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, about the antibiotics effects used in the medic clinic. The essays were accomplished with twenty nine antibiotics in association with two extracts [one polar fraction (HA 50% and one of apolar fraction (EA 25%] and with essential oil. The method used was the diffusion one in solid mean using the antibiotic discs, which were acquired commercially. The results showed interference in the hoped action of the antibiotic when associated to the extract and to the B. dracunculifolia essential oil. In some cases there was no alteration of the antibiotic action, however, in most of the cases there was either a synergic or an antagonic interference of the antibiotic action. These outcomes have showed that the use of derived products or plants can interfere on the effectiveness of

  8. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

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    Jansen Olivia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2 using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method. The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml. Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml, which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 Conclusions The present study

  9. Eficiência nutricional do Nitrogênio e produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae em condições de casa de vegetação Nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Serra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de nitrogênio no solo e de épocas de coleta sobre a eficiência nutricional do nitrogênio e a produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae em condições de casa de vegetação. O substrato utilizado foi a camada de 0 - 20 cm de Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de N (0, 21, 42 e 84mg dm-3 e cinco épocas de colheita (15, 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias após o transplante. O teor de N na inflorescência de calêndula reduziu com as épocas de coleta, redução essa que ocorreu possivelmente devido à menor eficiência da absorção desse elemento pela planta e menor translocação do N para as inflorescências. Pode se concluir que as épocas de avaliação influenciaram na resposta da planta à eficiência de absorção (EFA, sendo a máxima EFA de N aos 51 dias após o transplante das mudas. Observou-se aumento na translocação de N da parte aérea (folhas e caules para as inflorescências, tendo como consequência a redução do N na parte aérea. Houve incremento na produção de biomassa de calêndula em função das épocas de coleta , e do aumento das doses de N aplicadas no solo. A eficiência nutricional do N foi influenciada pelas épocas de avaliação e pelo teor de N presente no solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both the application of different nitrogen levels on the soil and the harvest periods on nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae under greenhouse conditions. The employed substrate was 0-20cm layer of Oxisol. Experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Treatments consisted of four N levels (0, 21, 42 and 84 mg dm-3 and five harvest periods (15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after transplanting. N levels in

  10. Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

  11. Spittlebugs in the genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) associated with weedy composite host plants (Asteraceae) that may represent unusual cases of nitrogen fixation%与特殊固氮模式草本菊科寄主植物有关的Sphenorhina属沫蝉(半翅目:沫蝉科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinton THOMPSON

    2013-01-01

    观察了沫蝉科Sphenorhina属与固氮植物有关的热带木本菊科植物Crassocephalum cerpidioides 和Chromolaena ordorata的3种沫蝉.沫蝉可能作为菊科一些固氮植物的间接指示物,该科的固氮作用尚未得到很好研究.%Three species of the spittlebug genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) have been observed in association with Crassocephalum crepidioides and Chromolaena ordorata,weedy tropical species in the family Asteraceae that have been implicated as nitrogen-fixing plants.The spittlebugs may be serving as indirect indicators of nitrogen fixation in some species of Asteraceae,a group in which nitrogen fixation has not been well established.

  12. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos e histolocalização de compostos fenólicos e lipídicos em Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae Vegetative organ anatomy and histolocalization of lipids and phenolics compounds in Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae

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    M.C.M. Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae é uma erva ruderal e aromática conhecida popularmente como couve-cravinho. Na medicina popular, é utilizada como cicatrizante e antiinflamatória, antifúngica, antibacteriana, calmante, no combate à hipertensão arterial, no tratamento de leishmaniose, no tratamento de edemas e traumatismos, no tratamento de picada de cobra, doenças reumáticas e dores em geral. A atividade cicatrizante tem sido relacionada à presença de teores variáveis de compostos fenólicos do tipo taninos. Os objetivos do trabalho foram caracterizar as estruturas secretoras quanto à histolocalização dos compostos fenólicos e lipídicos e descrever a anatomia da raiz, do caule e da folha de couve-cravinho. De cinco plantas cultivadas, em fase de prefloração, foram coletadas a raiz, o caule e a folha, os quais foram fixados em FAA 50 ou em sulfato ferroso em formalina neutra tamponada (para observação de compostos fenólicos e submetidos ao teste com Sudan III, visando a observação de compostos lipídicos. O laminário foi obtido utilizando-se metodologia tradicional. As raízes são tetrarcas, desenvolvem estrutura secundária e apresentam ductos secretores, os quais estavam presentes no córtex. O caule possui epiderme unisseriada recoberta por cutícula relativamente espessa; o parênquima cortical é intercalado com o colênquima subepidérmico; a medula é parenquimática; e os feixes são colaterais. Nos caules, os ductos também estavam presentes, porém somente nos jovens a reação para compostos fenólicos foi positiva. Nas folhas, o contorno das células epidérmicas é sinuoso e a epiderme é unisseriada e recoberta por cutícula delgada. São evidentes duas a três camadas de colênquima subepidérmico, e imerso no parênquima fundamental está o feixe colateral. No limbo foliar, foram observados ductos delimitados por várias camadas de células epiteliais, cujo conteúdo reagiu positivamente, indicando a

  13. Estabelecimento de metodologia para alimentação de Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae em camundongos swiss e avaliação da toxicidade e do efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae, in populations of Aedes aegypti

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    Waldemir Pereira Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver um procedimento de alimentação de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti que não cause estresse em camundongo swiss e avaliar a toxicidade e o efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti. Camundongos anestesiados: um observado tempo de sedação e outro colocado em gaiola para alimentação de fêmeas. Óleo essencial, diluído em acetona, foi utilizado em bioensaios para avaliação das concentrações letais em larvas de Bauru, SP e São José do Rio Preto, SP, respectivamente, sensíveis e resistentes ao temephos. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com a cepa Rockefeller-EUA. O procedimento com camundongos foi aprovado. Não houve diferença entre as populações quanto à susceptibilidade a Tagetes minuta e os ensaios demonstraram CL50 de 0,24, 0,25 e 0,21mL L-1 e CL99,9 em 0,35, 0,39 e 0,42mL L-1, respectivamente, para Rockfeller, Bauru e São José do Rio Preto. Não foi observado efeito residual da solução.The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP and São José do Rio Preto (SP that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto

  14. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  15. Phylogeny and putative hybridization in the subtribe Paranepheliinae (Liabeae, Asteraceae), implications for classification, biogeography, and Andean orogeny%Paranepheliinae亚族(菊科,Liabeae族)的系统发育和可能的属间杂交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akiko SOEJIMA; 文军; Mario ZAPATA; Michael O. DILLON

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal ITS region and the chloroplast trnL-trnF (trnLF) intergenic region were sequenced for 45 accessions of Paranephelius and six accessions of Pseudonoseris, the two genera of the subtribe Paranepheliinae (Liabeae, Asteraceae) distributed in the alpine regions of the Andes. This data set was used to estimate relationships between these genera and within each genus to aid in evaluating morphological variation and classification. Our results with both ITS and trnLF markers support the monophyly of subtribe Paranepheliinae, and place Pseudonoseris discolor as the first diverged taxon sister to the clade containing Paranephelius. Pseudonoseris szyszylowiczii exhibited intraspecific divergence supporting intergeneric hybridization between Pseudonoseris and Paranephelius. Within Paranephelius, genetic divergence is low and not adequate to fully resolve phylogenetic relationships at the species level, but two genetically and morphologically recognizable groups were revealed by the ITS data. Several accessions possessing multiple ITS sequences represent putative hybrids between the two groups. These putative hybrids have caused some taxonomic confusion and difficulties in establishing species boundaries in Paranephelius. The divergence time estimates based on ITS sequences indicated that the stem of subtribe Paranepheliinae dates to 13 million years ago, but the diversification of the crown clade of the extant members began in the early Pleistocene or late Pliocene, perhaps associated with the uplift of the Andes and the climatic changes of global cooling.

  16. Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco

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    N.C. Lubi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido desta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1% foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco.

  17. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  18. GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oils from Leaves of Three Asteraceae Invasive Plants%3种菊科入侵植物叶片精油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季梅; 泽桑梓; 孙盟; 杨斌; 赵宁

    2012-01-01

    用同时蒸馏萃取法提取薇甘菊、紫茎泽兰和飞机草3种有害入侵植物叶片精油,用气相色谱-质谱进行精油化学组成的分析.结果表明,从3种有害入侵植物叶片精油中共鉴定出78种化合物,主要成分均为单萜类及倍半萜类,其中飞机草鉴定出化学成分50种,紫茎泽兰45种,薇甘菊50种.3种植物精油中都能检测到3-己烯-1-醇、α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、柠檬烯、反-罗勒烯、芳樟醇、α-胡椒烯、β-澄椒烯、β-石竹烯、α-香柠檬烯、α-石竹烯、α-姜烯、双环大香叶烯、荜澄茄油烯醇、橙花叔醇、石竹烯氧化物、库贝醇和马兜铃酮,部分化合物在医药领域开发利用前景广阔.%This paper reports the result of GC - MS analysis of the essential oils from the leaves of three Asteraceae invasive plants, namely, Mikania micrantha, Eupatorium adenophorum and Eupatorium odoratum. The essential oils from the leaves were extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction. Totally 78 compounds were identified, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were found to be the major components. The kinds of compounds identified from Eupatorium odoratum, Eupatorium adenophorum and Mikania micrantha were 50, 45 and 50 respectively. The common components for three plants were 3 - Hexen - 1 - ol, α - Pinene, β - Pinene, α - Phellandrene, Limonene, trans - β - Ocimene, Linalool, α - Copaene, β - Cubebene, β - Caryophyllene, α - Bergamotene, α - Caryophyllene, α - Zingiberene, Bicyclogermacrene, Cubenol, Nerolidol, Caryophyllene oxide, Cubenol and Aristolane. Some of those compounds had utilization prospect in medicine development.

  19. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Lazkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae, Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Jeana M.E.; Chang, Marilene R.; Brito, Daniela Z.; Katyuce S. Farias; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo A.; Izabel C.C. Turatti; Norberto P. Lopes; Santos, Edson A.; Carollo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima - an abundant plant from the Brazilian Pantanal region - against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extracts and fractions showed activity in all tested microorganisms. The chloroform fraction of the leaves and roots showed the most antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, with an MI...

  1. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeana M.E. Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima - an abundant plant from the Brazilian Pantanal region - against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extracts and fractions showed activity in all tested microorganisms. The chloroform fraction of the leaves and roots showed the most antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, with an MIC of 500 μg/mL. This fraction was submitted to bioautographic assays to characterize the activity of the compounds. Two bands from the leaves (L-A and L-B and three bands from the roots (R-C, R-D and R-E were bioactive. Within the root-derived bands, the terpene derivatives stigmasterol, kaurenoic acid and kaura-9(11, 16-dien-18-oic acid were identified. Antibiotic activity of A. latissima is reported for the first time.

  3. Carpology of some East Asian Cardueae (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarembo, E. V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the morphological, anatomical structure of achenes in the East Asian species of Rhaponticum, Klasea Serratula and Synurus. The structure of pericarp epidermal cells, mesocarp, has been described, as well as the structure of testa epidermal cells. The specific characters of the genera, as well as the identification characters of the species, are described.El presente artículo se refiere a las características morfológicas, la estructura anatómica de los aquenios en las especies de Rhaponticum, Klasea Serratula y Synurus en Asia oriental. Se han descrito la estructura de células epidérmicas del pericarpio, y el mesocarpio, así como la de la testa de las células epidérmicas. También quedan descritos los caracteres específicos de los géneros, así como los caracteres de identificación de las especies.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Isolation of Luteoline from Centaurea behen L. Grown in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Mousavi, Zahra; Shokrollahi, Maryam; Shafaghat, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites providing Ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy protection and color in almost all terrestrial plants and fruits. They have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. As their biological activities have an impact on human health, they serve as target molecules in the development of new drugs. The objective of this research was to study the antioxidant activity and chemical analysis of the luteoline f...

  5. Differentiation between diploid and tetraploid Centaurea phrygia: mating barriers, morphology and geographic distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutecký, P.; Štěpánek, Jan; Baďurová, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-32. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : geographic distribution * polyploidy * reproductive isolation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  6. The Case Against (-)-Catechin Involvement in Allelopathy in Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proving allelopathic chemical interference is a daunting endeavor, in that production and movement of a phytotoxin from a donor plant to a receiving plant must be demonstrated in the substrate in which the plants grow, which is usually a complex soil matrix. The soil levels or soil flux levels of th...

  7. Chemical constituents of Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae); Constituintes quimicos de Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Adalva Lopes; Aragao, Fabiana Martins; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio Silva dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R., E-mail: rjane_7@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Coordenaco de Quimica; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Nunes, Edson Paula [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    The chemical investigation of hexane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Vernonia scorpioides resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new polyacetylene lactone, rel-4-dihydro-4{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2-(5H)-one, along with the new ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy-6,8,10-triynyldodecanoate, and seven known compounds: taraxasteryl acetate, lupeyl acetate, lupeol, lupenone, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and luteolin. The structure of all compounds was determined by spectrometric techniques (HR-ESI-MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and IV) and comparison with published spectral data. (author)

  8. THE FLORA OF HEKIMDAG (BOZDAG, ESKISEHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ARDIÇ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the flora of Eskişehir Hekimdağ (Bozdağ were investigated. According to Davis's grid system, the research area lies in B3 square. The plant samples collected in this region and determined that there are 59 families, as well as 467 species and subspecies taxa belonging to 219 genera. The phytogeographical distribution is as follows: 49 Mediterranean, 31 Euro-Siberian, 19 Irano-Turanian, 6 Euxin and 362 unknown or other-regional elements. The largest families are Asteraceae (50, Fabaceae (38, Lamiaceae (24, Poaceae (21 and Liliaceae (18 in terms of the number of species and subspecies included. Genera represented by the highest number of species are Centaurea (7, Alyssum (6, Silene, Astragalus, Trifolium, Lathyrus ve Campanula (5 . The number of endemic taxa within the study area is 41 (10.86%. 13 taxa are new records for the B3 square.

  9. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

  10. Karyotypic analysis of different populations of Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Malik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Carthamus tinctorius L. were analysed. A karyotype formula for each studied population was formulated. Although all samples have 2n = 24, they could be differentiated by their karyotype formula and quantitative parameters of the karyotypes. The chromosomes were assorted into different categories on the basis of arms ratio following Levan et al. (1964. These were further subdivided into different types, on the basis of total length of the chromosomes. Based on an evolutionary point of view, variation in total chromosome length without major changes in the karyotype formula suggests that changes in the amounts of genomic DNA are proportional to the relative length of an each chromosome arm. All samples possessed symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical karyotype. The samples belonging to the same species were showing intra-specific or inter-specific chromosome polymorphism. This finding may provide useful information for Carthamus evolutionary, genetic, and breeding studies.

  11. Fungicidal activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Belal, Mohamed H; el-Baroty, Gamal

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds was estimated to be 5 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml against Penicillium citrinum and 7 microg/ml, 1.5 microg/ml against Mucora rouxii carvone and piperitone, respectively. PMID:16484084

  12. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  13. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae, a new species from North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sennikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group H. sect. Aestiva (H. sect. Prenanthoidea × H. sect. Umbellata and is most similar to H. veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements.

  14. Natural hybridization and introgression in sympatric Ligularia species (Asteraceae, Senecioneae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jun YU; Chiaki KURODA; Xun GONG

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty in clarifying species of genus Ligularia Cass.has been attributed to rapid and continuous allopatric speciation in small and isolated populations,combined with interspecific diploid hybridization in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas.However,no concrete example has been reported to prove this hypothesis.We studied a natural mixed population of six species of Ligularia in which some individuals were morphologically intermediate between L.subspicata and L.nelumbifolia.Based on DNA sequences (trnC-E trnL-rpL32,trnQ5'rpsl6,trnK-rpsl6,and internal transcribed spacer) and inter-simple sequence repeat data,we concluded that putative hybrids are primarily products of hybridization between L.nelumbifolia and L.subspicata.The other four species or additional,unknown species may also be involved in hybridization.This hybridization is bidirectional but asymmetrical.Hybrid individuals were mostly the first generation,but F2 and later-generation hybrids were also present.Moreover,the backcrossed individuals detected indicate that natural gene flow occurs among at least three Ligularia species.Hybrids may become stabilized to form new species or may function as intermediates in evolutionary diversification.

  15. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  16. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata,Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  17. Cytotype distribution and phylogeography of Hieracium intybaceum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2015), s. 487-498. ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * glacial refugia * geographical parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.534, year: 2014

  18. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Taraxacum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záveský, L.; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Štěpánek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2005), s. 91-104. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0970 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Taraxacum * C-value * genome size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  19. Phylogeny and evolution of Perezia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae: Nassauviinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beryl B. SIMPSON; Mary T. K. ARROYO; Sandra SIPE; Marta DIAS de MORAES; Joshua McDILL

    2009-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of most of the species of Perezia reveals that, as traditionally defined, the genus is not monophyletic with two species more closely related to Nassauvia than to Perezia. In addition, our results show that Burkartia (Perezia) lanigera is related to Acourtia and is the only member of that clade in South America. The remaining species are monophyletic and show a pattern of an early split between a western temperate and an eastern subtropical clade of species. Within the western clade, the phylogeny indicates a pattern of diversification that proceeded from southern, comparatively low-elevation habitats to southern high-elevation habitats, and ultimately into more northern high-elevation habitats. The most derived clades are found in the high central Andes, where significant radiation has occurred.

  20. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  1. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  2. CROMOSOMAS EN VERNONIA PLATENSIS Y ESPECIES AFINES (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fueron analizados los cromosomas somáticos de Vernonia platensis y otras tres especies estrechamente relacionadas. Todas éstas especies pertenecen a la subsección o serie Flexuosae, que es el único grupo americano con el número básico de cromosomas x = 10. En el presente trabajo se analizan los cromosomas somáticos de cuatro especies del grupo Flexuosae; se dan a conocer dos nuevos citotipos para V. platensis y se presentan por primera vez los cariotipos de V. verbascifolia y V. platensis. Los resultados del análisis de los cromosomas son los siguientes: V.flexuosa, 2n = 40 (28m + 12sm; V.lepidifera, 2n = 20 (8m + 2m-sm + 10sm, V. platensis, 2n = 20 (10m + 2m-sm + 8sm, 2n=40, 2n=60, 2n=80 y V.verbascifolia, 2n=20 (8m + 4m-sm + 8sm. El citotipo 4x, 6x y 8x de V.platensis presenta el mismo cariotipo diploide lo que sugiere un origen autopoliploide.  Los cariotipos de las especies aquí reportadas difieren principalmente en longitud total, asimetría y número de metacéntricos y submetacéntricos. Muestran también variación en el número, forma y ubicación de los satélites. Los resultados se discuten en relación a la posición taxonómica de las especies y los estudios cromosómicos previos en el grupo.

  3. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lim, K.Y.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Tate, J.; Matyášek, Roman; Šrubařová, Hana; Kovařík, Aleš; Pires, J.Ch.; Xiong, Z.; Leitch, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 10 (2008), s. 1-13. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : allopolyploidy * chromosome s * evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Anatomia da folha e do caule de Calea longifolia (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo V. Farago; Manfron Budel Jane; Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; Jurgensen, Ingrid; Takeda, Inés J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Várias espécies do gênero Calea L. têm propriedades medicinais, inclusive com estudos químicos voltados à caracterização dos compostos biologicamente ativos. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos enfocam aspectos morfológicos. O presente estudo tem por objetivo caracterizar histologicamente a folha e o caule de Calea longifolia, com o propósito de fornecer informações para a identificação da espécie. O material vegetal foi analisado, utilizando-se técnicas habituais de microscopia fotônica e eletrônic...

  5. Morfoanatomia foliar e caulinar de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Manfron Budel, Jane; Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbiré; Paulo V. Farago

    2004-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., pertencente ao grupo Spicata e à secção Discolores, é conhecida na medicina tradicional como "carqueja", "chilca", "vassourinha". É utilizada popularmente para combater distúrbios gástricos, inapetência, cansaço físico e afecções febris. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar estudos morfoanatômicos da folha e do caule de B. dracunculifolia, contribuindo na diagnose desse fármaco vegetal e fornecendo subsídios taxonômicos ao grupo. O material botânico foi submetido...

  6. Structural studies of chemical constituents of Thithonia Tagetiflora Desv (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Huynh, Vinh; Nguyen Thi Hoai, Thu; Phi Phung Nguyen, Kim; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    new sesquiterpene lactones, 8-angeloyloxy-2,14-epoxygermacra-4,10(1),11(13)-trien-6,12-olide (1) and 6-angeloyloxy-1-hydroxy-3,4-epoxygermacra-9,11(13)-dien-8,12-olide (2), together with three known compounds, including two norisoprenoids, (6S,9S)-vomifoliol or (6R,9R)-vomifoliol (3) and (6S,9S...

  7. Arbutin in Serratula quinquefolia M.B. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genus Serratula is known for the presence of steroid compounds which belong to the group of ecdysones. Former phytochemical works from the late sixties and early seventies indicate, in some Serratula species, the occurrence of a phenolic glycoside-arbutin. This has been confirmed in the present work through finding an α,β-arbutin anomer in Serratula quinquefolia M.B. New botanical data concerning the classification of genus Serratula suggest that the species in question should be regarded as belonging to genus Klasea (currently a section of genus Serratula. There has been an attempt to find a key to the chemical division within the taxons.

  8. Seed rain pattern of the invasive weed Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Stainier, Charles; Lebeau, Frédéric; Pieret, Nora; Mahy, Grégory

    2008-01-01

    Dispersion capacity of alien invasive plants is a key feature for understanding invasion processes and risks. Here, we present an experimental study focussing on the seed rain pattern of Senecio inaequidens, an African plant widespread throughout Europe, under common favourable dispersal conditions. One hundred achenes from two Belgian populations underwent a drop time in still air experiment in order to assess linear correlation between several morphological traits and terminal velocity. Var...

  9. Achene slime content in some taxa of Matricaria L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Inceer, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The achenes of Matricaria aurea and two varieties of M. chamomilla (var. chamomilla and var. recutita) have slime cells on the surface and they are characterized by slime envelope formation during hydration. The slime in these taxa is composed of pectins and cellulose. The slime could play important role in the distribution and colonisation of new habitats in Matricaria taxa.

