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Sample records for cenbg nanobeam line

  1. Phonon conduction in silicon nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woosung; Shin, Dongsuk D.; Kim, Soo Jin; Katz, Joseph S.; Park, Joonsuk; Ahn, Chae Hyuck; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2017-05-01

    Despite extensive studies on thermal transport in thin silicon films, there has been little work studying the thermal conductivity of single-crystal rectangular, cross-sectional nanobeams that are commonly used in many applications such as nanoelectronics (FinFETs), nano-electromechanical systems, and nanophotonics. Here, we report experimental data on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanobeams of a thickness of ˜78 nm and widths of ˜65 nm, 170 nm, 270 nm, 470 nm, and 970 nm. The experimental data agree well (within ˜9%) with the predictions of a thermal conductivity model that uses a combination of bulk mean free paths obtained from ab initio calculations and a suppression function derived from the kinetic theory. This work quantifies the impact of nanobeam aspect ratios on thermal transport and establishes a criterion to differentiate between thin films and beams in studying thermal transport. The thermal conductivity of a 78 nm × 65 nm nanobeam is ˜32 W m-1 K-1, which is roughly a factor of two smaller than that of a 78 nm thick film.

  2. Single and Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    of photonic crystal filters. The second part focuses on some aspects of photonic crystals fabrication and relevant applications, such as nitrogen defect technology in diamond, silicon nitride free standing membranes, photonic crystals structures in silicon, photonic crystals for optical sensing....... for analysis and design of photonic crystal devices, such as 2D ring resonators for filters, single and coupled nanobeam cavities, birefringence in photonic crystal cavities, threshold analysis in photonic crystal lasers, gap solitons in photonic crystals, novel photonic atolls, dynamic characteristics...

  3. Fano resonances in photonic crystal nanobeams side-coupled with nanobeam cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Liang, Anhui; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Fano resonances usually arise when a narrow resonance or discrete state and a broad resonance or continuum state are coupled. In this paper, we theoretically and numerically study asymmetric Fano line shape realized in a photonic crystal nanobeam (PCN) side-coupled with a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity (PCNC). Asymmetric transmission profiles with a transmission peak and a transmission valley are obtained for a low index concentrated cavity mode. The transmission valley, associated with the destructive interference, of our PCN-PCNC structures is deeper than that of a waveguide or Fabry-Perot resonator side-coupled with a PCNC structure. Through changing the position of the photonic band gap (PBG) of the PCN, we can utilize the high or low frequency band edge modes and the Fano transmission profiles can be further controlled. The transmission spectra of our PCN-PCNC structures can be well fitted by the Fano resonance formula and agree qualitatively with the prediction made by the temporal coupled mode theory. By using the band edge modes of the PCN as the continuum state instead of a usual broad resonance, we have demonstrated a new way to generate a prominent Fano resonance. Our PCN-PCNC structures are compact and feasible to achieve large-scale high-performance integrated photonic devices, such as optical modulators or switches.

  4. A Nonlocal Finite Element Approach to Nanobeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotti de Sciarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a consistent derivation of a new nonlocal finite element procedure in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlocal thermodynamics for the analysis of bending of nanobeams under transverse loads. This approach is able to provide the overall performance and the influence of specific parameters in the behavior of nanobeams and it is also able to deal with nanomechanical systems by solving a reduced number of algebraic equations. An example shows that the proposed nonlocal finite element procedure, using a mesh composed by only four elements of equal size, provides the exact values in terms of transversal displacement and bending of the nanobeam.

  5. Dual-rail nanobeam microfiber-coupled resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Chang-Min; Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2013-03-25

    A microfiber-coupled dual-rail nanobeam resonator is proposed and demonstrated. The dual-rail scheme is employed to encourage the overlap between the light emitter and the air mode. The one-dimensional resonant cavity is formed by contacting a curved microfiber with the dual-rail nanobeam. The finite width of the dual-rail nanobeam turns out to be advantageous for both out-coupling with the microfiber and broader tuning of resonant wavelength. By employing InGaAsP quantum well gain medium, a simple and robust reconfigurable laser is created. Experimentally we measure a quality factor of 11,000 and out-coupling efficiency of 30%. The spontaneous emission factor (β) of the nanobeam laser is measured to be 0.16. Computationally we identified a resonant cavity with a quality factor over 6 × 10(5) and out-coupling efficiency over 90%.

  6. Free vibration of symmetric and sigmoid functionally graded nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, M. A.; Eltaher, M. A.; Sadoun, A. M.; Almitani, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this paper was the investigation of vibration characteristics of both nonlinear symmetric power and sigmoid functionally graded nonlocal nanobeams. The volume fractions of metal and ceramic are assumed to be distributed through a beam thickness by sigmoid law distribution and symmetric power function. Structures with symmetric distribution with mid-plane such as ceramic-metal-ceramic and metal-ceramic-metal are proposed. Nonlocal differential Eringen's elasticity is exploited to incorporate size dependency of nanobeam. The kinematic relations of Euler-Bernoulli beam are proposed, with the assumption of a small strain. A nonlocal equation of motion of nanobeam is derived by using principle of virtual work and then discretized by finite element method to obtain numerical solution. Numerical results show the effects of the function distribution, gradient index and nonlocal parameter on natural frequencies of macro- and nanobeam. This model is helpful in the mechanical design of nanoelectromechanical systems manufactured from FGM.

  7. A Fully Gradient Model for Euler-Bernoulli Nanobeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Barretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully gradient elasticity model for bending of nanobeams is proposed by using a nonlocal thermodynamic approach. As a basic theoretical novelty, the proposed constitutive law is assumed to depend on the axial strain gradient, while existing gradient elasticity formulations for nanobeams contemplate only the derivative of the axial strain with respect to the axis of the structure. Variational equations governing the elastic equilibrium problem of bending of a fully gradient nanobeam and the corresponding differential and boundary conditions are thus provided. Analytical solutions for a nanocantilever are given and the results are compared with those predicted by other theories. As a relevant implication of applicative interest in the research field of nanobeams used in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS, it is shown that displacements obtained by the present model are quite different from those predicted by the known gradient elasticity treatments.

  8. Isomerization dynamics of a buckled nanobeam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Ezra, Gregory S; Wiggins, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a model of a nanobeam under compression. The model is a two-mode truncation of the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation subject to compressive stress applied at both ends. We consider parameter regimes where the first mode is unstable and the second mode can be either stable or unstable, and the remaining modes (neglected) are always stable. Material parameters used correspond to a silicon nanobeam. The two-mode model Hamiltonian is the sum of a (diagonal) kinetic energy term and a potential energy term. The form of the potential energy function suggests an analogy with isomerization reactions in chemistry, where "isomerization" here corresponds to a transition between two stable beam configurations. We therefore study the dynamics of the buckled beam using the conceptual framework established for the theory of isomerization reactions. When the second mode is stable the potential energy surface has an index one saddle, and when the second mode is unstable the potential energy surface has an index two saddle and two index one saddles. Symmetry of the system allows us to readily construct a phase space dividing surface between the two "isomers" (buckled states); we rigorously prove that, in a specific energy range, it is a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold. The energy range is sufficiently wide that we can treat the effects of the index one and index two saddles on the isomerization dynamics in a unified fashion. We have computed reactive fluxes, mean gap times, and reactant phase space volumes for three stress values at several different energies. In all cases the phase space volume swept out by isomerizing trajectories is considerably less than the reactant density of states, proving that the dynamics is highly nonergodic. The associated gap time distributions consist of one or more "pulses" of trajectories. Computation of the reactive flux correlation function shows no sign of a plateau region; rather, the flux exhibits oscillatory decay

  9. Ultra-high-Q nanobeam cavity design in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, Igal; Kalish, Rafi

    2010-01-01

    A novel nanobeam design with a triangular cross-section is proposed. This design makes possible implementing nanocavities with improved optical properties. The dependence of a diamond-based cavity quality factor Q and mode volume Vm on geometry parameter space are studied via 3D FDTD computations. An ultra-high-Q cavity with Q\\aprox 2.51 \\times 10^6 and Vm=1.06 \\times ({\\lambda}/n)^3 is predicted. The mode preferential radiation is upward. The implications on the potential applications are discussed. The proposed nanobeam enables fabrication of the cavity without relying on a pre-existing free-standing diamond membrane as required in most previous approaches.

  10. Ultra-low threshold gallium nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nan, E-mail: nanniu@fas.harvard.edu; Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danqing; Hu, Evelyn L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}) for room temperature lasing at ∼450 nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100 000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, β = 0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance.

  11. Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonathan C.; Cui, Shanying; Zhang, Xingyu; Russell, Kasey J.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Hu, Evelyn L., E-mail: ehu@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Bracher, David O. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ohno, Kenichi; McLellan, Claire A.; Alemán, Benjamin; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Andrich, Paolo; Awschalom, David [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Aharonovich, Igor [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-12-29

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ∼24 000 and mode volume V ∼ 0.47(λ/n){sup 3} as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ∼20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.

  12. Dynamic modeling of porous heterogeneous micro/nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Jafari, Ali; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the thermo-mechanical vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) porous microbeam subjected to various types of thermal loadings are investigated based on modified couple stress theory and exact position of neutral axis. The FG micro/nanobeam is modeled via a refined hyperbolic beam theory in which the shear deformation effect is verified without the shear correction factor. A modified power-law distribution which contains porosity volume fraction is used to describe the graded material properties of the FG micro/nanobeam. The temperature field has uniform, linear and nonlinear distributions across the thickness. The governing equations and the related boundary conditions are derived by Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying an analytical solution which satisfies various boundary conditions. A comparison study is performed to verify the present formulation with the known data in the literature and a good agreement is observed. The parametric study covered in this paper includes several parameters, such as thermal loadings, porosity volume fraction, power-law exponents, slenderness ratio, scale parameter and various boundary conditions on natural frequencies of porous FG micro/nanobeams in detail.

  13. Strain-induced self organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystalline VO2 nanobeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junqiao; Gu, Qian; Guiton, Beth S; de Leon, Nathalie P; Ouyang, Lian; Park, Hongkun

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the effect of substrate-induced strain on the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in single-crystalline VO(2) nanobeams. A simple nanobeam-substrate adhesion leads to uniaxial strain along the nanobeam length because of the nanobeam's unique morphology. The strain changes the relative stability of the metal (M) and insulator (I) phases and leads to spontaneous formation of periodic, alternating M-I domain patterns during the MIT. The spatial periodicity of the M-I domains can be modified by changing the nanobeam thickness and the Young's modulus of the substrate.

  14. Thermo-mechanical analysis of FG nanobeam with attached tip mass: an exact solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Jafari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Present disquisition proposes an analytical solution method for exploring the vibration characteristics of a cantilever functionally graded nanobeam with a concentrated mass exposed to thermal loading for the first time. Thermo-mechanical properties of FGM nanobeam are supposed to change through the thickness direction of beam based on the rule of power-law (P-FGM). The small-scale effect is taken into consideration based on nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. Linear temperature rise (LTR) through thickness direction is studied. Existence of centralized mass in the free end of nanobeam influences the mechanical and physical properties. Timoshenko beam theory is employed to derive the nonlocal governing equations and boundary conditions of FGM beam attached with a tip mass under temperature field via Hamilton's principle. An exact solution procedure is exploited to achieve the non-dimensional frequency of FG nanobeam exposed to temperature field with a tip mass. A parametric study is led to assess the efficacy of temperature changes, tip mass, small scale, beam thickness, power-law exponent, slenderness and thermal loading on the natural frequencies of FG cantilever nanobeam with a point mass at the free end. It is concluded that these parameters play remarkable roles on the dynamic behavior of FG nanobeam subjected to LTR with a tip mass. The results for simpler states are confirmed with known data in the literature. Presented numerical results can serve as benchmarks for future thermo-mechanical analyses of FG nanobeam with tip mass.

  15. Electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric nanobeams due to the flexoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. D.; Yang, C. P.; Su, Y. X.; Huang, R.; Lin, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The flexoelectric effect is a coupling of polarization and strain gradient, which exists in a wide variety of materials and may lead to strong size-dependent properties at the nanoscale. Based on an extension to the classical beam model, this paper investigates the electromechanical coupling response of piezoelectric nanobeams with different electrical boundary conditions including the effect of flexoelectricity. The electric Gibbs free energy and the variational principle are used to derive the governing equations with three types of electrical boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions are obtained for static bending of cantilever beams. The results show that the normalized effective stiffness increases with decreasing beam thickness in the open circuit electrical boundary conditions with or without surface electrodes. The induced electric potential due to the flexoelectric effect is obtained under the open circuit conditions, which may be important for sensing or energy harvesting applications. An intrinsic thickness depending on the material properties is identified for the maximum induced electric potential. The present results also show that flexoelectricity has a more significant effect on the electroelastic responses than piezoelectricity at the nanoscale. Our analysis in the present study can be useful for understanding of the electromechanical coupling in nanobeams with flexoelectricity.

  16. Application of the differential transformation method for nonlocal vibration analysis of functionally graded nanobeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Ghadiri, Majid; Salari, Erfan; Shaghaghi, Gholam Reza [Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseini, Seied Amir Hosein [University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the applicability of differential transformation method (DTM) in investigations on vibrational characteristics of functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanobeams is examined. The material properties of FG nanobeam vary over the thickness based on the power law. The nonlocal Eringen theory, which takes into account the effect of small size, enables the present model to be effective in the analysis and design of nanosensors and nanoactuators. Governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle. The obtained results exactly match the results of the presented Navier-based analytical solution as well as those available in literature. The DTM is also demonstrated to have high precision and computational efficiency in the vibration analysis of FG nanobeams. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and numerical investigations performed with emphasis placed on investigating the effects of several parameters, such as small scale effects, volume fraction index, mode number, and thickness ratio on the normalized natural frequencies of the FG nanobeams. The study also shows explicitly that vibrations of FG nanobeams are significantly influenced by these effects. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of FG nanobeams.

  17. Effects of coupling configuration on resonance excitation in a slotted photonic crystal nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Francis; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2017-08-01

    High Q/V (quality factor/mode volume) platforms enable simultaneous localization of light in space and time and have enabled enhanced performance metrics in applications such as optical signal processing, photovoltaics, optical sensing and optical trapping. Slotted photonic crystal nanobeams (SPCNs) are one type of high Q/V structure that support mechanical modes in addition to high Q optical modes, opening the door to favorable optomechanical properties. In this work, in-plane excitation of fundamental resonance modes in SPCNs with high optical quality factor and high values of optomechanical coupling strength is investigated towards the realization of a monolithic configuration that is compatible with photonic integrated chips. In-line and side- coupled excitation configurations are studied. Simulations suggest that the number of optical modes supported in the SPCNs and the transmission intensity of light in these modes depend strongly on coupling configuration. For high Q SPCNs, in-line coupling suppresses the fundamental optical mode. Side-coupling supports excitation of the fundamental optical mode, but suppresses even order modes in the cavity.

  18. New Insights on the Deflection and Internal Forces of a Bending Nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Min; Liu, Jian-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Nanowires, nanofibers and nanotubes have been widely used as the building blocks in micro/nano-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting or storage devices, and small-scaled measurement equipment. We report that the surface effects of these nanobeams have a great impact on their deflection and internal forces. A simply supported nanobeam is taken as an example. For the displacement and shear force of the nanobeam, its dangerous sections are different from those predicted by the conventional beam theory, but for the bending moment, the dangerous section is the same. Moreover, the values of these three quantities for the nanobeam are all distinct from those calculated from the conventional beam model. These analyses shed new light on the stiffness and strength check of nanobeams, which are beneficial to engineer new-types of nano-materials and nano-devices. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11672334, 11672335 and 11611530541, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No 15CX08004A.

  19. Coupling effects of nonlocal and modified couple stress theories incorporating surface energy on analytical transverse vibration of a weakened nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourki, R.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    An analytical solution to the flexural vibration of a weakened nanobeam on the basis of the nonlocal modified couple stress theory including surface effects is under consideration. In this investigation nanobeams are studied within the framework of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The nanobeam is weakened by a crack modeled as a rotational spring at the crack position. This assumption divides the beam into two sections, invoking additional conditions on the beam. The governing equations and boundary conditions for the beam are obtained by applying the Hamilton principle. The natural frequencies for the cracked nanobeam are determined to investigate the effects of crack severity, crack position, nonlocal parameter, material length scale parameter and surface effect parameters. It has been found that the mentioned parameters have considerable effects on stiffness and have a significant impact the dynamic behavior of the nanobeam.

  20. A general higher-order nonlocal couple stress based beam model for vibration analysis of porous nanocrystalline nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-12-01

    This paper develops a higher order refined beam model with a parabolic shear strain function for vibration analysis of porous nanocrystalline nanobeams based on nonlocal couple stress theory. Nanocrystalline nanobeam is composed from three phases which are nano-grains, nano-voids and interface. Nano-voids or porosities inside the material have a stiffness-softening impact on the nanobeam. Nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is applied in analysis of nanocrystalline nanobeams for the first time. Also, modified couple stress theory is employed to capture grains rigid rotations. The governing equations obtained from Hamilton's principle are solved applying an analytical approach which satisfies various boundary conditions. The reliability of present approach is verified by comparing obtained results with those provided in literature. Finally the influences of nonlocal parameter, couple stress, grain size, porosities and shear deformation on the vibration characteristics of nanocrystalline nanobeams are explored.

  1. Dynamic response of porous functionally graded material nanobeams subjected to moving nanoparticle based on nonlocal strain gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    Up to now, nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT) is broadly applied to examine free vibration, static bending and buckling of nanobeams. This theory captures nonlocal stress field effects together with the microstructure-dependent strain gradient effects. In this study, forced vibrations of NSGT nanobeams on elastic substrate subjected to moving loads are examined. The nanobeam is made of functionally graded material (FGM) with even and uneven porosity distributions inside the material structure. The graded material properties with porosities are described by a modified power-law model. Dynamic deflection of the nanobeam is obtained via Galerkin and inverse Laplace transform methods. The importance of nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, moving load velocity, porosity volume fraction, type of porosity distribution and elastic foundation on forced vibration behavior of nanobeams are discussed.

  2. Add-drop filter based on dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavities in push-pull mode

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher V; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an add-drop filter based on a dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavity system that emulates the operation of a traveling-wave resonator and drops light on resonance to a single output port. Realized on an advanced SOI CMOS (IBM 45nm SOI) chip without any foundry process modifications, the device shows 16dB extinction in through port and 1dB loss in drop port with a 3dB bandwidth of 64GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a four-port add-drop filter based on photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

  3. Nonlocal modeling and buckling features of cracked nanobeams with von Karman nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh Khorshidi, Majid; Shaat, Mohamed; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Shariati, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Buckling and postbuckling behaviors of cracked nanobeams made of single-crystalline nanomaterials are investigated. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to model the nonlocal interatomic effects on the beam's performance accounting for the beam's axial stretching via von Karman nonlinear theory. The crack is then represented as torsional spring where the crack severity factor is derived accounting for the nonlocal features of the beam. By converting the beam into an equivalent infinite long plate with an edge crack subjected to a tensile stress at the far field, the crack energy release rate, intensity factor, and severity factor are derived according to the nonlocal elasticity theory. An analytical solution for the buckling and the postbuckling responses of cracked nonlocal nanobeams accounting for the beam axial stretching according to von Karman nonlinear theory of kinematics is derived. The impacts of the nonlocal parameter on the critical buckling loads and the static nonlinear postbuckling responses of cracked nonlocal nanobeams are studied. The results indicate that the buckling and postbuckling behaviors of cracked nanobeams are strongly affected by the crack location, crack depth, nonlocal parameter, and length-to-thickness ratio.

  4. Multimode nanobeam cavities for nonlinear optics: high quality resonances separated by an octave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sonia; Radulaski, Marina; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Petykiewicz, Jan; Biermann, Klaus; Vučković, Jelena

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of nanobeam cavities with multiple higher order modes. Designs with two high Q modes with frequency separations of an octave are introduced, and we fabricate such cavities exhibiting resonances with wavelength separations of up to 740 nm.

  5. Surface effect on band structure of flexural wave propagating in magneto-elastic phononic crystal nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-11-01

    A theoretical model is established to study the size-dependent performance of flexural wave propagation in magneto-elastic phononic crystal (PC) nanobeam with surface effect based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Gurtin-Murdoch theory. Considering the magneto-mechanical coupling constitutive relation of magnetostrictive material, the influence of surface effect on band structure is calculated by the plane wave expansion method for PC nanobeam subjected to pre-stress and magnetic field loadings. Through the example of an epoxy/Terfenol-D PC nanobeam, it can be observed that the characteristics of flexural wave band structures are size-dependent, and remarkably affected by surface effect when the dimension of the PC beam reduces to the nanoscale. The edges and width of the band gap with surface effect are higher than those without surface effect, especially for high frequency region. And surface effect gradually reduces with the increasing of bulk layer-to-surface layer thickness ratio until the band gap descends to a constant for the conventional one in the absence of surface effect. The effects of surface elasticity and piezomagneticity on band gap are more prominent than the residual surface stress. In addition, a distinctly nonlinear variation of band gap appears under the combined effects of pre-stress and magnetic field. Moreover, with the varying of filling fraction, multi-peaks of the width of the band gap are obtained and discussed. These results could be helpful for the intelligent regulation of magneto-elastic PC nanobeam and the design of nanobeam-based devices.

  6. Proliferation of metallic domains caused by inhomogeneous heating near the electrically-driven transition in VO$_2$ nanobeams

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sujay; Horrocks, Gregory; Marley, Peter M; Shi, Zhenzhong; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sambandamurthy, G.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the mechanisms behind the electrically driven insulator-metal transition in single crystalline VO$_2$ nanobeams. Our DC and AC transport measurements and the versatile harmonic analysis method employed show that non-uniform Joule heating causes phase inhomogeneities to develop within the nanobeam and is responsible for driving the transition in VO$_{2}$. A Poole-Frenkel like purely electric field induced transition is found to be absent and the role of percolation near and away fro...

  7. Telecom-Wavelength Bottom-up Nanobeam Lasers on Silicon-on-Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Lee, Wook-Jae; Farrell, Alan C; Balgarkashi, Akshay; Huffaker, Diana L

    2017-09-13

    Semiconductor nanowire lasers are considered promising ultracompact and energy-efficient light sources in the field of nanophotonics. Although the integration of nanowire lasers onto silicon photonic platforms is an innovative path toward chip-scale optical communications and photonic integrated circuits, operating nanowire lasers at telecom-wavelengths remains challenging. Here, we report on InGaAs nanowire array lasers on a silicon-on-insulator platform operating up to 1440 nm at room temperature. Bottom-up photonic crystal nanobeam cavities are formed by growing nanowires as ordered arrays using selective-area epitaxy, and single-mode lasing by optical pumping is demonstrated. We also show that arrays of nanobeam lasers with individually tunable wavelengths can be integrated on a single chip by the simple adjustment of the lithographically defined growth pattern. These results exemplify a practical approach toward nanowire lasers for silicon photonics.

  8. Bifurcation Analysis of an Electrostatically Actuated Nano-Beam Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Kivi, Araz; Azizi, Saber; Norouzi, Peyman

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear size-dependent static and dynamic behavior of an electrostatically actuated nano-beam is investigated. A fully clamped nano-beam is considered for the modeling of the deformable electrode of the NEMS. The governing differential equation of the motion is derived using Hamiltonian principle based on couple stress theory; a non-classical theory for considering length scale effects. The nonlinear partial differential equation of the motion is discretized to a nonlinear Duffing type ODE's using Galerkin method. Static and dynamic pull-in instabilities obtained by both classical theory and MCST are compared. At the second stage of analysis, shooting technique is utilized to obtain the frequency response curve, and to capture the periodic solutions of the motion; the stability of the periodic solutions are gained by Floquet theory. The nonlinear dynamic behavior of the deformable electrode due to the AC harmonic accompanied with size dependency is investigated.

  9. Application of nonlocal elasticity and DQM to dynamic analysis of curved nanobeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kananipour

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new numerical technique, the differential quadrature method (DQM has been developed for dynamic analysis of the nanobeams in the polar coordinate system. DQ approximation of the required partial derivatives is given by a weighted linear sum of the function values at all grid points. A semicircular arch with small-scale effects is investigated by the nonlocal continuum theory with simply supported boundary conditions. The governing equations for Euler-Bernoulli nonlocal beam models are derived. The expressions of the bending displacement are presented analytically. The convergence properties and the accuracy of the DQM for bending of curved nanobeams are investigated through a number of numerical computations. It can be observed that use of DQM, which is independent of domain discretization to be efficient.

  10. Nonlinear Vibrational Analysis of Nanobeams Embedded in an Elastic Medium including Surface Stress Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to size-dependent behavior of nanostructures, the classical continuum models are not applicable for the analyses at this submicron size. Surface stress effect is one of the most important matters which make the nanoscale structures have different properties compared to the conventional structures due to high surface to volume ratio. In the present study, nonlinear free vibrational characteristics of embedded nanobeams are investigated including surface stress effects. To this end, a thin surface layer is assumed on the upper and lower surfaces of the cross section to separate the surface and bulk of nanobeams with their own different material properties. Based on harmonic balance method, closed-form analytical solution is conducted for nonlinear vibrations to obtain natural frequencies of embedded nanobeams with and without considerations of surface elasticity and residual surface tension effects corresponding to the various values of nondimensional amplitude, elastic foundation modulus, and geometrical variables of the system. Selected numerical results are given to indicate the influence of each one in detail.

