WorldWideScience

Sample records for cement industry technical

  1. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. the Danish cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    la Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Møllgård, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We test econometrically whether the sole Danish producer of cement holds a dominant position in the Danish market for (grey) cement. In import penetration tests, we find that its pricing and quantity decisions are independent of import price and quantity, implying that it can act to a considerable extent independently of its competitors. We also test whether it can act independently of its customers and find that its demand is inelastic with respect to its price. It thus holds a dominant posi...

  3. Use of petroleum code as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Cement industry is a very energy intensive industry. Each ton of cement produced requires 60 to 130 kilograms of fuel oil or an equivalent fuelling amount also requires an average 110 kWh of electricity as well over 40% of total production cost is the energy requirements in the cement industry (i.2). Normally oil, gas or coal is fired in cement kilns as traditional fuels. However use of waste, both as alternative fuels and raw materials is now common practice in many cement companies. Many different types of wastes are burnt today in cement kilns like used tyres, rubber, paper waste, waste oils, waste wood, paper sludge, sewage, animal meal and animal remains (i,4). The choice of fuel for the purpose is normally based on price and availability considering different properties of the fuel as energy contents, ash contents, moisture and volatiles contents. Petcoke is not yet produced in any petroleum refinery in Pakistan but it is abundantly available in the market worldwide as it is obtained as a waste product during the refining processes. The purpose of the current research is to figure out the suitability of petroleum coke as a fuel for cement industry both on technical and economic basis. (author)

  4. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  5. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative

  6. Scenario Study on PM emission Reduction in Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, Xin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Huili; Jin, Ling; Yan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the high pollution industries in China. Evaluation of the primary particulate matter (PM) emission status and the reduction potential is not only important for our understanding of the effectiveness of current pollution control measures but also vital for future policy design. In this study, PM emitted from cement producing process in 2014 was calculated using an emission factor method. Three PM emission control scenarios were set up considering source control, process management and end-of-pipe treatment, and the PM emission reduction by 2020 under the three scenarios was predicted, respectively. In 2014, the primary PM emission from cement industry was 1.95 million tons. By 2020, the productions of cement and clinker were expected to increase by 12% and 7%, respectively, and the PM emission would increase by about 10%. By implementation of GB4915-2013 and comprehensive control of fugitive PM emission, the PM emission would probably be reduced by 34%. Another 7% decrease would be expected from source control. The second scenario can be considered as an assessment of the effectiveness of the revised emission standard, and this research can be used as a technical support to the environmental management authorities to make relevant policies.

  7. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  8. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, F. B.; Amaral, M. C.; Bou-Issa, R. A.; Holanda, J. N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste) as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, wa...

  9. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolev, Konstantin

    2003-01-01

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecologi...

  10. Application of tracer technique in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran'ai, L.

    1979-01-01

    Application is stated of the radioisotope indication method in the cement industry. The method was applied in three directions. In the first direction, by means of labelling of 300 steel mill balls by cobalt-60, wear of them was examined. The degree of wear of milling balls in the process of milling was determined according to the decrease of their weight. Radioactive label served only for tracing controll balls. In the second direction, according to the natural radioactivity being presented in ashes by radioisotopes radium-226 and thorium-229, amount of ashes in the products of cement milling was determined (in the mill product, cement product, flying dust and back loading groats). In the third direction, by means of labelling of definite fractions of mille by radioisotope gold-198, optimization of technological parameters of silos were raw meal is homogenization. The following technological parameters have been established: amount of homogenized material; time of homogenization and frequency of intensity changing of supplied compressed air jet [ru

  11. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total

  12. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Sobolev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and - at the same time - uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  13. Impacts of cement industries on environment and control measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, H.N.; Malik, H.N.; Naushad, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of cement as building material is gaining more importance. Cement industries around the world are contributing in global and as well as local pollution. In Pakistan most of the cement industries are constructed in remote areas without any proper environmental impact assessment. Unawareness of peoples toward sustainable environment and due to lack of job opportunities, dwellers are demanding employment rather than clean environment from title-holder of the industry. Air pollution caused by cement industries is harmful to the human's health, spoils and erodes building surface, corrodes metals, weakens textiles, deteriorates atmospheric visibility, affects plant life and leads to ecological imbalances. To investigate environmental impact of cement industries in Pakistan, environmental conditions around and inside the five cement industries in the vicinity of Taxila city are studied. To inspect the whole scenario, air pollution control devices in these industries were also examined in detail. These industries are using Electrostatic Precipitators and Baghouses to control air pollution (dust particulates). Proper caring of these equipment is necessary for better results. Detailed study shows that emissions from their stacks and dust particulates are causing problems. Health consultants in study area are much worry about the health of workers and environmental degradation in the vicinity of these industries. The comparison of air pollution control devices shows that Baghouses are environmental friendly. Considering the field conditions it is also concluded that involvement of government and environmental pollution control agencies is much more necessary. (author)

  14. Secondary fuels and raw materials in the Spanish cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordobil, J.C.U.; Guede, Elena [Cementos Lemona s.a. (Spain)

    1997-03-01

    The growing environmental and energy concern are having an impact on the Spanish cement industry. This article describes the impact on waste management, the operation of cement kilns and the possibility for recycling. Current projects and future prospects are described. (UK)