  10. Parthenium Hysterophorus. L. (Asteraceae : A Boon or Curse? (A Review

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    Archana Joshi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus (Linn. is violent every where annual, herbivorous weed, commonly found in America but presently invaded in four continents. It shows hazardous effect on human health, livestock as well as it reduces the crop production due to its allelopathic effect. Partheniun with other constituents discussed are the cause behind the intimidating role of this weed. In spite of these drawbacks the weed is traditionally known for the treatment of wounds, fever, ulcerated sores and malaria. It can also be used to increase the agricultural productivity and for the elimination of heavy metals from soil as well as from water to reduce pollution. The main aim of this review article is to summarise the main positive and negative effects of the Parthenium hysterophorus.

  11. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  12. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Rownak; Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Majumder, Snehali; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba can be found growing wild in fallow lands of Bangladesh where it is considered as a weed by farmers. Traditional medicinal systems of the Indian subcontinent countries as well as tribal practitioners consider the plant to have diverse medicinal values and use it commonly for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders (including asthma), fever, hair loss and graying of hair, liver disorders (including jaundice), skin disorders, spleen enlargement, and cut...

  13. Garten-Ringelblume - Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae) : Heilpflanze des Jahres 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kasielke, Till

    2010-01-01

    Die Garten-Ringelblume ist aus keinem traditionellem Bauern- und Hausgarten wegzudenken. Sie wird im nördlichen Skandinavien ebenso angepflanzt wie am Mittelmeer und ist auf den Höhen des Pamir in Zentralasien so beliebt wie in den weiten Steppen Russlands. Diese außerordentliche Beliebtheit ist neben den geringen Standortansprüchen auf zwei wesentliche Eigenschaften zurückzuführen. Einerseits besitzt die Art zahlreiche Heilkräfte, die zum Teil schon seit der Antike bekannt sind, andererseits...

  14. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. Kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the βcarotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 (β-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  15. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  16. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  17. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por espécies de Bidens pode beneficiar as culturas agrícolas e apresentar importantes implicações para a biologia da conservação.

  18. Notas Taxonómicas en Senecioneae (Asteraceae de Argentina Taxonomic notes on Senecioneae (Asteraceae from Argentina

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    Luis Ariza Espinar

    Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la tribu Senecioneae para el centro de Argentina, surgieron algunas novedades debidas al análisis de diversos «tipos nomenclaturales». Ellas son: 1.- Senecio pinnatus var. tenuisectus Griseb.: fue basado en 4 ejemplares, que pertenecen, respectivamente, uno a Senecio pinnatus Poir., dos a S. pampeanus Cabrera y el restante a S. pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera; 2 a .- Senecio gilliesianus Hieron. fue nominado a la vista de un ejemplar de Senecio pampeanus Cabrera; 2b.- Senecio gilliesianus var. glaberrima Hieron. pertenece a Senecio pinnatus Poir.; 3.- Senecio pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera, es relegado a la sinonimia de S. pampeanus fo . pampeanus ; 4.- Se acepta a Werneria denticulata Blake, sinónimo de W. pygmaea Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. como fuera sugerido, en su momento, por Rockhausen (1939, y se considera que el material argentino determinado bajo aquel nombre pertenece, en realidad, a W. cochlearis Griseb.Some novelties have arisen through the analysis of the nomenclatural types during the study of tribe Senecioneae from Central Argentina. They are: 1.- Senecio pinnatus var. tenuisectus Griseb.: it was based upon 4 specimens which belong respectively, one to Senecio pinnatus Poir., two to S. pampeanus Cabrera, and the remaining to S. pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera; 2 a .- Senecio gilliesianus Hieron. was based upon a specimen belonging to Senecio pampeanus Cabrera; 2b.- Senecio gilliesianus var. glaberrima Hieron. is a synonym of Senecio pinnatus Poir.; 3.- Senecio pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera, is a synonym of S. pampeanus fo . pampeanus ; 4.- Werneria denticulata Blake is accepted as a synonym of W. pygmaea Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. as it was suggested by Rockhausen (1939, while the argentinean material identified under W. denticulata belongs to W. cochlearis Griseb.

  19. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

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    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  20. Floral biology of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae)

    Biologia floral da candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira; Cristiane Gouvêa Fajardo; Dulcinéia de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Floral biology and pollinators of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus) were analyzed in a natural population. We studied anthesis, flower morphology, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability and floral visitors. The small flowers (10.17 mm in length) are pink, hermaphrodites and organized in dense capitula (mean = 29 flowers). We observed a large percentage of viable pollen (77.25%) and relatively scarce nectar availability for floral visitors (0.63 μL). The bees Apis mellifera and Trigona sp. w...

  1. Sesquiterpenoids of Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn., Asteraceae Sesquiterpenóides de Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana de Medeiros da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn. three sesquiterpenoids were isolated. β-caryophyllene (1, β-caryophyllene oxide (2 and germacrene D (3 were characterized by GC-EI-MS, IR, ¹H and 13C-NMR data. Their ecological and chemotaxonomical significance for the genus Senecio are discussed, as well as the biosynthetic correlation between the isolated substances. The antimicrobial activity of substances 1 and 2 were evaluated by the microdilution method against bacterial and fungal strains. Both compounds did not inhibit the microorganism growth at the tested concentrations.Das folhas de Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn. foram isolados três sesquiterpenóides. β-Cariofileno (1, óxido de β-cariofileno (2 e germacreno D (3 foram identificados por CG-IE-EM, IV, ¹H and 13C-RMN. A importância ecológica e quimiotaxionômica para o gênero Senecio é discutida, assim como a correlação biossintética entre as substâncias isoladas. As substâncias 1 e 2 tiveram sua atividade antimicrobiana avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo contra cepas bacterianas e fúngicas. Ambas não inibiram o crescimento microbiano nas concentrações testadas.

  2. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae) em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr; Aldo Gava; Claudio S. L. Barros

    2005-01-01

    É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium em bovinos do Paraná, Brasil. A doença ocorreu no início do verão, durante um período de forte estiagem. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram dois dias após a introdução de 50 vacas e 8 novilhas em uma pastagem com alta densidade de B. triplinervium, que apresentava sinais de ter sido consumido pelos animais. Adoeceram 15 bovinos (9 vacas e 6 novilhas). Desses, morreram duas vacas e quatro novilhas após um curso clínico de 12 a 60 h...

  3. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium em bovinos do Paraná, Brasil. A doença ocorreu no início do verão, durante um período de forte estiagem. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram dois dias após a introdução de 50 vacas e 8 novilhas em uma pastagem com alta densidade de B. triplinervium, que apresentava sinais de ter sido consumido pelos animais. Adoeceram 15 bovinos (9 vacas e 6 novilhas. Desses, morreram duas vacas e quatro novilhas após um curso clínico de 12 a 60 horas. O quadro clínico incluía prostração, atonia ruminal, timpanismo moderado, desidratação acentuada, diarréia e anorexia. Os animais ficavam inquietos, se deitavam e se levantavam constantemente, permanecendo cada vez mais tempo deitados em decúbito esternal. Uma vez nessa posição, manifestavam gemidos e mantinham a cabeça estendida ou voltada para o flanco. Adicionalmente, observou-se nas vacas queda abrupta da produção de leite. Os demais bovinos afetados apresentaram sinais clínicos mais leves, voltando a ingerir um pouco de alimento já no dia seguinte ao aparecimento dos sinais clínicos; a produção de leite voltou aos níveis normais uma semana após. As principais lesões macroscópicas, em dois animais necropsiados, foram observadas principalmente nos compartimentos gástricos. Consistiam de edema da parede do rúmen, e de avermelhamento difuso da mucosa do rúmen, do retículo, do abomaso e de algumas folhas do omaso. Histologicamente, as lesões mais importantes incluíam degeneração balonosa e necrose multifocal com infiltrado neutrofílico discreto no epitélio de revestimento do rúmen. O diagnóstico foi baseado em dados epidemiológicos e na reprodução experimental com as partes aéreas superiores (20 e 30g/kg de B. triplinervium em três bovinos. A análise química de material seco de B. triplinervium, colhido no local do surto, foi negativa para tricotecenos macrocíclicos.An outbreak of poisoning by Baccharidastrum triplinervium in cattle from Paraná, Brazil, is described. The disease occurred during a severe drought in early summer. The onset of clinical signs was two days after 50 cows and 8 heifers had been introduced into a pasture with high density of B. triplinervium that showed signs of having been consumed by the animals. Fifteen animals (9 cows and 6 heifers got sick. Of these 15, two cows and four heifers died after a clinical course of 12-60 hours. Clinical signs included depression, ruminal atony, moderate bloat, marked dehydration, mild diarrhea and anorexia. The animals were restless, laying down and getting up constantly, remaining progressively longer periods in sternal recumbency. Once in that position, the animals had an extended head or the head turned to one of the sides of the body, and were groaning. Additionally, the cows had an abrupt fall in milk yield. The remaining affected cattle presented milder clinical signs and were partially back to their feed on the day following the onset of the clinical signs. The milk production was back to normal values within one week. The main gross lesions observed in two necropsied cows were in the forestomachs and abomasum, consisting of edema of the ruminal wall, as well as of diffuse reddening of the mucosae of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum and of some of the omasal folds. The main histological lesions included multifocal ballooning degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the rumen, associated with neutrophilic infiltrate. The diagnosis was based on the epidemiological data and on the experimental reproduction of the disease by force-feeding 3 bovine with the aeral fresh parts (20 and 30g/kg of B. triplinervium. Chemical analysis of dried material from B. triplinervium harvested at the site of the outbreak was negative for macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  4. Gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae: aspectos químicos, econômicos e biológicos The Baccharis genus (Asteraceae: chemical, economic and biological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Verdi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.

  5. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

  6. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos derivados, e incubadas para posterior análise dos parâmetros biológicos. Os extratos não tiveram eficácia sobre as larvas nas concentrações avaliadas (de 3,1 a 50 mg.mL-1. O EBC apresentou melhor eficácia sobre as fêmeas ingurgitadas (CE 50 de 130,6 mg.mL-1 e CE 90 de 302,9 mg.mL-1 que os extratos derivados. Esses resultados tendem a confirmar que a ação da artemisinina sobre as fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. (B. microplus estaria condicionada à sua ingestão através do sangue. Nesse caso, os métodos in vitro seriam inadequados para a efetiva avaliação da ação de A. annua R.(B. microplus.

  7. Biosystematic and chemosystematic studies in five South American species of Conyza (Asteraceae Estudios biosistemáticos en cinco especies sudamericanas de Conyza (Asteraceae

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    Juan D. Urdampilleta

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essentials oils of five species of Conyza Less from Argentina was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. This composition is associated to morphological and cytogenetic characters. The monoterpenes constitute more than 60% of the essential oils in C. blakei, C glandulitecta, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, in which limonene is the predominant compound. In C. bonariensis and C. primulaefolia the monoterpene content constitute less than the 40%. C. bonariensis presents only 13% limonene, while in C. primulaefolia it is absent. The similarity analysis of monoterpenes showed a relationship between the morphological and cytogenetic analysis, and the monoterpene content character seems to be important in biosystematic studies of the group studied. In general, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis is the species with more ancestral characters, while C. bonariensis and C. primulaefolia show more derived ones.Fueron determinados mediante Cromatografía Gaseosa - Espectrómetro de Masa los componentes de los aceites esenciales de seis especies de Conyza Less. de Argentina. Esta composición es asociada a caracteres morfológicos y citogenéticos. Los monoterpenos constituyen mas de 60% de aceites esenciales en C. blakei, C glandulitecta, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis, C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, en las cuales limoneno es el componente predominante. En C. bonariensis y C. primulaefolia el contenido de monoterpenos constituye menos de 40%. C. bonariensis presenta solo 13% limoneno, mientras que en C. primulaefolia este compuesto esta ausente. El análisis de similitud utilizando monoterpenos muestra relación con el análisis dado por caracteres morfológicos y citogenéticos, por lo que el carácter contenido de monoterpeno resulta importante en estudios biosistemáticos en el grupo estudiado. En general, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis es la especie que presenta un mayor numero de caracteres ancestrales, mientras que C. bonariensis y C. primulaefolia revelarían caracteres derivados.

  8. Biogeografia do gênero Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Biogeography of the genus Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Mara Rejane Ritter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica das 39 espécies nativas de Mikania Willd. no Rio Grande do Sul foi estudada em duas escalas: uma escala regional, utilizando regiões fisiográficas como unidades, e uma escala continental, considerando regiões político-geográficas como unidades. A riqueza específica e a amplitude de distribuiçãoforam obtidas diretamente de matrizes de presença e ausência, relacionando espécies e regiões. A matriz regional foi analisada por dois métodos multivariados, uma análise de agrupamentos e uma análise de coordenadas principais, utilizando o complemento do coeficiente de Jaccard como elemento de comparação (dissimilaridade. Na escala regional as regiões mais ricas foram o Litoral e a Depressão Central, enquanto na escala continental, a maioria das espécies sul-rio-grandenses foram também encontradas no Sudeste do Brasil e no Sul da América do Sul. A análise multivariada evidenciou dois grupos principais no Estado, um oriental e outro ocidental. Em cada um desses grupos foram evidenciados dois subgrupos relacionados a características climáticas e geológicas do Estado.Os padrões de distribuição de Mikania confirmam o caráter tropical do gênero e as principais rotas de migração descritas para a flora do Sul do Brasil.The geographical distribution of the 39 species of Mikania Willd. native in Rio Grande do Sul was studied at two scales: a state-regional scale, using physiographic regions as units, and an american-continental scale, considering politic-geographic regions as units. Specific richness and distribution amplitude were obtained directly from presence and absence matrixes, relating species and regions. The state-regional matrix was also analysed by two multivariate methods, a cluster analysis and a principal coordinate analysis, using the complement of the Jaccard coefficient as a measure of dissimilarity. At the state-regional scale, the richest regions were the Coastal Plain and the Central Depression, whereas at the american-continental scale, most of the South Riograndean species were also found in Southeastern Brazil and Southern South America. The multivariate analysis evidenced two main groups in Rio Grande do Sul, one eastern and another western. Within each of these groups, two subgroups related to climatic and geological features were evidenced. The distribution patterns of Mikania confirm the tropical character of the genus, and the main migration routes described for the southern Brazilian vascular flora.

  9. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae) en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae) in Argentina

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    Juan P. Torretta; Diego Medan; Arturo Roig Alsina; Norberto H. Montaldo

    2010-01-01

    El girasol (Helianthus annuus L.) es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o ...

  10. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

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    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along the day were also studied in order to determine whether or not these visitors contribute to pollination. At least 67 species or morpho-species belonging to four nocturnal visitor orders were recorded. The richest and most abundant order was Lepidoptera (44 species or morpho-species, five families, followed by Coleoptera (18 species or morpho-species, nine families, Orthoptera (three morpho-species, one family and Blattaria (two species, one family. Lepidopterans foraged exclusively for nectar while species in other orders consumed pollen and/or floral parts. However, stigma receptivity was greater during the day, peaking at midday (12:00 - 14:00. Unexpectedly, moth species widely outnumbered bee species as sunflower visitors. Since moths potentially transfer pollen at a time of the day when stigmas are least receptive, it is unlikely that they do effectively pollinate sunflowers.

  11. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

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    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or with respect to the distance to the edge of the crop, but varied among sites. It is concluded that the domestic bee is the main sunflower pollinator in Argentina, although several native bee species (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, and Megachile spp. could be considered as potential crop pollinators.

  12. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae) en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Torretta; Fernando Navarro; Diego Medan

    2009-01-01

    El girasol (Helianthus annuus) es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo larg...

  13. Senecio rosmarinus y S. spegazzinii: Sinónimos de S. volckmannii (Asteraceae, Senecioneae Senecio rosmarinus and S. spegazzinii synonyms of S. volckmannii (Asteraceae, Senecioneae

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    Roberto D. Tortosa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se incluyen a Senecio rosmarinus Phil. y a S. spegazzinii Cabrera en la sinonimia de S. volckmannii Phil.(sección Suffrutecius Cabrera subsección Candidi Cabrera, especie con capítulos discoides, normalmente solitarios en los extremos de los tallos, con involucro anchamente acampanado y con 15-24 filarios. El indumento de la planta, la forma de las hojas y la pubescencia de los aquenios son caracteres variables dentro de la especie.Senecio rosmarinus Phil. and S. spegazzinii Cabrera are included as synonyms of S. volckmannii Phil. (section Suffrutecius Cabrera subsection Candidi Cabrera, species with discoid heads generally solitary at the end of stems, involucre broadly campanulate, with 15-24 phyllaries. The hair covering of plants, the shape of leaves and the pubescence of achenes are variable within this species.

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

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    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administrations, 9.66% (82 daily administrations and 9.30% (43 weekly administrations of their body weight. Two horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 15.0% (30 and 60 daily administrations of their body weight died during the experiments due to unrelated causes. Three horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.5% and 1.0% (single administrations, and 15.0% (240 daily administrations of their body weight, and the control horse survived without any clinical signs. The disease induced by the plant had a clinical course of 1-30 days and was characterized by anorexia, jaundice and neurological signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Weight loss was observed in the more protracted cases. Necropsy findings included marked enhancement of the lobular pattern of the livers or those were firm and dark-red. Hemorrhages were frequent and more conspicuous on the subcutis, serosal surfaces and in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Edema occurred in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and in body cavities. Histologically, the livers of horses that ingested relatively larger amounts of the plant for short periods of time had zonal coagulative necrosis and centrilobular to massive hemorrhages. Moderate to marked hepatomegalocytosis and mild to moderate fibrosis were seen in 4 horses which ingested small amounts of the plant for longer periods. Cholestasis and hemosiderosis were observed in the liver of 8 horses, neutrophilic aggregates in 6 and acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies in hepatocytes of 3 horses. Changes suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the brain of 6 horses. The earliest detected change in the liver biopsies was vacuolization of hepatocyte nuclei followed by apoptotic loss of hepatocytes, hepatomegalocytosis, infiltration of neutrophils and centrolobular necrosis. Occasionally hepatocellular acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies and, in more protracted cases, slight fibrosis were seen. No changes were observed in the liver biopsies of the 3 plant-fed horses that survived, nor on the 2 horses that died of unrelated causes. The control horse had no clinical signs.

  15. Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae: perspectives for a phytotherapeutic product Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae: perspectivas para um produto fitoterápico

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    Evani de L. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Espinho-de-cigano" plant (Acanthospermum hispidum DC is used throughout northeastern (NE Brazil as a folk medicine for asthma. Although little is actually known about the effectiveness and safety of this plant extract product, it is possible to find numerous medicines prepared from it in public health services or in stores selling natural products. This study aimed to undertake a literature review relative to Acanthospermum hispidum covering the period between 1926-2006 within the areas of ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The objective was to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and its uses, as well as to aid in improving its performance as a natural medicine. The species is easily identifiable and grows abundantly during the rainy seasons in NE Brazil; is amenable to cultivation without lose of its phytochemical profile, and toxicological studies have showed its safety as a medicine (although more studies will be required in that direction. As such, the compilation of the accumulated knowledge concerning this species will aid in evaluating its pharmacological value, guaranteeing quality control of the final product, and in preparing recommendations for usages and dosages that offer both safety and efficiency to the user.A planta "Espinho-de-cigano" (Acanthospermum hispidum DC é amplamente usada no nordeste do Brasil como medicamento popular para a asma. Embora muito pouco seja conhecido atualmente sobre a eficácia e segurança deste extrato vegetal, é possível encontrar numerosos medicamentos preparados com ele nos serviços públicos ou em lojas que vendem produtos naturais. Este estudo visa proceder a uma revisão de literatura relativa à A. hispidum, no período entre 1926-2006, nas áreas de etnobotânica, fitoquímica e farmacologia. O objetivo foi contribuir para um melhor conhecimento desta espécie e seus usos, assim como auxiliar na melhora de seu desempenho como um medicamento natural. A espécie é facilmente identificável e cresce abundantemente durante a estação chuvosa no nordeste do Brasil; é possível cultivá-la sem perda de seu perfil fitoquímico e os estudos toxicológicos têm mostrado sua segurança como um medicamento (embora mais estudos sejam requeridos nestes aspectos. Assim sendo, a compilação do conhecimento acumulado relativo a esta espécie auxiliará na avaliação de seu valor farmacológico, garantindo o controle de qualidade do produto final, e no preparo das recomendações para usos e dosagens que ofereçam segurança e eficiência ao usuário.

  16. Antiproliferative, genotoxic and oxidant activities of cyclosativene in rat neuron and neuroblastoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğar Başak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosativene (CSV is a tetracyclic sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of Centaurea cineraria (Asteraceae and Abies magnifica A. Murray (Pinaceae plants. To the best of our knowledge, its cytotoxic, genotoxic and oxidant effects have never been studied on any cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties, antioxidant/oxidant activity and genotoxic damage potential of CSV in healthy neurons and N2a neuroblastoma (N2a-NB cell cultures. After treatment with 10-400 μg/ml of CSV for 24 h, cell proliferation was measured by the MTT (3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The antioxidant activity was assessed by the total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS assays. To evaluate the level of DNA damage, single cell gel alkaline electrophoresis (SCGE was used. The MTT assay showed that the application of CSV significantly reduced cell viability in both cell types. CSV treatments at higher doses led to decreases of TAC levels and increases of TOS levels in neuron and N2a-NB cells. The mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage were not found to be significantly different from the control values in both cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSV has weak anticancer potential.

  17. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosenbaumová, R.; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2012), s. 185-196. ISSN 0934-0882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * inheritance of parthenogenesis * haploid parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2012

  18. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  19. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME) SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf) and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blad...

  20. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  1. The species relationship of the genus Carduus L. (Asteraceae based on morphological characters in Iran

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    Hejraneh Azizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carduus L. of the genus Compositae include about 90 species which are distributed mainly in the Europe, Asia and Africa as the three major centers of diversity of Carduus. About 8 species of Carduus are distributed in Iran among which 1 species is endemic. In this study, 45 quantitative and qualitative morphological characters from vegetative and reproductive parts were considered and evaluated in 37 populations of 8 species of Carduus from different localities in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the species relationship in Iran. To evaluate the species relationships, cluster analysis and ordination based on principal component analysis and PCO were implemented. Statistical analysis indicated that characters as Capitulum shape, Capitulum length, phillary bract spine length, phillary bract width, number of rows phillary bract, number of phillary bract, involucre length, involucres width, length to width ratio involucres had the most important role as diagnostic characters in inter-genus variation. Based on statistical results and diagnostic characters, an identification key was provided for Carduus species in Iran.