  11. Radiation and Internal Loss Engineering of High-Stress Silicon Nitride Nanobeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimi, Amir Hossein; Wilson, Dalziel Joseph; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2017-06-14

    High-stress Si3N4 nanoresonators have become an attractive choice for electro- and optomechanical devices. Membrane resonators can achieve quality factor (Q)-frequency (f) products exceeding 1013 Hz, enabling (in principle) quantum coherent operation at room temperature. String-like beam resonators possess smaller Q × f products; however, on account of their significantly lower mass and mode density, they remain a canonical choice for precision force, mass, and charge sensing, and have recently enabled Heisenberg-limited position measurements at cryogenic temperatures. Here we explore two techniques to enhance the Q of a nanomechanical beam. The techniques relate to two main loss mechanisms: internal loss, which dominates for high aspect ratios and f ≲ 100 MHz, and radiation loss, which dominates for low aspect ratios and f ≳ 100 MHz. First, we show that by embedding a nanobeam in a 1D phononic crystal (PnC), it is possible to localize its flexural motion and shield it against radiation loss. Using this method, we realize f > 100 MHz modes with Q ≈ 104, consistent with internal loss and contrasting sharply with unshielded beams of similar dimensions. We then study the Q × f product of high-order modes of millimeter-long nanobeams. Taking advantage of the mode-shape dependence of stress-induced "loss dilution", we realize a f ≈ 4 MHz mode with Q × f ≈ 9 × 1012 Hz. Our results complement recent work on PnC-based "soft-clamping" of nanomembranes, in which mode localization is used to enhance loss dilution. Combining these strategies should enable ultra-low-mass nanobeam oscillators that operate deep in the quantum coherent regime at room temperature.

  12. Recursive differentiation method to study the nature of carbon nanobeams: A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Priyanka; Tiwari, Parul

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of non-local elasticity theory to analyze the nature of carbon nanotubes/nanobeams embedded in an elastic medium. Winkler-type foundation is used as an elastic medium. The governing equations are investigated by finding the critical buckling load with aid of Recursive Differentiation Method. This method requires less computation time and thus the convergence is fast. The effects of small scale parameter and elastic foundation on buckling load are observed and outputs are plotted graphically. In addition, the accuracy of the present method is verified with the results available in literature.

  13. Mathematical model for the adsorption-induced nonlocal frequency shift in adatoms-nanobeam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouina, Hicham; Yahiaoui, Réda; Kerid, Rachid; Amine Benamar, Mohammed El; Brioua, Fathi

    2017-09-01

    This paper models and investigates the resonance frequency shift induced by the adsorption phenomena for an adatoms-nanobeam system including the small scale effect as well as rotary inertia and shear distortion effects. The Lennard-Jones (6-12) type potential is used to determine the adsorption-induced energy owing van der Waals (vdW) interaction mechanism between adatom-adatom and adatom-substrate. The small scale effect is introduced by using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory while the explicit expressions of inertia moment and shear force are derived from the standard Timoshenko beam equations in which the residual stress effect is accounted as an additive axial load. Numerical results showed that the resonance frequency shift is depended on each of the adsorption density, mode number and small scale effects. Thus, numerical results are discussed in detail for a proper analysis of dynamic vibration behavior of adatoms-nanobeam systems which are of interest in the development of mass sensing devices.

  14. Dynamic stability of functionally graded nanobeam based on nonlocal Timoshenko theory considering surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Shahab; Hashemian, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2017-09-01

    Based on nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, dynamic stability of functionally graded (FG) nanobeam under axial and thermal loading was investigated. Surface stress effects were implemented according to Gurtin-Murdoch continuum theory. Using power law distribution for FGM and von Karman geometric nonlinearity, governing equations were derived based on Hamilton's principle. The developed nonlocal models have the capability of interpreting small scale effects. Pasternak elastic medium was employed to represent the interaction of the FG nanobeam and the surrounding elastic medium. A parametric study was conducted to focus influences of the static load factor, temperature change, gradient index, nonlocal parameter, slenderness ratio, surface effect and springs constants of the elastic medium on the dynamic instability region (DIR) of the FG beam with simply-supported boundary conditions. It was found that differences between DIRs predicted by local and nonlocal beam theories are significant for beams with lower aspect ratio. Moreover, it was observed that in contrast to high temperature environments, at low temperatures, increasing the temperature change moves the origin of the DIR to higher excitation frequency zone and leads to further stability. Considering surface stress effects shifts the DIR of FG beam to higher frequency zone, also increasing the gradient index enhances the frequency of DIR.

  15. Numerical investigation of high-contrast ultrafast all-optical switching in low-refractive-index polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    With the development of micro- or nano-fabrication technologies, great interest has been aroused in exploiting photonic crystal nanobeam structures. In this article the design of high-quality-factor (Q) polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities suitable for realizing ultrafast all-optical switching is presented based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Adopting the pump-probe technique, the ultrafast dynamic response of the all-optical switching in a nanobeam microcavity with a quality factor of 1000 and modal volume of 1.22 (λ/n)3 is numerically studied and a switching time as fast as 3.6 picoseconds is obtained. Our results indicate the great promise of applying photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities to construct integrated ultrafast tunable photonic devices or circuits incorporating polymer materials with large Kerr nonlinearity and ultrafast response speed.

  16. Chip-integrated nearly perfect absorber at telecom wavelengths by graphene coupled with nanobeam cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Zhu, Z H; Liu, K; Zhang, J F; Yuan, X D; Lu, Q S; Qin, S Q

    2015-07-15

    We exploit the concept of critical coupling to graphene based chip-integrated applications and numerically demonstrate that a chip-integrated nearly perfect graphene absorber at wavelengths around 1.55 μm can be obtained by graphene nearly critical coupling with a nanobeam cavity. The key points are reducing the radiation loss and transmission possibly, together with controlling the coupling rate of the cavity to the input waveguide to be equal to the absorption rate of the cavity caused by graphene. Simulation results show that the absorption of monolayer graphene with a total length of only a few microns is raised up to 97%. Our study may have potential applications in chip-integrated photodetectors.

  17. Lateral shearing optical gradient force in coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya, E-mail: mpezgy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117575 (Singapore); Deng, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Zhao, Yunshan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-04-25

    We report the experimental observation of lateral shearing optical gradient forces in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) controlled dual-coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. With an on-chip integrated NEMS actuator, the coupled cavities can be mechanically reconfigured in the lateral direction while maintaining a constant coupling gap. Shearing optical gradient forces are generated when the two cavity centers are laterally displaced. In our experiments, positive and negative lateral shearing optical forces of 0.42 nN and 0.29 nN are observed with different pumping modes. This study may broaden the potential applications of the optical gradient force in nanophotonic devices and benefit the future nanooptoelectromechanical systems.

  18. Pull-in Phenomena and Dynamic Response of a Capacitive Nano-beam Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Vakili-Tahami

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper static and dynamic responses of a nano-beam subjected to the electrostatic force have been studied. For this purpose, the governing nonlinear equations for static and dynamic behavior of a nano-beam have been obtained. Due to the nonlinearity of electrostatic, van der Waals (vdW and Casimir forces, the governing differential equation for static analysis has been linearized using step by step linearization method (SSLM and the developed linearized equation has been discretized using Galerkin weighted residual method. Dynamic responses have also been studied using linearized form of the Galerkin based reduced order model. In this model, nonlinear force terms have been taken into account using an iteration procedure. Using this model, dynamic response of a nano-switch to a stepwise DC voltage excitation at the presence of Casimir and vdW forces has also been studied. The results show that the Casimir force for some orders of geometric properties has more effect on the static pull-in voltage than the vdW force; and therefore the effect of the vdW force, in some cases can be ignored. The results also show that un-damped dynamic pull-in voltage at the presence of Casimir and vdW forces is 89 % of the static pull-in voltage, whereas, this ratio rises to 90.8 % when the effect of these forces has been ignored. By considering damping effects, pull-in voltage increases up to a definite value of DC voltage. At this level, the nano beam tends to be critically damped and the dynamic pull-in voltage approaches the static pull-in voltage limit.

  19. Steady state response of functionally graded nano-beams resting on viscous foundation to super-harmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ziaee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the effects of small scale parameter on steady state response of functionally graded nano-beams resting on a viscous foundation to super-harmonic excitation. A simple power-law distribution is used to model the variation of material property graded in the thickness direction. The dimensionless partial differential equation of motion is derived by using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, von-Karman geometric nonlinearity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. Using multiple scale method, one can find the governing equations of steady state response of functionally graded nano-beams excited by distributed harmonic force. The small scale parameter (e0a is changed between 0 and 2 to investigate the effects of small scale on steady state response of excited functionally graded nano-beams due to lack of information. The study of the effects of small scale parameter on backbone curves shows that an increase in the small scale parameter often decreases the dimensionless peak response although the type of loading can change the relationship between small scale parameter and the dimensionless peak response.

  20. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  1. Size Effect Impact on the Mechanical Behavior of an Electrically Actuated Polysilicon Nanobeam based NEMS Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Maani Miandoab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic response of resonating nano-beams is investigated using a strain gradient elasticity theory. A nonlinear model is obtained based on the Galerkin decomposition method to find the dynamic response of the investigated beam around its statically deflected position. The mid-plane stretching, axial residual stress and nonlinear interaction due to the electrostatic force on the deflected beam are included in the proposed nonlinear beam model. Comparing the beam natural frequency using strain gradient theory with experimental data shows an excellent agreement among both approaches. The normalized natural frequency is shown to be increasing nonlinearly with the decrease of the applied DC voltage as well as beam thickness. The results also reveal that increasing the tension axial stress increases the natural frequency; however its influence decreases when decreasing the beam thickness. To investigate the effect of AC actuation voltage on the beam resonant frequency, a Lindstedt-Poincare based perturbation method is utilized and validated by comparison with experimental data. The results show that increasing the AC actuation voltage makes the beam stiffer by increasing its resonant frequency.

  2. Analysis of smart nanobeams integrated with a flexoelectric nano actuator layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the derivation of exact solutions for the static responses of simply supported nanobeams integrated with a flexoelectric layer acting as the distributed nano actuator. Considering both the direct and the converse flexoelectric effects, the governing equations and the associated boundary conditions of the overall beams are derived to obtain exact solutions for the displacements and the electric potential in the flexoelectric layer and the substrate beam. Due to the converse flexoelectric effect, the active flexoelectric layer significantly counteracts the deformations of the substrate beams caused by the applied mechanical load, resulting in the coupling of bending and stretching deformations in the substrate beams. For particular values of the length and thickness of the substrate beam and the applied voltage in the flexoelectric layer, the deflection of the substrate beam due to the converse flexoelectric effect increases with increasing thickness of the flexoelectric layer up to a certain value of the latter. Beyond this value, any further increase in the thickness of the flexoelectric layer causes a decrease in its ability to actuate the substrate beam. The electric potential varies linearly across the thickness of the flexoelectric layer. The benchmark results presented here may be useful for verifying further research and the present study suggests that the flexoelectric layer may be effectively exploited for advanced applications as a smart nano actuator.

  3. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, G.; Accardo, A.; Benseny-Cases, N.; Burghammer, M.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Cotte, M.; Dante, S.; De Angelis, F.; Di Cola, E.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Hauser, C.; Riekel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments.

  4. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The reference temperature dependence of Young's modulus of two-temperature thermoelastic damping of gold nano-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hamdy M.; El-Bary, Alaa A.

    2017-09-01

    This work is concerning with the study of the thermoelastic damping of a nanobeam resonator in the context of the two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity theory. An explicit formula of thermoelastic damping has been derived when Young's modulus is a function of the reference temperature. Influences of the beam height and Young's modulus have been studied with some comparisons between the Biot model and the Lord-Shulman model (L-S) for one- and two-temperature types. Numerical results show that the values of the thermal relaxation parameter and the two-temperature parameter have a strong influence on thermoelastic damping at nanoscales.

  6. Application of the variational iteration method to nonlinear vibrations of nanobeams induced by the van der Waals force under different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Mostafa

    2017-04-01

    The pull-in instability is one of the most important phenomena which is usually associated with nanobeams when they are used in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). This phenomenon may occur without electrical excitation and depends on different parameters. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nonlinear vibrations and pull-in instability of nanobeams in the presence of the van der Waals (vdW) force without electrical excitation. Utilizing Galerkin's method, the partial differential equation of motion is transferred to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Afterwards, the variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to obtain the nonlinear frequency and deflection of the nanobeam. The study is performed on doubly clamped, doubly simply supported and clamped-simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of boundary conditions, axial load, aspect ratio and the vdW force on nonlinear frequency and deflection as well as pull-in instability are discussed in details. In addition, three simple and useful equations are developed for predicting the critical values of the vdW force parameter in terms of axial load and aspect ratio parameters. These equations can be employed to estimate the dimensions of nanobeams before their fabrication and using them in the NEMS devices.

  7. Strain at a semiconductor nanowire-substrate interface studied using geometric phase analysis, convergent beam electron diffraction and nanobeam diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    films. This sample preparation method is fast and usually results in little structural change in the nanowires [2]. However, it does not provide information about the interface between the nanowires and the substrate, who’s physical and electrical properties are important for many modern applications...... of nanowires. In particular, strain and crystallographic defects can have a major influence on the electronic structure of the material. In improved method for the characterization of such interfaces would be valuable for optimizing and understanding the transport properties of devices based on nanowires. Here......, we systematically investigate the interface between a nanowire and its substrate using three complementary methods for assessing strain. Results obtained using high resolution TEM for geometric phase analysis (GPA), convergent beam elecron diffraction (CBED) and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED...

  8. Application of Homotopy Analysis Method for the Pull-In and Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Nanobeams Using a Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli Beam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, F.; Moradweysi, P.; Ansari, R.; Hosseini, K.; Darvizeh, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this investigation, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is utilized for the pull-in and nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeams based on the stress-driven model (SDM) of nonlocal elasticity theory. The physical properties of nanobeams are assumed not to vary through the thickness. The nonlinear equation of motion and the corresponding boundary condition are derived on the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. For the solution purpose, the Galerkin method is employed for reducing the nonlinear partial differential equation to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation in the time domain, and then, the resulting equation is analytically solved using the HAM. In the results section, the influences of different parameters, including nonlocal parameter, electrostatic and intermolecular van der Waals forces and fringing field effect changes on the pull-in and nonlinear vibration response are investigated.

  9. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  10. Simultaneous determination of the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film utilizing vibrating doubly clamped micro-/nanobeams

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Stachiv; Chih-Yun Kuo; Te-Hua Fang; Vincent Mortet

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of ultrathin film thickness and its basic properties can be highly challenging and time consuming due to necessity of using several very sophisticated devices. Here, we report an easy accessible resonant based method capable to simultaneously determinate the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film coated on doubly clamped micro-/nanobeam. We show that a general dependency of the resonant frequencies on the axial load is also valid for in-plane vib...

  11. Proposed ultralow-energy dual photonic-crystal nanobeam devices for on-chip N x N switching, logic, and wavelength multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard; Hendrickson, Joshua

    2015-12-14

    Silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder interferometer structures that utilize a photonic crystal nanobeam waveguide in each of two connecting arms are proposed here as efficient 2 × 2 resonant, wavelength-selective electro-optical routing switches that are readily cascaded into on-chip N × N switching networks. A localized lateral PN junction of length ~2 μm within each of two identical nanobeams is proposed as a means of shifting the transmission resonance by 400 pm within the 1550 nm band. Using a bias swing ΔV = 2.7 V, the 474 attojoules-per-bit switching mechanism is free-carrier sweepout due to PN depletion layer widening. Simulations of the 2 × 2 outputs versus voltage are presented. Dual-nanobeam designs are given for N × N data-routing matrix switches, electrooptical logic unit cells, N × M wavelength selective switches, and vector matrix multipliers. Performance penalties are analyzed for possible fabrication induced errors such as non-ideal 3-dB couplers, differences in optical path lengths, and variations in photonic crystal cavity resonances.

  12. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakrajang, K.; Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N.; Thopan, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2013-07-01

    As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  13. High precision two-dimensional strain mapping in semiconductor devices using nanobeam electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Frieder H., E-mail: fhbauman@us.ibm.com [IBM Microelectronics Division, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, New York 12533 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    A classical method used to characterize the strain in modern semiconductor devices is nanobeam diffraction (NBD) in the transmission electron microscope. One challenge for this method lies in the fact that the smaller the beam becomes, the more difficult it becomes to analyze the resulting diffraction spot pattern. We show that a carefully designed fitting algorithm enables us to reduce the sampling area for the diffraction patterns on the camera chip dramatically (∼1/16) compared to traditional settings without significant loss of precision. The resulting lower magnification of the spot pattern permits the presence of an annular dark field detector, which in turn makes the recording of images for drift correction during NBD acquisition possible. Thus, the reduced sampling size allows acquisition of drift corrected NBD 2D strain maps of up to 3000 pixels while maintaining a precision of better than 0.07%. As an example, we show NBD strain maps of a modern field effect transistor (FET) device. A special filtering feature used in the analysis makes it is possible to measure strain in silicon devices even in the presence of other crystalline materials covering the probed area, which is important for the characterization of the next generation of devices (Fin-FETs).

  14. Resistance noise spectroscopy across the thermally and electrically driven metal-insulator transitions in VO2 nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali; Kilcoyne, Colin; Singh, Sujay; Horrocks, Gregory; Marley, Peter; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sambandamurthy, G.

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a strongly correlated material that exhibits a sharp thermally driven metal-insulator transition at Tc ~ 340 K. The transition can also be triggered by a DC voltage in the insulating phase with a threshold (Vth) behavior. The mechanisms behind these transitions are hotly discussed and resistance noise spectroscopy is a suitable tool to delineate different transport mechanisms in correlated systems. We present results from a systematic study of the low frequency (1 mHz noise behavior in VO2 nanobeams across the thermally and electrically driven transitions. In the thermal transition, the power spectral density (PSD) of the resistance noise is unchanged as we approach Tc from 300 K and an abrupt drop in the magnitude is seen above Tc and it remains unchanged till 400 K. However, the noise behavior in the electrically driven case is distinctly different: as the voltage is ramped from zero, the PSD gradually increases by an order of magnitude before reaching Vth and an abrupt increase is seen at Vth. The noise magnitude decreases above Vth, approaching the V = 0 value. The individual roles of percolation, Joule heating and signatures of correlated behavior will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF DMR 0847324.

  15. Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing from monolayer molybdenum ditelluride integrated with a silicon nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongzhuo; Zhang, Jianxing; Huang, Dandan; Sun, Hao; Fan, Fan; Feng, Jiabin; Wang, Zhen; Ning, C. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have the potential to become efficient optical-gain materials for low-energy-consumption nanolasers with the smallest gain media because of strong excitonic emission. However, until now TMD-based lasing has been realized only at low temperatures. Here we demonstrate for the first time a room-temperature laser operation in the infrared region from a monolayer of molybdenum ditelluride on a silicon photonic-crystal cavity. The observation is enabled by the unique combination of a TMD monolayer with an emission wavelength transparent to silicon, and a high-Q cavity of the silicon nanobeam. The laser is pumped by a continuous-wave excitation, with a threshold density of 6.6 W cm-2. Its linewidth is as narrow as 0.202 nm with a corresponding Q of 5,603, the largest value reported for a TMD laser. This demonstration establishes TMDs as practical materials for integrated TMD-silicon nanolasers suitable for silicon-based nanophotonic applications in silicon-transparent wavelengths.

  16. Dynamic control of the asymmetric Fano resonance in side-coupled Fabry–Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tong; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya, E-mail: mpezgy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Deng, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2015-11-30

    Fano resonance is a prevailing interference phenomenon that stems from the intersection between discrete and continuum states in many fields. We theoretically and experimentally characterize the asymmetric Fano lineshape in side-coupled waveguide Fabry–Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. The measured quality-factor of the Fano resonance before tuning is 28 100. A nanoelectromechanical systems bidirectional actuator is integrated seamlessly to control the shape of the Fano resonance through in-plane translations in two directions without sacrificing the quality-factor. The peak intensity level of the Fano resonance can be increased by 8.5 dB from 60 nW to 409 nW while the corresponding dip intensity is increased by 12.8 dB from 1 nW to 18 nW. The maximum recorded quality-factor throughout the tuning procedure is up to 32 500. Potential applications of the proposed structure include enhancing the sensitivity of sensing, reconfigurable nanophotonics devices, and on-chip intensity modulator.

  17. Closed-form solutions in stress-driven two-phase integral elasticity for bending of functionally graded nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretta, Raffaele; Fabbrocino, Francesco; Luciano, Raimondo; Sciarra, Francesco Marotti de

    2018-03-01

    Strain-driven and stress-driven integral elasticity models are formulated for the analysis of the structural behaviour of fuctionally graded nano-beams. An innovative stress-driven two-phases constitutive mixture defined by a convex combination of local and nonlocal phases is presented. The analysis reveals that the Eringen strain-driven fully nonlocal model cannot be used in Structural Mechanics since it is ill-posed and the local-nonlocal mixtures based on the Eringen integral model partially resolve the ill-posedeness of the model. In fact, a singular behaviour of continuous nano-structures appears if the local fraction tends to vanish so that the ill-posedness of the Eringen integral model is not eliminated. On the contrary, local-nonlocal mixtures based on the stress-driven theory are mathematically and mechanically appropriate for nanosystems. Exact solutions of inflected functionally graded nanobeams of technical interest are established by adopting the new local-nonlocal mixture stress-driven integral relation. Effectiveness of the new nonlocal approach is tested by comparing the contributed results with the ones corresponding to the mixture Eringen theory.

  18. Simultaneous determination of the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film utilizing vibrating doubly clamped micro-/nanobeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachiv, Ivo, E-mail: stachiv@fzu.cz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Kuo, Chih-Yun [Tzu-Chi University, Hualian City, Hualian, Taiwan (China); Fang, Te-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Mortet, Vincent [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-15

    Measurement of ultrathin film thickness and its basic properties can be highly challenging and time consuming due to necessity of using several very sophisticated devices. Here, we report an easy accessible resonant based method capable to simultaneously determinate the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film coated on doubly clamped micro-/nanobeam. We show that a general dependency of the resonant frequencies on the axial load is also valid for in-plane vibrations, and the one depends only on the considered vibrational mode. As a result, we found that the film elastic modulus, density and thickness can be evaluated from two measured in-plane and out-plane fundamental resonant frequencies of micro-/nanobeam with and without film under different prestress forces. Whereas, the residual stress can be determined from two out-plane (in-plane) measured consecutive resonant frequencies of beam with film under different prestress forces without necessity of knowing film and substrate properties and dimensions. Moreover, we also reveal that the common uncertainties in force (and thickness) determination have a negligible (and minor) impact on the determined film properties. The application potential of the present method is illustrated on the beam made of silicon and SiO{sub 2} with deposited 20 nm thick AlN and 40 nm thick Au thin films, respectively.

  19. Simultaneous determination of the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film utilizing vibrating doubly clamped micro-/nanobeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Stachiv

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of ultrathin film thickness and its basic properties can be highly challenging and time consuming due to necessity of using several very sophisticated devices. Here, we report an easy accessible resonant based method capable to simultaneously determinate the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film coated on doubly clamped micro-/nanobeam. We show that a general dependency of the resonant frequencies on the axial load is also valid for in-plane vibrations, and the one depends only on the considered vibrational mode. As a result, we found that the film elastic modulus, density and thickness can be evaluated from two measured in-plane and out-plane fundamental resonant frequencies of micro-/nanobeam with and without film under different prestress forces. Whereas, the residual stress can be determined from two out-plane (in-plane measured consecutive resonant frequencies of beam with film under different prestress forces without necessity of knowing film and substrate properties and dimensions. Moreover, we also reveal that the common uncertainties in force (and thickness determination have a negligible (and minor impact on the determined film properties. The application potential of the present method is illustrated on the beam made of silicon and SiO2 with deposited 20 nm thick AlN and 40 nm thick Au thin films, respectively.

  20. Simultaneous determination of the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film utilizing vibrating doubly clamped micro-/nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachiv, Ivo; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Fang, Te-Hua; Mortet, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Measurement of ultrathin film thickness and its basic properties can be highly challenging and time consuming due to necessity of using several very sophisticated devices. Here, we report an easy accessible resonant based method capable to simultaneously determinate the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film coated on doubly clamped micro-/nanobeam. We show that a general dependency of the resonant frequencies on the axial load is also valid for in-plane vibrations, and the one depends only on the considered vibrational mode. As a result, we found that the film elastic modulus, density and thickness can be evaluated from two measured in-plane and out-plane fundamental resonant frequencies of micro-/nanobeam with and without film under different prestress forces. Whereas, the residual stress can be determined from two out-plane (in-plane) measured consecutive resonant frequencies of beam with film under different prestress forces without necessity of knowing film and substrate properties and dimensions. Moreover, we also reveal that the common uncertainties in force (and thickness) determination have a negligible (and minor) impact on the determined film properties. The application potential of the present method is illustrated on the beam made of silicon and SiO2 with deposited 20 nm thick AlN and 40 nm thick Au thin films, respectively.

  1. Bending and free vibration analysis of nanobeams by differential and integral forms of nonlocal strain gradient with Rayleigh–Ritz method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakher, Mahmood; Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh

    2017-12-01

    The static bending and free vibration behavior of Euler nanobeams are studied via nonlocal strain gradient elasticity. Three different approaches to nonlocal strain gradient are investigated including differential form of nonlocal strain gradient, integral nonlocal strain gradient with satisfying higher order boundary conditions and basic form of integral nonlocal strain gradient without satisfying higher order boundary conditions. Two different types of Rayleigh–Ritz method are adopted; in one of them, polynomial is chosen as admissible function and in the other, combination of polynomial and trigonometric are regarded to obviate ill-conditioning and achieve more accurate results in integral nonlocal elasticity in which high number of terms is needed to extract the results with desired accuracy. Next, the bending deflections and natural frequencies of nanobeams with different boundary conditions are obtained. The results show that using integral form of nonlocal strain gradient obviates the paradoxes of differential form. In addition, significant differences are observed between the results. Moreover, comparison between two different integral forms indicates that there are considerable discrepancies, especially in the cases of high material characteristic parameter with low nonlocal parameter. Advantage of using the basic form of nonlocal strain gradient is that it does not need to definition and satisfying the higher order boundary conditions.

  2. High quality factor and high sensitivity photonic crystal rectangular holes slot nanobeam cavity with parabolic modulated lattice constant for refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fujun; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Huiping

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel optical sensor based on photonic crystal slot nanobeam cavity (PCSNC) with rectangular air holes. By introducing a continuous slot and quadratically modulated hole spacing (lattice constant a) structure, the majority of the optical field is localized in the slot region, which enhances the light-matter interaction. With applying the three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations, three key geometric parameters (hole width wx, slot width ws and the number of the holes N) are optimized to achieve a high sensitivity (S) while keeping a high quality (Q) factor. The highest S over 1000 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) is achieved when the slot width equals to 200 nm. The highest Q-factor of 2.15×107 is obtained when 30 holes are placed on both sides of the host waveguide with the slot width of 80 nm. Considering the transmission efficiency and the trade-off between S and Q-factor, the slot width and the number of the tapered region are chosen as 80 nm and 20, respectively. A high S approximately 835 nm/RIU and a Q-factor about 5.50×105 with small effective mode volume of 0.03(λ/nair)3 are achieved simultaneously, resulting in an ultra-high figure-of-merit (FOM) above 2.92×105. Furthermore, the active sensing region of the optimized structure occupies only about 12 μm×0.08 μm, which makes the device attractive for realizing on-chip integrated sensor arrays.

  3. The sp(2) and sp(3) fractions of unknown carbon materials: electron energy-loss near-edge structure analysis of C-K spectra acquired under the magic-angle condition by the electron nanobeam technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diociaiuti, Marco; Casciardi, Stefano; Sisto, Renata

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for the quantification of the sp(2), sp(3) and intermediate hybridizations in several carbon (C) material samples. Electron energy-loss near-edge spectra were acquired using fast electrons (120keV) in an electron microscope in nanobeam configuration under the so-called "magic-angle" condition, and were analysed to extract the sp(2) and sp(3) fractions, and identify the possible mixed sp(2+ε) hybridizations. The method consists in projecting the unknown spectra on a basis made up of pure sp(2) and sp(3) spectra, obtained under the same experimental conditions from graphite and diamond crystals, respectively. The residual spectra contain information about the intermediate hybridizations sp(2+ε) occurring in the samples. The method was successfully tested on "ab initio" numerically generated spectra relative to amorphous C materials. Finally, it was applied to actual C amorphous and pyrolytic samples, and results were compared to those obtained by the most commonly used, conventional "three-Gaussian" method. The combined application of electron diffraction and spectroscopy, in the nanobeam configuration, yielded useful information about the atomic and electronic structure from very small volumes of the unknown C material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quasicontinuum simulations of geometric effect on onset plasticity of nano-scale patterned lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianfeng; Cao, Jingyi; Zhou, Siyuan; Yang, Peijun; Guo, Zhengxiao

    2017-09-01

    Onset plasticity of metallic nano-lines or nano-beams is of considerable scientific and technological interest in micro-/nano- mechanics and interconnects of patterned lines in electronic devices, where capability of resistance to deformation is important. In this study, a multiscale quasicontinuum (QC) method was used to explore such an issue in a nano-scale copper (Cu) line protruding from a relatively large single crystal Cu substrate during compression. The results show that the yield stress of a rectangular beam on the substrate can be greatly reduced compared with that of a flat surface of the same area. For the rectangular line, the aspect ratio (width/height) affects dislocation morphology at the onset plasticity without much change of yield stress. However, for the trapezoidal line, the yield stress decreases with the base angle (α), especially when the α is over 54.7°. As the sidewall orientation changes from at α = 0°, then to at α = 54.7° and finally to at α = 90°, a higher surface energy could enable easier dislocation formation and lower yield stress. Meanwhile, it is found that the interaction between the line and the support substrate also shows a great effect on yield stress. Moreover, although it is possible to open two extra dislocation slip planes inside from the two bottom corners of the Cu line with the α over 54.7°, dislocation nucleation derived from them is only observed at α = 90°.

  5. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world......, and galleries. With the High Line, a new urban architectural typology has been created that is aesthetically enriching and sets new standards for urban transformation and urban life. “The park accommodates the wild, the cultivated, the intimate and the social. Access points are durational experiences designed...

  6. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  7. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  8. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  9. Parametric effects in nanobeams and AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claeyssen, J. C. R.; Tonetto, L.; Carvalho, J. B. [Institute of Mathematics-PPGMAp, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Copetti, R. D. [Department of Mathematics, CCNE, Federal University of Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    Vibration dynamics of forced cantilever beams that are used in nanotechnology such as atomic force microscope modeling and carbon nanotubes is considered in terms of a fundamental response within a matrix framework. The modeling equations are written as a matrix differential equation subject to tip-sample general boundary conditions. At the junctions, where there are discontinuities due to different material or beam thickness, compatibility conditions are prescribed. Forced responses are given by convolution of the input load with the time domain Green matrix function. The corresponding matrix transfer function and modes of a multispan cantilever beam are determined in terms of solution basis of the same shape generated by a fundamental solution. Simulations were performed for a three stepped beam with a piezoelectric patch subject to pulse forcing terms and with surface effects.

  10. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the ...

  11. Sewer Main Pipe Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset with lines across the island of Guam. These lines represent the sewer mains that carry refuse to the sewer plants for processing and...

  12. Abstract Line Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  13. Community LINE Source Model (C-LINE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an introduction for the live demo and explains the purpose of C-LINE and its key features. C-LINE is a web-based model designed to inform the community user of local air quality impacts due to mobile-sources in their region of interest using a simplifie...

  14. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  15. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  16. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis...... and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...

  17. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  18. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  19. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  20. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  1. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  2. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were...... processes of lined canvas paintings. The impact of cyclic relative humidity on the biological and physical stability of the laminate structure is reported. Carefully constructed mock-ups, simulating lined canvas paintings, were used to examine the effect of pest infestation, mould growth, mechanical damage...

  3. Transnationaliseringen af Maersk Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Maersk Line er verdens førende containerrederi og blandt de mest betydningsfulde virksomheder i Danmark. Den globale førerposition blev opnået på relativt kort tid og var et resultat af rederiets beslutning i 1973 om at gå helhjertet ind i containerskibsfarten. Beslutningen blev startskuddet til...... Maersk Lines dybe internationalisering, hvor rederiet ændrede sig fra at være en overvejende danske virksomhed, der betjente internationale markeder, til at være en genuin transnational virksomhed. Med fokus på opbygningen af Maersk Lines globale organisation og særligt etableringen af egne kontorer i...

  4. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  5. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  6. MODIFIED METHOD OF LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevich Anatoliy Nikolaevich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the method of solving multidimensional boundary problems is reduction of initial differential equations in partial derivatives to the system of ordinary differential equations. One-dimensional resolving equations allow extending the potential of the method of lines. Although efficient and highly-precise numerical methods have been developed for solution of one-dimensional and initial-boundary value problems their use is impossible in the method of lines. The author considers a new method of lines which is used in order to reduce the dimensionality of multidimensional problems of structural mechanics. The method is used for calculation of thick plates, plates of variable thickness, heterogeneous and multilayered plates. It is proposed to replace finite-difference relations by projection relations which will extend the potential of the method of lines and will allow using the method in the dynamic problems.

  7. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  8. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  9. Superconducting metamaterial transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, Francisco; Wang, Haozhi; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2014-03-01

    Left-handed metamaterials are artificial composite structures with unusual properties. Such systems have a wide range of potential applications in photonics. We are developing transmission lines composed of superconducting metamaterials using thin-film lumped circuit elements. Such structures allow for the possibility of generating novel transmission spectra with a high density of modes in some frequency ranges and stop-bands in others. We discuss possible couplings of these lines to superconducting qubits in circuit QED architectures.

  10. Creating product line architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, J.; Flege, O.; Gacek, C.

    2000-01-01

    The creation and validation of product line software architectures are inherently more complex than those of software architectures for single systems. This paper compares a process for creating and evaluating a traditional, one-of-a- kind software architecture with one for a reference software architecture. The comparison is done in the context of PuLSE-DSSA, a customizable process that integrates both product line architecture creation and evaluation.

  11. NLC Extraction Line Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nosochkov, Y. M.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2001-01-01

    In this note, we briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then we describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, we present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  12. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  13. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  14. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we...... present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM...... in the national contexts (see Draw the Line! Universities as workplaces for male and female researchers in Europe and http://www.upgem.dk/ ). We have also identified and discussed three scientific cultures in physics across the national borders. We call these scientific cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker...

  15. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  16. Software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Verdín, María Karen

    2005-01-01

    A Software Product Line is a “set of software-intensive systems sharing a common, managed set of features that satisfy the specific needs of a particular market segment or mission and that are developed from a common set of core assets in a prescribed way”1. A software product line (or software product family) approach promotes planned and proactive reuse of core assets and architecture-centric development, achieving a substantial increment in product quality and a reduced time to market. Bec...

  17. BPL (Broadband Power Line)

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    El mundo actual requiere cada vez más el estar conectados con la sociedad de la Información y el Conocimiento, esto demanda que en los hogares, lugares de turismo, trabajos, universidades, etcétera, se cuente con una conexión a Internet de Alta Velocidad, que además sea segura y confiable. En este documento se presenta las características más importantes de la tecnología BPL (Broadband Power Line) o PLC (Power Line Comunication), la cual permite brindar el servicio de Internet ...

  18. Absolute Poverty Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Mahrt, Kristi; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    ’ approach, employing multiple methods, is the best available mode for addressing these limitations. A first fundamental choice is whether to estimate an absolute poverty line at all. Consumption-based poverty metrics provide only a partial view into the welfare of individuals or households, which may or may...

  19. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  20. Clamp Restrains Pressure Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Safety restraint protects people and property if a high-pressure fitting fails. As long as pressure line remains attached at the fitting, clamp exerts essentially no force on hose. If fitting fails, force of fluid leaving free end of hose causes the cam on the clamp to compress hose with a positive locking action.

  1. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is ...

  2. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  3. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Document Server

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  4. Automatic transmission line monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  5. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  6. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  7. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...

  8. Directed Line Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamien, Randall David

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. We first study nematic polymers dissolved in a nematic solvent. We show that in the dense phase nematic polymers interacting directly through excluded volume and indirectly through nematic solvent fluctuations are, at long wavelengths, identical to nematic polymers in an isotropic solvent, interacting through, again, excluded volume as well as their nematic degrees of freedom. By including the effects of free ends we study ferro- and electrorheological fluids and finite chain length polymers. In the dilute phase, near the transition to the semi-dilute phase, a renormalization group treatment is performed, in the physical and critical dimension 3. For sufficiently dilute systems we find logarithmic corrections to polymer wandering, predicted by de Gennes. However, at higher densities, the logarithmic enhancement is suppressed, and the polymers execute conventional random walks along the preferred axis. We then study the isotropic to nematic transition in this same system of liquid-crystalline polymers. Using the replica technique introduced by de Gennes to study isotropic polymers, we formulate a fully isotropic theory of liquid-crystalline polymers dissolved in a liquid crystal matrix. The first order transition from isotropic to nematic ordering occurs, and leads to the original directed polymer theory previously studied. In agreement with physical expectations, the nematic ordering temperature is depressed by polymerization. Finally, we go back to directed systems, in this case directed by an explicit symmetry violation instead of spontaneously. We discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro

  9. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  10. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  11. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  12. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  13. Fuel line purging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, R.J.

    1988-03-22

    In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a fuel pump communicating with a fuel tank and delivering pressurized fuel through a pressure line to a fuel injector, the improvement is described comprising purging means for purging gas, including air and vapor, from the system, comprising: a housing having an inlet communicating with the pressure line, and having an outlet; pressure responsive valve means in the housing movable between an open position permitting flow from the inlet to the outlet, and a closed position blocking flow from the inlet to the outlet; a first branch passage in the housing communicating between the inlet and one side of the valve means; a second branch passage in the housing communicating between the inlet and the other side of the valve means; restriction means in the second branch passage selected to provide a fuel pressure drop thereacross but not substantially dropping gas pressure thereacross.

  14. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  15. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  16. Drill string transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  17. Hydrogen Stark Broadened Brackett lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stehlé

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stark-broadened lines of the hydrogen Brackett series are computed for the conditions of stellar atmospheres and circumstellar envelopes. The computation is performed within the Model Microfield Method, which includes the ion dynamic effects and makes the bridge between the impact limit at low density and the static limit at high density and in the line wings. The computation gives the area normalized line shape, from the line core up to the static line wings.

  18. Line managers as marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  19. LINE BALANCING IN SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi GÖKÇEN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the Assembly Line Balancing (ALB methods known for the production systems can be applied in service systems. For this purpose, an application study is done in a Physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic. Each standart service provided to patients is taken into consideration as a product, and problem is solved as a mixed model ALB problem. In conclusion, it is seen that the ALB methods developed for the production systems are also applicable in service systems. So, it is possible to do similar studies at hospitals, tax offices, driving licence and passport offices, fast food restaurants, etc.

  20. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...... and provoked strikes and union drives in the 1930s, but became a symbol of victory in the Second World War and Cold War. Reinvented by Japan as "lean production" and then increasingly automated after 1990, it remains a cornerstone of production but no longer employs many workers, even as it evolves toward...

  1. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  2. Strategic production line synchronisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattingh, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at the sole global producer of suspension struts for a particular vehicle manufacturer. This supplier is currently able to meet customer demand. However, it does so because of a large finished goods and work-in-progress (WIP inventory. The plant operates two production processes that are separated by a large buffer of WIP, which essentially decouples the production processes. This study aimed to reduce this WIP buffer; this would require the processes to become synchronised, bearing in mind that the reliability of delivery should not decrease. A tool that considers time, quality, and machine capacity was developed to assess the impact of line synchronisation on company performance figures. It was found that line synchronisation produced several benefits for the supplier, including batch size reduction, lower inventory levels, and associated shorter lead times. This further allowed the supplier to improve flow in the plant by introducing a pull system. Improved visual oversight could lead to further improved problem-solving and innovation.

  3. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  4. Credit Lines and Credit Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sumit; Ambrose, Brent W.; Liu, Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    While much is known about the characteristics of consumers or businesses that obtain credit lines, relatively little is known empirically about credit line utilization after origination. This study fills that gap by testing two interrelated hypotheses concerning borrower credit quality and credit line utilization. The empirical analysis confirms that borrowers with higher expectations of future credit quality deterioration originate credit lines to preserve financial flexibility. Furthermore,...

  5. China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...

  6. Software Product Lines : Three Examples

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of a course on software product lines. The assignment in the course was to develop a software product line. . During the course, the students had to develop the following artifacts in groups: product line architecture, component designs, product derivations, modifiability assessment and a prototype. The results of the course are described in this report

  7. The Median-Median Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Graphing bivariate data in a scatter plot and drawing an approximate line of best fit for the data have become commonly recommended activities for middle school and high school students. The graphing calculator has provided a mechanism for students both to approximate a best-fit line and to calculate the best-fit line using a built-in option. Two…

  8. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use......-patterns close to roads, but also intercepted the central lines of movement and conflicted with previous ways of organizing the landscape. This development is interpreted as a different form of large-scale landholding, in which livestock possibly played a dominant role and boundaries were used to confiscate land...... in the zones bordering suitable pastures. This situation shows obvious parallels with southern Britain centuries earlier. It is discussed how the study of these physical boundaries provides new insights into the organization of pre-Roman landscapes, not only demonstrating a continuing engagement with landscape...

  9. Making microbeams and nanobeams by channeling in microstructures and nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Chesnokov, Yu A; Guidi, V; Scandale, Walter; Chesnokov, Yu.A.

    2003-01-01

    A particle beam of very small cross-section is useful in many accelerator applications including biological and medical ones. We show the capability of the channeling technique using a micron-sized structure on a surface of a single crystal, or using a nanotube, to produce beam of a cross-section down to 1 square micrometer (or nanometer). The channeled beam can be deflected and thus well separated in angle and space from the primary and scattered particles. Monte Carlo simulation is done to evaluate the characteristics of a channeled microbeam. Emittances down to 0.1-0.001 nanometer radian, and flux up to 1 million particles per square micron per second, can be achieved for protons and ions.

  10. Dynamic Actuation of Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    United States E-mail: loncar@seas.harvard.edu KEYWORDS: Single-crystal diamond, nanoelectromechanical systems ( NEMS ), nanofabrica- tion...actuate and transduce motion of na- noelectromechanical systems ( NEMS ) and applied to achieve mechanical resonance tuning,20 and coherent control of...wavelength used. Geometrical nonlinearity is the most common nonlinearity observed in NEMS , and according to theory results in a hardening effect.26 In

  11. Making microbeams and nanobeams by channeling in microstructures and nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bellucci

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A particle beam of very small cross section is useful in many accelerator applications including biological and medical ones. We show the capability of the channeling technique using a micron-sized structure on a surface of a single crystal, or using a nanotube, to produce a beam of a cross section down to one square micrometer (or nanometer. The channeled beam can be deflected and thus well separated in angle and space from the primary and scattered particles. Monte Carlo simulation is done to evaluate the characteristics of a channeled microbeam. Emittances down to 0.001 nm rad, and flux up to 10^{6}   μm^{2} per second, can be achieved for protons and ions.

  12. Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuti, D. T.; Raju, M.; Ihme, M.

    2017-05-01

    The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures pcr and temperatures Tcr only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure pr* to replace the previously used reduced pressure pr=p /pcr . We show that pr* is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using pr*, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within corresponding states principle

  13. Report of activity, 1995 - 1996; Rapport d`activite, 1995 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguer, Pierre [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France)

    1997-06-01

    This Report of activity displays the work developed at Centre d`Etude Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (CENBG) in the period 1995-1996. A number of 68 short progress notes are presented in the fields of Cosmic particles (3), Nuclear Astrophysics (4), High Spins-Large Deformations (8), Basic Interactions (9), Exotic Nuclei (10), Hybrid Systems (4), Theoretical Physics (28), Cellular Microanalysis by means of Nuclear Probes (3) and Technical Development (3). The main problems attacked at CENBG, established as orientations by scientific board of IN2P3 (CENBG is a UMR of Bordeaux-1 Univ. and CNRS-IN2P3) are the following: the research of Majorana/Dirac nature of neutrino (in the framework of NEMO Experiment) in relation with the problem of origin of mass in the Universe and the cosmological puzzle of dark matter, the investigation of the origin of high energy (20 to 200 GeV) cosmic radiation (in the framework of CELESTE Experiment), the study of extreme issues in nuclear structure as high spin states and super deformation (in the framework of DIAMANT and SAPHIRE Experiments) and the study of exotic (far-off-stability-line) high-isospin nuclei, nuclear dynamics and hadron (sub-nucleon degrees of freedom) physics, extensive cosmic showers and the physics of free electron lasers. To these issues one should add two recent activities which will be largely developed in the near future. The first is the physics of hybrid reactors and the nuclear burning (nuclear transmutation) of the radioactive wastes and the second is the application of the Van de Graaff microprobe method in biological investigations. This report is completed by a presentation of the most recent technical developments at CENBG

  14. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd.; Horizon Lines, LLC; Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd.; Nippon... Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement...

  15. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  16. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  17. Signal Transmission on Power Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    coupled transmission line circuits like power line circuits, is based on finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the matrix ZY, where Z and Y are the impedance- and admittance matrices for the coupled lines in W/m and S/m. In this paper a flow-graph representation of the relations beween voltage......- and current-vectors is presented for a general coupled line circuit. This flow-graph can be used to find any transfer function on a multiple coupled lossy transmission line circuit. In some cases, however, it is difficult to find the eigenvalues correctly. A correct analysis can thus not be made......In the analysis of power-line networks over a large frequency span, the time-domain method used in programs like EMTP (Electromagnetic Time domain Program) can not be used. A more rigorous analysis method must be employed. The correct analysis method (assuming TEM-mode propagation) for multiple...

  18. Testing in Software Product Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Odia, Osaretin Edwin

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents research aimed at investigating different activities involved in software product lines testing process and possible improvements towards achieving developing high quality software product lines at reduced cost and time. The research was performed using systematic review procedures of Kitchenham. The reviews carried out in this research covers several areas relating to software product lines testing. The reasons for performing a systematic review in this research are to; ...

  19. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  20. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  1. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  2. Drops, contact lines, and electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Mannetje, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the behaviour of drops and contact lines under the influence of electric fields, and how these can answer fundamental and industrial questions. Our focus is on studying the varying balance of the electric field, hysteresis forces and inertia as the speed of a contact line

  3. A transmission line phase stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    To meet the phase stability requirements of certain experiments performed with the Deep Space Network, transmission lines carrying reference signals must be stabilized to reduce changes in their electrical length due to mechanical movement or changes in ambient temperature. A transmission line phase stabilizer being developed at JPL to perform this function is described.

  4. What was the Assembly Line?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    2010-01-01

    The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."......The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."...

  5. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M; Mickes, Laura

    2016-09-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence-accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up.

  6. Fibrillary lines in overnight orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Edward; Swarbrick, Helen

    2007-07-01

    This case report describes the appearance of fibrillary lines in the anterior stroma of a 39-year-old Asian woman wearing overnight orthokeratology (OK) lenses. The fibrillary lines were fine, slightly curved and sub-epithelial, arranged in a band-like annulus in the corneal mid-periphery. The lines were not associated with epithelial staining, although a marked Fischer-Schweitzer corneal mosaic was noted after blinking. Fibrillary lines are a relatively common finding in normal and keratoconic corneas and have been reported previously accompanying OK lens wear. Their origin is unknown and epithelial neural remodelling, corneal biomechanical stress and abrupt corneal curvature changes have been suggested as contributing factors. The appearance of fibrillary lines in our OK patient had no adverse consequences on vision or ocular health, at least in the medium term.

  7. Formación on line On line learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grau-Perejoan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La formación on line es una modalidad de enseñanza a distancia basada en las nuevas tecnologías. En este artículo se pretende hacer una introducción a base de describir a grandes rasgos sus características principales: asincronía, no presencialidad, comunicación escrita, función del profesor on line, así como los retos, los riesgos, las ventajas y los inconvenientes que plantea. Se exponen las diferencias entre la formación on line y la formación presencial, de manera que los docentes puedan adaptar de la mejor manera posible sus propuestas formativas a la modalidad on line. Se introduce el importantísimo papel de la planificación y de la fase de diseño y, finalmente, se repasan conceptos útiles para comprender mejor el mundo de la formación on line como son los conceptos entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA o Blended Learning (B-Learning.On line learning is a type of distance education based on new technologies. This article's aim is to introduce its main characteristics -asynchrony, non-presentiality, written communication, e-teacher role- as well as its challenges, risks, advantages and limitations. Differences between on line learning and face-to-face learning are presented in order to enable educational professionals to adapt their courses to the on line methodology. Planning and designing are introduced as key phases and, finally, useful concepts such as Virtual Learning Environment (VLE or Blended Learning (B-Learning are reviewed in order to achieve a better understanding of the on line learning field.

  8. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  9. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  10. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  11. Emission-Line Region Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    We propose to obtain simultaneous optical and ultraviolet observations of the rapidly varying active galaxies Akn 120 and 3C 120. Both these sources are distinguished by short-time scale variations in their continuum and broadline fluxes, and we intend to exploit this property to determine fundamental characteristics of the emission-line gas. Akn 120 has been studied extensively by the Ohio State group, and is one of the few active galaxies for which a reliable upper limit for the separation between the continuum source and the emission-line clouds has been established from reverberation measurements. The important goals of the proposed project are (1) to provide a suitable database of optical and ultraviolet broad-line flux measurements obtained during different continuum states and (2) to compare the temporal behavior of optical and ultraviolet emission lines. In particular, we wish to determine whether or not C III] A1909 varies on the same time scale as the Balmer lines and how much of the flux in this feature can actually be ascribed to broad-line emission from C^+2. These data will enable us to make a differential comparison with predictions of photoionization models, since the emission-line spectrum will change in response to the variable ionizing continuum flux. Such a differential comparison between observation and theory should be more reliable than attempts to match absolute intensities because errors in the atomic data base should tend to cancel out.

  12. Transmission-Line Metamaterials, Bianisotropy, and Transmission-Line Bianisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Vehmas, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials are artificial composite materials which possess exotic and advantageous properties not attainable with natural materials. This thesis covers two notable classes of metamaterials: transmission-line metamaterials and bianisotropic media. While metamaterials are most commonly realized as bulk media consisting of small resonant inclusions, transmission-line structures offer an alternative, low-dispersion and low-loss way for realizing them. Bianisotropic media, on t...

  13. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  14. The infinite line pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Richards, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The infinite line pressure probe provides a means for measuring high frequency fluctuating pressures in difficult environments. A properly designed infinite line probe does not resonate; thus its frequency response is not limited by acoustic resonance in the probe tubing, as in conventional probes. The characteristics of infinite line pressure probes are reviewed and some applications in turbine engine research are described. A probe with a flat-oval cross section, permitting a constant-impedance pressure transducer installation, is described. Techniques for predicting the frequency response of probes with both circular and flat-oval cross sections are also cited.

  15. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  16. VT Senate Districts 1992 - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The senatorial district designations for this layer were taken from a trace map of unknown origin. A visual compilation of the traced lines and...

  17. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  18. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  19. Digital Line Graph - Large Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLGs of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  20. Composite Materials in Overhead Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The use of composite materials, e.g. fibreglass materials, in overhead transmission line systems is nothing new. Composite based insulators have been applied to transmission lines for over 30 years, mainly as suspension and post insulators and often as an option for special applications. Also...... towers and recently conductors based on composite materials are available at transmission levels. In this paper it is investigated which composite based solutions are available in connection with complete overhead line systems including insulators, towers and conductors. The components are reviewed...... with respect to solved and persisting known failures/problems of both mechanical and electrical nature. Major challenges related to extensive use of composite materials in an overhead line system are identified, as are possible benefits - both when using standard as well as customised composite components, e...