  2. Breeding biology and bee guild of Douglas' dustymaiden, Chaenactis douglasii (Asteraceae, Helenieae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusty Maiden, Chaenactis douglasii, is a widespread if inconspicuous short-lived perennial wildflower that blooms late in spring from basin sage-steppe to upper montane areas throughout the Intermountain West. It is proving practical to grow for seed and is expected to be used for western rangeland ...

  3. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  4. Seasonal variation of responses to herbivory and volatile communication in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Satomi; Shiojiri, Kaori; Karban, Richard; Ohara, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Plants can respond to insect herbivory in various ways to avoid reductions in fitness. However, the effect of herbivory on plant performance can vary depending on the seasonal timing of herbivory. We investigated the effects of the seasonal timing of herbivory on the performance of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Sagebrush is known to induce systemic resistance by receiving volatiles emitted from clipped leaves of the same or neighboring plants, which is called volatile communication. Resistance to leaf herbivory is known to be induced most effectively after volatile communication in spring. We experimentally clipped 25 % of leaves of sagebrush in May when leaves were expanding, or in July when inflorescences were forming. We measured the growth and flower production of clipped plants and neighboring plants which were exposed to volatiles emitted from clipped plants. The treatment conducted in spring reduced the growth of clipped plants. This suggests that early season leaf herbivory is detrimental because it reduces the opportunities for resource acquisition after herbivory, resulting in strong induction of resistance in leaves. On the other hand, the late season treatment increased flower production in plants exposed to volatiles, which was caused mainly by the increase in the number of inflorescences. Because the late season treatment occurred when sagebrush produces inflorescences, sagebrush may respond to late herbivory by increasing compensation ability and/or resistance in inflorescences rather than in leaves. Our results suggest that sagebrush can change responses to herbivory and subsequent volatile communication seasonally and that the seasonal variation in responses may reduce the cost of induced resistance. PMID:27056097

  5. Genome size variation and species relationships in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae) as inferred by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suda, Jan; Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Peckert, T.; Krahulec, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2007), s. 1323-1335. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/0059 Grant ostatní: -(CZ) 149/2002/B-BIO/PřF, Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium subgenus Pilosella * flow cytometry * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2007

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

    2003-11-01

    The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

  7. A taxonomic revision of the small Cape genus Steirodiscus (Asteraceae: Senecioneae

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    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Steirodiscus Less. is revised, with full descriptions, nomenclature, illustrations and distribution data. Five species are recognised in two sections: sect. Steirodiscus with free involucral bracts and sect. Psilothonna with bracts connate into a smooth cup. S. linearilobus DC. is established as an earlier name for S. schlechteri Bolus, which is relegated to synonomy.

  8. Nerolidol, an antiulcer constituent from the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopell, Fernando Canani; Lemos, Marivane; Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Comunello, Eros; Maistro, Edson Luis; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the antiulcerogenic effect of essential oil from Baccharis dracunculifolia was evaluated using the model of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The ulcerative lesion index (ULI) was significantly reduced by oral administration of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia at doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg which reduced the lesions by 42.79, 45.70 and 61.61%, respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from B. dracunculifolia by GC showed that this was composed mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenes and the majority compound was nerolidol. Therefore, antiulcerogenic activity of nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was investigated using ethanol-, indomethacin- and stress-induced ulcer models in rat. In the stress-induced ulcer model, a significant reduction of the ULI in animals treated with nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was observed, compared to the control group (p omeprazol (positive control), respectively. In indomethacin-ulcer the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 34.69, 40.80, 51.02 and 46.93% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 100 mg/ kg of cimetidine (positive control), respectively. The results of this study show that nerolidol displays antiulcer activity, as it significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced in different animal models. However, further pharmacological and toxicological investigations, to delineate the mechanism(s) of action and the toxic effects, are required to allow the use of nerolidol for the treatment of gastric ulcer. PMID:17913068

  9. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct relationship was observed with concentrations of Blumea lacera extract and the repellent activity. Percent repellency obtained at 6% concentration of theextract against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 97and 98% at 0 hour and 78.8 and 76.2% after 6 hrs. DEET-2% however showed 100% repellency against An. stephensi and against Cx. quinquefasciatus up to 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively. These results show that Blumea lacera extract has the potential as an effective mosquito repellent.

  10. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.P.; MITTAL, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct rel...

  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC McLeisch (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando V. Sousa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts of Eremanthus erythropappus, including leaves, branches and inflorescences, was investigated by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was assessed by the disc diffusion and microdilution methods, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and reducing power tests. The main compounds found in the essential oils derived from the inflorescences and leaves were β-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, α-copaene and β-pinene. α-Bisabolol was the major component in the branches. The oils were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi, but not Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values ranged from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/mL. Using the DPPH test, the IC50 values ranged from 38.77 ± 0.76 to 102.24 ± 1.96 μg/mL, while the reducing power test produced IC50 values between 109.85 ± 1.68 and 169.53 ± 0.64 μg/mL. The results revealed that the E. erythropappus oils are new promising potential sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds with good future practical applications for human health.

  12. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  13. Recent and recurrent polyploidy in Tragopogon (Asteraceae): cytogenetic, genomic and genetic comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S.; Pires, J. C.; Kovařík, Aleš; Tate, J. A.; Mavrodiev, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2004), s. 485-501. ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0313; GA ČR GA521/01/0037 Grant ostatní: NSF/NATO Postgradual Fellowship(US) DGE-0000658; National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0083659; National Science Foundation(US) MCB-0346591; National Science Foundation(US) MCB-034659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : concerted evolution * gene expression * molecular cytogenetics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.935, year: 2004

  14. Allopatric distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliarová, Barbora; Šuvada, Róbert; Mráz, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The Pilosella alpicola group comprises four morphologically distinct and geographically vicariant alpine taxa. We performed a thorough herbarium revision and literature survey to infer their distributional pattern(s). Pilosella alpicola s.s. occurs in the Alps in two disjunct areas: the Swiss Valais Alps and the Italian Dolomites. Historical records come also from the Austrian Alps (Gurktaler Alps and Hohe Tauern) and from one site from the Alpes Maritimes (Col de Larche), but the localities ...

  15. Mycorrhizal fungi modulate phytochemical production and antioxidant activity of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) under metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, P; Wężowicz, K; Stojakowska, A; Malarz, J; Surówka, E; Sobczyk, Ł; Anielska, T; Ważny, R; Miszalski, Z; Turnau, K

    2014-10-01

    Cichorium intybus (common chicory), a perennial plant, common in anthropogenic sites, has been the object of a multitude of studies in recent years due to its high content of antioxidants utilized in pharmacy and food industry. Here, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants under toxic metal stress was studied. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and non-inoculated were grown on non-polluted and toxic metal enriched substrata. The results presented here indicate that AMF improves chicory fitness. Fresh and dry weight was found to be severely affected by the fungi and heavy metals. The concentration of hydroxycinnamates was increased in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants cultivated on non-polluted substrata, but no differences were found in plants cultivated on metal enriched substrata. The activity of SOD and H2O2 removing enzymes CAT and POX was elevated in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants regardless of the cultivation environment. Photochemical efficiency of inoculated chicory was significantly improved. Our results indicate that R. irregularis inoculation had a beneficial role in sustaining the plants ability to cope with the deleterious effects of metal toxicity. PMID:25048909

  16. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenézer C.S. Bernardes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endive (Cichorium endivia L. and chicory (C. intybus L. both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA++/DAPI- bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively, associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA. The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group.

  17. Micromorphology of flowers, anatomy and ultrastructure of Chamomilla recutita (L. Rausch. (Asteraceae nectary

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the micromorphology of flowers and the structure of nectaries in Chamomilla recutita L. (Rausch. were carried out with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Biseriate glandular trichomes consisting of 5-6 cell layers were found on the surface of the corollas of ray and disc florets. Accumulation of secretion within the subcuticular space was accompanied by degradation of trichome cells. Secretion release followed rupture of the cuticle in the apical part of the trichome. The ovary of the ray florets exhibited characteristic ribs covered with epidermis composed of radially elongated palisade cells. Nectariferous glands were present only in the disc florets. The ring-like nectary (93 × 163 µm; height × diameter was located above the inferior ovary. The gland structure was formed by single-layer epidermis and 5-8 layers of specialised nectariferous parenchyma. Nectar was released via modified 15-20 µm wide stomata. The guard cells were slightly elevated above the surface of the other epidermal cells or were located slightly below them. The stomatal cells were characterised by small external and internal cuticular ledges. No vascular bundles were observed in the nectary. The gland was supplied by branches of vascular bundles reaching the style and ending at the nectary base. The nectariferous tissue was formed by isodiametric cells with a diameter of 11-20 µm. The cell interior was filled with electron dense cytoplasm containing a large nucleus, numerous pleomorphic plastids, mitochondria with a distinct system of cristae, Golgi bodies, ER profiles, and ribosomes. The plastid stroma was characterised by presence of pastoglobuli, intraplastid tubules, and lighter zones. Several small vacuoles were found in each cell. Plasmodesmata were visible in the walls of some cells. Lighter periplasmic space in which apoplastic transport of nectar might take place was observed between the plasmalemma and the cell wall. The presence of an osmiophilic substance in the intercellular spaces additionally corroborates this assumption.

  18. Inferring possible population divergence in Espeletia pycnophylla (Asteraceae) through morphometric and paleogeographic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Felipe; Burbano, Jorge; Burbano, Diana; Prieto, Rodrigo; Torres, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Abstract: The phenotypic structure within and between plant populations is generally influenced by their distribution patterns in space and time; therefore, the study of their divergence is a central issue for the understanding of their microevolutive processes. We boarded the hypothesis that three populations of Espeletia pycnophylla show phenotypic divergence as one of the possible implications of their geographic isolation in the Southern Colombian Andes. We used the Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (leaf shape) and traditional leaf morphometry (leaf size) of 347 leaves to measure inter and intra-population variation and a comparison between a paleogeographic reconstruction with an actual estimate of the distribution areas of E. pycnophylla in order to identify their main changes during the last 14 000 years. The three populations showed significant differences in leaf morphometry and a positive correlation between the matrices of morphometric and geographic dissimilarities, indicating that the inter-population divergence increases between further populations, so that the morphometric structure reflects their spatial distribution. The geographical and paleogeographical estimates evidenced a conspicuous process of reduction and fragmentation of the distribution area of E. pycnophylla since the Late-Glacial until the Holocene. We suggest that these results support possible scenarios of vicariance events, which allow us to approach the divergence of these populations in terms of their historic biogeographic relations. However, genetic analyses are still needed to support these results. PMID:21246990

  19. A new stand of Hieracium pilosum schleich. ex Froelich (Asteraceae in the Polish Tatra Mountains

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    Jerzy Kruk

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new stand of H. pilosum, a species not reported before from the territory of Poland, was found in the Polish Western Tatra Mts. It grows in numerous stands on limestone rocks on the slopes of Upłaziańska Kopka, at ca. 1400 m a.s.l. Moreover, typical form of this species, collected in the Polish Western Tatra Mts, was also found in herbaria of KRA and KRAM. These data indicate that H. pilosum is a widespread species in the described region but it was unrecognized from H. villosum so far.

  20. Patterns of microsatellite evolution inferred from the Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae) transcriptome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sreepriya Pramod; Andy D. Perkins; Mark E. Welch

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of microsatellites in exons, and their association with gene ontology (GO) terms is explored to elucidate patterns of microsatellite evolution in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The relative position, motif, size and level of impurity were estimated for each microsatellite in the unigene database available from the Compositae Genome Project (CGP), and statistical analyses were performed to determine if differences in microsatellite distributions and enrichment within certain GO terms were significant. There are more translated than untranslated microsatellites, implying that many bring about structural changes in proteins. However, the greatest density is observed within the UTRs, particularly 5′UTRs. Further, UTR microsatellites are purer and longer than coding region microsatellites. This suggests that UTR microsatellites are either younger and under more relaxed constraints, or that purifying selection limits impurities, and directional selection favours their expansion. GOs associated with response to various environmental stimuli including water deprivation and salt stress were significantly enriched with microsatellites. This may suggest that these GOs are more labile in plant genomes, or that selection has favoured the maintenance of microsatellites in these genes over others. This study shows that the distribution of transcribed microsatellites in H. annuus is nonrandom, the coding region microsatellites are under greater constraint compared to the UTR microsatellites, and that these sequences are enriched within genes that regulate plant responses to environmental stress and stimuli.

  1. Genotypic diversity and clonal structure of Erigeron annuus (Asteraceae in Lithuania

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    Tunaitienė, Virginija

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the clonal structure and genetic diversity of alien herbaceous plant species Erigeron annuus. The global warming and changes in agriculture practice in the past few decades were favourable for the expansion of this species in Lithuania. We used RAPD and ISSR assays to assess genetic variation within and among 29 populations of E. annuus. A total of 278 molecular markers were revealed. Our study detected reduced level of genetic diversity of invasive populations of E. annuus. Significant differences in DNA polymorphism among populations of E. annuus were also found. Some populations of this species are composed of genetically identical plants, while others were polymorphic. Clonal diversity of study populations ranged from 0.083 to 0.4 for both DNA marker systems. The Simpsons diversity index values ranged from 0.0 to 0.636. The average number of genotypes per population established using both assays was about 1.7. Out of 328 E. annuus individuals only 16 showed unique RAPD and 14 unique ISSR banding patterns. The remaining plants were clones of different size. The most common genotype of E. annuus identified in our study was represented by predominate in nine populations.

  2. Nova nalazišta vrste Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (Asteraceae) u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašević, Mirko; Samardžić, Ivica; Ilijanić, Ljudevit

    1999-01-01

    Vrsta Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (= D. caucasicum Bieb.) rijetka je biljka hrvatske flore, zakonom zaštićena od 1958. godine. Dosad su u Hrvatskoj bila poznata dva nalazišta: na Medvednici u okolici Zagreba (UTM WL 78) i na Psunju u Slavoniji (UTM XL 93). Ovim istraživanjima otkrivena je ta vrsta još na Papuku (UTM YL 03) u termofilnoj šumi hrasta medunca i na Požeškoj gori (UTM YL 01) u šumi hrasta kitnjaka i običnoga graba. Rasprostranjenost u Hrvatskoj prikazana je na karti (sl. 1).

  3. Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyi-Gyung; Keeley, Sterling C.; Vroom, Peter S.; Jansen, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands. PMID:9860987

  4. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

  5. Genetic structure and seed germination in Portuguese populations of Cheirolophus uliginosus (Asteraceae: Implications for conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitales, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus uliginosus is a threatened species, endemic to the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, where it occupies a few restricted localities. In our study we analysed the patterns of cpDNA haplotypes variation and reproductive success—germinability—among seven Portuguese populations of varying size. The aim was to examine the reproductive performance of Ch. uliginosus related to genetic structure and population size. The results showed very low within-population variability of cpDNA markers. Our study indicates that the germination rate is significantly reduced in small populations ( 250 individuals do not show any constraint. In the search for plausible causes explaining the lower germination success in the smallest populations, ecological concerns and genetic isolation must be taken into account. Besides, in large-sized populations of Ch. uliginosus (> 250 plants a higher incidence of predispersal seed predation was observed, maybe affecting their sexual reproductive response. Finally, smaller populations—presenting a reduced reproductive success—contain also the most evolutionary distant haplotypes, so their conservation should be a priority.Cheirolophus uliginosus es una especie amenazada endémica de la costa atlántica de la península ibérica, donde ocupa unas pocas y reducidas localidades. En nuestro estudio, analizamos los patrones de variación de los haplotipos de ADN cloroplástico y el éxito reproductivo —capacidad germinativa— en siete poblaciones portuguesas de diferente tamaño. El éxito reproductivo de Ch. uliginosus se ha examinado en relación con la estructura genética y el tamaño de sus poblaciones. Los resultados indican una variabilidad intrapoblacional muy baja para los marcadores cloroplásticos utilizados. Nuestro estudio muestra una tasa de germinación significativamente reducida en las poblaciones pequeñas ( 250 individuos. Para explicar este fenómeno, se deben tomar en consideración las limitaciones ecológicas y el aislamiento genético. Por otro lado, en las poblaciones de Ch. uliginosus de mayor tamaño (> 250 individuos se ha observado una incidencia más acusada de la depredación de semillas antes de su dispersión, lo cual podría estar afectando a su respuesta reproductiva. Finalmente, las poblaciones más pequeñas —que presentan un reducido éxito reproductivo— contienen los haplotipos más distantes evolutivamente y su conservación debería ser, por tanto, prioritaria.

  6. Gewöhnliche Wegwarte – Cichorium intybus (Asteraceae) : Blume des Jahres 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Höggemeier, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Die Stiftung Naturschutz Hamburg und Stiftung LOKI SCHMIDT zum Schutze gefährdeter Pflanzen hat zur "Blume des Jahres 2009" die Wegwarte (Cichorium intybus) ausgewählt. Sie bevorzugt einen ähnlichen Lebensraum wie die Nickende Distel, die Blume des Jahres 2008. Die Wegwarte ist aber häufiger zu finden, sie wächst an Weg- und Ackerrändern und auf bäuerlichen Schuttplätzen. Mich hat schon als Kind diese Pflanze fasziniert, deren strahlend blaue Blüten sich morgens öffnen, aber am frühen Nachmit...

  7. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Ebenézer C.S.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.; Santelmo Vasconcelos; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA++/DAPI- bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chrom...

  8. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Ebenézer C S; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Carvalho, Reginaldo; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C

    2013-09-01

    Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA(++)/DAPI(-) bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively), associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA). The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group. PMID:24130443

  9. Two new genera, Hoffmannanthus and Jeffreycia, mostly from East Africa (Erlangeinae, Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two genera of Vernonieae subtribe Erlangeinae with Type A pollen, 5-ribbed achenes, and blunt-tipped sweeping hairs on the styles are described as new, Hoffmannanthus with one species and with Vernonia brachycalyx O. Hoffm. as type, and Jeffreycia with five known species, with Vernonia zanzibarensis Less. as type. Vernonia abbotiana O. Hoffm. is neotypified and is an older name for V. brachycalyx.

  10. Biomorphological features of Serratula coronata L. (Asteraceae introduced in ZHNAEU`s Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V. Ivashchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of growth, evolution and morphology of Serratula coronata L. were determined under introduction in conditions of Botanical Garden of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University that belongs to Polissya region of Ukraine. The results of investigation of S. coronata ex situ are presented for the next periods of ontogenesis: latent, pregenerative and partly generative. The features of the 6 age states of individuals are specified: achen dormant, sprouts, juvenile, immature, young generative, middle-aged generative. During the first year of life the seeds of S. coronata were passing the pregenerative period of ontogenesis. In the second year the plants got into generative period achieving middleaged generative state in the third year of growth. Plants of S. coronata formed vegetative and generative organs, as well as viable seeds and that confirms sufficient species adaptation in conditions of the described region.

  11. Synthesis of fructans by fructosyltransferase from the tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor (Asteraceae

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    Itaya N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (SST and fructan:fructan fructosyl-transferase (FFT activities from crude extracts of tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor growing in a preserved area of cerrado were analyzed in 1995-1996. SST activity was characterized by the synthesis of 1-kestose from sucrose and FFT activity by the production of nystose from 1-kestose. The highest fructan-synthesizing activity was observed during early dormancy (autumn, when both (SST and FFT activities were high. The increase in synthetic activity seemed to start during the fruiting phase in the summer, when SST activity was higher than in spring. During winter and at the beginning of sprouting, both activities declined. The in vitro synthesis of high molecular mass fructans from sucrose by enzymatic preparations from tuberous roots collected in summer showed that long incubations of up to 288 h produced consistently longer polymers which resembled those found in vivo with respect to chromatographic profiles.

  12. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

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    Vanessa M. de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the pollen and the stomata, and the lower their number per unit area. The triploid strain produced the shortest plants and the lowest number of inflorescences, whereas the tetraploid strain had the largest leaves. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the strains, with a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and all of the morphological features examined.

  13. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  14. Comparative Ontogeny of Hermaphrodite and Pistillate Florets in Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae

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    Aslıhan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The inflorescence of Helianthus annuus L. has two types of flowers (or florets on a single capitulum; central hermaphrodite disc florets and peripheral pistillate ray florets. In both florets, reproductive development starts with the conversion of apical meristem into floral meristem that will produce floral organ primordia. The only difference between hermaphrodite and pistillate florets in apical meristem stage is that apical meristem of the pistillate florets is not as apparent and curvaceous as apical meristem of the hermaphrodite florets. The differentiation of apical meristem into floral meristem is in the same progress in both florets. In hermaphrodite florets, flower organs; petals, stamens and carpels develop from floral meristem. Differentiation of five petal primordia takes place in the same way in both florets. Firstly filament and then anther differentiates in a stamen. Two carpel primordia appear below the stamen primordia in hermaphrodite florets. In following stages, carpel primordia are lengthened and formed inferior ovary, style, stigma respectively. In pistillate florets, flower organs; petals and carpels develop from floral meristem. They pass directly from the periant initiation to the start of carpel formation. Stamen primordia don’t appear and the further development of carpel primordia stops in a short time, as a result, stigma and style do not exist in pistillate florets. However, an inferior ovary with no ovule forms. In the capitulum of hermaphrodite florets, the development takes place in a centripetal manner; it starts firstly on the outermost whorl, and it proceeds towards inner whorl. However, this is not the case in pistillate florets.

  15. Floral biology of Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. (Asteraceae, a rare Central European steppe plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the flowering phase and plant pollination ecology is very important for understanding the life history of long-lived perennials. In the case of rare species, the information may have implications for conservation practices. Our studies on flower morphology and blooming biology of the vulnerable plant Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. were conducted in situ (flowering, activity of insect visitors in the largest population in SE Poland and in laboratory (light and scanning electron microscopy. The disc florets open diurnally with most intensive anthesis in the early afternoon and attract insect visitors with nectar and pollen. In highly protandrous disc florets, pollen viability decreases in time, whereas stigma receptivity increases. The upper part of the pistil forms a brush-like pollen presenter, covered with unicellular trichomes with chromoplasts. Pollen presentation lasts 4–11 hours per floret, and 8 days in a single head, the main function of which is to extend the availability of male gamets for reproduction. The number of florets per head, the head size, and the number of pollen grains produced per anther, and the pollen grain viability differed significantly between microsites. The finding indicates that, apart from the biotic factors, abiotic conditions may considerably influence generative reproduction of the species. In the study area, the principal visitors of S. macrophyllus flowers were Hymenoptera, with predominance of Apis mellifera (53.4% of visits. The remarkable share of butterflies (13.9% recognized as the long-distance moving insects may improve the genetic variability of individuals within a fragmented population. A more detailed study is necessary to explain the role of insect visitors in effective pollination and in gene transfer between patches. The assessment of optimal conditions for the generative reproduction is fundamental for the in situ conservation of this rare species.