  1. Umbilic Lines in Orientational Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Machon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional orientational order in systems whose ground states possess nonzero gradients typically exhibits linelike structures or defects: λ lines in cholesterics or Skyrmion tubes in ferromagnets, for example. Here, we show that such lines can be identified as a set of natural geometric singularities in a unit vector field, the generalization of the umbilic points of a surface. We characterize these lines in terms of the natural vector bundles that the order defines and show that they give a way to localize and identify Skyrmion distortions in chiral materials—in particular, that they supply a natural representative of the Poincaré dual of the cocycle describing the topology. Their global structure leads to the definition of a self-linking number and helicity integral which relates the linking of umbilic lines to the Hopf invariant of the texture.

  2. Control Point Generated PLS - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  3. Fractional Transmission Line with Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguilar, José Francisco; Dumitru, Baleanu

    2014-11-01

    In this manuscript, the fractional transmission line with losses is presented. The order of the Caputo derivative is considered as 0 Mittag-Leffler functions. The classic cases are recovered when β and γ are equal to 1.

  4. Program of telluric lines monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new observational program of telluric lines monitoring was introduced at Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The ultimate goal of this program is to investigate the properties of Earth’s atmosphere through modeling the observed profiles of telluric lines. The program is intend to observe infrared molecular oxygen lines that were selected according to spectral sensitivity of the available CCD camera. In this paper we give the initial and the final selection criteria for spectral lines included in the program the description of equipment and procedures used for observations and reduction, a review of preliminary observational results with the estimated precision, and a short discussion on the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements.

  5. Transmission line model for nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin E. A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical expressions for resonant parametres and characteristics of typical barrier nanoelectronic structures have been received on the basis of the transmission line model. Characteristics illustrating the efficiency of such approach are presented in the article.

  6. Railroad Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Railroads for the United States. The Railroads layer contains Railroad features published as lines and polylines. Attributes for this layer include the name...

  7. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  8. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  9. ESR powder line shape calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitko, J. Jr.; Huddleston, R.E.

    1976-05-01

    A program has been developed for computing the ESR spectrum of a collection of randomly oriented spins subject only to an electronic Zeeman interaction and having a Lorentzian single crystal line shape. Other single crystal line shapes, including numerical solutions of the Bloch equations, can be accommodated with minor modifications. The program differs in several features from those existing elsewhere, thus enabling one to study saturation effects, over-modulation effects, both absorptive and dispersive signals, and second and higher order derivative signals.

  10. Maria Reiche's Line to Archaeoastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Maria Reiche was a German mathematician and archaeologist that, from 1940, devoted her life to the study of the Nazca Lines, the most famous Peruvian geoglyphs, gaining recognition and preservation of them. Created by removing the upper most layer of the arid soil of the Nazca desert, these geoglyphs, declared in 1995 a UNESCO World Heritage Site, are composed by very long straight and trapezoidal lines, spirals and large figures representing animals. Maria Reiche, in fact an archaeoastronome...

  11. Double helix nodal line superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave exactly as Wilson loops of 3d momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus fermi surf...

  12. Line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collange, Sylvain; Daumas, Marc; Defour, David

    2008-01-01

    We report here on software that performs line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on gases. Elaborate models (such as narrow band and correlated-K) are accurate and efficient for bands where various components are not simultaneously and significantly active. Line-by-line is probably the most accurate model in the infrared for blends of gases that contain high proportions of H 2O and CO 2 as this was the case for our prototype simulation. Our implementation on graphics processing units sustains a speedup close to 330 on computation-intensive tasks and 12 on memory intensive tasks compared to implementations on one core of high-end processors. This speedup is due to data parallelism, efficient memory access for specific patterns and some dedicated hardware operators only available in graphics processing units. It is obtained leaving most of processor resources available and it would scale linearly with the number of graphics processing units in parallel machines. Line-by-line simulation coupled with simulation of fluid dynamics was long believed to be economically intractable but our work shows that it could be done with some affordable additional resources compared to what is necessary to perform simulations on fluid dynamics alone. Program summaryProgram title: GPU4RE Catalogue identifier: ADZY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 62 776 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 513 247 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: x86 PC Operating system: Linux, Microsoft Windows. Compilation requires either gcc/g++ under Linux or Visual C++ 2003/2005 and Cygwin under Windows. It has been tested using gcc 4.1.2 under Ubuntu Linux 7.04 and using Visual C

  13. Towards Perfect Water Line Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-06-01

    Over the last ten years the increased availability of computational resources and the steady refinement of theoretical methods have permitted more and more accurate first principle calculations of water-vapor spectra as exemplified, e.g., by the very successful BT2 line list both line positions and intensities, a reliable dipole moment surface (DMS), affecting line intensities. It is also very useful to several application to give reasonable uncertainty bars for computed quantities, an aspect which traditionally has received little attention. We report here recent progress leading to very accurate room-temperature linelists covering the range 0.05-20 000 cm-1, complete with uncertainty bars, for the H_218O and H_217O water isotopologues Line intensities were produced using a recent DMS produced by our group which is capable of giving line intensites accurate to 1% for most medium and strong transitions. Line positions are based if possible on the experimentally derived energy levels recently produced by a IUPAC task group and have a typical accuracy of 0.0002 cm-1; when experimentally derived energy levels are unavailable calculated line position are provided, with an accuracy of the order of 0.2 cm-1. An extension to the main isotopologue H_216O is currently underway. R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris and R. N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. {368}, 1087-1094 (2006). L. Lodi and J. Tennyson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.02.023 L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and O. L. Polyansky, J. Chem. Phys. {135}, 034113 (2011). J. Tennyson at al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. {110}, 573-96 (2009).

  14. Enhanced incoherent scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    Full Text Available Detailed model calculations of auroral secondary and photoelectron distributions for varying conditions have been used to calculate the theoretical enhancement of incoherent scatter plasma lines. These calculations are compared with EISCAT UHF radar measurements of enhanced plasma lines from both the E and F regions, and published EISCAT VHF radar measurements. The agreement between the calculated and observed plasma line enhancements is good. The enhancement from the superthermal distribution can explain even the very strong enhancements observed in the auroral E region during aurora, as previously shown by Kirkwood et al. The model calculations are used to predict the range of conditions when enhanced plasma lines will be seen with the existing high-latitude incoherent scatter radars, including the new EISCAT Svalbard radar. It is found that the detailed structure, i.e. the gradients in the suprathermal distribution, are most important for the plasma line enhancement. The level of superthermal flux affects the enhancement only in the region of low phase energy where the number of thermal electrons is comparable to the number of suprathermal electrons and in the region of high phase energy where the suprathermal fluxes fall to such low levels that their effect becomes small compared to the collision term. To facilitate the use of the predictions for the different radars, the expected signal- to-noise ratios (SNRs for typical plasma line enhancements have been calculated. It is found that the high-frequency radars (Søndre Strømfjord, EISCAT UHF should observe the highest SNR, but only for rather high plasma frequencies. The VHF radars (EISCAT VHF and Svalbard will detect enhanced plasma lines over a wider range of frequencies, but with lower SNR.

  15. Line Transport in Turbulent Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    The spectral line transfer in turbulent atmospheres with a spatially correlated velocity field is examined. Both the finite and semi-infinite media are treated. In finding the observed intensities we first deal with the problem for determining the mean intensity of radiation emerging from the medium for a fixed value of turbulent velocity at its boundary. A new approach proposed for solving this problem is based on the invariant imbedding technique which yields the solution of the proper problems for a family of media of different optical thicknesses and allows tackling different kinds of inhomogeneous problems. The dependence of the line profile, integral intensity, and the line width on the mean correlation length and the average value of the hydrodynamic velocity is studied. It is shown that the transition from a micro-turbulent regime to a macro-turbulence occurs within a comparatively narrow range of variation in the correlation length . Ambartsumian's principle of invariance is used to solve the problem of diffuse reflection of the line radiation from a one-dimensional semi-infinite turbulent atmosphere. In addition to the observed spectral line profile, statistical averages describing the diffusion process in the atmosphere (mean number of scattering events, average time spent by a diffusing photon in the medium) are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the average hydrodynamic velocity and correlation coefficient is studied.

  16. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  17. Double Helix Nodal Line Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave as Wilson loops of 3D momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus Fermi surfaces and spiral spin textures. We construct such a model with two torus Fermi surfaces, where a generic spin-dependent interaction leads to double-helix-like linked nodal lines as the superconductivity is developed.

  18. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technologythat allows transmission at 8.488 Mbps over the existingtelephone copper line (speed range depending on the distance.ADSL circuit connects the ADSL modems by twisted-pairtelephone lines creating three infonnation channels: high speedsimplex (maximum 9 Mbps, medium speed duplex channel(maximum 2 Mbps and plain old telephone service channel.ADSL technology supports up to seven synchronous channelsthat can be configured to meet the needs of the end user.One could simultaneously view four movies stored in MPEG 1fonnat on separate television sets (MPEG 1 transmitted at 1.5Mbps, hold a video-conference (transmitted at 348 kbps,download data files from a server at 128 kbps via ISDN andeven receive a telephone call.

  19. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing.

  20. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing. © 2011 ACM.

  1. Double Helix Nodal Line Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-10-06

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave as Wilson loops of 3D momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus Fermi surfaces and spiral spin textures. We construct such a model with two torus Fermi surfaces, where a generic spin-dependent interaction leads to double-helix-like linked nodal lines as the superconductivity is developed.

  2. Rigidly connected magnetic lines: twisting and winding of magnetic lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical process of magnetic flux variation in a fluid's stream tube is described by constructing 1+1+ (2) decomposition of the gradient of fluid's 4-velocity. The necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a spacelike congruence to be a congruence of rigidly connected spacelike curves. The evolution of magnetic flux in a magnetic tube is explored under the assumptions that magnetic lines are rigidly connected and the chemical potential of the fluid is constant along a magnetic tube. The interplay between magnetic and stream tubes is demonstrated. It is shown that the growth of magnetic energy in a magnetic tube cannot exceed to that of a stream tube. It is found that the proper time variation of twist of magnetic lines is caused by gravitation inside a neutron star if magnetic lines are rigidly connected and charge neutrality condition holds. Helmholtz-like magnetic vorticity flux conservation in a magnetic tube constituted by rigidly connected geodetic magnetic lines is derived under the assumption that the charge neutrality condition holds. It is shown that the winding of frozen-in poloidal magnetic field due to differential rotation requires meridional circulation in an axisymmetric stationary hydromagnetic configuration.

  3. Assembly line performance and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-03-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  4. Line locking and SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarevich, M.; Piran, T.; Shaham, J.

    1984-01-01

    The general problem of acceleration by line locking in an optically thin medium is considered. Analytic solutions to the coupled equations of radiation transfer and matter motion are presented. Using these solutions, restrictions on the physical conditions of the accelerated matter are derived. By applying these conditions to SS 433, it is found that if the absorbing ion is light (hydrogen or helium), the matter must be highly clumped, and the acceleration has to begin at approximately 10 to the 12th cm. Line-locking acceleration with a hydrogen-like heavy ion such as iron demands higher than solar ion abundance.

  5. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  6. Nazca-Lines and Maria Reiche - I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, N.

    Huge and numerous geometrical lines and figures drawn on the stony desert near Nazca, Peru, are known as "Nazca Lines". Those lines might be the "largest calendar" which were drawn by ancient Peruvian towards the directions of setting and rising celestial bodies, proposes Maria Reiche, a great researcher and introducer of the Nazca Lines. The author reports the status of the Nazca Lines, and reviews the various studies to explain the purpose why the Nazca Lines were drawn.

  7. 46 CFR 45.31 - Deck line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck line. 45.31 Section 45.31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.31 Deck line. (a) Each vessel must be marked with a deck line on the outer surface of the shell on each side of...

  8. Détermination du rapport d’embranchement de la transition super-permise du carbone 10 et développement et intégration de la ligne de faisceau PIPERADE au CENBG

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091894; Giovinazzo, Jérôme

    Les études de la radioactivité bêta dans les milieux nucléaires permettent en partie de participer à la détermination d’un des paramètres qui décrit l'interaction faible (la constante de couplage vectoriel). Pour cela, de nombreuses mesures permettent déjà d’atteindre de grandes précisions sur ce paramètre pour un grand nombre de noyaux des transitions bêta super-permise. Cependant, pour le carbone 10, l'incertitude relative du rapport d'embranchement reste encore élevée par rapport aux autres noyaux pères avec une valeur de l’ordre de 0,13 %. Ceci est dû à l’énergie du photon émis par l’état 0+ du noyau fils qui est de 1021,6 keV, c’est-à-dire proche de l’énergie d’empilement de deux signaux de photons de 511 keV. En mai 2015, notre groupe a réalisé, à ISOLDE au CERN, une expérience afin de mesurer très précisément cette transition. Pour produire le carbone 10,nous avons réalisé des réactions nucléaires qui produisaient en grandes parties les noyaux d’inté...

  9. Streaming Algorithms for Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Hachenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We study the following variant of the well-known line-simplification problem: we are getting a (possibly infinite) sequence of points p 0,p 1,p 2,… in the plane defining a polygonal path, and as we receive the points, we wish to maintain a simplification of the path seen so far. We study this pro...

  10. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  11. Persistent diffusion on a line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Chaturvedi, S.

    1988-02-01

    We consider solutions to the telegraph equation describing persistent diffusion on a line under various initial conditions. The first passage time distribution is evaluated in closed form. Biased persistent diffusion is also considered. A direct derivation of the telegraph equation from the stochastic equation for the displacement is presented in an appendix.

  12. Software product lines : Organizational alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J

    2001-01-01

    Software product lines enjoy increasingly wide adoption in the software industry. Most authors focus on the technical and process aspects and assume an organizational model consisting of a domain engineering unit and several application engineering units. In our cooperation with several software

  13. Reconnections of Wave Vortex Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    When wave vortices, that is nodal lines of a complex scalar wavefunction in space, approach transversely, their typical crossing and reconnection is a two-stage process incorporating two well-understood elementary events in which locally coplanar hyperbolas switch branches. The explicit description of this reconnection is a pedagogically useful…

  14. Pulsations detected in the line profile variations of red giants : modelling of line moments, line bisector and line shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; Aerts, C.; Ridder, J. de; Carrier, F.

    2006-01-01

    Context: So far, red giant oscillations have been studied from radial velocity and/or light curve variations, which reveal frequencies of the oscillation modes. To characterise radial and non-radial oscillations, line profile variations are a valuable diagnostic. Here we present for the first time a

  15. Managing first-line failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cooper

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(tRTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(tRTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80% for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20% protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  17. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/pmsc/127/03/0547-0549. Keywords. Calabi–Yau threefold; torsion; cocompact lattice; unitary representation. Abstract. We prove that there are cocompact lattices Γ in S L ( 2 , C ) with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles ...

  18. Managing first-line failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David A

    2014-01-01

    WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(t)RTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(t)RTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80%) for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20%) protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. Project of study of the phenomenon of multicellular resistance by micro-tomography; Projet d`etude du phenomene de resistance multicellulaire par micro-tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, Ph.; Michelet, C. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); Ortega, R.; Simonov, M. [URA 451, Gradignan (France); Benard, J. [Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Clinique et Moleculaire, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif, (France)

    1997-06-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids are cellular aggregates that can be prepared from many types of tumor cells. These three-dimensional structures provide a good model for solid tumor and the field of cell pharmacology of anticancer drugs. We plan to associate this model with the technique of micro-tomography, under development with the CENBG microbeam, in order to study the acquired multicellular mediated resistance to cisplatin. This study well be carried out using the IGROV1 adenocarcinoma cell line, a line that was previously extensively studied by our group, but cultured as a monolayer. (authors) 7 refs.

  20. The Silicon Cube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matea, I.; Adimi, N. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Blank, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)], E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Canchel, G.; Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Tengblad, O. [Insto. Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, J.-C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-08-21

    A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

  1. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Mickes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details ...

  2. Spectral Line Shapes of He I Line 3889 Å

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaz Omar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral line shapes of neutral helium 3889 Å(23S–33P transition line are calculated by using several theoretical methods. The electronic contribution to the line broadening is calculated from quantum statistical many-particle theory by using thermodynamic Green's function, including dynamic screening of the electron-atom interaction. The ionic contribution is taken into account in a quasistatic approximation, where a static microfield distribution function is presented. Strong electron collisions are consistently considered with an effective two-particle T-matrix approach, where Convergent Close Coupling method gives scattering amplitudes including Debye screening for neutral helium. Then the static profiles converted to dynamic profiles by using the Frequency Fluctuation Model. Furthermore, Molecular Dynamics simulations for interacting and independent particles are used where the dynamic sequence of microfield is taken into account. Plasma parameters are diagnosed and good agreements are shown by comparing our theoretical results with the recent experimental result of Jovićević et al. (J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 2005, 38, 1249. Additionally, comparison with various experimental data in a wide range of electron density ne ≈ (1022− 1024m−3 and temperature T ≈ (2−6 × 104 K are presented.

  3. Transmission line studies for ITER compatible reflectometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, D.; Kasparek, W.; Gantenbein, G.; Manso, M. E.; Sanchez, J.; Donne, A. J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Corrugated circular transmission lines are considered as high performance, low loss, broadband lines for reflectometry on ITER. These lines are proposed as a possible solution for the equatorial low-field-side system and as a part (receiver-vacuum vessel) of the transmission lines for the high-field

  4. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941, the Commission announced its determination that transmission lines which are not primary lines transmitting power...

  5. Nazca-lines and Maria Reiche - II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, N.

    Huge and numerous geometrical lines and figures drawn on the stony desert near Nazca, Peru, are known as "Nazca Lines". Those lines might be the "largest calendar" which were drawn towards the directions of setting and rising celestial bodies by ancient Peruvian, proposes Maria Reiche, a great researcher and introducer of the Nazca Lines. The future of the Nazca Lines is seriously concerned due to the recent rapid developments in Peru. The author reports the status of the Nazca Lines, and reviews the various studies to explain the purpose why the Nazca Lines were drawn.

  6. LINE-1 Cultured Cell Retrotransposition Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Huira C.; Larson, Peter A.; Moldovan, John B.; Richardson, Sandra R.; Liu, Ying; Moran, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition assay has facilitated the discovery and characterization of active (i.e., retrotransposition-competent) LINE-1 sequences from mammalian genomes. In this assay, an engineered LINE-1 containing a retrotransposition reporter cassette is transiently transfected into a cultured cell line. Expression of the reporter cassette, which occurs only after a successful round of retrotransposition, allows the detection and quantification of the LINE-1 retrotransposition efficiency. This assay has yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition. It also has provided a greater understanding of how the cell regulates LINE-1 retrotransposition and how LINE-1 retrotransposition impacts the structure of mammalian genomes. Below, we provide a brief introduction to LINE-1 biology and then detail how the LINE-1 retrotransposition assay is performed in cultured mammalian cells. PMID:26895052

  7. Forecasting for dynamic line rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiorri, Andrea; Nguyen, Huu-Minh; Alessandrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of the art on the research on Dynamic Line Rating forecasting. It is directed at researchers and decision-makers in the renewable energy and smart grids domain, and in particular at members of both the power system and meteorological community. Its aim...... sensors on the line that measure conductor temperature, tension, sag or environmental parameters such as wind speed and air temperature. Because of the conservative assumptions used to calculate static seasonal ampacity limits and the variability of weather parameters, DLRs are considerably higher than....... In order to facilitate the integration of DLR into power system operations, research has been launched into DLR forecasting, following a similar avenue to IRS production forecasting, i.e. based on a mix of statistical methods and meteorological forecasts. The development of reliable DLR forecasts...

  8. Line Creep in Paper Peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosti J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling configuration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent finding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

  9. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  10. Transversal Lines of the Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Onghena

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.

  11. Line graphs as social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Muchnik, L.; Mańka-Krasoń, A.; Kułakowski, K.

    2011-07-01

    It was demonstrated recently that the line graphs are clustered and assortative. These topological features are known to characterize some social networks [M.E.J. Newman, Y. Park, Why social networks are different from other types of networks, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036122]; it was argued that this similarity reveals their cliquey character. In the model proposed here, a social network is the line graph of an initial network of families, communities, interest groups, school classes and small companies. These groups play the role of nodes, and individuals are represented by links between these nodes. The picture is supported by the data on the LiveJournal network of about 8×10 6 people.

  12. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  13. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  14. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  15. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.

    1977-11-01

    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  16. Firing up the front line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, J R; Santamaria, J A

    1999-01-01

    For many organizations, achieving competitive advantage means eliciting superior performance from employees on the front line--the burger flippers, hotel room cleaners, and baggage handlers whose work has an enormous effect on customers. That's no easy task. Front line workers are paid low wages, have scant hope of advancement, and--not surprisingly--often care little about the company's performance. But then how do some companies succeed in engaging the emotional energy of rank-and-file workers? A team of researchers at McKinsey & Company and the Conference Board recently explored that question and discovered that one highly effective route is demonstrated by the U.S. Marine Corps. The Marines' approach to motivation follows the "mission, values, and pride" path, which researchers say is practical and relevant for the business world. More specifically, the authors say the Marines follow five practices: they over-invest in cultivating core value; prepare every person to lead, including front line supervisors; learn when to create teams and when to create single-leader work groups; attend to all employees, not just the top half; and encourage self-discipline as a way of building pride. The authors admit there are critical differences between the Marines and most businesses. But using vivid examples from companies such as KFC and Marriott International, the authors illustrate how the Marines' approach can be translated for corporate use. Sometimes, the authors maintain, minor changes in a company's standard operating procedure can have a powerful effect on front line pride and can result in substantial payoffs in company performance.

  17. On-line survey method

    OpenAIRE

    Dvornáková, Táňa

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with modern ways of surveys using advancing information technology and internet which makes surveys using web applications more effective. After a short review of public opinion history the summary of principal czech and forign survey organizations engaged in determination of survey rules are presented. Thesis follows with description of classic and modern data collecting methods. Main attention is devoted to on-line survey method. The description of method, possibilities of real...

  18. Diccionario de neologismos on line

    OpenAIRE

    Institut Universitari de Lingstica Aplicada; Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada

    2010-01-01

    El Diccionario de neologismos on line es una obra lexicográfica que recoge más de 4.000 neologismos en castellano documentados entre 1989 y 2007, mayoritariamente en prensa escrita. Los neologismos van acompañados de definición lexicográfica y varios contextos de uso, además de informaciones sobre la categoría grammatical, la fuente y fecha de procedencia, etc.

  19. Replication timing kept in LINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rachel J; O'Neill, Michael J

    2018-01-18

    Accurate and synchronous replication timing between chromosome homologues is essential for maintaining chromosome stability, yet how this is achieved has remained a mystery. In this issue, Platt et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201707082) identify antisense LINE (L1) transcripts within long noncoding RNAs as the critical factor in maintaining synchronous chromosome-wide replication timing. © 2018 O'Neill and O'Neill.

  20. Line-Editor Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    ZED editing program for DEC VAX computer simple, powerful line editor for text, program source code, and nonbinary data. Excels in processing of text by use of procedure files. Also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, online help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. Users of Cambridge implementation devised such ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating pi. Written entirely in C.

  1. Gamma-Ray Line Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive isotopes, ejected into interstellar space by cosmic nucleosynthesis events, are observed with new space telescopes. The Compton Observatory had provided a sky survey for the isotopes 56Co, 22Na, 44Ti, and 26Al, detecting supernova radioactivity and the diffuse glow of long-lived radioactivity from massive stars in the Galaxy. High-resolution spectroscopy is now being exploited with Ge detectors: Since 2002, with ESA's INTEGRAL satellite and the RHESSI solar im...

  2. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  3. Managing SEMP on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, L.E.; Luppens, J.C. [Phillips Petroleum, Lafayette, LA (United States); Johnson, S.T. [M and H Enterprises, Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The North America Production Division of Phillips Petroleum Company has teamed with M and H Enterprises to provide its operators, technicians, engineers and management on-line access and control of the change process and the extensive documentation involved in compliance with API RP 75 Safety and Environmental Management Program (SEMP). M and H Enterprises developed the WinPSM/SEMP{trademark} software and customized it to meet Phillips` SEMP policies and software standards. WinPSM/SEMP is a Windows based client server application, which features the use of a state of the art document management software technology. This system addresses all the elements of SEMP with the all important Management of Change module as a cornerstone component to the program. This paper presents the benefits of an on-line system over the traditional paper based system to control documentation resulting from SEMP compliance. It will demonstrate how this solution has resulted in a streamlined management of change process, safety training has become more current, and safety related procedures have become more accessible to the employees and better documented for compliance reporting purposes. The paper will point out the effectiveness of integrating all elements of SEMP into a single software product, taking advantage of familiar workplace environments to speed up the learning curve for field personnel. It will also address the flexibility of using such a system to include other on-line applications that have similar database accessibility requirements between the field and the supporting office.

  4. Community LINE Source Model (C-LINE) | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an introduction for the live demo and explains the purpose of C-LINE and its key features. C-LINE is a web-based model designed to inform the community user of local air quality impacts due to mobile-sources in their region of interest using a simplified modeling approach. It is designed for examining what-if scenarios of changes in emissions, such as those due to changes in traffic volume, fleet mix, or vehicle speed. The model is not intended to be used for any regulatory, enforcement or permitting decisions. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  5. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2) Wherever...

  6. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  7. The Haptic Lines of Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.; Takatsuka, M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual underpinnings, working processes and the tools used for preparing the scene files of a holographic art work which offers a subjective view point on the idea of homeland. The art work, Homeland, an optically formed fringe digital hologram, which is contextualized by the holographic maps used in situational awareness, indicates its subjectivity by strongly referencing the human body, particularly the lines of the palm of the hand. ... because the body belongs to the order of things as the world is universal flesh. Maurice Merleau-Ponty

  8. A contrario line segment detection

    CERN Document Server

    von Gioi, Rafael Grompone

    2014-01-01

    The reliable detection of low-level image structures is an old and still challenging problem in computer vision. This?book leads a detailed tour through the LSD algorithm, a line segment detector designed to be fully automatic. Based on the a contrario framework, the algorithm works efficiently without the need of any parameter tuning. The design criteria are thoroughly explained and the algorithm's good and bad results are illustrated on real and synthetic images. The issues involved, as well as the strategies used, are common to many geometrical structure detection problems and some possible

  9. The appearance of beam lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C.

    1993-05-01

    The combination of an existing graphics package with a large program like TRANSPORT has often resulted in considerable modification to the large program. Use of other graphics package has resulted in essentially having to repeat the work. This difficulty has been avoided in a modification of TRANSPORT which produce layouts of beam lines. Drawings of the reference trajectory and three-dimensional images of all magnets are made by the graphics package TOP DRAWER. Nothing specific to TOP DRAWER or any other graphics has been incorporated into TRANSPORT. If a user is with a different graphics package he or she can then begin usage of this alternate package essentially immediately.

  10. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  11. The Astrophysics of Emission-Line Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    2007-01-01

    Many types of stars show conspicuous emission lines in their optical spectra. These stars are broadly referred to as emission line stars. Emission line stars are attractive to many people because of their spectacular phenomena and their variability. The Astrophysics of Emission Line Stars offers general information on emission line stars, starting from a brief introduction to stellar astrophysics, and then moving toward a broad overview of emission line stars including early and late type stars as well as pre-main sequence stars. Detailed references have been prepared along with an index for further reading.

  12. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV...... and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  13. Grism-based pulse shaper for line-by-line control of more than 600 optical frequency comb lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M S; Diddams, S A

    2010-10-01

    We construct a line-by-line pulse shaper using a grism (grating plus prism) dispersive element, which provides constant angular dispersion over 13.4 THz centered at ~311 THz (965 nm). When combined with a dual-mask liquid crystal modulator, this grism-based shaper is capable of line-by-line amplitude and phase control of over 600 modes of a 21 GHz stabilized optical frequency comb.

  14. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  15. Beam line design using G4BeamLine

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Arda

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey in Ankara TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility (PAF), there is a cyclotron which produces a focused intense 30 MeV proton beam and sends this beam to four different arms, three of which uses this beam to produce pharmaceutical medicine. The remaining one is spared for R&D purposes and the idea was to use these protons coming out from the fourth arm to use space radiation tests, which cannot be done in Turkey at the moment. However, according to SCC 25100 standards which is for 30 MeV protons, the beam coming out of cyclotron is too intense and focused to use for space radiation tests. Therefore, the main aim of my project is to design a beam line which will defocus the beam and reduce the flux so that the space radiation tests can be done according to the standards of SCC 25100.

  16. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  17. Variability issues in software product lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Florijn, G; Greefhorst, D; Kuusela, J; Obbink, JH; Pohl, K; VanderLinden, F

    2002-01-01

    Software product lines (or system families) have achieved considerable adoption by the software industry. A software product line captures the commonalities between a set of products while providing for the differences. Differences are managed by delaying design decisions, thereby introducing

  18. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  19. Student Peer Evaluated Line Balancing Competition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    The Student Peer Evaluated Line Balancing Competition is a 30-minute in-class problem-based learning experiential exercise that challenges student groups to design a feasible and efficient laptop computer assembly line. Each student...

  20. Electrically Isolating Transmission-Line Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic coupling circuit used to insert signal in transmission line and to isolate transmission line from ground of circuit in which signal originates. Made from commercially available components, reduces susceptibility to interference along transmission path.

  1. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  2. FB Line Basis for Interim Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19

    The safety analysis of the FB-Line Facility indicates that the operation of FB-Line to support the current mission does not present undue risk to the facility and co-located workers, general public, or the environment.

  3. Smart street lights using power line communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available street light faults with the use of communication over the power line. The developed system communicates over power lines using modified frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation. The system used an LDR (light dependent resistor) based light sensor...

  4. Realization of intermediate links of line arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    We investigate several topological and combinatorial properties of line arrangements. We associate to a line arrangement a link obtained by intersecting the arrangement with some sphere. Several topics are discussed: (a) some link configurations can be realized by complex line arrangements but not by real line arrangements; (b) if we intersect the arrangements with a vertical band instead of a sphere, what link configurations can be obtained? (c) relations between link configurations obtained...

  5. The Emission Line Objects At 0PEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. J. E.; Ly, C.; Rothberg, B.; Dahlen, T.

    2012-05-01

    Emission line galaxies are a powerful tracer of star formation in the Universe. By computing and examining the shape of the line luminosity function (the number density per logarithmic interval in line luminosity) we can study how star formation occurred in star forming galaxies. We can also look for variation in the line luminosity function of these objects as a function of redshift to look for evidence of evolution in the way star formation took place over the last few billion years. We present emission line luminosity functions obtained using the slitless grism survey data of the PEARS projects. We applied the PEARS-2D technique to pinpoint the location of line emission in field galaxies and hence were able to extract spectra of individual line emission regions in the PEARS fields, which covers a large fraction of the GOODS-N and GOODS-S fields. We detected lines with fluxes as low as 5. 10^-18 erg/s/cm^2 and identified Ha, OIII, OII, Hg and Lya lines, over a redshift range of 0lines we identified are Ha (213 lines, 0lines, 0.2lines, 0.6line emission regions, multiple line emissions regions as well as several cases of multiple star forming regions in single galaxies. We present the luminosity functions for Ha, OII, and OIII computed across these relatively broad redshift ranges using both the Vmax and STY methods and investigate the redshift dependence of these luminosity functions, and the physical distribution of the emission line regions we detect.

  6. 14 CFR 121.440 - Line checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Line checks. 121.440 Section 121.440..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Crewmember Qualifications § 121.440 Line checks. (a) No certificate... preceding 12 calendar months, that person has passed a line check in which he satisfactorily performs the...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel lines. 56.4501 Section 56.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel lines. 57.4501 Section 57.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  9. ILIGRA : An Efficient Inverse Line Graph Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Trajanovski, S.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new and efficient algorithm, ILIGRA, for inverse line graph construction. Given a line graph H, ILIGRA constructs its root graph G with the time complexity being linear in the number of nodes in H. If ILIGRA does not know whether the given graph H is a line graph, it firstly

  10. Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, K.V.; Damodaran, M.; Braaf, B.; Vermeer, K.A.; de Boer, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    A parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope (PLSO) is presented using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for parallel confocal line imaging of the retina. The posterior part of the eye is illuminated using up to seven parallel lines, which were projected at 100 Hz. The DMD offers a high degree of

  11. 32 CFR 644.7 - Acquisition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.7 Acquisition lines. (a) Tentative acquisition lines. As..., in accordance with sound real estate practices. Accordingly, fringe tracts will not be acquired until the final acquisition lines are approved by the Division Engineer. (b) Submission. As soon as possible...

  12. optimal assembly line balancing using simulation techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In assembly line balancing, a garment manufacturer is interested in whether assembly work will be finished on time for delivery, how machines and employees are being utilized, whether any station in the assembly line is lagging behind the schedule and how the assembly line is doing overall. The role of a supervisor is to ...

  13. Beam line to S155

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The experiment S155 was designed by the Orsay (CSNM-CNRS) Collaboration to observe the properties of exotic light nuclei. It was installed in the PS neutrino tunnel. The photo shows a mass spectrometer (in the background) on line with the PS proton beam which arrives (bottom, right) from the fast extraction FE74. Roger Fergeau stands on the left. The alkaline isotopes produced in the carbon-uranium target heated at 2000°C were swiftly extracted, mass separated, and brought to a detector behind the shielding. Sodium 34 (11 protons and 23 neutrons) was observed and its half-life of only 5 ms was measured. The excited levels 2+ of Magnesium 30 and Magnesium 32 (Sodium descendants) were localised, and the magic number 20 was found to vanish. Thus, the discovery made earlier for Sodium 30 and Sodium 32, with the same apparatus, was confirmed. (See also photo 7706511.)

  14. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  15. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  16. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  17. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  18. Spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Hirayama, Motoaki; Murakami, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    Nodal-line semimetals, one of the topological semimetals, have degeneracy along nodal lines where the band gap is closed. In many cases, the nodal lines appear accidentally, and in such cases it is impossible to determine whether the nodal lines appear or not, only from the crystal symmetry and the electron filling. In this paper, for spinless systems, we show that in specific space groups at 4 N +2 fillings (8 N +4 fillings including the spin degree of freedom), presence of the nodal lines is required regardless of the details of the systems. Here, the spinless systems refer to crystals where the spin-orbit coupling is negligible and the spin degree of freedom can be omitted because of the SU(2) spin degeneracy. In this case the shape of the band structure around these nodal lines is like an hourglass, and we call this a spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal. We construct a model Hamiltonian as an example and we show that it is always in the spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal phase even when the model parameters are changed without changing the symmetries of the system. We also establish a list of all the centrosymmetric space groups, under which spinless systems always have hourglass nodal lines, and illustrate where the nodal lines are located. We propose that Al3FeSi2 , whose space-group symmetry is Pbcn (No. 60), is one of the nodal-line semimetals arising from this mechanism.

  19. Mode propagation and attenuation in lined ducts

    CERN Document Server

    BI, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Optimal impedance for each mode is an important concept in an infinitely long duct lined with uniform absorption material. However it is not valid for finite length linings. This is because that the modes in lined ducts are not power-orthogonal; the total sound power is not equal to the sum of the sound power of each mode; cross-power terms may play important roles. In this paper, we study sound propagation and attenuation in an infinite rigid duct lined with a finite length of lining impedance. The lining impedance may be axial segments and circumferentially non-uniform. We propose two new physical quantities Kp and S to describe the self-overlap of the left eigenfunction and right eigenfunction of one mode and the normalized overlap between modes, respectively. The two new physical quantities describe totally the mode behaviors in lined ducts.

  20. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  1. Automatic Power Line Inspection Using UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power line inspection ensures the safe operation of a power transmission grid. Using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images of power line corridors is an effective way to carry out these vital inspections. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection method for power lines using UAV images. This method, known as the power line automatic measurement method based on epipolar constraints (PLAMEC, acquires the spatial position of the power lines. Then, the semi patch matching based on epipolar constraints (SPMEC dense matching method is applied to automatically extract dense point clouds within the power line corridor. Obstacles can then be automatically detected by calculating the spatial distance between a power line and the point cloud representing the ground. Experimental results show that the PLAMEC automatically measures power lines effectively with a measurement accuracy consistent with that of manual stereo measurements. The height root mean square (RMS error of the point cloud was 0.233 m, and the RMS error of the power line was 0.205 m. In addition, we verified the detected obstacles in the field and measured the distance between the canopy and power line using a laser range finder. The results show that the difference of these two distances was within ±0.5 m.

  2. Transmission of Electric Energy Along Long Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of electric energy along long lines is examined and characteristics of the change of capacities at the beginning and at the end of a line are submitted: factor of capacity, efficiency of a transmission line, currents depending on length, parameters of a line and parameters of loading. Influence of losses upon the dynamics of instant values of voltages and currents in the opened and short-circuited long lines is investigated and effects of nonlinearity in such chains are revealed at a power supply from a sinusoidal source of voltage. It is shown, that the method of complex amplitudes is not always applicable for the calculation of modes in long lines.

  3. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill......The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate......, as well as the migration of landfill gas, preventing contact between gas and groundwater. The bottom lining system is composed of a relatively impermeable liner or lining system. This very low hydraulic conductivity system controls the movement of the leachate out of the landfill. The bottom lining system...

  4. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  5. Laser line scan performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Schofield, Oscar; Kerfoot, John; Giddings, Tom; Shirron, Joe; Twardowski, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of sensors that use optical measurements for the laser detection and identification of subsurface mines is directly related to water clarity. The primary objective of the work presented here was to use the optical data collected by UUV (Slocum Glider) surveys of an operational areas to estimate the performance of an electro-optical identification (EOID) Laser Line Scan (LLS) system during RIMPAC 06, an international naval exercise off the coast of Hawaii. Measurements of optical backscattering and beam attenuation were made with a Wet Labs, Inc. Scattering Absorption Meter (SAM), mounted on a Rutgers University/Webb Research Slocum glider. The optical data universally indicated extremely clear water in the operational area, except very close to shore. The beam-c values from the SAM sensor were integrated to three attenuation lengths to provide an estimate of how well the LLS would perform in detecting and identifying mines in the operational areas. Additionally, the processed in situ optical data served as near-real-time input to the Electro-Optic Detection Simulator, ver. 3 (EODES-3; Metron, Inc.) model for EOID performance prediction. Both methods of predicting LLS performance suggested a high probability of detection and probability of identification. These predictions were validated by the actual performance of the LLS as the EOID system yielded imagery from which reliable mine identification could be made. Future plans include repeating this work in more optically challenging water types to demonstrate the utility of pre-mission UUV surveys of operational areas as a tactical decision aid for planning EOID missions.

  6. Universal statistics of vortex lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T

    2012-03-01

    We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.

  7. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Postolati V.; Bycova Е.; Suslov V.; Timashova L.; Shakarian Yu.; Kareva S.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL) constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL), appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced ...

  8. Development of a Handheld Line Information Reader and Generator for Efficient Management of Optical Communication Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeyul; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Song, Jaewon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-08-24

    A handheld line information reader and a line information generator were developed for the efficient management of optical communication lines. The line information reader consists of a photo diode, trans-impedance amplifier, voltage amplifier, microcontroller unit, display panel, and communication modules. The line information generator consists of a laser diode, laser driving circuits, microcontroller unit, and communication modules. The line information reader can detect the optical radiation field of the test line by bending the optical fiber. To enhance the sensitivity of the line information reader, an additional lens was used with a focal length of 4.51 mm. Moreover, the simulation results obtained through BeamPROP® software from Synopsys, Inc. demonstrated a stronger optical radiation field of the fiber due to a longer transmission wavelength and larger bending angle of the fiber. Therefore, the developed devices can be considered as useful tools for the efficient management of optical communication lines.

  9. Application of transmission-line super theory to classical transmission lines with risers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambousky, R.; Nitsch, J.; Tkachenko, S.

    2015-11-01

    By applying the Transmission-Line Super Theory (TLST) to a practical transmission-line configuration (two risers and a horizontal part of the line parallel to the ground plane) it is elaborated under which physical and geometrical conditions the horizontal part of the transmission-line can be represented by a classical telegrapher equation with a sufficiently accurate description of the physical properties of the line. The risers together with the part of the horizontal line close to them are treated as separate lines using the TLST. Novel frequency and local dependent reflection coefficients are introduced to take into account the action of the bends and their radiation. They can be derived from the matrizant elements of the TLST solution. It is shown that the solution of the resulting network and the TLST solution of the entire line agree for certain line configurations. The physical and geometrical parameters for these corresponding configurations are determined in this paper.

  10. Text line Segmentation of Curved Document Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree.M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Document image analysis has been widely used in historical and heritage studies, education and digital library. Document image analytical techniques are mainly used for improving the human readability and the OCR quality of the document. During the digitization, camera captured images contain warped document due perspective and geometric distortions. The main difficulty is text line detection in the document. Many algorithms had been proposed to address the problem of printed document text line detection, but they failed to extract text lines in curved document. This paper describes a segmentation technique that detects the curled text line in camera captured document images.

  11. Stability of the LHC transfer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is filled from the SPS through two 3 km transfer lines. The injected beam parameters need to be well under control for luminosity performance, machine protection and operational efficiency. Small fractions of beam loss on the transfer line collimation system create showers which can trigger the sensitive LHC beam loss monitor system nearby and cause a beam abort during filling. The stability of the transfer line trajectory through the collimators is particularly critical in this respect. This paper will report on the transfer line trajectory stability during the proton run in 2011, correlations with injection losses, correction frequency and the most likely sources for the observed oscillations.

  12. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  13. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  14. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study.......The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related...

  15. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  16. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  17. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  18. Red Sesbania Distribution - lines [ds81

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer conatains line data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  19. Absorption-Line Studies of Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, J. Michael

    We propose to undertake a "reverberation analysis" of the variable absorption lines ill two Seyfert Galaxies (NGC 4051 and Mrk 279) to help understand the origin of intrinsic absorption lines in AGNs. Stich an analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating the radial distribution of absorbing gas in the broad-line region (BLR) and narrow-line region (NLR). Only two Seyferts have previously been studied with this technique: NGC 4151 (Bromage el al. 1985; Clavel et al. 1987) and NGC 3516 (Voit, Shull, and Begelman 1987). The absorption features have been interpreted as an outflow of ionized clouds from the nuclear region or from an accretion disk affected by UV/X-ray heating. Neither the source of the absorbing gas in these Seyferts nor the "gene" which distingishes them from other Seyferts is known. Until the 1984 onset of absorption in Mrk 279, broad self-absorbed. lines had been observed only in Seyferts of low intrinsic luminosity, such as NGC 4051. Mrk 279 is intrinsically much brighter, and therefore more quasar-like, than the other three absorptionline Seyfert I's in the CfA sample. Thus, it may show how the absorption phenomenon changes at higher luminosity and could bridge the gap between the low luminosity absorption-line Seyferts and the well-studied broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO's. In addition, Mrk 279's significant redshift will allow us to study, for the first time, the Ly-alpha line in an absorption-line Seyfert. With 3 US-1 shifts for each of these two underobserved Seyferts, we can double the number of objects in which absorption-line variability has been studied and investigate why the absorption-line strengths correlate or anti-correlate with the UV continuum.

  20. The LHCb VELO analogue transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, A.; Borel, J.; Buytaert, J.; De Laere, S.; Frei, R.; Haefeli, G.; Koppenburg, P.; Locatelli, L.; Schneider, O.; Zehr, F.

    2010-02-01

    The Vertex Locator is one of the most important sub-detectors of the LHCb experiment, which is devoted to B physics. The signals from the silicon strip sensors are multiplexed at 40 MHz and transported by 60 m copper lines to the counting stations placed in a radiation safe area. This paper describes the development of this long transmission line and its performance.

  1. <50> MeV transfer line

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Measurement equipment around the 50 MeV transfer line from linac to booster. The vacuum pipe in the centre, with a temporary beam stopper in the foreground, leads to booster injection equipment. On the left is a spectrometer to determine energy spread, and in the right-hand line apparatus for emittance measurement.

  2. Growth and Maintenance of Vero Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ammerman, Nicole C.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2008-01-01

    Vero cells are derived from the kidney of an African green monkey, and are one of the more commonly used mammalian continuous cell lines in microbiology, and molecular and cell biology research. This unit includes protocols for the growth and maintenance of Vero cell lines in a research laboratory setting.

  3. Liquid carbon: structure near the freezing line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Los, J.H.; Meijer, E.J.; Fasolino, A.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structure of liquid carbon near the freezing line. The results are obtained by molecular simulation using a recently developed state-of-the-art bond order potential. We find that along the melting line the liquid is predominantly threefold coordinated up to

  4. Structural Modules Would Contain Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal, originally suggested for Spacecraft, is a set of uniformly sized mass-producible modular structural elements that contain electric, fluid, and other transmission lines. Since lines are encapsulated, they are less likely to be damaged. Module shell could be solid metal, sheet metal, honeycomb, fiberglass, plastic, composites, or wood.

  5. Coping on the Front-line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This article investigates how front-line employees respond to English language policies implemented by the management of three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data the article examines the ways in which front-line employees cross lan...

  6. Identifying Fractions on a Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are generally introduced to students using the part--whole model. Yet the number line is another important representation which can be used to build fraction concepts (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012). Number lines are recognised as key in students' number development not only of fractions, but…

  7. Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To visualize retinal structures using a newly developed parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope (PLSO). Methods: A PLSO was built using a digital micromirror device (DMD) instead of traditional scanning mirrors to scan lines over the field of view (FOV). The DMD consists of 912 × 1140

  8. "And first he drew a line"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    At the end of “Night the Seventh” of Blake’s The Four Zoas, Blake’s Los, against a background of “furious war”, takes a stance and then performs an act which might seem powerless and quaint against such a backdrop: he draws a line, beginning work consisting of lines which Enitharmon, his companion...

  9. Assembly-Line Manufacturing Industry Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Firnett, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Assists in economic analysis of production line manufacturing. Originally developed to estimate product price received by hypothetical U.S. industry that manufactures silicon solar modules for use in electricity generation, SAMIS extended and generalized to extent that it simulates operation of many different production line manufacturing industries and/or companies.

  10. Determination of Transmission Line Impedance Matching Parameters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, transmission line impedance matching parameters were determined in Ugbowo ED0024GI Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) base station in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The transmission line impedance matching parameter viz voltage standing wave ratio was measured with the aid of the ...

  11. Low-energy beam line at KVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toprek, D.; Formanoy, I.; Brandenburg, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the redesign of the low-energy beam line at KVI. Redesigned and properties of the optical elements of the transport beam line is done by using the code COSY INFINITY in the third-order of approximation. The effects of fringe fields of the optical elements are also taken into

  12. Transmission Lines in CMOS: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Kreienkamp, R.; Ellermeyer, T.; Langmann, U.

    On-chip transmission line modelling and design become increasingly important as frequencies are continuously going up. This paper explores possibilities to implement transmission lines on CMOS ICs via coupled coplanar strips. EM-field simulations with SONNET are used to estimate important

  13. Line-mode browser development days

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    Twelve talented web developers have travelled to CERN from all over the world to recreate a piece of web history: the line-mode browser. See the line-mode browser simulator that they created here. Read more about the birth of the web here.

  14. Immunological characterisation of two chicken lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreukniet, M.B.

    1996-01-01


    Two chicken lines were divergently selected for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Several experiments were conducted to investigate what mechanisms the immune system of the chickens uses to realize either the high (H) or the low (L) antibody production. The lines did not

  15. Properties of 3-dimensional line location models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a line with respect to some existing facilities in 3-dimensional space, such that the sum of weighted distances between the line and the facilities is minimized. Measuring distance using the l\\_p norm is discussed, along with the special cases of Euclidean...

  16. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  17. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  18. Antarctic Flight Line Maps = Map-Line Indexes of Antarctica Aerial Photos: Pre 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Antarctic Fight Line Maps collection is comprised of 1:250,000 scale topographic maps over Antarctica with original hand-drawn flight lines for aerial...

  19. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric - VOLUSIA COUNTY MAJOR POWER LINES (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Power Line data was aggregated by using parcel data and visual inspection of 2005 aerial photography to determine centerline of Power Lines Right of...

  20. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  1. Power line communications theory and applications for narrowband and broadband communications over power lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Hendrik C; Newbury, John; Swart, Theo G

    2010-01-01

    Power Line Communications (PLC) is a promising emerging technology, which has attracted much attention due to the wide availability of power distribution lines. This book provides a thorough introduction to the use of power lines for communication purposes, ranging from channel characterization, communications on the physical layer and electromagnetic interference, through to protocols, networks, standards and up to systems and implementations. With contributions from many of the most prominent international PLC experts from academia and industry, Power Line Communications brings togeth

  2. 46 CFR 196.40-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 196.40-15 Section 196.40-15 Shipping... Markings on Vessels § 196.40-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently marked or embossed as required by Subchapter E (Load Lines) of...

  3. 46 CFR 42.13-20 - Deck line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck line. 42.13-20 Section 42.13-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA General Rules for Determining Load Lines § 42.13-20 Deck line. (a) The deck line is a horizontal line 12...

  4. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  5. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya (Kubota Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi

    1982-08-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported.

  6. Lip line preference for variant face types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Nabila; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of altered lip line on attractiveness and to find preferred lip line for vertical face types in both genders. Cross-sectional analytical study. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2009. Photographs of two selected subjects were altered to produce three face types for the same individual with the aim of keeping the frame of the smile constant. Lip line was then altered for both the subjects as: both dentitions visible, upper incisors visible, upper incisors and 2 mm gum and 4 mm gum visible. The pictures were rated by different professionals for attractiveness. Descriptive statistics for the raters and multiple factor ANOVA was used to find the most attractive lip line. The total number of raters was 100 with the mean age of 30.3 ± 8 years. The alterations in the smile parameters produced statistically significant difference in the attractiveness of faces, whereas the perception difference was found to be insignificant amongst raters of different professions. Preferred lip line was the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects. The variability in lip line showed significant difference in the perceived attractiveness. Preferred lip lines as the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects.

  7. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Dynamic line-by-line pulse shaping with GHz update rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, M; Bhooplapur, S; Ozdur, I; Davila-Rodriguez, J; Delfyett, P J

    2010-08-16

    We introduce a novel scheme for dynamic line-by-line pulse shaping with GHz update rates. Four lines of an optical frequency comb source are used to injection-lock four individual VCSEL, which are subsequently electrically modulated at 0.4 to 1 GHz through current modulation. This concept could be considered a completely new way of pulse shaping as the light is not simply modified, but rather regenerated with the desired properties. We also discuss an important drawback of line-by-line pulse shapers that ultimately limits the modulation speed capability.

  9. Microwave line of sight link engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Angueira, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and operation of line of sight microwave link systems The microwave Line of Sight (LOS) transport network of any cellular operator requires at least as much planning effort as the cellular infrastructure itself. The knowledge behind this design has been kept private by most companies and has not been easy to find. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering solves this dilemma. It provides the latest revisions to ITU reports and recommendations, which are not only key to successful design but have changed dramatically in

  10. Line-focus concentrating collector program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.

  11. Spinal Test Suites for Software Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Beohar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in testing software product lines is efficiency. In particular, testing a product line should take less effort than testing each and every product individually. We address this issue in the context of input-output conformance testing, which is a formal theory of model-based testing. We extend the notion of conformance testing on input-output featured transition systems with the novel concept of spinal test suites. We show how this concept dispenses with retesting the common behavior among different, but similar, products of a software product line.