  16. Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestras, Adriana F.; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Sestras, Radu E.

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta). A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL), fresh weight (FW) and water content (WC)), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car)), osmolytes (proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB) and total soluble sugars (TSS)), an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF)) were measured. Considerable differences in the evaluated traits were found among the control and drought-stressed plants. Drought stress generally caused a marked reduction in plant growth and carotenoid pigments, and an increase in soluble solutes and oxidative stress. For most cultivars, proline levels in stressed plants increased between 30 and 70-fold compared to the corresponding controls. According to the different measured parameters, on average T. erecta proved to be more tolerant to drought than T. patula and T. tenuifolia. However, a considerable variation in the tolerance to drought was found within each species. The traits with greater association to drought tolerance as well as the most tolerant cultivars could be clearly identified in a principal components analysis (PCA). Overall, our results indicate that drought tolerant cultivars of Tagetes can be identified at early stages using a combination of plant growth and biochemical markers. PMID:27326384

  17. Taxonomic revision of the genus Logfia (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae in the Mediterranean region

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    Andrés-Sánchez, Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Logfia Cass. was described by Cassini in 1819 and has always been considered closely related to Filago L. The species of Logfia have been frequently included within Filago but, recently, based on morphological characters and DNA sequence analysis it has been demostrated that Logfia is more closely related to the American representatives of the tribe Filagininae than to the genus Filago and the idea that Filago and Logfia should be considered independent genera has been resurrected. In this work, the first complete taxonomic account for the western Mediterranean taxa belonging to Logfia is presented, based on the revision of more than 3400 sheets lodged at 32 herbaria. A detailed description of the genus and a key for the four species present in the study area are proposed. Descriptions of all species together with a complete nomenclatural treatment, as well as indications about habitat preferences, phenology, and geographic distribution are also provided. Additionally nine nomenclatural types are designated, among them, the lectotypes for the accepted names Logfia clementei (Willk. Holub and Logfia minima (Sm. Dumort. and the neotype of Logfia heterantha (Raf. Holub.El género Logfia Cass. fue descrito por Cassini en 1819 y siempre se ha considerado muy relacionado con el género Filago L., incluso en ocasiones ha sido incluido en este género. Recientemente se ha demostrado, sobre la base de caracteres morfológicos y secuencias de ADN, que Logfia es un género independiente, más relacionado con los representantes americanos de la subtribu Filagininae que con el género Filago. Se ha llevado a cabo el primer estudio taxonómico completo del género Logfia en la región mediterránea, basado en la revisión de más de 3400 pliegos conservados en 32 herbarios. En este trabajo se presenta una descripción detallada del género y una clave de identificación de las cuatro especies presentes en el área de estudio. Se proporciona, además, una descripción para cada una de las especies junto con una completa revisión nomenclatural y un resumen acerca de su hábitat, fenología, distribución geográfica y los mapas correspondientes elaborados sobre la base del material estudiado. Asimismo se designan nueve tipos nomenclaturales, entre ellos los de los nombres aceptados Logfia clementei (Willk. Holub y Logfia minima (Sm. Dumort. y el neotipo Logfia heterantha (Raf. Holub.

  18. A new invasive hawkweed, Hieracium glomeratum (Lactuceae, Asteraceae), in the Pacific Northwest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, L. M.; Fehrer, Judith; Bräutigam, S.; Grosskopf, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 84, - (2006), s. 133-142. ISSN 0008-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium * invasives * DNA fingerprinting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2006

  19. Microsatellite Primers in the Weedy Annual Herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae and Four Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Agudo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus.

  20. Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Ac-EO against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni is reported in this paper. Concerning this activity, Ac-EO was considered to be active, but less effective than the positive control (praziquantel, PZQ in terms of separation of coupled pairs, mortality, decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations. However, Ac-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs of S. mansoni. Precocene I (74.30% and (E-caryophyllene (14.23% were identified as the two major constituents of Ac-EO. These compounds were tested individually and were found to be much less effective than Ac-EO and PZQ. A mixture of the two major compounds in a ratio similar to that found in the Ac-EO was also less effective than Ac-EO, thus revealing that there are no synergistic effects between these components. These results suggest that the essential oil of A. conyzoides is very promising for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  1. Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the methanol extract Struchium sparganophora Ktze (Asteraceae leaves

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    B A Ayinde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Usually consumed as a vegetable, Struchium sparganophora is indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. Materials and Methods: This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the leaves to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus at 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml. Also, the growth inhibitory effects of the extract on guinea corn radicle at 0.5, 1.0, 2 and 4 mg/ml in addition to evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaves was performed. After 24 h, the crude extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 96.67 ± 4.71%, each at a concentration of 80 μg/ml, while the aqueous fraction produced 100% cytotoxicity at a concentration of 20 μg/ml. Results: The crude extract had an LC50 of 26 μg/ml, the chloroform fraction had 6.25 while the aqueous fraction had 5 μg/ml. On the inhibition of the guinea corn radicle growth, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 67.81 ± 2.6 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 4 mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 35.83 ±1.75 mm, indicating 47.81% reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 32.51 and 43.81% inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids, with no traces of anthracene derivatives. Conclusion: The results suggest the probable use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments.

  2. The effect of salinity on different developmental stages of an endemic annual plant, Aster laurentianus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, G; Morel, L; Reynolds, C; Siégel, J

    2001-01-01

    Salinity reduces substrate water potential, thereby restricting water and nutrient uptake by plants; salinity may also cause ionic imbalance and toxicity. Because substrate salinity fluctuates through the growing season, a plant may be exposed to different salinity levels, at various stages of development, with potentially significant consequences on population dynamics. Here, we present the results of a study of the effect of substrate salinity on seed germination, seedling emergence, and growth of Aster laurentianus, an annual marsh plant, endemic to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and potentially threatened. Seed germination was reduced in low salt concentration (10 g sea salt/L) and completely inhibited by salinity levels >/=20 g sea salt/L. However, this inhibiting effect was reversible: seeds from the salt treatments germinated readily after being washed in distilled water. Though seedling emergence was diminished at low salinity levels, postemergence survival was little affected. Plant growth was reduced, but net carbon assimilation rate was not affected by high salinity levels. Increased root respiration and respiratory costs associated with salt tolerance might have contributed to lower C accumulation at higher salinity levels. All developmental processes considered are thus negatively affected by substrate salinity, with potentially significant consequences on population abundance and distribution in salt marshes. Yet, the tolerance of this species to high salinity levels after seedling emergence is remarkable. Seed germination represents a major bottleneck in the species life cycle, potentially controlling local distribution and abundance in the natural habitat. PMID:11159127

  3. Genetic fine-mapping of DIPLOSPOROUS in Taraxacum (dandelion; Asteraceae indicates a duplicated DIP-gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakx-Schotman Tanja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DIPLOSPOROUS (DIP is the locus for diplospory in Taraxacum, associated to unreduced female gamete formation in apomicts. Apomicts reproduce clonally through seeds, including apomeiosis, parthenogenesis, and autonomous or pseudogamous endosperm formation. In Taraxacum, diplospory results in first division restitution (FDR nuclei, and inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait, independent from the other apomixis elements. A preliminary genetic linkage map indicated that the DIP-locus lacks suppression of recombination, which is unique among all other map-based cloning efforts of apomeiosis to date. FDR as well as apomixis as a whole are of interest in plant breeding, allowing for polyploidization and fixation of hybrid vigor, respectively. No dominant FDR or apomixis genes have yet been isolated. Here, we zoom-in to the DIP-locus by largely extending our initial mapping population, and by analyzing (local suppression of recombination and allele sequence divergence (ASD. Results We identified 24 recombinants between two most closely linked molecular markers to DIP in an F1-population of 2227 plants that segregates for diplospory and lacks parthenogenesis. Both markers segregated c. 1:1 in the entire population, indicating a 1:1 segregation rate of diplospory. Fine-mapping showed three amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs closest to DIP at 0.2 cM at one flank and a single AFLP at 0.4 cM at the other flank. Our data lacked strong evidence for ASD at marker regions close to DIP. An unexpected bias towards diplosporous plants among the recombinants (20 out of 24 was found. One third of these diplosporous recombinants showed incomplete penetrance of 50-85% diplospory. Conclusions Our data give interesting new insights into the structure of the diplospory locus in Taraxacum. We postulate a locus with a minimum of two DIP-genes and possibly including one or two enhancers or cis-regulatory elements on the basis of the bias towards diplosporous recombinants and incomplete penetrance of diplospory in some of them. We define the DIP-locus to 0.6 cM, which is estimated to cover ~200-300 Kb, with the closest marker at 0.2 cM. Our results confirm the minor role of suppression of recombination and ASD around DIP, making it an excellent candidate to isolate via a chromosome-walking approach.

  4. Genetic fine-mapping of DIPLOSPOROUS in Taraxacum (dandelion; Asteraceae) indicates a duplicated DIP-gene

    OpenAIRE

    Bakx-Schotman Tanja; Milanovic-Ivanovic Slavica; Vijverberg Kitty; van Dijk Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background DIPLOSPOROUS (DIP) is the locus for diplospory in Taraxacum, associated to unreduced female gamete formation in apomicts. Apomicts reproduce clonally through seeds, including apomeiosis, parthenogenesis, and autonomous or pseudogamous endosperm formation. In Taraxacum, diplospory results in first division restitution (FDR) nuclei, and inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait, independent from the other apomixis elements. A preliminary genetic linkage map indicated that the ...

  5. Nonadditive changes to cytosine methylation as a consequence of hybridization and genome duplication in Senecio (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Matthew J; Batstone, Tom; Barker, Gary L; Edwards, Keith J; Abbott, Richard J; Hiscock, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The merger of two or more divergent genomes within an allopolyploid nucleus can facilitate speciation and adaptive evolution in flowering plants. Widespread changes to gene expression have been shown to result from interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in a number of plant species, and attention has now shifted to determining the epigenetic processes that drive these changes. We present here an analysis of cytosine methylation patterns in triploid F(1) Senecio (ragwort) hybrids and their allohexaploid derivatives. We observe that, in common with similar studies in Arabidopsis, Spartina and Triticum, a small but significant proportion of loci display nonadditive methylation in the hybrids, largely resulting from interspecific hybridisation. Despite this, genome duplication results in a secondary effect on methylation, with reversion to additivity at some loci and novel methylation status at others. We also observe differences in methylation state between different allopolyploid generations, predominantly in cases of additive methylation with regard to which parental methylation state is dominant. These changes to methylation state in both F(1) triploids and their allohexaploid derivatives largely mirror the overall patterns of nonadditive gene expression observed in our previous microarray analyses and may play a causative role in generating those expression changes. These similar global changes to DNA methylation resulting from hybridisation and genome duplication may serve as a source of epigenetic variation in natural populations, facilitating adaptive evolution. Our observations that methylation state can also vary between different generations of polyploid hybrids suggests that newly formed allopolyploid species may display a high degree of epigenetic diversity upon which natural selection can act. PMID:21073590

  6. Characterization of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable grassland forb Senecio macrocarpus (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W.; James, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Development of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable forb Senecio macrocarpus was performed to begin an assessment of its population structure and breeding method to aid in the conservation of the species in Victoria, Australia. • Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed for S. macrocarpus from 454 pyrosequencing. The markers were tested on 104 individuals from four populations. The markers produced between two and seven alleles per locus while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.20 to 0.67 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. The observed heterozygosity is suggestive that the populations may be apomictic. • Conclusions: The microsatellite markers developed for S. macrocarpus are intended to be used on future studies that aim to assess the population genetics and local breeding dynamics of the species with an emphasis on conservation. PMID:25202496

  7. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the results of studies conducted in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in July and October 2007 and January and May 2008 to measure the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentrations of S. madagascariensis plant material (including leaves, flow...

  8. The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M A; Hiscock, S J; Filatov, D A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily). These species form a hybrid zone, yet remain morphologically and ecologically distinct, despite active gene exchange. Here, we report a high-density genetic map of the Senecio genome and map hybrid breakdown to one large and several small quantitative trait loci (QTL). Loci under diversifying selection cluster in three 5 cM regions which are characterized by a significant increase in relative (F(ST)), but not absolute (d(XY)), interspecific differentiation. They also correspond to some of the regions of greatest marker density, possibly corresponding to 'cold-spots' of recombination, such as centromeres or chromosomal inversions. Morphological QTL for leaf and floral traits overlap these clusters. We also detected three genomic regions with significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD), possibly indicating accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities between these recently diverged species. One of the TRD regions overlapped with a cluster of high species differentiation, and another overlaps the large QTL for hybrid breakdown, indicating that divergence of these species may have occurred due to a complex interplay of ecological divergence and accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities. PMID:26414668

  9. Analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and evaluation of some biological activities of Algerian Senecio delphinifolius (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidjani, Soukaina; Okusa, Philippe N; Zellagui, Amar; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Rhouati, Salah

    2013-04-01

    Although Senecio species are known as sources of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), some species of this genus are traditionally used as remedies, notably in Algeria. In this paper, the evaluation of biological activities and the analysis of PAs of Algerian specimens of Senecio delphinifolius Vahl are reported. The n-butanolic extract of the herb showed a weak antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli with a MIC of 1 mg/mL, but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The n-butanolic extracts of the roots, stems and herb showed a modest antioxidant activity, scavenging the free radical DPPH with respective IC50 values of 55.3, 50.2 and 13.3 microg/mL. A cytotoxic effect against a series of human tumor cell lines was observed with the n-butanolic extract from stems (IC50 ranging between 34 and 88 microg/mL). The herb of the evaluated sample contains 140 ppm of PAs (senecionine, seneciphylline, integerrimine, senkirkine) and PA-related alkaloids (dehydrosenkirkine and neosenkirkine). As the major PAs belong to the toxic series (1,2-unsaturation in the pyrrolizidine cycle and macrocyclic diester), the use of S. delphinifolius should be discouraged in traditional medicine. PMID:23738446

  10. Phenotypic traits variation among native diploid, native tetraploid and invasive tetraploid Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monty, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Senecio inaequidens DC. is a rapidly spreading plant invader in Europe. In its native range, it occurs at two co-existing diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. To date, only tetraploids are reported in Europe, even though invasive diploids were recorded in other parts of the world. We compared native diploid and both native and invasive tetraploid populations in common gardens in Europe for a suite of life history traits. Diploids were able to develop, showed high biomass production and produced more flower heads than tetraploids. In contrast, winter survival was null for diploids. It was low for native tetraploids, but reached 40% in invasive tetraploids. Results suggested that diploid cytotype tends to an annual life form when grown in Western Europe, with earlier and more abundant flowering. In contrast, the tetraploid cytotype was mainly perennial which may enhance its invasiveness.

  11. Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Vulnerable Grassland Forb Senecio macrocarpus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W. Ahrens

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Development of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable forb Senecio macrocarpus was performed to begin an assessment of its population structure and breeding method to aid in the conservation of the species in Victoria, Australia. Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed for S. macrocarpus from 454 pyrosequencing. The markers were tested on 104 individuals from four populations. The markers produced between two and seven alleles per locus while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.20 to 0.67 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. The observed heterozygosity is suggestive that the populations may be apomictic. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers developed for S. macrocarpus are intended to be used on future studies that aim to assess the population genetics and local breeding dynamics of the species with an emphasis on conservation.

  12. A morphometric study on Senecio erucifolius (Asteraceae from Poland and its taxonomic implications

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    Marek Podsiedlik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three populations of Senecio erucifolius were sampled to study morphological diversity of the species in Poland. A total of 690 shoots, leaves, capitula, flowers, and fruits were characterized in respect to 27 quantitative traits and were subjected to morphometric analyses. Principal component analysis made it possible to distinguish two groups of individuals, corresponding to two infraspecific taxa – S. erucifolius subsp. tenuifolius (19 populations and S. erucifolius subsp. erucifolius (four populations. The characters of the greatest importance in differentiating these two subspecies included the length of the upper lobe of the middle leaf, the width of the upper lobe, the width of the longest lateral lobe, the width of the upper lobe at the base, and the length of the tubular flower. Six of the 27 morphological features significantly differentiated populations within subspecies erucifolius according to a stepwise discriminant analysis. The length of the middle leaf, length of the tubular flower and width of the upper lobe at the base contributed most to the discrimination between the investigated populations. The discriminant analysis also showed considerable morphological heterogeneity of the 19 populations classified as subspecies tenuifolius. Seventeen characters significantly differentiated the populations, with the length of the achene and the ratio between the length and the width of the achene as the most important ones.

  13. Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance for the tribe senecioneae (asteraceae) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cypsela of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined from Pakistan. Micromorphological characters of cypsela in this group are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa both at the generic and specific levels, except that of the genera Senecio and Doronicum which could not be clearly separated as they do not have exclusive cypsela features. (author)

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana de Senecio heterotrichius DC. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of Senecio heterotrichius DC.

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    Leandro Nicolodi Francescato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é relatada a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos diclorometânico e etanólico, obtidos por maceração das partes aéreas de S. heterotrichius pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, frente a patógenos bacterianos e fúngicos. O extrato diclorometânico evidenciou boa atividade inibitória frente a Candida krusei (CIM de 0,25 mg/mL e moderada atividade frente a Staphylococcus aureus (CIM de 2,5 mg/mL. O extrato etanólico mostrou-se inativo frente aos microrganismos testados. Também foi isolado o constituinte majoritário do extrato diclorometânico, cuja análise espectroscópica indicou tratar-se de um sesquiterpeno, identificado como germacreno D.This work describes the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of CH2Cl2 and EtOH extracts obtained by the maceration of the aerial parts of Senecio heterotrichius DC. against bacterial and fungal pathogens by broth microdilution method. The CH2Cl2 extract showed the best activity against Candida krusei (MIC 0.25 mg/mL and a moderate activity against Staphyllococcus aureus (MIC 2.5 mg/mL. The EtOH extract was inactive against the tested microorganisms. Besides, one of the main constituents of CH2Cl2 extract was isolated, and its spectroscopic analysis indicated the presence of a sesquiterpene identified as germacrene D.

  15. Cypsela morphology of lactuca L. and its allied genera (cichoreae-asteraceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic significance of the cypsela morphology of more 30 taxa (25 species, 1 subspecies and 4 varieties) belonging to 3 genera viz. Lactuca L. Cicerbita Wallr. and Prenanthes L. from Pakistan and Kashmir has been studied by using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and discussed. The morphological characters of cypsela such as size, number of ribs, number of cypsela per capitula, presence or absence of beak, number of series of pappus, color and size of pappus and carpopodium were quite useful for the delimitation of different taxa both at the generic and species level. (author)

  16. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid. PMID:25956500

  17. The detection, rate and manifestation of residual sexuality in apomictic populations of Pilosella (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 239-258. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : facultative apomixis * haploid parthenogenesis * interspecific hybridization * Pilosella * residual sexuality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  18. Genome size correlates with growth form, habitat and phylogeny in the Andean genus Lasiocephalus (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, E.; Kolář, Filip; Sklenář, P.; Rauchová, Jana; Kubešová, Magdalena; Fér, T.; Suda, Jan; Marhold, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2010), s. 127-148. ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cytometry * ploidy * genome size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  19. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivatedArtemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Heterothalamus rupestris, espécie nova de Asteraceae do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Paz Deble

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Na revisão botânica do gênero Heterothalamus Less., foi descoberta uma nova espécie, endêmica da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil que, a seguir, é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com sua espécie afim.

  1. Metal concentrations of insects associated with the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD; MICHEAL A. DAVIS; MICHAEL A. WALL; KEVIN BALKWILL

    2006-01-01

    The high levels of some metals in metal hyperaccumulator plants may be transferred to insect associates. We surveyed insects collected from the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii to document whole-body metal concentrations (Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). We also documented the concentrations of these metals in leaves, stems and inflorescences, finding extremely elevated levels of Ni (4 700-16 000 μg/g) and high values (5-34 μg/g) for Co, Cr, and Pb. Of 26 insect morphotypes collected from B. coddii, seven heteropterans, one coleopteran, and one orthopteran contained relatively high concentrations of Ni (> 500 μg/g). The large number of high-Ni heteropterans adds to discoveries of others (from California USA and New Caledonia) and suggests that members of this insect order may be particularly Ni tolerant. Nymphs of the orthopteran (Stenoscepa) contained 3 500 μg Ni/g, the greatest Ni concentration yet reported for an insect. We also found two beetles with elevated levels of Mg (> 2 800 μg/g), one beetle with elevated Cu (> 70 μg/g) and one heteropteran with an elevated level of Mn (> 200 μg/g). Our results show that insects feeding on a Ni hyperaccumulator can mobilize Ni into food webs, although we found no evidence of Ni biomagnification in either herbivore or carnivore insect taxa. We also conclude that some insects associated with hyperaccumulators can contain Ni levels that are high enough to be toxic to vertebrates.