  12. Brand Equity and Vertical Product Line Extent

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Randall; Karl Ulrich; David Reibstein

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how the vertical structure of a product line relates to brand equity. Does the presence of “premium” or high-quality products in a product line enhance brand equity? Conversely, does the presence of “economy” or low-quality products in a product line diminish brand equity? Economists and marketing researchers refer to variation in quality levels of products within a category as “vertical” differentiation, whereas variation in the function or “category” of ...

  13. Coupled Transmission Lines as Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the use of a coupled line section as an impedance transformer is presented. We show how to properly select the terminations of the coupled line structures for effective matching of real and complex loads in both narrow and wide frequency ranges. The corresponding....... Wideband matching performance with relative bandwidth beyond 100% and return loss > 20 dB is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted performance of the coupled line transformer section....

  14. On-line job marketplaces: sucess strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapulov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This master thesis is focused on freelance type work available though on-line marketplaces such as oDesk and ways to get hired. First chapter introduces on-line working and lead though the world statistics powered by oDesk. Numbers present working hours, geographical coverage and skills distribution. It makes reader familiar with advantages and disadvantages of freelancing. Second chapter is related to on-line job marketplaces, in particularly to oDesk (www.odesk.com). It focuses on pros and ...

  15. RF and microwave coupled-line circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Mongia, R K; Bhartia, P; Hong, J; Gupta, K C

    2007-01-01

    This extensively revised edition of the 1999 Artech House classic, RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, offers you a thoroughly up-to-date understanding of coupled line fundamentals, explaining their applications in designing microwave and millimeter-wave components used in today's communications, microwave, and radar systems. The Second Edition includes a wealth of new material, particularly relating to applications. You find brand new discussions on a novel simple design technique for multilayer coupled circuits, high pass filters using coupled lines, software packages used for filter des

  16. Spectral line absorption measurement using optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanaru, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A simple technique using a conventional gas laser with spherical mirrors having identical radii of curvature in the nonoscillating regime for spectral line absorption measurements is described and applications for laser work are suggested. The theory of the measurement carried out in the geometrical optical approach for Doppler-broadened lines was checked experimentally and conditions are specified for which measurement inaccuracies of the order of 1% for the peak value of the line absorption coefficient can be obtained. Since the device provides a fine adjustment of the cavity losses, formation of the diffraction modes could be observed in the preoscillating regime of the optical cavity.

  17. Emission Lines of Northern Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksaker, Nazim; Yerli, Sinan K.; Kızıloǧlu, Ümit; Atalay, Betül

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present results of long slit spectrophotometric emission line flux observations of selected planetary nebulae (PNe). We have measured absolute fluxes and equivalent widths (EW) of all observable emission lines. In addition to these observations, electron temperatures (Te), densities (Ne), and chemical abundances were also calculated. The main purpose of this work is to fill the gaps in emission line flux standards for the northern hemisphere. It is expected that the measured fluxes would be used as standard data set for further photometric and spectrometric measurements of HII regions, supernova remnants etc.

  18. Elk and plants thrive near power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, L.

    1997-11-01

    Butterflies and elk gather in clearings near power line right-of-ways and on the edges of such clearings, where the wild flowers and plants that have widely disappeared as a result of intensive farming and subsurface drainage of fields have found a good habitat. Ornamental coniferous trees, various herbs and assorted berries do well and can be harvested near power lines from woodland clearings once thought unfit for cultivation. IVS, the nationwide network company, takes part in many projects aiming both to increase productive utilization of land areas under power lines and to promote biodiversity

  19. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  20. Tunable line width all solid state double spectral line sodium beacon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiafei; Ren, Huaijin; Wei, Bin; Yuan, Liao; Gong, Shenggang; Li, Tao; Gu, Jingliang; Wan, Min; Fan, Guobin

    2017-10-01

    We developed a tunable-line-width 101 W average-power all-solid-state 589nm double spectral line sodium beacon laser. The laser was based on the technical route of 1064nm and 1319nm Nd:YAG laser extra cavity sum frequency generation. The laser contained two spectral lines: 589.1591 nm and 589.1571 nm. The former line was matched to the sodium D2a absorption line with the average power of 81W, while the other line was matched to the sodium D2b absorption line with the average power of 20W. The beam quality of the two spectral line lasers was both less than 1.3. The two lasers were polarized-combined to transmit coaxially. The initial line width of the laser was about 0.3GHz, which was in the comb-like discrete structure of about three longitudinal modes. We used a white noise generator to modulate the 1064nm single frequency seed laser in frequency domain. The line width's tunability was accomplished by tuning the driving power of the white noise generator. The final line width tuning range of the 589nm laser was 0.3GHz to 1.1GHz.

  1. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  2. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  3. Handbook of spectral lines in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Dischler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is a breakthrough in the understanding of the large number of spectral lines in diamond. Data on more than 2000 lines and bands are presented in 200 tables, including many unpublished results. With a novel organization scheme, the search for a specific line is greatly simplified as a benefit for researchers and students. In order to meet the interest in the understanding of the spectra, structure assignments for 80 % of the lines are given, of which 15 % only were published before. The majority of the structures for the 300 centers is explained in most cases for the first time. A key instrument in the interpretation is the analysis by donor-acceptor pair transitions. In a special chapter 95 such centers are listed and discussed, of which only two have been published before, the first one by the present author in 1994.

  4. Metro orange line BRT project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    In partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Bus Rapid Transit Institute (NBRTI) conducted an evaluation of the Metro Orange Line BRT service, whic...

  5. First line management in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voxted, Søren

    first-line managers’ work and to illuminate differences between first-line managers from different occupational groups. The second question relates to current debate about the degree of professionalized management among the municipal first-line managers. In both the international and Danish management......, in some examples, explicit standards are set for what share of the manager’s working time should be used on management and what share should be used on participation in operational tasks. The main question is how the division between exercising leadership and participating in operational task is evident......The paper will examines and discusses the results from a structured observational study, wherein 50 first-line managers from the public sector in Denmark in five areas of employment where observed. These observational studies are a key contribution in the ‘greenhouse for management’ project...

  6. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  7. Influence of Microfield Directionality on Line Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Calisti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas Code Comparison Workshop (SLSP, large discrepancies appeared between the different approaches to account for ion motion effects in spectral line shape calculations. For a better understanding of these effects, in the second edition of the SLSP in August, 2013, two cases were dedicated to the study of the ionic field directionality on line shapes. In this paper, the effects of the direction and magnitude fluctuations are separately analyzed. The effects of two variants of electric field models, (i a pure rotating field with constant magnitude and (ii a time-dependent magnitude field in a given direction, together with the effects of the time-dependent ionic field on shapes of the He II Lyman-α and -β lines for different densities and temperatures, are discussed.

  8. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  9. Louisiana ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for coastal...

  10. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  11. Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  12. Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  13. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  14. Stitch and hem and line and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  15. Maryland ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Maryland. The...

  16. Alabama ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Alabama. The...

  17. Virginia ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Virginia. The...

  18. Linear scleroderma following Blaschko′s lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Amiya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Blaschko′s lines form a pattern, which many diseases are found to follow, but linear scleroderma following Blaschko′s lines is a controversial entity rarely reported in the literature. A 24-year-old man presented with multiple linear, atrophic, hyperpigmented lesions punctuated by areas of depigmentations on the left half of the trunk distributed on the anterior, lateral and posterior aspects. The lesions were distributed in a typical S-shaped line. Antinuclear antibody and antihistone antibody tests were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin from the affected area showed features suggestive of scleroderma. Here, we present a case of linear scleroderma following Blaschko′s lines in a male patient - an entity reported only three times so far.

  19. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  20. Twisted shield-pair transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, W. N.; Waddy, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lightweight cable forms balanced transmission line and replaces costlier coaxial cables for multiplex-signal transmission. Cable is fabricated with carefully-controlled electrical characteristics and functions without tuning networks at frequencies up to 10 MHz.

  1. Coding for Single-Line Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital transmission code combines data and clock signals into single waveform. MADCODE needs four standard integrated circuits in generator and converter plus five small discrete components. MADCODE allows simple coding and decoding for transmission of digital signals over single line.

  2. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector lines in this data set...

  3. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  4. Mooring Line for an Oceanographic Buoy System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A mooring line for an oceanographic buoy system includes four sections. The first section is a protected cable that is connectable to the buoy. The second section is...

  5. Seismic Lines in Louisiana and Texas [gcseismicg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The lines shown are those used by the USGS in developing the framework geology and models used in assessing the oil and gas resources of the Gulf Coast Region. The...

  6. substitution line for resistance to stripe rust

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    2D) substitution line for resistance to stripe rust. MENGPING LEI, GUANGRONG LI, SUFEN ZHANG, CHENG LIU and ZUJUN YANG. ∗. School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology ...

  7. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  8. Mathematical model of subscriber extension line

    OpenAIRE

    Petříková, Iva; Diviš, Zdeněk; Tesař, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on measurement properties of metallic subscriber extension lines to build regression mathematical model for a symmetric pair cable. The regression model is compared with an analytical model based on a theoretical description of transfer parameters for this type of line. The output of the paper should demonstrate the impact of electromagnetic interference on the symmetric pair. The paper also describes the method to identify the interference sources and ...

  9. The inverse scattering problem for transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, I.

    1972-01-01

    A number of exact and approximate methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for transmission lines are reviewed. In particular, the application to transmission lines of Marcenko's version of the Gelfand-Levitan exact method for the quantum mechanical problem is compared with a more direct approach based on a different version of the Gelfand-Levitan method. In addition, some aspects of the lack of uniqueness of solutions are discussed, and some open questions related to the inverse scattering problem are suggested.

  10. Pool boiling enhancement through contact line augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, P. A.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to transient conduction, microconvection, and microlayer evaporation, contact line region heat transfer has been identified as an important mode of heat transfer during boiling. In this work, we demonstrate that generating additional contact line regions within the base of a nucleating bubble leads to critical heat flux (CHF) enhancement. The creation of a liquid meniscus adjacent to 10-20 μm deep microgrooves in the bubble base area was responsible for the generation of the additional contact line regions. The depth of the microgrooves was determined such that a sufficient reservoir of liquid is present in the meniscus to sustain evaporation in the contact line region throughout the bubble cycle. The effective contact line length at the base of the bubble was seen to be a good indicator of the CHF (wetted area) over the surface. The microgroove geometry played a significant role in influencing the bubble dynamics and bubble departure diameter during boiling. It was seen that the bubbles were able to bridge and grow over the shallow microgrooves of 10-20 μm depth and generate additional contact line regions but were pinned and constrained within the grooves in the case of the microgrooves deeper than 100 μm. For shallow grooves, narrow grooves resulted in smaller bubbles, which in turn reduced the contact line length. The findings of this work could be used to design heat transfer surfaces that significantly enhance the contact line region contribution and CHF by placing shallow enhancement features on the surface of the heater.

  11. Daresbury on-line isotope separator (DOLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.

    1987-05-01

    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described.

  12. Lines, dots and spirals on Peruvian land

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    The most famous geoglyphs of Peru are the "Nazca Lines". Considered as one of the mysteries of the ancient world, they have been included among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in a large region between the towns of Nazca and Palpa, these lines create shapes of animals ranging in size up to 300 m. The archaeological site is under investigation with remote science technologies.

  13. Drag reduction in riblet-lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyutin, G.V.; Lashkov, Yu.A.; Samoilova, N.V.

    1995-07-01

    The possibilities of reducing the drag in pipes with a circular cross section by lining them with riblets have been investigated experimentally for developed turbulent air flow. The maximum drag reduction of 6-7% in the riblet-lined as compared with the smooth pipe was obtained for a dimensionless riblet pitch, expressed in law-of-the-wall parameters, s{sup +} = 14-18.

  14. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Line Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    their manufacture. This approach led to the development of remarkable line-heating aids and work instructions by Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries ...Ltd. REFERENCES 1 ) 2 ) 3 ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 ) Shipbuilding Department of Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries : “Bending Process of Line-Heated Plates...Division. The material on which this book is based was compiled by a project team led by S. Nakanishi, International Division, Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy

  15. On-Line Acquisitions by LOLITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances G. Spigai

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available The on-line acquisition program (LOLITA in use at the Oregon State University Library is described in terms of development costs, equipment requirements, and overall design philosophy. In particular, the record format and content of records in the on-order file, and the on-line processing of these records (input, search, correction, output using a cathode ray tube display terminal are detailed.

  16. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  17. Covered by lines and Conic connected varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Massarenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of an embedded variety covered by lines and give a numerical criterion ensuring the existence of a singular conic through two of its general points. We show that our criterion is sharp. Conic-connected, covered by lines, QEL, LQEL, prime Fano, defective, and dual defective varieties are closely related. We study some relations between the above mentioned classes of objects using basic results by Ein and Zak.

  18. Lineær Algebra via Eksempler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Hans Anton; Nielsen, Holger Andreas

    Notesæt til anvendelse i kurserne Calculus 1 og 2. Den elementære lineære algebra præsenteres gennem en række gennemregnede eksempler.......Notesæt til anvendelse i kurserne Calculus 1 og 2. Den elementære lineære algebra præsenteres gennem en række gennemregnede eksempler....

  19. RF transmission lines on silicon substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Q-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lin...

  20. Flow lines and export lines of Sabalo Gas Field - the engineering of a complex job; Flow lines e export lines de Sabalo - a engenharia da complexidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado Jose Morbach [GDK Engenharia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The construction of the natural gas flow lines and export lines system of the Sabalo field, in the far South of Bolivia is an unique job in the pipeline construction area. Its execution is a turning point in terms of engineering and construction technology in this industry. Among the Aguarague Cordillera (mountains), it runs across rocky canyons for more than 5 km, a 2.100 mt long narrow tunnel to overcome the mountains and steep hills along all the ROW length, with a total extension of 70 km, in line pipes ranging from 10'' and 12'' for the flow lines, 28'' for the gas export line and 8' for the condensate line. An integrated construction work plan was settled in order to face and overcome the complex construction situations found in every feet of the pipeline. Four simultaneous work sites were mobilized, 8 independent work fronts, 700 professionals and more than 150 pieces of heavy construction equipment, brought from 3 different countries. Special techniques were adopted also to handle the challenging detail engineering . All in all, the correct conjunction of a sound engineering work, planning, human resources and equipment and the managing flexibility to create alternatives and solutions at the fast pace required by a dynamic work schedule were essential to succeed, in a job with no room for mistakes. The successfully job completion open new possibilities to other challenging projects alike.(author)

  1. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  2. Cold-induced retrotransposition of fish LINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shue; Yu, Mengchao; Chu, Xu; Li, Wenhao; Yin, Xiujuan; Chen, Liangbiao

    2017-08-20

    Classes of retrotransposons constitute a large portion of metazoan genome. There have been cases reported that genomic abundance of retrotransposons is correlated with the severity of low environmental temperatures. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such correlation are unknown. We show here by cell transfection assays that retrotransposition (RTP) of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) from an Antarctic notothenioid fish Dissostichus mawsoni (dmL1) could be activated by low temperature exposure, causing increased dmL1 copies in the host cell genome. The cold-induced dmL1 propagation was demonstrated to be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/p38 signaling pathway, which is activated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cold-stressed conditions. Surprisingly, dmL1 transfected cells showed an increase in the number of viable cells after prolonged cold exposures than non-transfected cells. Features of cold inducibility of dmL1 were recapitulated in LINEs of zebrafish origin both in cultured cell lines and tissues, suggesting existence of a common cold-induced LINE amplification in fishes. The findings reveal an important function of LINEs in temperature adaptation and provid insights into the MAPK/p38 stress responsive pathway that shapes LINE composition in fishes facing cold stresses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Staple line oversewing during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Lu, J; Feng, J; Wang, Z

    2017-09-01

    Introduction This meta-analysis was performed to assess the possible benefits of staple line oversewing during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods A comprehensive search up to February 2017 was conducted on PubMed, the Web of Science™ and Embase™. All eligible studies were included, and the outcomes of staple line bleeding and leak, overall complications and operative time were pooled. Results A total of 7 randomised controlled trials involving 845 patients (428 cases and 417 controls) were analysed. There was no significant difference in staple line bleeding (relative risk [RR]: 0.858, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.343-2.143, p=0.742), leak (RR: 0.650, 95% CI: 0.257-1.644, p=0.363) or overall complications (RR: 0.913, 95% CI: 0.621-1.342, p=0.644) between the oversewing group and the patients who did not have oversewing. Oversewing of the staple line was associated with a longer operative time (weighted mean difference: 14.400, 95% CI: 7.198-21.602, p=0.000). Conclusions Oversewing the staple line during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy does not decrease the risk of staple line bleeding, leakage or overall complications but it does prolong the operative time.

  4. Real quartic surfaces containing 16 skew lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is an open three-dimensional subvariety Ms of the Grassmannian of lines in ℙ3 which parametrizes smooth irreducible complex surfaces of degree 4 which are Heisenberg invariant, and each quartic contains 32 lines but only 16 skew lines, being determined by its configuration of lines, are called a double 16. We consider here the problem of visualizing in a computer the real Heisenberg invariant quartic surface and the real double 16. We construct a family of points l∈Ms parametrized by a two-dimensional semialgebraic variety such that under a change of coordinates of l into its Plüecker, coordinates transform into the real coordinates for a line L in ℙ3, which is then used to construct a program in Maple 7. The program allows us to draw the quartic surface and the set of transversal lines to L. Additionally, we include a table of a group of examples. For each test example we specify a parameter, the viewing angle of the image, compilation time, and other visual properties of the real surface and its real double 16. We include at the end of the paper an example showing the surface containing the double 16.

  5. Transmission line design for the lunar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Krista L.; Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1990-01-01

    How the mass, operating temperature, and efficiency of a transmission line operating on the moon are affected by its operating parameters, the lunar environment, and the choice of materials is examined. The key transmission line parameters which have an effect on mass, operating temperature, and efficiency are voltage, power loss, and waveform. The choice of waveform for transmission will be influenced by the waveform of the source and load, and therefore an analysis of both DC and AC transmission is necessary for a complete understanding of lunar power transmission. The data presented are for the DC case only; however, the discussion of the environmental effects and of material selection is pertinent to both AC and DC transmission. The operating voltage is shown to be a key parameter in transmission line design. The role efficiency plays in transmission line design is also examined. The analyses include above- and below-the-surface operation for both a vacuum-insulated, two-wire, transmission line, and a solid-dielectric-insulated, coaxial, transmission line.

  6. Incoherent Scatter Plasma Lines: Observations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Hassanali; Bhatt, Asti; La Hoz, Cesar; Semeter, Joshua L.

    2017-10-01

    Space plasmas are host to the electrostatic Langmuir waves and a rich range of processes associated with them. Many of such processes that are of interest in micro-scale plasma physics and magnetosphere-ionosphere physics are open to investigation via incoherent scatter plasma lines—i.e., a pair of resonant peaks in the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) spectrum, symmetrically displaced from the radar transmitting frequency by about the plasma frequency, as the signature of Langmuir waves in the ISR spectrum. There now exists a large body of literature devoted to the investigation of a number of topics in ionospheric physics via plasma line theory and observation. It is the goal of this work to provide a comprehensive review of this literature, from the early theoretical works on oscillations in magnetized plasma to the recent advances in plasma line measurements and applications. This review includes detailed theoretical discussions on the intensity and frequency displacement of plasma lines. It reviews the experimental observations of plasma lines enhanced by various sources of energy and discusses the implications of the observations in the context of ionospheric physics. The review also covers the practical aspects of plasma line measurements, from measurement techniques to the applications of plasma lines in estimating the bulk parameters of the ionosphere.

  7. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  8. Reducing off-line to on-line: An example and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demange Marc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study on-line versions of maximum weighted hereditary subgraph problems for which the instance is revealed in two clusters. We focus on the comparison of these on-line problems with their respective off-line versions. In [3], we have reduced on-line versions to the off-line ones in order to devise competitive analysis for such problems. In this paper, we first devise hardness results pointing out that this previous analysis was tight. Then, we propose a process that allows, for a large class of hereditary problems, to transform an on-line algorithm into an off-line one with improvement of the guarantees. This result can be seen as an inverse version of our previous work. It brings to the fore a hardness gap between on-line and off-line versions of those problems. This result does not apply in the case of maximizing a k -colorable induced subgraph of a given graph. For this problem we point out that, contrary to the first case, the on-line version is almost as well approximated as the offline one. .

  9. On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.

  10. Dissolution of FB-Line Cabinet Sweepings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, Mark L.

    2005-06-14

    Three FB-Line samples were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and evaluation for suitability for HB-Line dissolution. These samples are part of a larger sampling/evaluation program in support of FB-Line deinventory efforts. The samples studied were identified as MC04-147- HBL, MC04-148-HBL, and FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N). The first sample, MC04-147-HBL, is a portion of FB-Line Packaging and Stabilization (P&S) materials. The second sample, MC04-148-HBL, is a sweeping from Cabinet 6-8, which is not representative of the mechanical line. The third sample, FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N), is an FB-Line North cabinet sweeping. The samples were described by FB-Line personnel as containing plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) which had not been high-fired. This description was generally confirmed by solids analysis and off gas measurements. All three samples were dissolved in 8 M HNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KF at 90-100 C leaving minor amounts of solid residue. During dissolution, sample MC04-147 did not generate hydrogen gas. Sample MC04-148 generated modest amounts of gas, which contained 4.0 to 4.7 volume percent (vol %) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at a ratio of up to 8.4 x 10{sup -5} mol H{sub 2}/g sample. Sample FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N) was nearly completely soluble in 8 M HNO{sub 3}and produced a very small amount of gas. Apparently, the CaF{sub 2} in that sample dissolves and provides sufficient fluoride to support the dissolution of other components.

  11. Underground power line fault locating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, L.D.; Flath, R.K.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described of locating a fault in a polyphase power distribution system power distributing power from a bulk power source to power consumers, the power distribution system having a substation feeding a fused switch gear unit, a first vault, and at least one subsequent vault receiving power from the first vault, the first vault distributing power from the fused switch gear unit among plural outgoing underground power lines, each underground outgoing power line supplying power to at least one power consumer, the method comprising the steps of: checking fusing within the fused switch gear unit to determine in which phase the fault has occurred; checking the continuity of a power line interconnecting the fused switch gear unit and the first vault; identifying the fused switch gear unit and the first vault which normally supply power to a line having the fault; installing a fault indicator on each underground outgoing power line of the faulted phase in the first vault and in each subsequent vault; inserting a current limiting fuse in series with and between the fused switch gear unit and the first vault; reenergizing the first vault plural outgoing underground power lines through the current limiting fuse and causing the current limiting fuse to blow; and reading each fault indicator after the reenergizing step to determine the location of the fault. A method according to claim 7 for an underground power distribution system wherein at least one underground outgoing power line delivers power to at least one distribution transformer, wherein the step of installing the fault indicators further comprises installing a fault indicator on each distribution transformer.

  12. Primary Students' Success on the Structured Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Lowrie, Tom; Sugars, Lindy A.

    2010-01-01

    Number lines are part of people's everyday life and are frequently used in primary mathematics as instructional aids, in texts, and for assessment purposes on mathematics tests. There are two types of number lines; (1) structured number lines, which are the focus of this paper; and (2) empty number lines. Structured number lines represent…

  13. First on-line results from the CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) beam line at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T. J., E-mail: thomas.procter@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Flanagan, K. T. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Collaboration: CRIS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    The CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) experiment at the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, CERN, has been constructed for high-sensitivity laser spectroscopy measurements on radioactive isotopes. The technique determines the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spin and changes in mean-square charge radii of exotic nuclei via measurement of their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts. In November 2011 the first on-line run was performed using the CRIS beam line, when the hyperfine structure of {sup 207}Fr was successfully measured. This paper will describe the technique and experimental setup of CRIS and present the results from the first on-line experiment.

  14. Broad-line active galactic nuclei rotate faster than narrow-line ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollatschny, Wolfram; Zetzl, Matthias

    2011-02-17

    The super-massive black holes of 10(6)M(⊙) to 10(9)M(⊙) that reside in the nuclei of active galaxies (AGN) are surrounded by a region emitting broad lines, probably associated with an accretion disk. The diameters of the broad-line regions range from a few light-days to more than a hundred light-days, and cannot be resolved spatially. The relative significance of inflow, outflow, rotational or turbulent motions in the broad-line regions as well as their structure (spherical, thin or thick accretion disk) are unknown despite intensive studies over more than thirty years. Here we report a fundamental relation between the observed emission linewidth full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the emission line shape FWHM/σ(line) in AGN spectra. From this relation we infer that the predominant motion in the broad-line regions is Keplerian rotation in combination with turbulence. The geometry of the inner region varies systematically with the rotation velocity: it is flattest for the fast-rotating broad-line objects, whereas slow-rotating narrow-line AGN have a more spherical structure. Superimposed is the trend that the line-emitting region becomes geometrically thicker towards the centre within individual galaxies. Knowing the rotational velocities, we can derive the central black-hole masses more accurately; they are two to ten times smaller than has been estimated previously.

  15. Research for the Influence of Distribution Network Line Reclosing Current on Line Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kansheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the distribution network line structure and reclosing control strategy, the system simulation model of distribution network lines has established based on the real-time digital simulation RTDS. Based on this, distribution network switching impulse current characteristic has researched with different capacity, different distribution and different load power factor under the different voltage switching angles. The results of the study provide a scientific basis for distribution network line protection setting, in order to further lay the foundation for improvement the validity and reliability of distribution network line protection action.