  2. Synthetic polyploids of Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus (Asteraceae): 60 Years after Ownbey's discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer A; Symonds, V Vaughan; Doust, Andrew N; Buggs, Richard J A; Mavrodiev, Evgeny; Majure, Lucas C; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-05-01

    In plants, polyploidy has been a significant evolutionary force on both recent and ancient time scales. In 1950, Ownbey reported two newly formed Tragopogon allopolyploids in the northwestern United States. We have made the first synthetic lines of T. mirus and T. miscellus using T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis as parents and colchicine treatment of F(1) hybrids. We also produced allotetraploids between T. porrifolius and T. pratensis, which are not known from nature. We report on the crossability between the diploids, as well as the inflorescence morphology, pollen size, meiotic behavior, and fertility of the synthetic polyploids. Morphologically, the synthetics resemble the natural polyploids with short- and long-liguled forms of T. miscellus resulting when T. pratensis and T. dubius are reciprocally crossed. Synthetic T. mirus was also formed reciprocally, but without any obvious morphological differences resulting from the direction of the cross. Of the 27 original crosses that yielded 171 hybrid individuals, 18 of these lineages have persisted to produce 386 S(1) progeny; each of these lineages has produced S(2) seed that are viable. The successful generation of these synthetic polyploids offers the opportunity for detailed comparative studies of natural and synthetic polyploids within a nonmodel system. PMID:21628250

  3. Expression and inheritance of sporophytic self-incompatibility in synthetic allohexaploid Senecio cambrensis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-04-01

    Allopolyploid speciation is common in plants and is frequently associated with shifts from outcrossing, for example self-incompatibility, to inbreeding (i.e. selfing). Senecio cambrensis is a recently evolved allohexaploid species that formed following hybridization between diploid self-incompatible S. squalidus and tetraploid self-compatible S. vulgaris. Studies of reproduction in wild populations of S. cambrensis have concluded that it is self-compatible. Here, we investigated self-compatibility in synthetic lines of S. cambrensis generated via hybridization and colchicine-induced polyploidization and wild S. cambrensis using controlled crossing experiments. Synthetic F(1)S. cambrensis individuals were all self-compatible but, in F(2) and later generations, self-incompatible individuals were identified at frequencies of 6.7-9.2%. Self-incompatibility was also detected in wild sampled individuals at a frequency of 12.2%. The mechanism and genetics of self-incompatibility were tested in synthetic S. cambrensis and found to be similar to those of its paternal parent S. squalidus (i.e. sporophytic). These results show, for the first time, that functional sporophytic self-incompatibility can be inherited and expressed in allopolyploids as early as the second (F(2)) generation. Wild S. cambrensis should therefore be considered as possessing a mixed mating system with the potential for evolution towards either inbreeding or outcrossing. PMID:19895670

  4. Antifungal Activity of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson(Asteraceae) of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngono Ngane, A; Ebelle Etame, R; Ndifor, F; Biyiti, L; Amvam Zollo, P H; Bouchet, P

    2006-01-01

    An aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata and some of its fractions were examined for their antifungal properties by dilution methods on solid and liquid media, using yeasts and filamentous fungi. Extract and fractions inhibit the in vitro growth of Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with a minimal inhibitory concentration range from 62.5 to 500 microg/ml for the extract and from 25 to 100 microg/ml for fractions. A qualitative chemical analysis of the extract and fractions showed the presence of biologically active constituents such as some coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and sterols. No toxic effect was observed in mice treated per os with the extract. This study provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Chromolaena odorata in traditional medicine. PMID:16567942

  5. Chromolaena odorata (L. King & H.E. Robins (Asteraceae, an important nectar source for adult butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Lakshmi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata is a seasonal weed and grows like a cultivated crop. It flowers during October-December. The floral characteristics such as white to purple colour of florets, short-tubed narrow corolla with deep seated nectar, the morning anthesis and the flat-topped head inflorescence providing a standing platform are important attractants for visitation by butterflies. The florets attract butterflies of five families and sphingid hawk moths. Among the butterflies, nymphalids are diverse and visit the florets consistently; their visits effect pollination. The diurnal hawk moths, Macroglossum gyrans and Cephonodes hylas also visit the florets during dawn and dusk hours for nectar, and effect pollination. Therefore, C. odorata, being an exotic is an important nectar source for adult butterflies.

  6. Zyzyura, a new genus of Eupatorieae (Asteraceae from Belize

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    Harold Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Genus, Zyzyura is named to accommodate Fleischmannia mayana Pruski that has an eximbricate involucre, a high-conical receptacle, a corolla with a slender base closely investing the style and with a broadly campanulate limb, enlarged elongate cells in the carpopodium, short and broad distally protruding cells in the corolla lobes, and broad rounded anther appendages.

  7. Morfología del polen de especies de Gongylolepis (Mutisieae: Asteraceae de la Guayana venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrecilla, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gongylolepis is composed for 15 species, endemic to the Guyana region. This is the largest genus of tribe Mutiseae in the area. Palynological features have been studied for some members of the Mutiseae, but not for Gongylolepis. We studied the pollen morphology of nine species of the genus, using samples from herbarium material. The observations were made in 10 to 15 pollen grains for species and features of the spines, colpus, polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine structure, pollen type, apertures, perforations and P/E ratio to determinate pollen shape, were analyzed. Observations and pictures were made with light microscope and scanning electron microscope. With this information, a matrix and conglomerate analysis was made. Gongylolepis pollen is tricolporate, spheroidal and mainly of great size. Differences in exine ornamentation were enough to discriminate the studied species. Spines are conical, with perforations near of the base, but with differences in the apex shape. The dendogram showed four groups, where the size, shape, exine ornamentation, spines, colpus and perforations were of importance to the classification of the species considered.Gongylolepis está constituido por 15 especies, circunscritas a la región de Guayana, al norte de Suramérica. Es el género más numeroso de la tribu Mutisieae en dicha región, representado en su flora por especies endémicas. Aunque algunas especies de Mutisieae han sido estudiadas palinológicamente por varios investigadores, no hay estudios de las especies de Gongylolepis. En este trabajo se analizan los caracteres morfológicos del polen de nueve especies de Gongylolepis, de la Guayana venezolana. Las muestras de polen provienen de material de distintas colecciones de herbario. Para la observación de los caracteres de polen se usaron de 10 a 15 granos por especie, se analizaron caracteres de las espinas, colpos, eje polar, diámetro ecuatorial, ornamentación y grosor de la exina, tipo de polen, apertura, presencia de perforaciones, y la relación P/E para determinar forma de los granos. Las observaciones y fotografías se realizaron mediante MEB y MEL. Con la información obtenida, se elaboró una matriz y se realizó un análisis de conglomerados. Como resultado, se encontró que el polen de Gongylolepis es tricolporado, con aspecto esferoidal y principalmente de gran tamaño. Presentó diferencias en la ornamentación de la exina, lo cual permitió separar las especies estudiadas. Las espinas son cónicas, sin embargo se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a la forma del ápice, además se observaron perforaciones cercanas a la base de éstas. El dendrograma obtenido mostró cuatro agrupamientos, donde los caracteres analizados, como tamaño, forma, ornamentación, espinas, colpos y perforaciones, fueron de gran importancia para clasificar las especies bajo estudio.

  8. Distribution and structure of internal secretory reservoirs on the vegetative organs of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.

  9. Cytotype distribution at a diploid-hexaploid contact zone in Aster amellus (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, J.; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 5 (2012), s. 1047-1050. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP506/10/P188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Aster amellus * diploid * hexaploid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  10. Hypargyrin A, a Hemiacetalic Germacrolide from Viguiera hypargyrea (Asteraceae). Biogenetic Implications and Biological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Arellano-Martínez; Guillermo Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Una nueva germacrólida hemiacetálica 6, denominada hypargirina, fue aislada de las partes aéreas de Viguiera hypargyrea, junto con los compuestos conocidos (8R,9R)-epóxido de ¿-cariofileno, ácido ent-kaur-16-en-19-oico (1), hispidulina (2), 8¿-epoxiangeloiloxi- 14-acetoxi-titifolina (3), 8¿-epoxiangeloiloxi-14-hidroxi-titifolina (4) y budleína B (5). El análisis espectroscópico de 6 permitió la corrección structural de un compuesto previamente aislado de Blainvillea gayana. La budleína B (5) ...

  11. Influence of polyploidy on insect herbivores of native and invasive genotypes of Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Helen M. Hull-Sanders; Johnson, Robert H.; Owen, Heather A.; Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    Herbivores are sensitive to the genetic structure of plant populations, as genetics underlies plant phenotype and host quality. Polyploidy is a widespread feature of angiosperm genomes, yet few studies have examined how polyploidy influences herbivores. Introduction to new ranges, with consequent changes in selective regimes, can lead to evolution of changes in plant defensive characteristics and also affect herbivores. Here, we examine how insect herbivores respond to polyploidy in Solidago ...

  12. New Reports on Surface Flavonoids from Chamaebatiaria (Rosaceae), Dodonaea (Sapindaceae), Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) and Silphium (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipophilic exudates of one species each of Chamaebatiara and Elsholtzia, two species of Silphium and four Dodonaea species were analyzed for flavonoid aglycones. In addition to a number of well-known and widely distributed flavonoids, several very rare and one novel natural flavonol were isolated a...

  13. Pollination niche overlap between a parasitic plant and its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Stott, Adrian; Allnutt, Emma; Shove, Sam; Taylor, Chloe; Lamborn, Ellen

    2007-03-01

    Niche theory predicts that species which share resources should evolve strategies to minimise competition for those resources, or the less competitive species would be extirpated. Some plant species are constrained to co-occur, for example parasitic plants and their hosts, and may overlap in their pollination niche if they flower at the same time and attract the same pollinators. Using field observations and experiments between 1996 and 2006, we tested a series of hypotheses regarding pollination niche overlap between a specialist parasitic plant Orobanche elatior (Orobanchaceae) and its host Centaurea scabiosa (Asteraceae). These species flower more or less at the same time, with some year-to-year variation. The host is pollinated by a diverse range of insects, which vary in their effectiveness, whilst the parasite is pollinated by a single species of bumblebee, Bombus pascuorum, which is also an effective pollinator of the host plant. The two species therefore have partially overlapping pollination niches. These niches are not finely subdivided by differential pollen placement, or by diurnal segregation of the niches. We therefore found no evidence of character displacement within the pollination niches of these species, possibly because pollinators are not a limiting resource for these plants. Direct observation of pollinator movements, coupled with experimental manipulations of host plant inflorescence density, showed that Bombus pascuorum only rarely moves between inflorescences of the host and the parasite and therefore the presence of one plant is unlikely to be facilitating pollination in the other. This is the first detailed examination of pollination niche overlap in a plant parasite system and we suggest avenues for future research in relation to pollination and other shared interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts. PMID:17146683

  14. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

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    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  15. Environ: E00699 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00699 Vladimiria souliei root Crude drug Vladimiria souliei [TAX:454324] Asteracea...e (daisy family) Vladimiria souliei root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00699 Vladimiria souliei root ...

  16. Efeito do óleo essencial de Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera, Curculionidae Efeito do óleo essencial de Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Rozane Maria Restello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistência de pragas a inseticidas, danos ao ambiente em função da poluição do solo e de recursos hídricos vem sendo observados pelo uso de inseticidas químicos no controle de pragas em grãos armazenados. Com o intuito de minimizar estes problemas, estão sendo estudadas alternativas como o uso de inseticidas botânicos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de Tagetes patula L. sobre, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 em milho sob condições de laboratório. O óleo essencial de T. patula foi obtido através de arraste a vapor com aparelho clevenger. A caracterização química dos compostos encontrados no óleo essencial de T. patula foi realizada através de cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrometria de massas, sendo observados: limoneno (37,05%, terpinoleno (32,61%, piperitone (14,40%, eofitadieno (5,91%, sabineno (2,88%, trans-ocimeno (2,02%, beta-cariofileno (1,98%, farnesol (1,84% e alfa-pineno (1,30%. Os insetos utilizados nos bioensaios foram mantidos em temperatura e umidade relativa controlada. Foram avaliados os efeitos do óleo essencial de T. patula sobre o comportamento (atratividade e/ou repelência e atividade inseticida sobre adultos de S. zeamais através de dois bioensaios. Pelos resultados pode-se observar o efeito repelente e inseticida do óleo essencial de T. patula sobre S. zeamais, na concentração de 10 µL (pCountless problems due to the use of chemical insecticides for the control of pests in stored grains have been observed. In order to minimize these problems, alternative measures have been developed, including the use of botanical insecticides. This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of the essential oil of Tagetes patula L. on, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots., 1855 in corn kernels in laboratory conditions. The T. patula essential oil was obtained through hidrodestilation with the Clevenger device. The chemical characterization of the compounds found in the essential oil of T. patula was carried by gas chromatography connected to the mass spectrometer. The compounds found were: limonene (37.05%, terpinolene (32.61%, piperitone (14.40%, neophitadiene (5.91%, sabinene (2.88%, trans-ocimene (2.02%, beta-cariphilene (1.98%, farnesol (1.84%, and alpha-pinene (1.30%. The insects used in the bio-test were kept under controled temperature and relative humidity environment. Two bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of the essential oil of T. patula on the behavior (activity/repellence and insecticide activity on adults of S. zeamais. The results showed that this essential oil was efficient (concentration of 10 µL to control adults of S. zeamais adults.

  17. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

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    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root reduction and debility. The results point to the presence of inhibitorychemical substances in the extracts, indicating an allelopathic potential for the five species evaluated.

  18. Morfoanatomia da raiz tuberosa de Vernonia oxylepis Sch. Bip. in Mart. ex Baker - Asteraceae Morpho-anatomy of the tuberous root of Vernonia oxylepis Sch. Bip. in Mart. ex Baker - Asteraceae

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    Divina Aparecida Anunciação Vilhalva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies herbáceas e subarbustivas, nativas do Cerrado no Brasil, são geofitas, ou seja, sobrevivem ao período desfavorável de déficit hídrico e de baixas temperaturas, que muitas vezes coincide com incêndios, mantendo apenas a porção subterrânea. Vernonia oxylepis é uma dessas espécies e o objetivo desse estudo foi descrever a morfoanatomia da raiz tuberosa e a formação das gemas nessa raiz. Tal raiz é constituída de um eixo orientado perpendicularmente no solo, a partir do qual ramos aéreos são formados na porção proximal, situada ao nível do solo, ao longo do ciclo de vida da planta. Na porção proximal da raiz ocorre auto-enxertia da base dos ramos por ela emitidos. A raiz acumula lipídios e frutanos, apresenta ligeira contração e forma gemas reparativas; a formação das gemas adventícias se dá a partir do periciclo proliferado. Tais características poderiam ser associadas ao processo de adaptação da espécie às condições do Cerrado.Several native herbaceous and subshrub species native to the Cerrado in Brazil are geophytes, that is, they survive the unfavorable dry season and low temperatures, that sometimes coincide with fire, with only the underground system intact. Vernonia oxylepis is one of these species and the aim of this study was to describe the morpho-anatomy of the tuberous root and bud formation on this structure. The main axis of this root is perpendicular to the soil surface, and from which aerial shoots arise periodically throughout the life cycle. On the upper portion of the root, self-grafting of the shoots occurs. The root stores lipids and fructans, exhibits contraction and produces reparatory buds; adventitious buds arise from proliferated pericycle. These characteristics may be related to adaptation of this species to conditions in the Cerrado.

  19. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias; Suzane Virtuoso; Aline Davet; Miriam M. Cunico; Marilis D. Miguel; Obdúlio G. Miguel; Celso G. Auer; Albino Grigoletti-Júnior; Andressa B. Oliveira; Marlene L. Ferronato

    2006-01-01

    Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de dif...

  20. Produção de frutanos em calos e plântulas clonadas in vitro de Viguiera discolor Baker (Asteraceae Fructan production in callus and in vitro cloned seedlings of Viguiera discolor Baker (Asteraceae

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    Nair Massumi Itaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Viguiera discolor Baker é uma espécie nativa do cerrado, cuja sobrevivência está ameaçada pela invasão de espécies exóticas. Considerando sua elevada produção e a vasta aplicação de frutanos, o presente trabalho foi conduzido visando à obtenção in vitro dessa espécie e à prospecção desses carboidratos nessas condições. Sementes foram germinadas in vitro, em meio MS modificado, e após cinco semanas de incubação, nós caulinares foram isolados e incubados no mesmo meio adicionado de 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA, regenerando plantas uniformes, raízesnão espessadas, raízes tuberosas e estruturas semelhantes a calo (calo tipo1, formadas na região caulinar basal. Análise desse material evidenciou a presença de frutanos do tipo inulina nas raízes tuberosas e nos calos tipo 1. Na presença de 2,4-D obteve-se a formação de calos friáveis (calo tipo 2, nos quais também foram detectados frutanos e suas enzimas de síntese sacarose: sacarose 1-frutosiltransferase (SST e frutano: frutano 1-frutosiltransferase (FFT. Embora em concentrações menores às observadas nas plantas cultivadas sob condições naturais, o material produzido in vitro apresentou frutanos do mesmo tipo e razão SST/FFT menor do que um. Em meio de cultura sem hormônios, foi verificada a regeneração de 50% de plantas a partir dos nós caulinares. A propagação de V. discolor in vitro pode viabilizar a multiplicação e a preservação da espécie, bem como a produção de frutanos nessas condições.Viguiera discolor Baker is a herbaceous species, native to cerrado and its survival has been threatened by the invasion of exotic species. Considering its high production and the wide application of fructans, the present work has aimed to establish in vitro culture of this species and to investigate the presence of fructans under these conditions. Seeds were germinated in vitro on modified MS medium and after plant growth, stem nodes were isolated and incubated on the previous culture medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA, which allowed the production of uniform plants, and formation of non thickened roots, tuberous roots and callus-like structures (callus type 1. Analysis of these materials showed the presence of inulin-type fructans. Incubation of stem nodes in the presence of 2,4-D induced growth of friable callus (callus type 2, in which fructans and their synthesis enzymes sucrose: sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (SST and fructan: fructan 1fructosyltransferase (FFT were detected. Although in lower concentrations, the ratio SST/FFT activities and their fructans were similar to values found in plants cultivated under natural conditions. Stem nodes incubation on hormone-free medium resulted in regeneration of 50% plantlets. In vitro propagation, of V. discolor, may allow large-scale multiplication and conservation of this species, as well as fructan production under this condition.

  1. Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia R. S. Ilha; Alexandre P. Loretti; Severo S. Barros; Barros, Claudio S. L.

    2001-01-01

    Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25%) animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2%) morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997) em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos animais a...

  2. Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in southern Brazil

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    Marcia R. S. Ilha

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25% animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2% morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997 em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos animais afetados consistia em fotossensibilização, emagrecimento progressivo, apatia, fraqueza, perturbações neurológicas como depressão, andar a esmo e desequilibrado, icterícia e hemoglobinúria. Houve melhora das lesões de pele naqueles ovinos que desenvolveram fotossensibilização hepatógena depois que foram retirados do sol. As principais lesões macroscópicas observadas em 9 dos 10 ovinos necropsiados incluíam fígado diminuído de tamanho, firme, difusamente marrom amarelado ou esverdeado, com quantidades variáveis de nódulos de 1-3 mm de diâmetro, bem circunscritos, salientes na cápsula, amarelados, distribuídos aleatoriamente por todo o parênquima. A vesícula biliar estava repleta e preenchida por bile verde escura e espessa. Havia também derrames cavitários (hidropericárdio e ascite. Crise hemolítica aguda fatal associada à intoxicação crônica hepatógena por cobre foi observada em cinco ovinos. Além das lesões hepáticas macroscópicas já mencionadas, foi observada icterícia generalizada da carcaça, rins tumefeitos, friáveis, difusamente escurecidos ou com fino pontilhado enegrecido; a urina era marrom escura (hemoglobinúria. As principais lesões microscópicas foram observadas no fígado e consistiam em hepatomegalocitose, proliferação de ductos biliares (hiperplasia ductal e fibrose periportal moderada acompanhada de infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear. Macrófagos carregados de pigmento acastanhado formavam aglomerados nas tríades portais ou estavam dispersos entre os hepatócitos remanescentes. O material armazenado no citoplasma desses macrófagos correspondia a ceróide e cobre, positivo nas técnicas de PAS e rodanina, respectivamente. Nos rins de cinco animais, havia nefrose hemoglobinúrica caracterizada por degeneração e necrose do epitélio tubular, presença de hemoglobina e hemossiderina no citoplasma das células epiteliais dos túbulos contorcidos e cilindros de hemoglobina na luz tubular. Evidência morfológica de encefalopatia hepática incluía degeneração esponjosa (status spongiosus da substância branca do encéfalo. Achados ultra-estruturais no fígado incluíam graus variáveis de degeneração hepatocelular caracterizada pelo acúmulo de numerosas gotas lipídicas no citoplasma das células hepáticas e presença de lisossomos carregados de material eletrodenso que, na maioria dos casos, correspondia à lipofuscina-ceróide. Adicionalmente, havia discreta dilatação do retículo endoplasmático rugoso e moderada hiperplasia do retículo endoplasmático liso em algumas regiões do citoplasma dos hepatócitos. No epitélio dos túbulos contorcidos proximais do rim foi observado edema intracelular e diversas alterações mitocondriais de caráter degenerativo que incluíam tumefação, desorganização e ruptura das cristas, matriz finamente granular, acúmulo de gotículas de gordura e ruptura das membranas em alguns casos. Lisossomos contendo material fortemente eletrodenso foram observados em muitas células tubulares renais. O exame laboratorial de fragmentos de fígado e rim dos ovinos afetados revelou níveis elevados de cobre que variaram respectivamente de 369 ppm a 1248 ppm e 152 ppm a 687 ppm com base na matéria seca. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis baseou-se em dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, de necropsia, histopatológicos e laboratoriais.An outbreak of spontaneous Senecio brasiliensis poisoning in grazing sheep in the county of Mata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, is described. The disease occurred on one farm in middle January 1997. Fifty-one (54.25% out of 94 sheep were affected, and 50 animals (53.2% died. This flock of sheep had been grazing for approximately 7 months (from June 1996 to January 1997 in paddocks heavily infested with S. brasiliensis. Clinical signs included photodermatitis, progressive emaciation, apathy, weakness, neurological signs such as drownsiness, aimless walking and unsteady gait, jaundice and hemoglobinuria. There was amelioration of the skin lesions in those sheep that developed hepatogenous photosensitization. Main necropsy findings in 9 sheep included small, firm, tan or greenish liver with few to numerous small, yellowish, well-circumscribed nodules measuring up to 3 mm in diameter and randomly scattered throughout the hepatic parenchyma. There was also marked distension of the gallbladder which contained large amounts of inspissated, dark green bile and straw-colored cavitary effusions (hydropericardium and ascitis. Five sheep developed lethal acute hemolytic crisis, secondary to massive release into the blood stream of copper accumulated in the liver (hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning. Apart from the aforementioned liver lesions, other gross findings in those animals included severe and diffuse jaundice, dark brown urine (hemoglobinuria and swollen, friable, finely stippled or diffusely dark kidneys. The main histopathological findings included hepatomegalocytosis, biliary ductal proliferation (bile duct hyperplasia and moderate periportal fibrosis. The portal triads were infiltrated with variable numbers of mononuclear cells. There was heavy accumulation of brownish pigment in macrophages identified as ceroid or copper with PAS and rhodanine stainings, respectively. Those ceroid and copper-laden macrophages were scattered on the remnant hepatic parenchyma or formed small aggregates in the portal triads. Main histopathological findings in the kidneys of 5 sheep, that developed fatal hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning, included tubular nephrosis, accumulation of hemoglobin and hemosiderin in epithelial tubular cells and hemoglobin casts (hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Morphological evidence of hepatic encephalopathy included spongy degeneration (status spongiosus of the cerebral white matter. Ultrastructural changes in the liver of affected sheep included degenerative hepatocellular changes of varying severity. There was accumulation of numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes and lysosomes containing substances of high electron-density that corresponded to ceroid-lipofuscin in most of the cases. In addition, there was mild swelling of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and moderate hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in some areas of the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes. Proximal convoluted tubular epithelial cells showed intracellular edema and a variety of mitochondrial degenerative changes. These included disarrangement and breakup of cristae, finely granular matrix, accumulation of lipid globules and rupture of the membranes in a few cases. Many epithelial tubular cells displayed substances of high electron-density within lysosomes. Chemical analysis of copper in liver and kidney samples of affected sheep revealed high concentrations varying from 369 ppm to 1248 ppm in the liver and ranging from 152 ppm to 687 ppm in the kidneys (dry matter. The diagnosis of Senecio brasiliensis poisoning was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions and laboratory data.