  16. Biophysical Profiling of Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Coffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant differences in genetic profiles, cancer cells share common phenotypic properties, including membrane-associated changes that facilitate invasion and metastasis. The Corning Epic® optical biosensor was used to monitor dynamic mass rearrangements within and proximal to the cell membrane in tumor cell lines derived from cancers of the colon, bone, cervix, lung and breast. Data was collected in real time and required no exogenously added signaling moiety (signal-free technology. Cell lines displayed unique profiles over the time-courses: the time-courses all displayed initial signal increases to maximal values, but the rate of increase to those maxima and the value of those maxima were distinct for each cell line. The rate of decline following the maxima also differed among cell lines. There were correlations between the signal maxima and the observed metastatic behavior of the cells in xenograft experiments; for most cell types the cells that were more highly metastatic in mice had lower time-course maxima values, however the reverse was seen in breast cancer cells. The unique profiles of these cell lines and the correlation of at least one profile characteristic with metastatic behavior demonstrate the potential utility of biophysical tumor cell profiling in the study of cancer biology.

  17. A biophysical analysis of latitudinal tree line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Loranty, M. M.; Berner, L.; Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northern latitudinal tree line represents the interface between boreal forests and tundra ecosystems, and is the ecophysiological limit of tree recruitment and persistence. The transition between tundra and forest is typically gradual, occurring over tens to hundreds of kilometers. This gradient represents a substantial change in the biophysical properties of the earth surface, one that is particularly important in ecosystems that are snow covered for much of the year. Tree line is, however, commonly delineated by the point of the northern most tree, with no gradient between forested and non-forested ecosystems. As a consequence crisp delineations of tree line incorporated into models introduce error in surface radiation budgets due to inaccurate albedo representations. Errors in modeled carbon and water fluxes are likely as well. Here we use satellite observations to quantify several key biophysical properties across latitudinal tree line for a series of sites throughout the pan-boreal region We find decreases in NDVI and increases in albedo across the transition from boreal forest to tundra, as expected. However, in the absence of topographical barriers we find that these transitions can occur over upwards of 100 km, and that biophysical properties characteristic of tundra ecosystems can occur as far as 100 km south of tree line. This suggests that land surface models likely overestimate surface radiation budgets and carbon fluxes in the boreal biome. We discuss our results in the context of land surface models, noting specific examples from archived model runs.

  18. Analysis of folded pulse forming line operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, M. T.; Watrous, J.; Parker, J. V.; Cavazos, T.; Slenes, K.; Heidger, S.; Brown, D.; Wilson, D.

    2014-09-01

    A compact pulse forming line (CPFL) concept based on a folded transmission line and high-breakdown strength dielectric was explored through an effort combining proof-of-principle experiments with electromagnetic modeling. A small-scale folded CPFL was fabricated using surface-mount ceramic multilayer capacitors. The line consisted of 150 capacitors close-packed in parallel and delivered a 300 ns flat-top pulse. The concept was carried to a 10 kV class device using a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite dielectric with a permittivity of 37.6. The line was designed for a 161 ns FWHM length pulse into a matched load. The line delivered a 110 ns FWHM pulse, and the pulse peak amplitude exceeded the matched load ideal. Transient electromagnetic analysis using the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC was conducted to examine the nature of the unexpected pulse shortening and distortion. Two-dimensional analysis failed to capture the anomalous behavior. Three-dimensional analysis replicated the pulse shape and revealed that the bends were largely responsible for the pulse shortening. The bends not only create the expected reflection of the incident TEM wave but also produce a non-zero component of the Poynting vector perpendicular to the propagation direction of the dominant electromagnetic wave, resulting in power flow largely external to the PFL. This analysis explains both the pulse shortening and the amplitude of the pulse.

  19. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  20. Optimal Reinsertion of Cancelled Train Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Clausen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    One recovery strategy in case of a major disruption in rail network is to cancel all trains on a specific line of the network. When the disturbance has ended, the cancelled line must be reinserted as soon as possible. In this article we present a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for calculat....... The model finds the optimal solution in an average of 0.5 CPU seconds in each test case.......One recovery strategy in case of a major disruption in rail network is to cancel all trains on a specific line of the network. When the disturbance has ended, the cancelled line must be reinserted as soon as possible. In this article we present a mixed integer programming (MIP) model...... for calculating the best way to reinsert cancelled train lines in a rail network covered by a periodic timetable. Using a high abstraction level it has been possible to incorporate the temporal aspect in the model only relying on the information embedded in the train identification numbers of each departure...

  1. Formación on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grau-Perejoan

    Full Text Available La formación on line es una modalidad de enseñanza a distancia basada en las nuevas tecnologías. En este artículo se pretende hacer una introducción a base de describir a grandes rasgos sus características principales: asincronía, no presencialidad, comunicación escrita, función del profesor on line, así como los retos, los riesgos, las ventajas y los inconvenientes que plantea. Se exponen las diferencias entre la formación on line y la formación presencial, de manera que los docentes puedan adaptar de la mejor manera posible sus propuestas formativas a la modalidad on line. Se introduce el importantísimo papel de la planificación y de la fase de diseño y, finalmente, se repasan conceptos útiles para comprender mejor el mundo de la formación on line como son los conceptos entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA o Blended Learning (B-Learning.

  2. Transfer line tests take centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Last weekend, proton beams came knocking on the LHC's door. Shooting from the SPS and into the two LHC transfer lines, the proton beams were dumped just short of entering the accelerator.   The upper plot shows the trajectory of the first TI2 beam, which reached the end of the transfer line in a single attempt after 18 months of technical stop. Below, a smoother beam trajectory in TI2 after some corrections. For the first time since Run 1, the SPS to LHC transfer lines (TI8 and TI2) transported proton beams just short of the LHC. "We tested the beam instrumentation, the devices that measure the beam intensity, transverse beam profile, position and losses, as well as the beam collimators along the transfer lines," says Reyes Alemany Fernandez, the engineer in charge of the LHC. "We were also able to spot possible bottle necks in the beam trajectory and to perform the first optics measurements." Once the beams arrived at the transfer line beam dumps...

  3. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  4. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, D.G., E-mail: dgbeasley@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Le Trequesser, Q. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB, UPR9048) CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Marques, A.C. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  5. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  6. Susceptibility of cell lines to avian viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Isabela Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the five cell lines - IB-RS-2, RK-13, Vero, BHK-21, CER - to reovirus S1133 and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain was studied to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems. Cultures were compared for presence of CPE, virus titers and detection of viral RNA. CPE and viral RNA were detected in CER and BHK-21 cells after reovirus inoculation and in RK-13 cell line after IBDV inoculation and with high virus titers. Virus replication by production of low virus titers occurred in IB-RS-2 and Vero cells with reovirus and in BHK-21 cell line with IBDV.

  7. Specification of Products and Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability in software development has become increasingly important in recent years. A common mechanism to represent the variability in a product line is by means of feature models. However, the relationship between these models and UML design models is not straightforward. UML statecharts are extended introducing variability in their main components, so that the behavior of product lines can be specified. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a rule-based approach that defines a transformation strategy from extended statecharts to concrete UML statecharts. This is accomplished via the use of feature models, in order to describe the common and variant components, in such a way that, starting from different feature configurations and applying the rule-based method, concrete state machines corresponding to different products of a line can be obtained.

  8. Kinetic Line Voronoi Operations and Their Reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms and dynamic map visualisations. In order to use the reversibility within the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments, we need to assure that reversing the map commands will produce exactly the changes in the map equivalent to the previous map states. To prove...... that reversing the map update operations produces the exact reverse changes, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its...... explanation using the finite field of residual classes of integers modulo 5: F 5 = ℤ/5ℤ. We show also an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the set of differences of new and deleted Quad-Edge edges induced...

  9. Line and boundary detection in speckle images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, R N; Jones, D L; O'Brien, W R

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of detecting lines in speckle imagery, such as that produced by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or ultrasound techniques. Using the physical principles that account for the speckle phenomenon, we derive the optimal detector for lines in fully developed speckle, and we compare the optimal detector to several suboptimal detection rules that are more computationally efficient. We show that when the noise is uncorrelated, a very simple suboptimal detection rule is nearly optimal, and that even in colored speckle, a related class of detectors can approach optimal performance. Finally, we also discuss the application of this technique to medical ultrasonic images, where the detection of tissue boundaries is considered as a problem of line detection.

  10. Beam line for Schools: beyond expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    Out of 292 proposals for CERN's first ever "Beam line for Schools" contest, two teams of high-school students – Odysseus' Comrades from Varvakios Pilot School in Athens, Greece and Dominicuscollege from Dominicus College in Nijmegen in the Netherlands – were selected to spend 10 days conducting their proposed experiments at the fully equipped T9 beam line on CERN's Meyrin site. Dedicated CERN staff and users from across the departments have put in a huge effort to ensure the success of the project.   Detector physicist Cenk Yidriz (centre, white helmet) explains the setup of the "Beamline for schools" experiment at the T9 beamline. It's finally beam time. After months of organisation, coding, engineering and even painting the experimental area, the T9 beam line is ready to deliver protons to experiments devised and built by high-school students. “They are here to collect data and experience the l...

  11. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

  12. Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.

  13. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  14. Transients induced by pulses on transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavero, F.G.; Daniele, V.; Graglia, R.D. (Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica)

    1989-02-01

    This paper deals with the derivation of analytical expressions for transients in lossless lines loaded by linear non-reactive elements and excited by interfering disturbances. The telegrapher's equation model is adopted and the equivalent circuit of the n-conductor line is shown to the valid for both internal and external sources. Crosstalk is accounted for via the coupled equations of the line while the external interference is represented by a source of electromagnetic waves. Closed-form solutions in the time domain are derived, and therefore no numerical inversion of Laplace transform is required in the solution process. Our results, besides being directly applicable in many practical cases, provide an insight into the electromagnetic mechanisms of the interferences and constitute a valid check for more complex all-numerical simulations.

  15. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek P. Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 1011.5 cm−3, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  16. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  17. A cystic fibrosis pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoumacher, R A; Ram, J; Iannuzzi, M C; Bradbury, N A; Wallace, R W; Hon, C T; Kelly, D R; Schmid, S M; Gelder, F B; Rado, T A

    1990-05-01

    We established a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (CFPAC-1) from a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) and assessed some of its properties. The cells show epithelial morphology and express cytokeratin and oncofetal antigens characteristic of pancreatic duct cells. Basal and stimulated levels of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the biophysical properties of single Cl- channels in CFPAC-1 are similar to those of airway and sweat gland primary cultures and Cl(-)-secreting epithelial cell lines. Anion transport and single Cl- channel activity was stimulated by Ca2+ ionophores but not by forskolin, cAMP analogs, or phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The cells express the CF gene and manifest the most common CF mutation, deletion of three nucleotides resulting in a phenylalanine-508 deletion. These properties have been stable through greater than 80 passages (24 months), suggesting that CFPAC-1 can serve as a continuous cell line that displays the CF defect.

  18. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  19. Effects of Chunking and Line Length on Reading Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Stacey A.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that both chunking and shorter line lengths have positive effects on reading efficiency but that high line length variability has a stronger negative effect. Suggests that, because chunking increases line length variability, it can interfere with reading. (FL)

  20. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... atmosphere without hazard and, if the transmission line is adjacent to an overhead electric line, so that the gas is directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must...

  1. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide The Veterans Crisis Line text-messaging service does ...

  2. Straight line closure of congenital macrostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Richard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of patients operated on by Nepal Cleft Lip and Palate Association (NECLAPA surgeons for congenital macrostomia were prospectively studied between January 2000 and December 2002. There were four males and three females with a median age of 10 years. Three had an associated branchial arch syndrome. In all patients an overlapping repair of orbicularis oris was done. Six patients had a straight line closure with excellent cosmetic results and one a Z-plasty with a more obvious scar. All had a normal appearing commissure. Overlapping orbicularis repair with straight line skin closure for this rare congenital anomaly is recommended.

  3. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  4. Linux command line and shell scripting bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application

  5. Lineær programmering med Excel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Peter

    Publikationen giver en introduktion til faget "Lineær programmering". Formulering og løsning bygger på, at modellerne opstilles og løses i et Excel-regneark. Fremgangsmåden er forklaret trin for trin, således at hæftet kan bruges som selvstudiemateriale. Indholdsfortegnelse Generelt om styring og...... planlægning Lineær programmering Excel solveren Fortolkning af udskrifter Degeneration Excel tips Opgaver med løsninger...

  6. Laser wire emittance measurement line AT CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Blair, G A; Aumeyr, T; Schulte, D; Stulle, F

    2011-01-01

    A precise measurement of the transverse beam size and beam emittances upstream of the final focus is essential for ensuring the full luminosity at future linear colliders. A scheme for the emittance measurements at the RTML line of the CLIC using laser-wire beam profile monitors is described. A lattice of the measurement line is discussed and results of simulations of statistical errors and of their impact on the accuracy of the emittance reconstruction are given. Laser wire systems suitable for CLIC and their main characteristics are discussed.

  7. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones......On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology...

  8. Fire Resistant Panels for the Tunnel Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of experimental and theoretical research fire resistance fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T. Owing to the assembly simplicity, materials cheapness, high ecological standard, recycling, reuse potential, are benefit. Research work is running to improve the knowledge about fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T for tunnel lining, its basic performance, its long term behavior and in particular also its fire proof for example when used for the lining of road tunnels.

  9. An intersection graph of straight lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    G. Ehrlich, S. Even, and R.E. Tarjan conjectured that the graph obtained from a complete 3 partite graph K4,4,4 by deleting the edges of four disjoint triangles is not the intersection graph of straight line segments in the plane. We show that it is.......G. Ehrlich, S. Even, and R.E. Tarjan conjectured that the graph obtained from a complete 3 partite graph K4,4,4 by deleting the edges of four disjoint triangles is not the intersection graph of straight line segments in the plane. We show that it is....

  10. How to motivate assembly line workers

    OpenAIRE

    Saitovic, Maja; Jusufi, Valdete

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our master thesis was to investigate what motivates assembly line workers performing low-skill jobs in a small industrial laundry business. We wanted to see what fac-tors determine and influence their motivation to work and if and how this motivation can be improved with respect to assembly line systems in general. The method of our investiga-tion was qualitative in nature, where we studied one firm that leases clean bed clothes and textiles to hotels and restaurants around Swe...

  11. Performance of the first ANTARES detector line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruijn, R.; Kooijman, P.; Lim, G.; De Wolf, E. [Univ Amsterdam, Inst Hoge Energiefys, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, (Netherlands); Ageron, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Escoffier, S.; Hallewell, G.; Lambard, G.; Lavalle, J.; Lelaizant, G.; Louis, F.; Melissas, M.; Payre, P.; Reed, C. [CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille 9, (France); Ageron, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Escoffier, S.; Hallewell, G.; Lambard, G.; Lavalle, J.; Lelaizant, G.; Louis, F.; Melissas, M.; Payre, P.; Reed, C. [Univ Aix Marseille 2, F-13288 Marseille 9, (France); Aguilar, J.A.; Bigongiari, C.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Salesa, F.; Toscano, S.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Valencia 46071, (Spain); Albert, A.; Castel, D.; Drouhin, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Guillard, G. [Univ Houte Alsace, GRPHE, F-68093 Mulhouse, (France); Anton, G.; Auer, R.; Eberl, T.; Fehr, F.; Graf, K.; Hossl, J.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kopper, C.; Kretschmer, W.; Kuch, S.; Lahmann, R.; Laschinsky, H.; Loucatos, S.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Ostasch, R.; Richardt, C.; Schoeck, F.; Shanidze, R. [Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, (Germany); Anvar, S.; Druillole, F.; Lamare, P.; Le Provost, H. [CEA Saclay, Direct Sci Mat, Inst Rech Fondamentales Univers, Serv Elect Detecteurs et Informat, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we report on the data recorded with the first Antares detector line. The line was deployed on 14 February 2006 and was connected to the readout 2 weeks later. Environmental data for one and a half years of running are shown. Measurements of atmospheric muons from data taken from selected runs during the first 6 months of operation are presented. Performance figures in terms of time residuals and angular resolution are given. Finally the angular distribution of atmospheric muons is presented and from this the depth profile of the muon intensity is derived. (authors)

  12. 46 CFR 78.50-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 78.50-15 Section 78.50-15 Shipping... Vessels § 78.50-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently scribed or embossed as required by subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter. (b) ...

  13. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines. PMID:18927105

  14. The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. : I. Emission line ratios and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penston, M. V.; Robinson, A.; Alloin, D.; Appenzeller, I.; Aretxaga, I.; Axon, D. J.; Baribaud, T.; Barthel, P.; Baum, S. A.; Boisson, C.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Clavel, J.; Colina, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Diaz, A.; Dietrich, M.; Durret, F.; Dyson, J. E.; Gondhalekar, P.; van Groningen, E.; Jablonka, P.; Jackson, N.; Kollatschny, W.; Laurikainen, E.; Lawrence, A.; Masegosa, J.; McHardy, I.; Meurs, E. J. A.; Miley, G.; Moles, M.; O'Brien, P.; O'Dea, C.; del Olmo, A.; Pedlar, A.; Perea, J.; Perez, E.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Perry, J.; Pilbratt, G.; Rees, M.; Robson, I.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Schilizzi, R.; Stasińska, G.; Stirpe, G. M.; Tadhunter, C.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Unger, S.; Vila-Vilaro, V.; Vilchez, J.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M. J.; Yates, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the Extended Narrow Line Region (ENLR) of the galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically

  15. Enhancement of effects of irradiation by gemcitabine in a glioblastoma cell line and cell line spheroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genç, Mine; Castro Kreder, Natasja; Barten-van Rijbroek, Angelique; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Haveman, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose. To determine the cytotoxicity of, and radioenhancement by, gemcitabine on a glioma cell line grown as a monolayer and as spheroid cultures. Material and methods. We used a human glioma cell line, Gli-6, which originated from a biopsy specimen of a patient with a glioblastoma

  16. INTER-LINE DISTANCE ESTIMATION AND TEXT LINE EXTRACTION FOR UNCONSTRAINED ONLINE HANDWRITING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratzlaff, E.

    2004-01-01

    Methods for detecting and extracting whole text lines from unconstrained online handwritten text are described. The general approach is a ``bottom-up'' clustering of discrete strokes into small groups that are then merged into isolated lines of text. Initial clustering of strokes into groups is

  17. Assessment of Labor Behavior Factors and Selecting Line Managers' Lines of Development at Russian Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalova, Elena K.; Kosheleva, Sofia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper investigates personal and environmental factors providing for the efficiency of line managers' activity and contributing to their professional and career advancement. The paper studies the prognostic value of the assessment of personal and environmental factors providing for the efficiency of line managers' activity according to…

  18. application of yield line the ion of yield line theory in pre ion of yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Analysis of precast waffle slabs have ysis of precast waffle slabs have unanalyzed. T unanalyzed. This has led to cracks or his has led to cracks or. This paper proposed the use of. This paper proposed the use of yield line theory yield line theory develop a computer program called YLRGT a computer program called YLRGT.

  19. Dynamic Line Rating - Technologies and Challenges of PMU on Overhead Lines: A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, David; Rosero, Javier; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    for line rating computation and monitoring are identified, these are: sensors, communications, management information system and information analysis tools, which are part of integral dynamic line rating systems. Finally, the benefits and challenges of using phasor measurement units for real time capacity...

  20. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

  1. The line makes the difference: line managers as effective HRM partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna Christina

    2010-01-01

    The HR role of line managers is highly discussed and criticized but little empirically researched. It is argued that line managers are not able to effectively implement HR practices because they do not have the desire, capacity and competences needed to perform well and lack support and policies &

  2. Material selection of a ferrimagnetic loaded coaxial delay line for phasing gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J M; Reale, D V; Cravey, W H; Garcia, R S; Barnett, D H; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2015-08-01

    Implementing nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) technology in the design of a high power microwave source has the benefits of producing a comparatively small and lightweight solid-state system where the emission frequency is easily tuned. Usually, smaller in physical size, single NLTLs may produce significantly less power than its vacuum based counterparts. However, combining individual NLTL outputs electrically or in free-space is an attractive solution to achieve greater output power. This paper discusses a method for aligning a four element NLTL antenna array with coaxial geometry using easily adjustable temporal delay lines. These delay lines, sometimes referred to as pulse shock lines or pulse sharpening lines, are placed serially in front of the main NLTL line. The propagation velocity in each delay line is set by the voltage amplitude of an incident pulse as well as the magnetic field bias. Each is adjustable although for the system described in this paper, the voltage is held constant while the bias is changed through applying an external DC magnetic field of varying magnitude. Three different ferrimagnetic materials are placed in the temporal delay line to evaluate which yields the greatest range of electrical delay with the least amount of variability from consecutive shots.

  3. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  4. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  5. Second-line failure and first experience with third-line antiretroviral therapy in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited data on the failure of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART and the use of third-line ART in people living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Since 2011, the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV/tuberculosis programme in Mumbai, India, has been providing third-line ART to patients in care. Objective: To describe the experiences and programmatic challenges during management of suspected second-line ART failure and third-line ART therapy for patients living with HIV, including the use of HIV viral load (VL testing. Design: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with suspected second-line ART treatment failure, who were followed for at least 12 months between January 2011 and March 2014. Results: A total of 47 patients with suspected second-line failure met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Twenty-nine of them (62% responded to enhanced adherence support, had a subsequent undetectable VL after a median duration of 3 months and remained on second-line ART. The other 18 patients had to be initiated on a third-line ART regimen, which consisted of darunavir–ritonavir, raltegravir, and one or more appropriate nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, based on the results of HIV genotype testing. Of the 13 patients for whom follow-up VL results were available, 11 achieved virological suppression after a median duration of 3 months on third-line ART (interquartile range: 2.5–3.0. No serious treatment-related adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: With intensive counselling and adherence support in those suspected of failing second-line ART, unnecessary switching to more expensive third-line ART can be averted in the majority of cases. However, there is an increasing need for access to third-line ART medications such as darunavir and raltegravir, for which national ART programmes should be prepared. The cost of such medications and inadequate access to VL

  6. Difference in membrane repair capacity between cancer cell lines and a normal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane...... repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique......, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested...

  7. JSCS – OnLine First

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    n/a

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The section “JSCS – OnLine First” at www.shd.org.rs/JSCS, starting March 1, 2010, and issue No. 3 of Vol. 75 (2010, displays peer reviewed and accepted articles to be published in the Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society. The articles are prepared for final technical work.When the final article is assigned to an issue of the Journal, the “JSCS – OnLine First” version will be removed from this section and will appear in the associated printed Journal issue and in the electronic form at the Journal’s Web Site.Please be aware that, although “JSCS – OnLine First” versions do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of OnLine publication and the DOI as follows: Author(s, Article Title, Journal (Year, DOI. Printed (or electronic versions are to be cited in the usual way.Please consult the Journal’s reference style for the exact appearance of these elements, abbreviation of journal names and the use of punctuation..

  8. Intraprocedural Dataflow Analysis for Software Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Ribeiro, Márcio; Tolêdo, Társis

    2013-01-01

    Software product lines (SPLs) developed using annotative approaches such as conditional compilation come with an inherent risk of constructing erroneous products. For this reason, it is essential to be able to analyze such SPLs. However, as dataflow analysis techniques are not able to deal with SPLs...

  9. Tornado risk model for transmission line design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milford, RV

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available per year striking the section of transmission line of length L k (or the probability of a strike, Psk (F = FJ within an area A can then be expressed as: P~k(F = Fi) = AliLk _ N nilL ~S i k = LkpP(F = Fi)li...

  10. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  11. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 19 February, the very first magnet was installed in one of the two tunnels that will house the transfer lines leading to the LHC. This magnet, recycled from a previous facility, was transported and positioned using a novel system designed for conveying large objects through narrow tunnels.

  12. Mumford coverings of the projective line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Voskuil, Harm H.

    A Mumford covering of the projective line over a complete non-archimedean valued field K is a Galois covering X → P1K such that X is a Mumford curve over K. The question which finite groups do occur as Galois group is answered in this paper. This result is extended to the case where P1K is replaced

  13. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and. L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquid-.

  14. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Torstrick; Felix Kruse; Martin Wiedemann

    2016-01-01

    EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  15. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  16. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...

  17. Haptic perception of shapes and line drawings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis various aspect of haptic perception were studied. The first part of the thesis is mainly concerned with haptic perception of two-dimensional shapes and line drawings. We first studied the angular acuity of two-dimensional shapes an found that the manner of exploration as well as the

  18. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...

  19. Educational On-line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. The results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...

  20. Integral equations formulation of plasmonic transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mai O; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Gielen, Georges; Soliman, Ezzeldin A

    2014-09-22

    In this paper, a comprehensive integral equation formulation of plasmonic transmission lines is presented for the first time. Such lines are made up of a number of metallic strips with arbitrary shapes and dimensions immersed within a stack of planar dielectric or metallic layers. These lines support a number of propagating modes. Each mode has its own phase constant, attenuation constant, and field distribution. The presented integral equation formulation is solved using the Method of Moments (MoM). It provides all the propagation characteristics of the modes. The new formulation is applied to a number of plasmonic transmission lines, such as: single rectangular strip, horizontally coupled strips, vertically coupled strips, triangular strip, and circular strip. The numerical study is performed in the frequency (wavelength) range of 150-450 THz (0.66-2.0 μm). The results of the proposed technique are compared with those obtained using Lumerical mode solution, and CST. Very good agreement has been observed. The main advantage of the MoM is its intrinsic speed for this type of problem compared to general purpose solvers.

  1. Stabilizing Fiber-Optic Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G. F.; Lau, K. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Voltage-controlled optical phase shifter is key. Optical phase shifter stabilizes propagation delay of fiber-optic transmission line by compensating for temperature and pressure effects. Applicable to phased array antenna systems and very-long-baseline interferometer distribution systems.

  2. ISOLDE Off-line Gas Leak Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kristoffer Bested

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates gas injection system of the ISOLDE Off-line separator. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to analysis the composition of the gas. Based on these measurements a contamination of the injected gas is found and a system upgrade is purposed. Furthermore a calibration of the leak rate of the leak valve is made.