  3. Propriedades farmacológicas do extrato etanólico de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. McLeisch (Asteraceae Pharmacological properties of the ethanol extract from Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. McLeisch (Asteraceae

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    Marcelo S. Silvério

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investigou as propriedades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e antiulcerogênica do extrato etanólico dos galhos de E. erythropappus. Foram realizados os testes de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético; tempo da lambida da pata induzida por formalina; placa quente; edema de pata induzido por carragenina; lesões ulcerativas induzidas por indometacina e etanol. As doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg inibiram as contorções em 43,07%, 69,34% e 70,07%, respectivamente. O tempo da lambida da pata foi reduzido em ambas as fases nas doses testadas, enquanto o tempo de latência da placa quente teve efeito significativo na dose de 200 mg/kg. O edema de pata foi reduzido em 23,81% (100 mg/kg e 47,62% (200 mg/kg. O índice ulcerativo das lesões induzidas por indometacina foi reduzido na dose de 100 mg/kg e 200 mg/kg, enquanto a dose de 200 mg/kg teve efeito significativo sobre o volume e o pH do suco gástrico. O índice ulcerativo e o volume do suco gástrico, induzidos por etanol, foram reduzidos na dose de 200 mg/kg, enquanto o pH do suco gástrico aumentou nas doses de 100 e 200 mg/kg. Os resultados indicam que o extrato etanólico de E. erythropappus avaliado pode constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias da dor, da inflamação e de úlcera.The present work investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities of Eremanthus erythropappus ethanol extract. The tests were carried out by acetic acid writhing, paw licking induced by formalin, hot plate, indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. The doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg inhibited the contortions in 43.07, 69.34 and 70.07%, respectively. Both phases of paw lick were reduced at the tested doses, while reaction time at hot plate had significant effect at 200 mg/kg. The paw edema was decreased in 23.81% (100 mg/kg and 47.62% (200 mg/kg. The index of ulceration induced by indomethacin was reduced at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, while 200 mg/kg decreased the gastric volume and pH. The index of ulceration and gastric volume induced by ethanol was reduced at 200 mg/kg, while the pH increased at 100 and 200 mg/kg. The results indicate that the ethanol extract from E. erythropappus may constitute a potential target for the use in therapies of the pain, inflammation and ulcer.

  4. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Eupatorium tremulum (Asteraceae em bovinos Spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium tr tremulum emulum (Asteraceae in cattle cattle

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    Joelma Lucioli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a intoxicação natural e experimental por Eupatorium tremulum em bovinos. Um surto de intoxicação espontânea por esta planta foi diagnosticado no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Em um lote de 19 bovinos, três morreram após a transferência para uma invernada aonde havia grande quantidade de E. tremulum. Os animais foram encontrados mortos, e dois foram necropsiados e coletado amostras de vísceras para exame histológico. Experimentalmente, folhas verdes de E. tremulum foram administradas a cinco bovinos, em doses únicas de 23 a 32g/kg de peso animal. Destes, três adoeceram e dois morreram. Os principais sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, apatia, atonia ruminal, micção freqüente e em pequenos jatos, fezes pastosas e ventre flácido. As lesões macroscópicas restringiram-se aos pré-estômagos e foram idênticas, tanto para intoxicação natural como para a experimental. O rúmen e retículo externamente mostravam tonalidade levemente avermelhada, a camada córnea da mucosa estava frouxamente aderida e a mucosa tinha coloração vermelha acentuada. Ao exame histológico observou-se no rúmen e retículo, tanto na intoxicação espontânea, como experimental, necrose do epitélio da mucosa com formações de pequenas vesículas e em alguns segmentos, desprendimento da camada epitelial e leve infiltrado de neutrófilos. A intoxicação por E. tremulum tem curso clínico, lesões macro e microscópicas muito semelhantes àquelas produzidas pela intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium, Baccharis coridifolia (mio-mio e Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii (mio-mio do banhado. O diagnóstico diferencial entre essas quatro intoxicações deve ser feito pela presença da planta e pelos dados epidemiológicos. O diagnóstico dos casos espontâneos foram confirmados pelos dados epidemiológicos e reprodução experimental das lesões macro e microscópicas.The spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium tremulum in cattle is described. Spontaneous cases were diagnosed in a herd of 19 cattle in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Three of the animals were found dead after having been transferred to a pasture with abundant quantities of E. tremulum. On two of them postmortem examination was performed and several internal organs were sampled for histological examination. Green leaves of E. tremulum were force-fed orally to 5 calves in single doses of 23-32g/kg body weight. Three calves showed clinical signs and two died. The main clinical signs included anorexia, apathy, absence of rumen movements, diarrhea and a flabby abdominal wall. Gross changes were restricted to the fore stomachs and were identical to those observed in the cases of natural poisoning. Rumen and reticulum were slightly reddish from outside; the corneal layer of their internal lining was loosely attached to a markedly red mucosa. The histological examination of rumen and reticulum from spontaneous and experimental cases revealed necrosis and vesicle formation in the epithelium; in some segments of the ruminal mucosa there was detachment of the epithelial covering and infiltration by neuthophils. Poisoning by E. tremulum has clinical course, gross lesions and histopathology very similar to those observed in poisoning caused by ingestion of the plants Baccharidastrum triplinervium, Baccharis coridifolia and Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. The diagnosis of the spontaneous cases here described was confirmed by epidemiological data and the experimental reproduction of characteristic gross lesions and histopathology.

  5. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

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    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de difusão em gel e concentração inibitória mínima. Demonstrou-se atividade do extrato bruto etanólico de flores contra Streptococcus pyogenes, em difusão em gel e atividade de extrato bruto etanólico de caules e folhas contra Salmonella typhimurium e Streptococcus pyogenes em concentração inibitória mínima. Para a atividade antifúngica, utilizaram-se três fungos patogênicos em ensaios de crescimento micelial em placas e bioautografia direta. No ensaio de crescimento micelial em placas verificou-se a inibição de Fusarium oxysporum e na bioautografia direta, inibição do Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Os resultados delinearam uma nova fonte de pesquisa, as plantas ornamentais. Estas podem ser fonte de constituintes químicos capazes de servirem como protótipos para novos agentes terapêuticos e para tratamento sanitário de plantas medicinais.Popularly known as aster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel and monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus is an ornamental plant. Having the knowledge that there is no studies on the biological activity of this species, this work aimed to check the antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ethanol extracts of the flowers and of the stems with leaves were used. For the antibacterial activity eight pathogenic bacteria were submitted to the diffusion test in gel and minimal inhibitory concentration. The activity of the ethanolic extract of the flowers has been demonstrated against Streptococcus pyogenes in diffusion in gel and the activity of the ethanol extract of the stems and leaves against Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes in minimal inhibitory concentration. For the antifungal activity, three pathogenic yeasts have been used in the micelial growth tests in plates and direct bioautography. In the micelial growth tests in plates the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum has been verified and in the direct bioautography, inhibition of the Cylindrocladium spathulatum. The results indicated a new research source, the ornamental plants. These can be the source of chemicals capable of serving as prototypes for new therapeutic agents and for sanitary treatment of medicinal plants.

  6. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

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    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam influence zone ( Antioquia, Colombia . We recorded number of individuals and total time spent per visit and we measured the temperature and relative humidity. The analyses of the pollen loads showed that out of the thirty pollen types, A. tenella represented the most common of all pollen types, followed by pollen types of Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., in that order. Grouping analyses for the collected bees produced two groups: first, a group of 18 species of bees whose pollen loads had more than 77% of A. tenella pollen grains; and the second group with five species of wild bees whose pollen loads were more abundant in other types of pollen: Exomalopsis sp. 2 (90,4% of M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 and Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% and 64,1% of P. aduncum, respectively; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% of P. guajava and Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% of Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris and Apis mellifera showed the highest richness of pollen types in their pollen loads; this is an evidence of their broad trophic niches and overall generalist feeding habits.

  7. Novos registros de espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae (Heliantheae - Asteraceae para a Amazônia brasileira New records of species of the Ecliptinae subtribe (Heliantheae - Asteraceae to the Brazilian Amazon

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    Genilson Alves dos Reis e Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da subtribo Ecliptinae encontradas nos estados do Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará e Rondônia, são apresentadas como novos registros para a Amazônia brasileira: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa e Wedelia calycina. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações para as espécies, dados sobre a distribuição geográfica, hábitat, época de floração e frutificação. Os novos registros evidenciam a importância de estudos sobre a flora amazônica e demonstram a necessidade de coletas mais intensas na região.The following seven species of the subtribe Ecliptinae found in the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia have been recorded at the Brazilian Amazonia, for the first time: Acmella uliginosa, Aspilia camporum, Aspilia ulei, Melanthera latifolia, Melanthera nivea, Spilanthes nervosa and Wedelia calycina. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as information about geographic distribution, habitats and phenology. These new records highlight the importance of the floristic studies in Amazonia, and the need to carry out intensive fieldwork to improve the sampling in this region.

  8. Atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) sobre espécies orais de Candida Antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) on oral Candida species

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    C.T Lubian; J.M. Teixeira; R.G Lund; P.S. Nascente; F.A.B Del Pino

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de folhas de "bardana" [Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.], por meio da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e Concentração Fungicida Mínima (CFM) sobre diferentes espécies e linhagens do gênero Candida. Foram incluídas no trabalho as espécies de Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. stellatoidea, C. dubliniensis e C. krusei. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens de C. albicans e três de C.tropicali...

  9. Atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de Arctium minus (Hill Bernh. (Asteraceae sobre espécies orais de Candida Antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh. (Asteraceae on oral Candida species

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    C.T Lubian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de folhas de "bardana" [Arctium minus (Hill Bernh.], por meio da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Fungicida Mínima (CFM sobre diferentes espécies e linhagens do gênero Candida. Foram incluídas no trabalho as espécies de Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. stellatoidea, C. dubliniensis e C. krusei. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens de C. albicans e três de C.tropicalis, enquanto que para as demais espécies, apenas uma linhagem foi testada. Estas leveduras foram utilizadas no estudo devido à importância e frequência na cavidade bucal. As leveduras foram submetidas a tratamentos com concentrações do extrato aquoso que variaram de 0,09 a 25 mg mL-1. Os resultados indicaram que concentrações inferiores a 12,5 mg mL-1 não são suficientes para apresentar efeito fungistático ou fungicida. A concentração de 12,5 mg mL-1 apresentou efeito fungistático sobre a maioria das linhagens e espécies testadas (C. albicans 04A e ATCC44858; C. tropicalis 23600 e 23651; C. glabrata; C. stellatoideia; C. dubliniensis e C. krusei. Entretanto, efeito fungicida foi observado apenas sobre a espécie C. krusei (CFM=12,5 mg mL-1. Comportamento diferenciado foi observado entre diferentes linhagens de uma espécie (para C. albicans e C. tropicalis. Assim, a ação antifúngica do extrato aquoso de A. minus (Hill Bernh. provavelmente está associada à variabilidade genética existente entre as diferentes linhagens de uma mesma espécie e das diferentes espécies, sendo que concentrações inferiores a 12,5 mg mL-1 não apresentaram efeito sobre as leveduras testadas. Com base na metodologia empregada e dentro das limitações deste estudo, conclui-se que o extrato aquoso de A. minus revelou efeito antifúngico, principalmente fungistático, contra espécies de Candida orais. Porém, novos estudos são necessários para avaliar o seu real potencial antifúngico dentro do meio bucal.This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from leaves of burdock [Arctium minus (Hill Bernh.] by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC on different species and strains of Candida genus. The species Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. stellatoidea, C. dubliniensis, and C. Krusei were included in this study. Four C. albicans and three C. tropicalis strains were used, whereas only one strain of each remaining species was tested. Such yeasts were used in this study due to their importance and frequency in the oral cavity. The yeasts were subjected to treatments with aqueous extract concentrations that ranged from 0.09 to 25 mg mL-1. Concentrations lower than 12.5 mg mL-1 were not enough to present fungicidal or fungistatic effect. The concentration of 12.5 mg mL-1 had fungistatic effect on most tested strains and species (C. albicans 04A and ATCC44858; C. tropicalis 23600 and 23651; C. glabrata; C. stellatoideia; C. dubliniensis; and C. krusei. However, fungicidal effect was only observed on the species C. krusei (MFC=12.5 mg mL-1. A distinct performance was observed among different strains from the same species (for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Thus, the antifungal action of A. minus (Hill Bernh. aqueous extract is probably associated with the genetic variability present among the different strains of one same species and among different species; besides, concentrations lower than 12,5 mg mL-1 did not have an effect on the tested yeasts. The adopted methodology and considering the limitations of this study led to the conclusion that the aqueous extract of A. minus presented antifungal effect, mainly fungistatic, against oral Candida species. However, new studies are needed to evaluate its real antifungal potential inside the oral environment.

  10. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul

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    André M.R. Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen (14.4% out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2% of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morreram. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade.

  11. Delimitación de Senecio filaginoides y rehabilitación de S. caricifolius, S. leuciscus y S. quenselii (Asteraceae, Senecioneae Delimitation of Senecio filaginoides and resurrection of S. caricifolius, S. leuciscus, and S. quenselii (Asteraceae, Senecioneae

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    Roberto D. Tortosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza la revisión de Senecio filaginoides DC., entidad tratada por A. L. Cabrera y Cabrera y colaboradores en sucesivos trabajos desde 1949 hasta 1999. Se discute la validez de su variedad lobulatus Cabrera, y de los sinónimos considerados tanto para ésta como para la variedad típica. Se rehabilitan tres de ellos: S. caricifolius, S. leuciscus y S. quenselii. Se describen S. filaginoides y los taxa rehabilitados, y se incluye una clave para diferenciarlos.A revision of Senecio filaginoides DC., based on the treatment made by A. L. Cabrera and Cabrera with coworkers, in successive works from 1949 to 1999, is carried on. The validity of the variety lobulatus Cabrera and the identity of the taxa considered by Cabrera as synonyms of S. filaginoides var. filaginoides and S. filaginoides var. lobulatus is discussed. Three species, S. caricifolius, S. leuciscus, and S. quenselii are resurrected. The species are described and a key to differentiate them is included.

  12. Biópsia hepática no diagnóstico da intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bovinos Liver biopsy for the diagnosis of Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in cattle

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    Claudio S.L. Barros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesões hepáticas causadas pela intoxicação por Senecio spp em bovinos são progressivas e mortes podem ocorrer vários meses após a ingestão da planta. Testes laboratoriais da função hepática nem sempre são indicadores confiáveis de animais subclinicamente afetados. A biópsia hepática pode ser indicada para identificar bovinos com lesões hepáticas, mas sem sinais clínicos, e pode ter também valor prognóstico, uma vez que se acredita que as lesões hepáticas evoluam para causar insuficiência hepática e morte. Tais bovinos poderiam ser identificados pela biópsia hepática e enviados para o abate antes de desenvolverem os sinais clínicos, minimizando assim os prejuízos. Este estudo visou avaliar a biópsia hepática como um método de diagnóstico e prognóstico em casos de intoxi-cação por Senecio spp. em bovinos. Um surto de intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis foi diagnosticado em bezerros de leite que haviam ingerido feno contaminado por 5-10% dessa planta tóxica. Biópsia hepática com agulha de Menghini por abordagem transtorácica foi realizada em 135 bezerros que ingeriram feno contaminado. Os bezerros biopsiados foram acompanhados por um período de 26 meses após a biópsia. Dezessete bezerros biopsiados tinham lesões típicas da intoxicação por Senecio spp (bezerros positivos e 118 tinham fígados histologicamente normais (bezerros negativos. As lesões hepáticas dos bovinos positivos incluíam fibrose, hepatomegalocitose e hiperplasia de ductos biliares. Quinze dos 17 bezerros positivos morreram com sinais clínicos típicos de intoxicação por Senecio spp. 17-149 dias após a biópsia; 13 desses foram necropsiados e apresentavam lesões macro e microscópicas típicas de intoxicação por Senecio spp. Dois bovinos positivos mantinham-se clinicamente normais ao final do período de observação pós-biópsia. O valor prognóstico (sensibilidae do teste foi considerado alto, uma vez que 88,23% dos bezerros positivos morreram. A especificidade do teste foi considerada bastante alta (99.16%, uma vez que apenas um dos 118 bovinos negativos na biópsia hepática morreu durante o período de observação pós-biópsia. Em nenhum bovino foi observado qualquer efeito negativo relacionado à técnica da biópsia hepática.Liver lesions caused by Senecio spp poisoning in cattle are progressive and deaths may occur many months after the plant is ingested. Laboratory tests of liver function are not always reliable indicators of subclinical affected animals. Liver biopsy could be useful to identify cattle with hepatic lesions but without clinical signs and would have also a prognostic value since it is generally believed that hepatic lesions will eventually cause liver failure and death. Such animals could be picked out by liver biopsy before clinical signs develop and be sent to slaughter, minimizing economic losses. This study was aimed to evaluate the liver biopsy as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in cases of Senecio spp. poisoning in cattle. An outbreak of Senecio brasiliensis was diagnosed in dairy calves which ingested hay contaminated by 5-10% of this Senecio species. Liver biopsy using a Menghini needle by right transthoracic approach was carried out in 135 calves that ingested the contaminated hay. Biopsed calves were followed up for 26 months after the biopsy. Seventeen biopsied calves had typical lesions of Senecio spp poisoning (positive calves and 118 had histologically normal livers (negative calves. Hepatic lesions of positive calves included fibrosis, hepatomeglocytosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Fifteen out of the 17 positive calves died with typical clinical signs of Senecio spp poisoning within 17-149 days after the biopsy; 13 of those were necropsied and had typical gross and histopathological lesions of Senecio spp poisoning. Two positive calves were clinically normal at the end of the post-biopsy observation period. The prognostic value (sensibility of the test was considered high since 88.23% of the positive calves died. The specificity of the test was considered very high (99.16% since only one of the 118 negative calves died in the observation period. In none of the biopsed calves a negative effect related to the biopsy technique was observed.

  13. Tannins in Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): effects of seasonality, water availability and plant sex Taninos em Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): efeitos da sazonalidade, disponibilidade de água e sexo da planta

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    Espírito-Santo, Mário M.; G. Wilson Fernandes; Luciana R Allain; Ticiana R. F Reis

    1999-01-01

    Several ecological, genetic, and environmental factors are known to influence tannin concentration in plant tissues. In this study, the effects of seasonality, water availability, and sex of the plant on tannin concentration in the dioecious shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia were assessed. The effects of water availability on plant shoot growth and its relationship to tannin concentration were also experimentally evaluated. Tannins occurred in B. dracunculifolia from November to May, peaking du...

  14. Anticholinesterase activity and chemical profile of an active chromatographic fraction of ethanolic extract from Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) flowers; Atividade anticolinesterasica e perfil quimico de uma fracao cromatografica ativa do extrato etanolico das flores Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Thiago Henrique Costa; Santos, Pauline Sousa dos; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes de, E-mail: rivelilson@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Departamento de Bioquimica e Farmacologia; Carvalho, Rusbene Bruno Fonseca de; Melo, Cassio Herbert Santos de [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Departamento de Quimica; David, Juceni Pereira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; David, Jorge Mauricio; Lima, Luciano Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    This work describes the isolation of an active flavonoid fraction and identification of isorhamnetin 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-acetyl)- alactopyranoside from flowers of B. perennis, and also the evaluation of anticholinesterase (AChE) activity of ethanolic extract from flowers (EEF) and the active fraction. The chemical structure of the flavonoid was defined on the basis of spectroscopic {sup 1}H NMR, IR and UV data. EEF or flavonoid reduces AChE activity in vivo, while flavonoid also reduces AChE activity in vitro, showing a value of 1.49 {mu}M for 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}), suggesting potential use as an insecticide or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. (author)

  15. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais produzidos por Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of essential oils produced by Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Regina Ferronatto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais obtidos de plantas nativas de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, também conhecido como óleo-de-vassoura, é utilizado na indústria de perfumaria, proporcionando um aroma exótico a diversos perfumes, além de muitos estudos sobre atividades biológicas dessas espécies destacam os efeitos alelopáticos, antioxidante, antimicrobianos, citotóxicos e antiinflamatórios. A vassoura é uma planta arbustiva de ocorrência espontânea no Brasil, assim como nos demais países do Mercosul. A composição do óleo depende da região geográfica e do processo de extração utilizado e a importância comercial está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de compostos oxigenados, destacando o nerolidol e o espatulenol. Óleos essenciais obtidos dessas duas espécies pelo processo de hidrodestilação, foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em disco de papel, em placas de Petri contendo meio de Müeller-Hinton, semeadas com suspensões bacterianas previamente ajustadas ao tubo 0,5 da escala de Mac Farland de quatro cepas provenientes da American Type Culture Colection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discos contendo diferentes volumes dos óleos essenciais sem qualquer diluição (1, 3, 5 e 10 µL/disco foram adicionadas às placas e incubadas a 36 ºC por 24 a 48 horas. Discos de cloranfenicol (CLO e amoxicilina (AMO com volumes de 50 e 10 µg/disco respectivamente, foram utilizados como controle. Os resultados apresentados revelam que ambos os óleos avaliados apresentam atividade antimicrobiana sobre S. aureus, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.Essential oils obtained from the native plants Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, known also as "óleo de vassoura", are used in the perfumery industry, providing diverse perfumes with exotic aromas. Besides several studies about the biological activities of these species highlight the allelopathic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antiinflammatory effects. The broom is a bushy plant which occurs spontaneously in Brazil as well as in the other countries from Mercosul. The oil composition depends on the geographical region and on the concentration of oxygenated blends, highlighting the nerolidol and the sphatulenol. Essential oils obtained from these two species by the hydrodistillation process were assessed by the diffusion method in paper disc, in Petri plaques containing Müeller-Hinton agar, with bacteria suspensions, previously adjusted to the tube 0,5 of Mac Farland scale of four strains which came from the American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discs containing different volumes of the essential oils (1, 3, 5 and 10 (µL/disc were added to plaques and incubated at 36 ºC for 24 - 48 hours. Chloranfenicol (CLO and Amoxicillin (AMO with concentrations of 30 and 10 µg/disc were respectively used as control. The presented results reveal that both assessed oils present antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa.

  16. Composición química y actividad anti- tripanosomal de aceites esenciales obtenidos de Tagetes (Fam. Asteraceae), recolectados en Colombia Chemical composition and anti-tripanosomal activity of essential oils from Tagetes (Asteraceae Fam.) grown in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Escobar; Laura Viviana Herrera; Sandra Milena Leal; Camilo Durán; Elena Stashenko

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: La quimioterapia actual para enfermedad de Chagas es precaria con solo dos opciones de tratamiento: nifurtimox y benznidazol. Las plantas representan una fuente inmensa de moléculas potencialmente activas contra agentes infecciosos. Objetivo: Determinar la composición química y evaluar la actividad de aceites esenciales de Tagetes, recolectados en Colombia, contra Trypanosoma cruzi y su célula de mamífero hospedera. Materiales y métodos: Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron de p...

  17. Unusual 45S-5S units dominate ribosomal RNA loci in the sunflower family (Asteraceae): the case of Artemisia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Lim, K.Y.; Chester, M.; Garnatje, T.; Pellicer, J.; Valles, J.; Leitch, A.R.; Kovařík, Aleš

    Angers, 2008. s. 3-4. [Cytogénétique et Polyploidie, DGAP INRA - Technopole. 02.04.2008-04.04.2008, Angers] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : compositae * concerted evolution * FISH Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. Patterns of genetic diversity in colonizing plant species: Nassauvia lagascae var. lanata (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) on Volcan Lonquimay, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricio G; Tremetsberger, Karin; Stuessy, Tod F; Gómez-González, Susana; Jiménez, Alejandra; Baeza, Carlos M

    2010-03-01

    The effect of colonization on the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations in relation to species characteristics remains an open empirical question. The objective of this study was to contrast genetic diversity within and among established and colonizing populations of Nassauvia lagascae var. lanata on Volcán Lonquimay (Araucanía Region, Chile), which erupted on 25 December 1988, and relate genetic diversity to biological characteristics of the populations. We analyzed a total of 240 individuals from 15 populations distributed along the Andes Cordillera using AFLP and obtained a total of 307 AFLP bands, of which 97.7% are polymorphic. Values of population differentiation (F(ST)) did not differ significantly among established and colonizing populations, but colonizing populations did have reduced levels of genetic divergence (as indicated by private and rare bands) and genetic variation (e.g., Shannon index). We conclude that a founder effect through limited numbers of founding propagules derived from nearby source populations has not yet been compensated for by subsequent population growth and migration. Low rates of secondary dispersal via running water, kin-structure within populations, and slow population growth seem to contribute to the slow recovery of genetic diversity. PMID:21622405

  19. Similar patterns of rDNA evolution in synthetic and recently formed natural populations of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) allotetraploids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malinská, Hana; Tate, J.A.; Matyášek, Roman; Leitch, A.R.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 291 (2010), s. 1-17. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1751; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polyploidy * nucleolar dominance * homogenization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.702, year: 2010

  20. Phytochemical and molluscicidal activity of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae) in different lifestages of Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Aparecida de Souza; Lidiane Cristina da Silva; Evelyn Durço Chicarino; Elisabeth Cristina de Almeida Bessa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata on the land snail Subulina octona and to assess the changes caused on the snail's fecundity, growth, hatchability and the offspring produced after exposure. Eggs, newly hatched and 30 day old snails were exposed to the sublethal concentration of M. glomerata extract for 24 and 48 h and the observations were made for 120 days. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins were shown by...

  1. Foliar exudates of Blakiella bartsiifolia (S.F. Blake Cuatrec. (Asteraceae, Astereae. A Preliminary study of the Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Calcagno-Pissarelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first phytochemical study of Blakiella bartsiifolia, an endemic species of Mérida. From the foliar exudates two flavonoids ((5,4´-dihydroxy-3,6,7,3´-tetramethoxyflavone; 5,7,4´-trihydroxy-3,8,3´-trimethoxy-flavone and a labdane diterpene (labda-7,14-dien-13(S-ol were identified by high field NMR spectroscopy. Plants naturally exposed to direct sunlight possessed a significantly higher specific absorbance coefficient in the UV region than plants growing in shaded areas.

  2. Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Lim, K.Y.; Chester, M.; Garnatje, T.; Pellicer, J.; Valles, J.; Leitch, A.R.; Kovařík, Aleš

    online, - (2008), s. 1-13. ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Artemisia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.111, year: 2008

  3. Bioefficacy of Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae) extracts in the control of Spodoptera litura Fabricus (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) under laboratory conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Doddamane Manjulakumari; Medhini N; Divakara Y.G.; Prabha D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Calendula officinalis L on the nutritional physiological parameters of Spodoptera litura Fab larvae were studied by treating with leaf and flower extracts in various solvents. Protease and amylase enzyme activities along with their respective substrates were assayed in hemolymph and midgut of treated and untreated larvae. Irrespective of tissues, all the extracts showed significant reduction in the biochemical profile compared to controls. The most significant change was observe...

  4. Bioefficacy of Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae extracts in the control of Spodoptera litura Fabricus (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera under laboratory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddamane Manjulakumari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Calendula officinalis L on the nutritional physiological parameters of Spodoptera litura Fab larvae were studied by treating with leaf and flower extracts in various solvents. Protease and amylase enzyme activities along with their respective substrates were assayed in hemolymph and midgut of treated and untreated larvae. Irrespective of tissues, all the extracts showed significant reduction in the biochemical profile compared to controls. The most significant change was observed in chloroform and petroleum ether leaf and flower extracts treated larvae compared to other extracts suggesting their components affect nutritional physiology of S.litura. Hence, Calendula extracts can not only be used to treat human ailments but also as an effective botanical pesticide.

  5. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%). PMID:26982621

  6. Antifungal, antiradical and cytotoxic activities of extractives obtained from Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), a potential acaricide plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Flávio A S; Queiroz-Fernandes, Geisiany M; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Freitas, Jolindo A; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2016-06-01

    Tagetes patula L. shows a complex chemical composition, ranging from glycosylated flavonoids and thiophenes in extracts until terpenoids in the essential oil. In the present study, due to this rich flavonoidic constitution, its antioxidant potential was determined, having shown values of antiradical percentage superior to reference compounds, mainly the extracts prepared with flowers. Previous studies performed emphasized the acaricide potential of T. patula and thus, the present study aimed to verify the action of extractives obtained from aerial parts on growth of entomopathogenic fungi related to biological control of brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the action against pathogenic fungi closely associated with pets. None of the samples inhibited the growth of strains of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, enabling feasible future studies of synergism on acaricide activity of formulations containing fungi and extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of flowers (FlEtOH70%) against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum was significant (193.3 μg/mL and 253.9 μg/mL, respectively), as well as ethanolic extract from aerial parts (APEtOH70%) against T. rubrum (312.5 μg/mL). In order to ensure the safety of a topical formulation containing the extractives of T. patula, the cytotoxic potential of these samples were tested in murine macrophages cells. At higher concentrations all extracts were quite lethal, with IC50 ranging from 210.96 μg/mL to 468.75 μg/mL for APEtOH70% and FlEtOH70%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of a product containing T. patula extractives in the control of ticks could be used, at principle, only on the environment. PMID:26945559

  7. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  8. Yacon diet (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) improves hepatic insulin resistance via reducing Trb3 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, H; M T Audrey Nguyen; Kudoh, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Yacon is a perennial plant forming a clump of >20 big, edible underground tubers. Yacon, which originates from South America, has become increasingly popular in the Japanese diet for tubers have a lower caloric value and a high fiber content. Recent studies have suggested that yacon feeding ameliorates diabetes as indicated by reduced blood glucose. Methods: We fed male Zucker fa/fa rats for 5 weeks with isocaloric normal chow diet containing from 6.5% control aroid or 6.5% yacon. ...

  9. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch. Milne-Redh (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njateng Guy SS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml. Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v and gentamycin (reference drug eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL and triglycerides were significantly (p Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections.

  10. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional acerca de la biología reproductiva de A. granatensis, útil para la conservación y el manejo de la especie, evaluamos el sistema de compatibilidad a través del crecimiento del tubo polínico. Además se registraron datos sobre algunos rasgos florales y polínicos de la especie. No se encontraron diferencias entre poblaciones en términos de rasgos morfológicos de flores e inflorescencias. A. granatensis es una especie anemófila para la cual los datos obtenidos sobre capacidad de dispersión sugieren que la transferencia de polen podría ser difícil entre poblaciones aisladas o muy distanciadas, pudiendo ser un factor más a tener en cuenta entre las causas que provocan un limitado éxito reproductivo y una paupérrima producción de semillas. Los resultados muestran que A. granatensis tiene autoincompatibilidad esporofítica sin evidencias de autoincompatibilidad parcial. Los rasgos reproductivos relacionados con la morfología y la velocidad de sedimentación del polen pueden explicar la baja tasa de reclutamiento de poblaciones pequeñas, a veces separadas por barreras geográficas.

  11. Estudios biosistemáticos y evolutivos en el género Echinops L. (Asteraceae, Cardueae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    130 p. Tesis doctoral de la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad de Barcelona. La tesis incluye artículos publicados en revistas científicas, que por motivos de copyright no pueden difundirse con el resto de la tesis

  12. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. PMID:27273012

  13. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of recently evolved Tragopogon (Asteraceae) allopolyploids reveal a karyotype that is additive of the diploid progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pires, J. C.; Lim, K. Y.; Kovařík, Aleš; Matyášek, Roman; Boyd, A.; Leitch, A. R.; Leitch, I. J.; Bennet, M. D.; Soltis, P. S.; Soltis, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 7 (2004), s. 1022-1035. ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0313; GA ČR GA521/01/0037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : centromere * chromosomal evolution * fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2004

  14. A “Novel” Protocol for the Analysis of Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Leaf Tissue of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Bahri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A “novel” protocol is presented for easy and reliable estimation of soluble hydroxycinnamate levels in Cichorium intybus L. leaf tissue in large-scale experiments. Samples were standardized by punching 6 discs per leaf, and hydroxycinnamates were extracted by submerging the discs in 80% ethanol with 5% acetic acid for at least 48 h in the darkness at 4°C. Residual dry mass of the discs was used for a posteriori correction of compound levels. Chlorophyll was eliminated by chloroform, and the aqueous phases were transferred to microplates, dried, and dissolved in 50% methanol for HPLC analysis and storage. An HPLC program of 8 min was developed for the analysis of the extracts. Comparisons with extractions of liquid nitrogen powders indicated that the novel extraction method was reliable. No degradation of the major hydroxycinnamates—caftaric, chlorogenic, and chicoric acids—was observed, during maceration at ambient temperatures, or after storage for 1 year.

  15. Phytochemical and molluscicidal activity of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae in different lifestages of Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata on the land snail Subulina octona and to assess the changes caused on the snail's fecundity, growth, hatchability and the offspring produced after exposure. Eggs, newly hatched and 30 day old snails were exposed to the sublethal concentration of M. glomerata extract for 24 and 48 h and the observations were made for 120 days. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins were shown by phytochemical tests. The extract reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from the exposed eggs. The eggs exposed for 48 h presented lower hatchability rates. There was a reduction on survival and growth of newly hatched and 30-days old snails exposed to the extract. These results indicated that the aqueous extract of M. glomerata could be applied as an alternative molluscicide for the control of this snail species efficiently.

  16. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE) CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO; Elsa Giovanna ÁVILA MARTÍNEZ; Francisco CORTÉS PÉREZ

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF) asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y sep...

  17. Microscopic analysis and histochemical observations of the medicinal root of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth. ex Hemsl. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Sandoval; Bye, Robert A.; Griselda Ríos; María Isabel Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The roots of Iostephane heterophylla are popular in Mexican traditional medicine and as such are a good candidate to develop herbal drug preparations to be used as phytomedicine. International criteria for validation and standardization of a herbal product as phytomedicine include, among others, the integration of microscopic and histochemical characteristics of the raw material, as in this case the herbal drug, to guarantee its authenticity. As an original contribution to the knowledge of th...

  18. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2010-01-01

    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which the...... of the genus. The small population size, with its potential derived consequences, is most certainly a prominent threat to S. cordata. The pressure from introduced plant species found in the enclosure also contributes to the seemingly poor condition of the population. To recover S. cordata, we suggest...... enlarging the enclosure, removing the introduced plant species and continuing to cultivate plants as a genetic reserve. Introducing new genetic material is likely to increase the seed set of the population...

  19. Microsatellite Primers in the Weedy Annual Herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and Four Closely Related Species

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Agudo; F. Xavier Picó; Inés Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian...

  20. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  1. Chloroplast DNA variation and phylogeography of Ligularia tongolensis (Asteraceae), a species endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng WANG; Yue-Zhi PAN; Xun GONG; Yu-Chung CHIANG; Chiaki KURODA

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we aimed to study the genetic variation and phylogeographic pattern of Ligularia tongolensis, a perennial herb endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) intergenic spacers (trnQ-5'rps 16, trnL-rpl32) in 140 individuals from 14 populations of three groups (Jinshajiang vs. Yalongjiang vs. Wumeng) within this species range. High levels of haplotype diversity (Hd= 0.814)and total genetic diversity (Ht = 0.862) were detected at the species level, based on a total of 12 haplotypes identified.Low levels of intrapopulation diversity (Hs = 0.349), high levels of genetic divergence (Gst = 0.595, Nst = 0.614,Fst = 0.597), and the absence of isolation by distance tests were also found in L. tongolensis. Furthermore, H2 and H5, the dominant haplotypes that located at internal nodes and deviated from extinct ancestral haplotype in the network, were found to be shared between Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang groups. These results indicate that past fragmentation may be the important factor responsible for the present phylogeographical pattern of L. tongolensis.Meanwhile, the locations occupied by each group might have served as independent refugia for L. tongolensis during the Quaternary glaciation. Unimodal mismatch distribution and star-like genealogies indicated this species underwent past demographic expansion events, with expansion ages of 274 ka BP.

  2. Two new subspecies of Erigeron uniflorus L. (Asteraceae) from Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Michael J.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Two new subspecies of Erigeron uniflorus L. are described from montane áreas of N Spain. These are E. uniflorus subsp. picoeuropaeanus M.J.Y. Foley, subsp. nov., and E. uniflorus subsp. subacaulis MJ.Y. Foley, subsp. nov.Se describen dos Subespecies nuevas de Erigeron uniflorus L. procedentes de áreas montañosas del N de España. Son E. uniflorus subsp. Picoeuropaeanus MJ.Y. Foley, subsp. nov. , y E. uniflorus subsp. subacaulis M.J.Y. Foley, subsp. nov.

  3. A “Novel” Protocol for the Analysis of Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Leaf Tissue of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Meriem Bahri; Philippe Hance; Sébastien Grec; Marie-Christine Quillet; Francis Trotin; Jean-Louis Hilbert; Theo Hendriks

    2012-01-01

    A “novel” protocol is presented for easy and reliable estimation of soluble hydroxycinnamate levels in Cichorium intybus L. leaf tissue in large-scale experiments. Samples were standardized by punching 6 discs per leaf, and hydroxycinnamates were extracted by submerging the discs in 80% ethanol with 5% acetic acid for at least 48 h in the darkness at 4°C. Residual dry mass of the discs was used for a posteriori correction of compound levels. Chlorophyll was eliminated by chloroform, and the a...

  4. Patogenicidade de Alternaria cichorii sobre espécies da família Asteraceae no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Milton L. Paz; Reis Ailton; Lopes Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    Em 2001, plantas de chicória (Cichorium endivia) originárias do município de Catalão-GO apresentando sintomas de manchas e queima foliar foram recebidas na Clínica Fitopatológica da Embrapa Hortaliças (CNPH). Tecidos submetidos à câmara úmida produziram esporulação fúngica, de onde foi obtida cultura monospórica em BDA + cloranfenicol. Para o teste de patogenecidade, o fungo foi multiplicado em meio de cultura suco de tomate ágar (ST) e inoculado em plantas de chicória da cultivar comercial A...

  5. Phylogeny, biogeography, and character evolution in mediterranean, asiatic, and macaronesian Helichrysum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) inferred from nuclear phylogenetic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Galbany-Casals, Mercè; Garcia-Jacas, Núria; Sáez, Llorenç; Benedí González, Carles; Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    [EN] The genus Helichrysum has 500–600 species in Africa, Madagascar, the Mediterranean basin, Macaronesia, western and central Asia, and India. The aims of this study are to confirm the exclusion of Castroviejoa from Helichrysum, to elucidate the origin of the Macaronesian endemics, to confirm the monophyly of the Mediterranean-Asiatic group, and, within this group, to contrast molecular data with sectional classification and to provide insight into trends in character evolution ...

  6. Tracing the evolutionary history of the little-known Mediterranean-Macaronesian genus Andryala (Asteraceae) by multigene sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferreira, M. Z.; Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Kadlecová, Jana; Menezes de Sequeria, M.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2015), s. 535-551. ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Andryala * colonization * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.299, year: 2014

  7. Effect of environmental gradient in coastal vegetation on communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ixeris repens (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yuko; Iwase, Koji

    2012-11-01

    The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in coastal vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal communities at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal community showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the coastal vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal community. PMID:22476581

  8. A refined concept of the Critoniopsis bogotana species group in Colombia with two new species (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Critoniopsis bogotana is more precisely delimited, and two related Colombian species are described as new. The form of trichomes on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves is found to be of major importance. A short key to the C. bogotana group is provided.

  9. Molecular confirmation of the hybrid origin of the critically endangered western Mediterranean endemic Sonchus pustulatus (Asteraceae: Sonchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Chul; Mejías, Jose A; Lubinsky, Pesach

    2008-07-01

    The critically endangered composite Sonchus pustulatus Willk. despite being known from fewer than ten locations in southern Spain and northern Africa, has never been characterized in robust phylogenetic context. Here, we report molecular evidence that strongly supports a hybrid origin for S. pustulatus. Although parentage cannot be identified with certainty, analysis of DNA sequence variation from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) supports a phylogenetic placement of S. pustulatus close to other species in the poorly known section Pustulati, whereas examination of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) places S. pustulatus most closely with species from the sections Sonchus and Asperi. This is one of several instances of topological non-concordance reported for the genus Sonchus. Monophyly of S. pustulatus in both gene genealogies supports the null hypothesis of a single origin, and the relatively large amount of nucleotide substitutions is indicative of an origin in the range of millions of years. A hypothesis of a northern African origin of S. pustulatus followed by dispersal to the Iberian Peninsula during the Messinian salinity crisis/later Quaternary glaciations is proposed on the basis of biogeographic patterns and calibrated estimations of molecular evolution. PMID:18491031

  10. Intra-individual polymorphism in diploid and apomictic polyploid hawkweeds (Hieracium, Lactuceae, Asteraceae: disentangling phylogenetic signal, reticulation, and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrtek Jindřich

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hieracium s.str. is a complex species-rich group of perennial herbs composed of few sexual diploids and numerous apomictic polyploids. The existence of reticulation and the near-continuity of morphological characters across taxa seriously affect species determination, making Hieracium one of the best examples of a 'botanist's nightmare'. Consequently, its species relationships have not previously been addressed by molecular methods. Concentrating on the supposed major evolutionary units, we used nuclear ribosomal (ETS and chloroplast (trnT-trnL sequences in order to disentangle the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the origins of the polyploids. Results Despite relatively low interspecific variation, the nuclear data revealed the existence of two major groups roughly corresponding to species with a Western or Eastern European origin. Extensive reticulation was mainly inferred from the character additivity of parental ETS variants. Surprisingly, many diploid species were of hybrid origin whilst several polyploid taxa showed no evidence of reticulation. Intra-individual ETS sequence polymorphism generally exceeded interspecific variation and was either independent of, or additional to, additive patterns accounted for by hybrid origin. Several ETS ribotypes occurred in different hybrid taxa, but never as the only variant in any species analyzed. Conclusion The high level of intra-individual ETS polymorphism prevented straightforward phylogenetic analysis. Characterization of this variation as additive, shared informative, homoplasious, or unique made it possible to uncover the phylogenetic signal and to reveal the hybrid origin of 29 out of 60 accessions. Contrary to expectation, diploid sexuals and polyploid apomicts did not differ in their molecular patterns. The basic division of the genus into two major clades had not previously been intimated on morphological grounds. Both major groups are thought to have survived in different glacial refugia and to have hybridized as a result of secondary contact. Several lines of evidence suggest the data is best explained by the presence of an extinct range of variation and a larger diversity of ancestral diploids in former times rather than by unsampled variation. Extinct diversity and extensive reticulation are thought to have largely obscured the species relationships. Our study illustrates how multigene sequences can be used to disentangle the evolutionary history of agamic complexes or similarly difficult datasets.