  3. Safe Evolution Patterns for Software Product Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dintzner, N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a global recognition of the problem, and massive investment from researchers and practitioners, the evolution of complex software systems is still a major challenge for today’s architects and developers. In the context of product lines, or highly configurable systems, variability in the

  4. Interactions between Brief Flashed Lines at Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-11

    ORAIAIN 6 OFC ’PO 4 4M FMNTRIGOGNZTO lol in AFI, C 203 2- 44 . NAME OF PFN IG PORAIION lbOFFICE SYMBOL 7il PRO4MEN MINTRUNT INCNIATON NM ,.. .oAFOSR...Cass, P. C. (1986) Facilitatory interactionE between flashed lines. Perceptinn. jj,443-460. omith, P.A. and Cass, P C. (1967) Aliasing in the

  5. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1996-01-01

    A line driver comprising: an input terminal for receiving an input signal, an output terminal for connecting a load, a first and a second transconductance-controlled transconductor having substantially equal transconductances, each transconductor having a non-inverting input, an inverting input, an

  6. Ferrite Solutions for Electromagnetic Shock Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Phillip D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Primm, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop tools and test procedures for identifying ferrites suitable for use in shock line applications. Electromagnetic shocklines have been used to provide fast rising voltage pulses for many applications. In these applications a slow rising pulse is injected into the line where currents drive the ferrites into saturation leading to a fast rising output pulse. A shockline’s unique capabilities could be applied to new detonator configurations. A properly conditioned voltage pulse is critical for fire set applications. A carefully designed shockline could provide a passive solution to generating a fast rising voltage pulse for the fire set. Traditional circuits use ferrites operating in a linear regime. Shock lines push the ferrites well into the nonlinear regime where very few tools and data currently exist. Ferrite material is key to the operation of these shock lines, and tools for identifying suitable ferrites are critical. This report describes an experimental setup to that allows testing of ferrite samples and comparison to models with the goal of identifying optimal ferrites for shockline use.

  7. ITER PF6 double pancakes winding line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shuangsong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Wen, Wei, E-mail: wenwei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); Chen, Jin; Wu, Weiyue; Song, Yuntao; Shen, Guang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • ITER PF6 double pancakes “two-in-hand” winding line layout and main parameters were introduced, main winding sequences were also included. • Main features of each winding unit include de-spooling unit, straightening unit, sandblasting and cleaning unit, bending unit, turn insulation wrapping head, rotary table and automatic control system were depicted. • PF6 double pancake winding line was commissioned with PF5 empty jacket conductor after the installation and testing of each unit, ±0.5 mm turn positioning and ±2 turn to turn deviations were achieved. - Abstract: The Poloidal Field (PF) coils are one of the main sub-systems of the ITER magnets. The PF6 coil is being manufactured by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) as per the Poloidal Field coils cooperation agreement signed between ASIPP and Fusion for Energy (F4E).The ITER PF6 winding pack is composed by stacking of 9 double pancakes. Each double pancake is wound with a “two-in-hand” configuration. This paper describes the ITER PF6 double pancakes winding line, including layout and main parameters of the winding line, features of main units and the commissioning trial with PF5 empty jacket conductor.

  8. LHC administrators with transfer line magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Left to right: Lyn Evans (LHC project leader), Luciano Maiani (CERN’s Director-General at the time), Alexander Skrinsky, Kurt Hubner, on the last of 360 dipole magnets and 180 quadrupoles from Novosibirsk in Russia. They will form the transfer lines carrying protons into the LHC from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

  9. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  10. Ethylene responses in three Hydrangea lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Uffe Bjerre; Müller, Renate; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ornamental scrub Hydrangea is generally not considered to be particularly sensitive to the phytohormone ethylene. The present study aimed at testing ethylene sensitivity in three different Hydrangea lines: 1, 2 and 3 taking into account the effect of temperature. Ethylene response...... was measured as leaf epinasty and leaf drop. Data indicated that higher temperature accelerates the effect of 2 μl L-1 ethylene over a 12-day period, and if the inhibitor 1-methylcyclopopene 1-MCP is able to attenuate this effect. Breeding line 1 and 3 dropped 3.8±0.6 and 5.0±0.4 leaves on average......, respectively, during the 12-day experimental period. Non-treated controls of line 1 and 3 dropped 1.8±0.6 and 1.8±0.4 leaves, respectively. In contrast, line 2 did not show a significant response to ethylene treatment with a leaf drop of 2.1±0.3 leaves, compared to a leaf drop of 0.8±0.3 in non...

  11. C IV LINE-WIDTH ANOMALIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly Dianne; Pogge, R.W.; Assef, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of six high-redshift quasar spectra obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope with previous observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that failure to correctly identify absorption and other problems with accurate characterization of the CIV emission line profile in low S/N...

  12. The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

  13. Artificial Dielectric Shields for Integrated Transmission Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Zhuang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel shielding method for on-chip transmission lines built on conductive silicon substrates. The shield consists of an artificial dielectric with a very high in-plane dielectric constant, built from two patterned metal layers isolated by a very thin dielectric film. Inserted below an

  14. Beamline for schools beam line training day

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their second day at CERN learning the basics of beam physics, and visiting their experimental setup at the T9 beam line in CERN's East Hall on the Meyrin site.

  15. Wilson lines in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednikov, Igor O; Veken, Frederik F van der

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to get the reader acquainted with theoretical and mathematical foundations of the concept of Wilson loops in the context of modern quantum field theory. It teaches how to perform independently with some elementary calculations on Wilson lines, and shows the recent development of the subject in different important areas of research.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., moving, or removing poles using cranes, derricks, gin poles, A-frames, or other mechanized equipment near... when used near energized lines. (b) Metal tower construction. (1) When working in unstable material the... mobile equipment the location of use for such equipment shall be graded and leveled. (4)(i) Tower...

  17. Beam line from straight-section 16

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    The start of a long trail. The beam line from straight-section 16, where protons are fast ejected, is seen at the point where it crosses the Linac shielding wall as it leaves the PS en route to the ISR.

  18. A Hypercontinuous Hypersmooth, Scharzschild Line Element Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A. Herrmann

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Eddington-Finkelstein transformation is used as an illustration of how the problem of singularities or infinities can be removed by application of nonstandard analysis to the Schwarzschild line element (metric). The evolution of a gravitationally collapsing spherical body with radius greater than but near to the Schwarzschild radius is also investigated.

  19. RECCE: SMALL TEAM MISSIONS BEHIND ENEMY LINES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Recce: Small team missions behind enemy lines is an autobiography by. Colonel (retired) Koos Stadler. The book mainly covers his career as a Special. Forces officer and reconnaissance soldier during South Africa's so-called Border. War in Namibia (formerly South West Africa) and Angola, and his involvement in.

  20. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  1. Stub resonators Transmission - line - based water sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog-Antonyuk, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis describes practical investigations in using stub resonator (as a transmission line) technology for different (on-) inline sensor applications in the field of water technology. In addition, a substantial part of the research has been devoted to provide an

  2. Transmission line for S-band masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, R. C.; Wiebe, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Transmission-line is coaxial. Its outer conductor is made of thin-wall stainless-steel tube; inside is plated with 0.0025 mm copper and 0.0003 mm gold. This combination gives little microwave loss and adequate thermal isolation.

  3. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those ...

  4. Propagation behaviour of overhead transmission lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the physical and electrical characteristics of the lines, their geometric arrangement, height above the ground level and the earth resistivity. 2.1 Admittance matrix. Y is a function only of the physical geometry of conductors relative to the earth plane because the conductor and earth surfaces may each be regarded as ...

  5. Arduino Based RFID Line Switching Using SSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of line switching cannot be overemphasized as they are used to connect and disconnect substations to and from a distribution grid. At the cradle of technology line switching was achieved via the use of manual switches or fuses which could endanger life as a result of electrocution when expose during maintenance. This ill prompted the development of automated line switching using relays and contactors. With time this tends to fail as a result of wearing of the contact which is as a result of arcing and low voltage. To avert all these ills this paper presents Arduino based Radio Frequency Identification RFID line switching using Solid State Relay SSR. This is to ensure the safety of operators or technologist and to also avert the problem associated with relays and contactors using SSR. This was achieved using RFID RC-522 reader ardriuno Uno SSR and other discrete components. The system was tested and worked perfectly reducing the risk of electrocution and eliminating damage wearing of the contacts common with contactors and relays.

  6. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    CERN Document Server

    Sudowe, R

    2001-01-01

    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device. A sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A ...

  7. Coating with colloids by receding contact line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteloot, Guillaume; Laurent, Limat; Francois, Lequeux; Pham, Chi-Tuong; Daerr, Adrian; Receveur, Mathieu

    2008-11-01

    Many coating processes use evaporation. But such coatings are usually inhomogeneous because of the evaporation singularity at the contact line. We are thus investigating the effect of this singularity on dip-coating. In dip-coating, two flows are in competition: one inwards due to the receding contact line, the other outwards due to evaporation, and the equiibrium of thes flows predicts the thicknes of the deposit. There are two dip-coating regimes: one controlled by evaporation, and the known Landau-Levich regime. A minimum deposit thickness is expected between these two regimes. Using different microscopy techniques, we found out that there was a minimum in the deposit thickness, but that the actual mesoscopic order strongly varies depending on the contact line velocity. In the stick-slip regime, we can also link the spatial frequency of the stick-slip motion with the contact line velocity. Eventually, the thinnest deposits exhibits iridescence, which means that we are close to a photonic cristal structure.

  8. In-line beam current monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl A.; Frost, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  9. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CONVEYOR LINE SPEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the mathematical modeling of a conveyor mechanism for control applications with Champion Breweries PLC as a case study. The electrical and mechanical sections were modeled separately and then integrated to obtain one composite system. Due to the lack of synchronisation of the conveyor line ...

  10. Modeling and interpretation of line observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga

    Models for the interpretation of line observations from protoplanetary disks are summarized. The spectrum ranges from 1D LTE slab models to 2D thermo-chemical radiative transfer models and their use depends largely on the type/nature of observational data that is analyzed. I discuss the various

  11. Deriving the Regression Line with Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration with spreadsheets and reliance on previous skills can lead students to determine the line of best fit. To perform linear regression on a set of data, students in Algebra 2 (or, in principle, Algebra 1) do not have to settle for using the mysterious "black box" of their graphing calculators (or other classroom technologies).…

  12. Comprehensive pharmacological profiling of neurofibromatosis cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianman; Grovola, Michael R; Xie, Hong; Coggins, Grace E; Duggan, Patrick; Hasan, Rukhsana; Huang, Jiale; Lin, Danny W; Song, Claire; Witek, Gabriela M; Berritt, Simon; Schultz, David C; Field, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are predisposed to tumors of the nervous system. NF1 patients predominantly develop neurofibromas, and Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST) while NF2 patients develop schwannomas and meningiomas. Here we quantified the drug sensitivities of NF1 and NF2 tumor cell lines in a high throughput platform. The platform contained a comprehensive collection of inhibitors of MEK, RAF, RAS, farnesyl transferase, PAK and ERK, representative drugs against many other cancer pathways including Wnt, Hedgehog, p53, EGF, HDAC, as well as classical cytotoxic agents recommended for treating MPNST, such as doxorubicin and etoposide. We profiled seven NF1-associated MPNST cell lines (ST88-14, ST88-3, 90-8, sNF02.2, T265, S462TY, SNF96.2), one sporadic MPNST cell line (STS26), one schwannoma from a NF2 patient (HEI193), one NF2-deficient malignant meningioma (KT21-MG-Luc5D), one mouse NF2 schwannoma (SC4) and one sporadic rat schwannoma (RT4-67 or RT4). NF1 cells were primarily distinguished from NF2 cells and the sporadic MPNST cell line by their sensitivity to MEK and ERK inhibitors, and to a smaller extent their sensitivity to BH3 mimetics and farnesyl transferase inhibitors. The platform was highly successful in predicting the effects of clinical trials for Neurofibromas.

  13. Thermal problems on high flux beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Robert T.

    1984-05-01

    Wiggler and undulator magnets can provide very intense photon flux densities to beam line components. This paper addresses some thermal/materials consequences due to such impingement. The LBL/Exxon/SSRL hybrid-wiggler beam line VI [1] now nearing operation will be able to provide up to ˜ 7 kW of total photon power at planned SPEAR operating conditions. The first masks are located at 6.5 m from the source and may receive a peak power density (transverse to the beam) exceeding 20 kW/cm 2. Significantly, this heat transfer rate exceeds that radiated from the sun's surface (7 kW/cm 2) and is comparable to that if welding torches. Clearly, cooling and configuration are of critical importance. Configurations for the first mask, the movable mask and the pivot mask on this beam line are presented together with considerations of thermal stress fatigue and of heat transfer by conduction to water-cooling circuits. Some preliminary information on the heating of crystals and mirrors is also presented. For the future, many additional intense wiggler/undulator beam lines are contemplated at several storage rings. The design of these beamlines would be enhanced by faster and more accurate computational techniques. LBL is developing a computer code which will be capable of giving photon power densities onto impinged surfaces for a wide range of source and beam line parameters. These include electron beam energy, current, emittance and orbit deviations; wiggler/undulator length, period and magnetic field; photon energy and angular distribution; reflection/absorption at intermediate impinged surfaces; defining apertures and focusing by mirrors. Three-dimensional computer programs for temperature, stress and strain have been available for some years, but "user friendly" versions are being sought. Other items to pursue are also suggested.

  14. Planetesimal formation starts at the snow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drążkowska, J.; Alibert, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The formation stage of planetesimals represents a major gap in our understanding of the planet formation process. Late-stage planet accretion models typically make arbitrary assumptions about planetesimal and pebble distribution, while dust evolution models predict that planetesimal formation is only possible at some orbital distances. Aims: We wish to test the importance of the water snow line in triggering the formation of the first planetesimals during the gas-rich phase of a protoplanetary disk, when cores of giant planets have to form. Methods: We connected prescriptions for gas disk evolution, dust growth and fragmentation, water ice evaporation and recondensation, the transport of both solids and water vapor, and planetesimal formation via streaming instability into a single one-dimensional model for protoplanetary disk evolution. Results: We find that processes taking place around the snow line facilitate planetesimal formation in two ways. First, because the sticking properties between wet and dry aggregates change, a "traffic jam" inside of the snow line slows the fall of solids onto the star. Second, ice evaporation and outward diffusion of water followed by its recondensation increases the abundance of icy pebbles that trigger planetesimal formation via streaming instability just outside of the snow line. Conclusions: Planetesimal formation is hindered by growth barriers and radial drift and thus requires particular conditions to take place. The snow line is a favorable location where planetesimal formation is possible for a wide range of conditions, but not in every protoplanetary disk model, however. This process is particularly promoted in large cool disks with low intrinsic turbulence and an increased initial dust-to-gas ratio. The movie attached to Fig. 3 is only available at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Forbidden lines of np/q/ ions. I - Detailed balance and line intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Lynch, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed balance equations are solved in the ground state terms of 37 ions of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe; atomic data for 235 transitions of these ions are tabulated, and 14 line ratios of q = 2,4 ions and eight line ratios of q = 3 ions are graphed. Forbidden emission lines of these ions are in the far and near UV, visible, and near and far IR regions of the spectrum. In addition, detailed calculations of the relative populations of the levels of the ground state are presented as a function of temperature and density.

  16. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  17. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  18. Simulations on the new VITO line for ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Mora Grimaldo, Johnny Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Description and results of the first simulation done over the new VITO line for ISOLDE, using SIMION 8.1. The simulation contained a part of the principal line, the VITO line, and the $\\beta$-NMR line of the facilities.

  19. Line-scan Raman microspectrometry for biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A high-resolution confocal line-scan Raman microscope was developed for the study of biological samples such as cells and chromosomes. With the illumination of a line on the sample, all the spectral information of the line is recorded. The line-scan microscope was attained by the introduction of one

  20. 36 CFR 910.53 - Building restriction line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Building restriction line... PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.53 Building restriction line. Building restriction line means a line beyond which an exterior wall of any building of a development may not be constructed...

  1. 13 CFR 115.33 - Surety bonding line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surety bonding line. 115.33... Guarantees Subject to Prior Approval § 115.33 Surety bonding line. A surety bonding line is a written... applying for a bonding line, the Surety must provide SBA with information on the applicant as requested. In...

  2. Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…

  3. Emission line imaging of 3CR quasars and radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hes, R; Barthel, PD; Fosbury, RAE

    Optical emission line images and spectra of sixteen 3CR powerful radio galaxies and quasars are presented. Extended line emission is detected in both radio galaxies and quasars. We show that line luminosities, derived from the spatially integrated [OII]lambda 3727 narrow emission line, are on

  4. 75 FR 66750 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power... Transmission Line in Lane and Linn counties, Oregon. The deteriorated condition of this 70-year old line... Transmission Line Rebuild Project EIS and requesting comments about the potential environmental impacts it...

  5. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line which...

  6. 21 CFR 872.1850 - Lead-lined position indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-lined position indicator. 872.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1850 Lead-lined position indicator. (a) Identification. A lead-lined position indicator is a cone-shaped device lined with lead that is attached to a...

  7. Spin-photon interface and spin-controlled photon switching in a nanobeam waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa; Ding, Dapeng; Appel, Martin Hayhurst

    2017-01-01

    Access to the electron spin is at the heart of many protocols for integrated and distributed quantum-information processing [1-4]. For instance, interfacing the spin-state of an electron and a photon can be utilized to perform quantum gates between photons [2,5] or to entangle remote spin states [6......-9]. Ultimately, a quantum network of entangled spins constitutes a new paradigm in quantum optics [1]. Towards this goal, an integrated spin-photon interface would be a major leap forward. Here we demonstrate an efficient and optically programmable interface between the spin of an electron in a quantum dot...... and photons in a nanophotonic waveguide. The spin can be deterministically prepared with a fidelity of 96\\%. Subsequently the system is used to implement a "single-spin photonic switch", where the spin state of the electron directs the flow of photons through the waveguide. The spin-photon interface may...

  8. Indistinguishable and efficient single photons from a quantum dot in a planar nanobeam waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanské, Gabija; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Daveau, Raphaël Sura

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-purity source of indistinguishable single photons using a quantum dot embedded in a nanophotonic waveguide. The source features a near-unity internal coupling efficiency and the collected photons are efficiently coupled off chip by implementing a taper that adiabatically...... allows pinpointing the residual decoherence processes, notably the effect of phonon broadening. Strict resonant excitation is implemented as well as another means of suppressing photon jitter, and the additional complexity of suppressing the excitation laser source is addressed. The paper opens a clear...

  9. Simulation and characterization of stress in FinFETs using novel LKMC and nanobeam diffraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiluan, Guo; Guilei, Wang; Chao, Zhao; Jun, Luo

    2015-08-01

    A new simulation method and test instrument has been adopted to verify the traditional stress simulation in FinFET. First, a new algorithm named lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (LKMC) is used to simulate the SiGe epitaxy in source/drain regions and the stress distribution is consequently extracted after the LKMC simulation. Systematic comparison between the traditional polyhedron method and the LKMC method is carried out. The results confirm that extracted stress from both methods is consistent, which verifies the validity of traditional polyhedron method for the purpose of simulating stress in FinFET. In the following experiment, p-type FinFETs with SiGe stressors in source/drain regions are fabricated. The nano beam diffraction (NBD) method is employed to characterize the strain in Si fin. The strain value from the NBD test agrees well with the value extracted from traditional polyhedron simulation. Project supported by the “National S&T Major Project 02”, the Opening Project of Microelectronics Devices & Bulk Si FinFET Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2013ZX02303007-001).

  10. Spin-photon interface and spin-controlled photon switching in a nanobeam waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa; Ding, Dapeng; Appel, Martin Hayhurst

    2017-01-01

    and photons in a nanophotonic waveguide. The spin can be deterministically prepared with a fidelity of 96\\%. Subsequently the system is used to implement a "single-spin photonic switch", where the spin state of the electron directs the flow of photons through the waveguide. The spin-photon interface may...

  11. Hydrogen stabilization of metallic vanadium dioxide in single-crystal nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiang; Ji, Heng; Guo, Wenhua; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.; Natelson, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a strongly correlated material that undergoes a metal-insulator transition from a high-temperature, rutile metal to a monoclinic insulating state at 67 °C. In recent years, experiments on single-crystal vanadium-dioxide nanowires grown by physical vapour deposition have shed light on the crucial role of strain in the structural and electronic phase diagram of this material, including evidence for a new M2 phase, but the detailed physics of this material is still not fully understood. The transition temperature can be reduced by doping with tungsten, but this process is not reversible. Here, we show that the metal-insulator transition in nanoscale beams of vanadium dioxide can be strongly modified by doping with atomic hydrogen using the catalytic spillover method. We also show that this process is completely reversible, and that the metal-insulator transition eventually vanishes when the doping exceeds a threshold value. Raman and conventional optical microscopy, electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy provide evidence that the structure of the metallic post-hydrogenation state is similar to that of the rutile state. First-principles electronic structure calculations confirm that a distorted rutile structure is energetically favoured following hydrogenation, and also that such doping favours metallicity from both the Mott and Peierls perspectives. We anticipate that hydrogen doping will be a powerful tool for examining the metal-insulator transition and for engineering the properties of vanadium dioxide.

  12. Fabrication of Triangular Nanobeam Waveguide Networks in Bulk diamond Using Single-Crystal Silicon Hard Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, I; Li, L; Goldstein, J A; Schröder, T; Zhang, J; Chen, E H; Gaathon, O; Lu, M; Stein, A; Ruggiero, C A; Salzman, J; Kalish, R; Englund, D

    2014-01-01

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q=2.51x10^6) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (Vm=1.062x({\\lambda}/n)^3), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q=3x103.

  13. Evaluation of nail lines: Color and shape hold clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Shari R; Scher, Richard K

    2016-05-01

    Nail lines are a common presenting finding. A thorough inspection of the fingernails and toenails is an integral part of the complete physical examination. An understanding of basic nail anatomy and familiarity with several basic types of nail line enable the clinician to diagnose and treat nail disorders and to recognize underlying systemic diseases, as each type of nail line has a particular differential diagnosis. The authors review leukonychia striata (white lines), longitudinal melanonychia (brown-black lines), longitudinal erythronychia (red lines), and nail-plate grooves (Beau lines). Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  14. Flow line asymmetric nonimaging concentrating optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Nonimaging Optics has shown that it achieves the theoretical limits by utilizing thermodynamic principles rather than conventional optics. Hence in this paper the condition of the "best" design are both defined and fulfilled in the framework of thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for the designs of thermal and even photovoltaic systems, even illumination and optical communication tasks. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, geometric flux field and radiative heat transfer while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background. Some of the new development of flow line designs will be introduced and the connection between the thermodynamics and flow line design will be officially formulated in the framework of geometric flux field. A new way of using geometric flux to design nonimaging optics will be introduced. And finally, we discuss the possibility of 3D ideal nonimaing optics.

  15. Line transect sampling from a curving path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, L; Krishna, M B

    2001-09-01

    Cutting straight line transects through dense forest is time consuming and expensive when large areas need to be surveyed for rare or highly clustered species. We argue that existing paths or game trails may be suitable as transects for line transect sampling even though they will not, in general, run straight. Formulas and software currently used to estimate local density using perpendicular distance data can be used with closest approach distances measured from curving transects. Suitable paths or trails are those for which the minimum radius of curvature is rarely less than the width of the shoulder in the detection probability function. The use of existing paths carries the risk of bias resulting from unrepresentative sampling of available habitats, and this must be weighed against the increase in coverage available.

  16. Flux qubit to a transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlein, Max; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the last decade, superconducting qubits coupled to microwave resonators have been extensively studied within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Ultimately, quantum computing seems within reach in such architectures. However, error correction schemes are necessary to achieve the required fidelity in multi-qubit operations, drastically increasing the number of qubits involved. In this work, we couple a flux qubit to a transmission line where it interacts with itinerant microwave photons granting access to all-optical quantum computing. In this approach, travelling photons generate entanglement between two waveguides, containing the qubit information. In this presentation, we show experimental data on flux qubits coupled to transmission lines. Furthermore, we will discuss entanglement generation between two separate paths.

  17. Safety in the design of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...... became safer, but not as a result of any intentional plan to integrate safety aspects into the design process. Instead, the supplier’s design of a new piece of equipment had a higher built-in safety level. The engineering team in the company was aware of the importance of safety aspects neither...... a ‘history workshop’ with the engineering team. The workshop clarified the sequence of events and discussions that took place during the design process and opened for a discussion of the role of safety aspects. During the workshop new insights emerged into the question of how to integrate safety aspects...

  18. Safety in the redesigning of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...... became safer, but not as a result of any intentional plan to integrate safety aspects into the design process. Instead, the supplier’s design of a new piece of equipment had a higher built-in safety level. The engineering team in the company was aware of the importance of safety aspects neither...... a ‘history workshop’ with the engineering team. The workshop clarified the sequence of events and discussions that took place during the design process and opened for a discussion of the role of safety aspects. During the workshop new insights emerged into the question of how to integrate safety aspects...

  19. The Horizon Is An Imaginary Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Bani; Mahendru, Radha

    The Horizon Is An Imaginary Line (THIAI) is a semi-fictional illustrated account of a young Somali woman's encounters as a refugee in India. Through Maryam, we reflect on the lived experiences of alienation and marginalization as an 'outsider' on the fringes of an increasingly bordered world. Des....... Designed partly as an infographic, THIAIL puts into perspective several myths and assumptions about the "refugee crisis" and India's ambiguous role within the global refugee regime.......The Horizon Is An Imaginary Line (THIAI) is a semi-fictional illustrated account of a young Somali woman's encounters as a refugee in India. Through Maryam, we reflect on the lived experiences of alienation and marginalization as an 'outsider' on the fringes of an increasingly bordered world...

  20. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-07-22

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.