  11. Pleistocene refugia and polytopic replacement of diploids by tetraploids in the Patagonian and Subantarctic plant Hypochaeris incana (Asteraceae, Cichorieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Urtubey, Estrella; Terrab, Anass; Baeza, Carlos M; Ortiz, María Angeles; Talavera, María; König, Christiane; Temsch, Eva M; Kohl, Gudrun; Talavera, Salvador; Stuessy, Tod F

    2009-09-01

    We report the phylogeographic pattern of the Patagonian and Subantarctic plant Hypochaeris incana endemic to southeastern South America. We applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis to 28 and 32 populations, respectively, throughout its distributional range and assessed ploidy levels using flow cytometry. While cpDNA data suggest repeated or simultaneous parallel colonization of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego by several haplotypes and/or hybridization, AFLPs reveal three clusters corresponding to geographic regions. The central and northern Patagonian clusters (approximately 38-51 degrees S), which are closer to the outgroup, contain mainly tetraploid, isolated and highly differentiated populations with low genetic diversity. To the contrary, the southern Patagonian and Fuegian cluster (approximately 51-55 degrees S) contains mainly diploid populations with high genetic diversity and connected by high levels of gene flow. The data suggest that H. incana originated at the diploid level in central or northern Patagonia, from where it migrated south. All three areas, northern, central and southern, have similar levels of rare and private AFLP bands, suggesting that all three served as refugia for H. incana during glacial times. In southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, the species seems to have expanded its populational system in postglacial times, when the climate became warmer and more humid. In central and northern Patagonia, the populations seem to have become restricted to favourable sites with increasing temperature and decreasing moisture and there was a parallel replacement of diploids by tetraploids in local populations. PMID:19674310

  12. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Govindarajan; P Karuppannan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods: Twenty five early III instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was exposed to various concentrations (50-300 ppm) and was assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the E. alba leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. For ovicidal activity, slightly modified method of Su and Mulla was performed. The ovicidal activity was determined against Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100-350 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The egg hatch rates were assessed 48 h post treatment. Results: The LC50 values of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform extract of E. alba against early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were 151.38, 165.10, 154.88, 127.64 and 146.28 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanol extract followed by chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in control. Among five solvent tested the methanol extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The methanol extracts exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 300 ppm. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of E. alba was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  13. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  14. Evolution of the leaf economics spectrum in herbs: Evidence from environmental divergences in leaf physiology across Helianthus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes a major axis of plant functional trait variation worldwide, defining suites of leaf traits aligned with resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative ecological strategies. The LES has been interpreted to arise from leaf-level trade-offs among ecophysiological traits common to all plants. However, it has been suggested that the defining leaf-level trade-offs of the LES may not hold within specific functional groups (e.g., herbs) nor within many groups of closely related species, which challenges the usefulness of the LES paradigm across evolutionary scales. Here, we examine the evolution of the LES across 28 species of the diverse herbaceous genus Helianthus (the sunflowers), which occupies a wide range of habitats and climate variation across North America. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we find repeated evolution of more resource-acquisitive LES strategies in cooler, drier, and more fertile environments. We also find macroevolutionary correlations among LES traits that recapitulate aspects of the global LES, but with one major difference: leaf mass per area is uncorrelated with leaf lifespan. This indicates that whole-plant processes likely drive variation in leaf lifespan across Helianthus, rather than leaf-level trade-offs. These results suggest that LES patterns do not reflect universal physiological trade-offs at small evolutionary scales. PMID:26339995

  15. Quantitative HPLC analysis of sesquiterpene lactones and determination of chemotypes in Eremanthus seidelii MacLeish and Schumacher (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Humberto T. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P.; Lopes, Joao L.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: joaoluis@usp.br; npelopes@fcfrp.usp.br; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2005-11-15

    anthus seidelii MacLeish and Schumacher has a restricted occurrence to the Brazilian 'cerrado' surrounding the Furnas (MG) reservoir, in environments that have been seriously damaged by human activity. The present phytochemical investigation reveals that the sesquiterpene lactones (SL) 4{beta},5-dihydro-2',3'-dihydroxy-15-desoxy-goyazensolide (1) and 4{beta},5-dihydro-1',2'-epoxy-eremantholide-C (2) are the major secondary metabolites in E. seidelii leaves, and an HPLC method was developed for their quantitative analysis. HPLC analysis showed no significant seasonal variation in the concentrations of both SL. No qualitative differences were found in the SL patterns of all individuals sampled. However, there is a different SL quantitative pattern among the plants analyzed, pointing to the existence of three quantitative chemotypes of this species, with differences possibly originating from the activity of the enzymes that cyclize the goyazensolide type SL (1) to a eremantholide type SL (2). (author)

  16. Taxonomic new species of Espeletiopsis cuatrec and Espeletia Mutis ex humb and Bonpl. (Asteraceae, Heliantheae, Espeletiinae) from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new species of Espeletia Mutis ex Humb and Bonpl. and a new species of Espeletiopsis Cuatrec., all from the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, are named, described and illustrated. These new taxa were recorded from northern Colombia, Guanenta Alto Rio Fonce Flora and Fauna Sanctuary in Santander and in the paramos of Rabanal in Raquira, Pisba National Natural Park in Socota and La Cortadera in Siachoque in Boyaca.

  17. Biology of germination of medicinal plant seeds. Part XIXb. Diaspores of Inula helenium L. from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilińska Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of diaspores and seedlings of Inula helenium L. were described. A four-year cycle of monthly germination analysis was carried out. It was found that accessible light and various temperatures (30°C over 8 hours, 20°C over 16 hours were optimal for the analysis of Inula helenium fruit germination ability. In these conditions, the percentage of germinated achenes was up to 90%. Diaspores stored in unheated room kept their viability even up to seven years after harvest.

  18. Parental ploidy strongly affects offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses among three cytotypes of autopolyploid Jacobaea carniolica (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sonnleitner, M.; Weis, B.; Flatscher, R.; García, P. E.; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Winkler, M.; Schönswetter, P.; Hülber, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), s. 1-11, e78959. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : flow cytometry * hybrid * polyploid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  19. Repeated monitoring as an effective early detection means: first records of naturalised Solidago gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae) in southern Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalwij, Jesse; Steyn, C.; le Roux, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 93, Jul 2014 (2014), s. 204-206. ISSN 0254-6299 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Solidago * early detection * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2014

  20. Composition and antioxidant activity of Senecio nudicaulis Wall. ex DC. (Asteraceae): a medicinal plant growing wild in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C

    2015-01-01

    The composition of essential oil isolated from Senecio nudicaulis Wall. ex DC. growing wild in Himachal Pradesh, India, was analysed, for the first time, by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. A total of 30 components representing 95.3% of the total oil were identified. The essential oil was characterised by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (54.97%) with caryophyllene oxide (24.99%) as the major component. Other significant constituents were humulene epoxide-II (21.25%), α-humulene (18.75%), β-caryophyllene (9.67%), epi-α-cadinol (2.90%), epi-α-muurolol (2.03%), β-cedrene (1.76%), longiborneol (1.76%), 1-tridecene (1.16%) and citronellol (1.13%). The oil was screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide-scavenging assay. The oil was found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals with IC50 values of 10.61 ± 0.14 μg mL(- 1), 11.85 ± 0.28 μg mL(- 1) and 11.29 ± 0.42 μg mL(- 1), respectively. PMID:25515495

  1. The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in three hybridizing senecio (asteraceae) species with contrasting population histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2013-05-01

    Hybridization generates evolutionary novelty and spreads adaptive variation. By promoting outcrossing, plant self-incompatibility (SI) systems also favor interspecific hybridization because the S locus is under strong negative frequency-dependent balancing selection. This study investigates the SI mating systems of three hybridizing Senecio species with contrasting population histories. Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius native to Sicily, form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes on Mount Etna, and their neo-homoploid hybrid species, S. squalidus, has colonized disturbed urban habitats in the UK during the last 150 years. We show that all three species express sporophytic SI (SSI), where pollen incompatibility is controlled by the diploid parental genome, and that SSI is inherited and functions normally in hybrids. Large-scale crossing studies of wild sampled populations allowed direct comparison of SSI between species and found that the main impacts of colonization in S. squalidus compared to Sicilian Senecio was a reduced number of S alleles, increased S allele frequencies, and increased interpopulation S allele sharing. In general, many S alleles were shared between species and the S locus showed reduced intra- and interspecific population genetic structure compared to molecular genetic markers, indicative of enhanced effective gene flow due to balancing selection. PMID:23617913

  2. Molecular genetic and quantitative trait divergence associated with recent homoploid hybrid speciation: a study of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, A C; Barker, D; Hiscock, S J; Abbott, R J

    2012-02-01

    Hybridization is increasingly seen as a trigger for rapid evolution and speciation. To quantify and qualify divergence associated with recent homoploid hybrid speciation, we compared quantitative trait (QT) and molecular genetic variation between the homoploid hybrid species Senecio squalidus and its parental species, S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius, and also their naturally occurring Sicilian hybrids. S. squalidus originated and became invasive in the United Kingdom following the introduction of hybrid plants from Mount Etna, Sicily, about 300 years ago. We recorded considerable molecular genetic differentiation between S. squalidus and its parents and their Sicilian hybrids in terms of both reduced genetic diversity and altered allele frequencies, potentially due to the genetic bottleneck associated with introduction to the United Kingdom. S. squalidus is also distinct from its parents and Sicilian hybrids for QTs, but less so than for molecular genetic markers. We suggest that this is due to resilience of polygenic QTs to changes in allele frequency or lack of selection for hybrid niche divergence in geographic isolation. While S. squalidus is intermediate or parental-like for most QTs, some trangressively distinct traits were observed, which might indicate emerging local adaptation in its invasive range. This study emphasizes the important contribution of founder events and geographic isolation to successful homoploid hybrid speciation. PMID:21829224

  3. Senecio madagascariensis Poir. (Asteraceae: uma nova causa de seneciose em bovinos no Sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lücke Stigger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se dois surtos de intoxicação por Senecio madagascariensis Poir. diagnosticados em bovinos em outubro de 2013 na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. A morbidade foi de 3,2% e de 6,1% respectivamente e a letalidade foi de 100%. Um terceiro caso da intoxicação ocorreu em uma propriedade na qual de 54 bovinos um morreu com sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Em todos os casos, os bovinos estavam em áreas altamente infestas por S. madagascariensis que se encontrava em floração. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se por diarreia, tenesmo, opistótono e emagrecimento progressivo e a morte ocorreu entre 10 e 15 dias após o início dos sinais clínicos. Nas necropsias as lesões eram de edema do mesentério, das paredes do abomaso e do rúmen, e das paredes da vesícula biliar, além de fígado firme e com aspecto marmorizado. Histologicamente havia no fígado proliferação de tecido conjuntivo fibroso, principalmente nos espaços porta, megalocitose e hiperplasia de ductos biliares. A observação de grande quantidade de S. madagascariensis em várias propriedades nos municípios de Arroio Grande, Pedro Osório e Capão do Leão a partir do ano 2013 sugere que esta planta está em pleno processo de adaptação e disseminação nesta região e que outros surtos podem ocorrer nos próximos anos. Os surtos relatados aparentemente resultaram do consumo da planta durante o outono/inverno de 2013, quando a mesma estava já em floração. A quantificação dos alcaloides revelou a presença de 500 µg/g e 4000µg/g de planta seca de alcaloides pirrolizidínicos em duas das três propriedades com casos de seneciose. Acredita-se que a grande quantidade de planta existente nas áreas onde os animais estavam e a quantidade de alcaloides presentes na mesma foram fatores que determinaram a ocorrência dos surtos.

  4. Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis poisoning in cattle Intoxicação natural por Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E.F. Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil, 7 out of 554 cattle were affected and died due to Senecio madagascariensis poisoning. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological findings in the affected cattle were indistinguishable from those usually seen in poisoning caused by other Senecio species. The plant invaded extensive areas in heavily stocked paddocks. Senecio madagascariensis had been spreading in this farm for the last three years, with no control strategy, because neither the farmers nor the local veterinarian knew about the potential risks of this Sernecio species.Em um rebanho bovino leiteiro no Rio Grande do Sul, sete de 554 bovinos foram afetados e morreram devido à intoxicação por Senecio madagascariensis. Aspectos clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos observados nos bovinos afetados foram indistinguíveis daqueles usualmente observados em casos de intoxicações por outras espécies de Senecio. A planta invadiu extensas áreas em potreiros mantidos constantemente com altas lotações de bovinos. Senecio madagascariensis esteve se estabelecendo nesta propriedade pelos últimos três anos, sem que qualquer medida de controle fosse adotada pela equipe técnica do estabelecimento, que desconhecia o potencial tóxico dessa espécie de Senecio.

  5. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Caklová, Petra; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 138-151. ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Grant ostatní: European Union(XE) ES-TAF-1365 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Hieracium * hybridization * incomplete lineage sorting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.804, year: 2013

  6. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. PMID:26880289

  7. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  8. Microsatellite markers for the Pilosella alpicola group (Hieraciinae, Asteraceae) and their cross-amplification in other Hieraciinae genera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Petr; Šingliarová, B.; Zozomová-Lihová, J.; Marhold, K.; Krak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2015), s. 1-4. ISSN 2168-0450 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : hybridization * Pilosella apicola * simple sequence repeats (SSR) markerst Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2014

  9. Effects of methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis osbeck (asteraceae leaves against pathogenic bacteria with emphasise on Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Darah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Stapylococcus aureus and three pathogenic Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus rettgeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disk diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. The extract exhibited favourable antibacterial activity against the bacterial cells but was more potent against Gram positive bacteria with the minimum inhibition concentration of 3.12 to 6.25 mg/ml compared to the Gram negative bacteria which had minimum inhibition concentration values of 25 mg/ml. The time-kill study suggested that the extract possessed bactericidal properties at higher concentrations and eradicated the growth of bacterial cells. The major abnormalities occurred to the bacterial cells after exposed to the extract were complete alterations in their morphology and collapsed of the cells beyond repair. The methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections.

  10. Antifungal activity of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don (Asteraceae essential oil against fungi isolated from cultural heritage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the use of essential oils as alternative methods to control micromycetes from cultural heritage objects. We investigated the chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum. The main components of the oil were γ-curcumene (22.45%, α-pinene (15.91 % and neryl acetate (7.85 %. H. italicum essential oil showed moderate antifungal activity against fungi isolated from cultural heritage objects. The most susceptible fungi to oil treatment were Epicoccum nigrum and Penicillium sp., while the most resistant was Trichoderma viride. The H. italicum essential oil showed demelanizing activity against Aspergillus niger. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  11. Modeling the growth of individuals in plant populations: local density variation in a strand population of Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J; Kinsman, S; Williams, S

    1998-11-01

    We studied the growth of individual Xanthium strumarium plants growing at four naturally occurring local densities on a beach in Maine: (1) isolated plants, (2) pairs of plants ≤1 cm apart, (3) four plants within 4 cm of each other, and (4) discrete dense clumps of 10-39 plants. A combination of nondestructive measurements every 2 wk and parallel calibration harvests provided very good estimates of the growth in aboveground biomass of over 400 individual plants over 8 wk and afforded the opportunity to fit explicit growth models to 293 of them. There was large individual variation in growth and resultant size within the population and within all densities. Local crowding played a role in determining plant size within the population: there were significant differences in final size between all densities except pairs and quadruples, which were almost identical. Overall, plants growing at higher densities were more variable in growth and final size than plants growing at lower densities, but this was due to increased variation among groups (greater variation in local density and/or greater environmental heterogeneity), not to increased variation within groups. Thus, there was no evidence of size asymmetric competition in this population. The growth of most plants was close to exponential over the study period, but half the plants were slightly better fit by a sigmoidal (logistic) model. The proportion of plants better fit by the logistic model increased with density and with initial plant size. The use of explicit growth models over several growth intervals to describe stand development can provide more biological content and more statistical power than "growth-size" methods that analyze growth intervals separately. PMID:21680325

  12. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calea prunifolia HBK (Asteraceae) in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Milton; Gil, Juan F., E-mail: miltongoba@uniquindio.edu.co [Grupo de Busqueda de Principios Bioactivos, Programa de Quimica, Universidad del Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    Phytochemical study of Calea prunifolia HBK identified two compounds derived from p-hydroxyacetophenone, the 1-(2-hydroxy-5-(1-methoxyethyl)phenyl)-3-methylbut-2.en-1-one showed a satisfactory anti-inflammatory activity (58.33%), when considering that this is a natural product. Although the two derived compounds are structurally similar, the anti-inflammatory activity of 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbut-2-en-1-one was not significant (2.08%). The test was conducted in a model of inflammation induced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the ear of mice. The positive control was tested with indomethacin and the negative control was done only with vehicle. These results allow the identification of a pharmacophore group that through molecular modeling studies and organic synthesis can result in compounds with improved anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  13. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & H.E. Robins (Asteraceae), an important nectar source for adult butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Lakshmi; A.J.S. Raju

    2011-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata is a seasonal weed and grows like a cultivated crop. It flowers during October-December. The floral characteristics such as white to purple colour of florets, short-tubed narrow corolla with deep seated nectar, the morning anthesis and the flat-topped head inflorescence providing a standing platform are important attractants for visitation by butterflies. The florets attract butterflies of five families and sphingid hawk moths. Among the butterflies, nymphalids are diverse...

  14. Late Holocene vegetation and ocean variability in the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charlotte S.; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Collins, Philip E. F.; Lahijani, Hamid A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil pollen and dinocyst records in marine sequences are frequently combined to reveal the response of vegetation and ocean conditions to changes in both regional and global climate. In this study we analysed pollen and dinocysts within a clearly-laminated sediment core off the Iranian coast in the Gulf of Oman, an extremely data-poor area, to reconstruct climatic change during the Late Holocene (last 1900 years). The vegetation record from southern Iran indicates a replacement of savannah by desert formations at c. 910 CE, shortly after the Islamic invasion and the subsequent collapse of the Sassanid Empire. From c. 910 to 1145 CE, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the vegetation was heavily dominated by desert formations, such as Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Centaurea and Calligonum. In parallel, in the Gulf of Oman, the presence of Impagidinium paradoxum indicates a lack of freshwater discharge into the ocean around this time. The desert taxa of the MCA were subsequently replaced by savannah formations at c. 1145 CE, comprised mainly of Poaceae and Cyperaceae, corresponding to the Little Ice Age (LIA), indicating generally wetter climatic conditions. A sudden increase in Spiniferites ramosus (1-63%), at c. 1440 CE suggests an increase in the strength of the SW summer monsoon, with increased freshwater discharge into the ocean at this time. Our data indicate that over the past two millennia the NW Arabian Sea region has alternated between contrasting climatic conditions, with firstly a humid phase equivalent to the cultural period of the Sassanid Empire, a significantly drier climate during the MCA and a relatively wetter climate during the LIA. The mechanisms resulting in dry conditions during the MCA in the Middle East associated with the northward shift of the ITCZ and the intensification of the Indian summer monsoon may be similar to those causing the dry conditions which dominated the Early Holocene in the Near East. Our

  15. The Endemic Plant Taxa of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park and Its Surroundings (Antalya-Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ÖZÇELİK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted in 2003-2004 in order to identify the endemic plants of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Antalya-Isparta and its surroundings. A total of 230 endemic taxa belonging to 29 families were determined in the national park and its surroundings. There are 229 taxa belonging to Angiospermae subdivision and 1 taxon belonging to Gymnospermae subdivision in these collected and identified endemic taxa from the research area. There is no endemic taxon in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta divisions of the park. 218 of the 229 taxa belonging to the Angiospermae subdivision are in the Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledoneae class and other 11 are in the Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae class. 18 taxa of the vascular plants are specific to the research area. 44 of endemic taxa are included in the endangered category. The number of priority conservation requiring taxa is 21. Endemic taxon number is almost 25% of total flora of the area. The top five families with the highest number of taxa in the study area are Lamiaceae (38, Caryophyllaceae (37, Asteraceae (26, Scrophulariaceae (20, Fabaceae (16 (Table 2. The 10 largest genera with the highest number of taxa are as follows: Silene (15, Astragalus (9, Sideritis (8, Verbascum (7, Centaurea (7, Stachys (6, Helichrysum (6, Alkanna (6, Veronica (5 and Minuartia (5. The distributions according to the phytogeographical regions of the endemic plants identified from the area is as follows: 59.565% Mediterranean elements (137 taxa, 23.478% Irano-Turanian elements (54 taxa, 0.304% Euro-Siberian elements (7 taxa and 13.913% with unknown phytogeographical region (32 taxa. The distributions of these taxa according to the conservation status is as follows: CR (Critically Endangered: 3, EN (Endangered: 22, VU (Vulnerable: 34, LR (Low Risk: 164, (cd (Conservation Dependent: 29, (lc (Least Concern: 106, (nt (Near Threatened: 29. In this study, menacing factors on the flora and vegetation of the area and

  16. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hand, M. L.; Vít, Petr; Krahulcová, Anna; Johnson, S. D.; Oelkers, K.; Siddons, H.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith; Koltunow, A. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-26. ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gametophytic apomixis * Hieracium * marker inheritance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.805, year: 2014

  17. Expressivity of apomixis in 2n + n hybrids from an apomictic and a sexual parent: insights into variation detected in Pilosella (Asteraceae: Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František; Rosenbaumová, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2011), s. 263-274. ISSN 0934-0882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : inheritance of apomixis * residual sexuality * unreduced hybrids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  18. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F. Willd. (Asteraceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F. Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifosato em 90% água, um herbicida amplamente utilizado com conhecido potencial genotóxico, e de um controle negativo composto por água destilada. Após período de 24 horas, as radículas foram coletadas das infusões, fixadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1 por 24 horas e estocadas em etanol 70%. Foram analisadas células em todas as fases do ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 2500, para cada grupo de bulbos. Os índices mitóticos (IM foram calculados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste χ² a 5%. Os resultados mostraram que, em ambas as populações de M. cordifolia, houve redução do IM de todos os tratamentos em relação ao controle negativo. Em ambas as populações, obteve-se aumento nos valores dos índices mitóticos em função do aumento da concentração da infusão. Ocorreram aberrações cromossômicas em ambas as populações estudadas. Concluiu-se que as infusões de M. cordifolia, nas concentrações estudadas, possuem efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico sobre o ciclo celular de A. cepa.

  19. Changes in mesophyll element distribution and phytometabolite contents involved in fluoride tolerance of the arid gypsum-tolerant plant species Atractylis serratuloides Sieber ex Cass. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Asma; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Salducci, Marie-Dominique; El Kadri, Lefi; Tonetto, Alain; Tatoni, Thierry; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Atractylis serratuloides is an abundant native spiny species that grows in the surroundings of superphosphate factories in Tunisia. This plant species is adapted to arid environments and tolerates a high level of fluoride pollution in soils. The aim of this study was to better understand the physiological mechanisms of fluoride tolerance of this species, comparing the fluoride-contaminated sites of Gabes and Skhira with the reference site of Smara. Results demonstrated the involvement of leaf element and phytometabolite balances in the in situ response of A. serrulatoides to fluoride. Calcium, sulphur and magnesium were differently distributed between the sites of Gabes and Smara in all plant organs. No specific tissue fluorine accumulation in root, stem and leaf, even in the most contaminated site at Gabes, was detected by EDAX mapping. Lower anthocyan and flavonol levels but enhanced nitrogen balance index were found in A. serrulatoides leaves from Gabes compared to the two other sites. A. serratuloides appeared as a fluoride excluder and its tolerance involved calcium interactions with fluoride. Moreover, an occurrence of dark septate endophytes and arbuscular mycorhizal fungi in root systems of A. serratuloides was reported for the first time, and these symbioses were present but low at all sites. We suggest the use of this plant species for fluoride-polluted soil stabilization. PMID:25510616

  20. Morfología y anatomía foliar de "Yacón", Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), con fines de control de calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, María I.; Ponessa, Graciela I.; Grau, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Se determinaron caracteres con valor diagnóstico en hojas maduras de plantas de Smallanthus sonchifolius para el control de calidad. Estas hojas son empleadas como té con fines medicinales. La lámina de la hoja de S. sonchifolius presenta los siguientes caracteres con valor diagnóstico: ápice acuminado, base truncada a sagitada, margen dentado-serrado con seriación compuesta; venación primaria acródroma y venación secundaria camptódroma broquidódroma, estomas anomocíticos, células epidérmicas...