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  16. Study of energy efficiency measures in cement industry; Estudo de medidas de eficiencia energetica na industria de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Roberta Ferreira Carrijo; Gorla, Filipe Debonzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Methods of energy conservation play an important role in the future energetic supply. The cement industry, being energetic intensive, is an important niche of performance of such methods. It is intended, in the present work, to estimate the impact of energy conservation through different scenarios. The projections have been realized considering both the technical (equipment efficiency) and economical (Industrial Transformation Worth - ITW) aspects of the cement sector. (author)

  17. The status of energy conservation in Taiwan's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Te-Li; Chan, David Yih-Liang; Hung, Ching-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry represents one of the most energy intensive sectors in Taiwan. Energy audits are the direct tools which are employed to help reduce energy consumption. The objectives of energy audits are to establish energy audit systems, provide on-site energy audit service and reduce production cost. This study summarized the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry; the data were obtained from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2010. The total implemented energy savings amounted to 68,512 kilo liter of crude oil equivalent (KLOE). The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed an energy saving potential of 2571.6 MWh of electricity and 1002.8 KLOE of thermal energy. The total potential energy saving was 1708.5 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), equivalent to a 4560 t reduction in CO 2 emissions, representing the annual CO 2 absorption capacity of a 122 ha forest plantation. - Highlights: • This study summarizes the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System. • The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed energy saving potential was 1708.5 KLOE. • This work aims to examine what Taiwan has done and also describes the current status in cement industry. • In addition, some potential energy conservation opportunities or measures are revealed in this paper

  18. Application of Carbonate Looping to Cement Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, cycle experiments of different types of limestone, cement raw meal and a mixture of limestone and clay were carried out in laboratory scale setups at more realistic conditions (i.e. calcination temperature is 950°C and CO2 concentration is 80%) to simulate the performance...... with an increase in the CO2 partial pressure during calcination, indicating enhancement of sintering by the presence of CO2. As sorbents, cement raw meal and the mixture of limestone and clay show a similar trend as limestone with respect to the decay of the CO2 carrying capacity and this capacity is lower than...... that of limestone at the same conditions in most cases. SEM and XRD analyses indicate that a combination of severe sintering and formation of calcium silicates attributes to the poor performance of the cement raw meal....

  19. Energy efficiency improvement and CO2 emission reduction opportunities in the cement industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    China's annual cement production (i.e., 1868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world's annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in China's cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using bottom–up CSC models, the cumulative cost-effective and technical electricity and fuel savings, as well as the CO 2 emission reduction potentials for the Chinese cement industry for 2010–2030 are estimated. By comparison, the total final energy saving achieved by the implementation of these 23 efficiency measures in the Chinese cement industry over 20 years (2010–2030) is equal to 30% of the total primary energy supply of Latin America or Middle East or around 71% of primary energy supply of Brazil in 2007. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate is conducted to assess its effect on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost. - Highlights: ► Estimation of energy saving potential in the entire Chinese cement industry. ► Development of the bottom–up technology-rich Conservation Supply Curve models. ► Discussion of different approaches for developing conservation supply curves. ► Primary energy saving over 20 years equal to 33% of primary energy of Latin America

  20. Technical benefit and risk analysis on cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanmin

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates the potential technical benefit and risk for cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon, a laboratory-phase developing technique, from 9 aspects, including the heat consumption of clinkering and exhaust heat utilization, clinker quality, adaptability to alternative fuels, the disposal ability of industrial offal and civil garbage, adaptability to the raw materials and fuels with high content of chlorine, sulphur and alkali, the feasibility of process scale up, the briquetting process of the coal-containing cement raw meal pellet, NO x emission and the capital cost and benefit of conversion project. It is concluded that it will be able to replace the modern precalciner rotary kiln process and to become the main stream technique of cement clinkering process in low carbon economy times. - Highlights: • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to run stably. • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to scale up. • New process triples energy efficiency with excellent environmental performance. • It will be able to compete with and replace the existing precalciner kiln process. • It will become the mainstream clinkering process in low carbon economy

  1. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, durability, and compressive strength, microstructure and mineral phases of soil-cement bricks. Microstructural evolution was evaluated via confocal microscopy. The experimental results showed that the solid wastes behave as charge material and influenced both technical properties and microstructure of the soil-cement bricks. It was found that up to 15 wt% of welding flux slag waste and up to 30 wt% of avian eggshell waste could be added into the soil-cement bricks for use as building material.

  2. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in

  4. Developing Low-Clinker Ternary Blends for Indian Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aritra

    2018-05-01

    In today's scenario cement-concrete has become the backbone of infrastructure development. The use of concrete is increasing day by day and so does cement. One of the major concerns is that the cement manufacturing contributes 7% of total man-made CO2 emission in the environment. At the same time India being a developing country secured the second position in cement production. On the other hand solid waste management is one of the growing problems in India. As we are one of the major contributors in this situation so, the time has come to think about the sustainable alternatives. From various researches it has been observed that the low clinker cement can be suitable option. In the present paper we have tried to develop a low clinker ternary blend for Indian cement industry using the concept of synergetic behavior of fly ash-limestone reaction and formation of more stable monocarboaluminate hydrate and hemicarboaluminate hydrate. 30% fly ash and 15% limestone and 5% gypsum have been used as supplementary cementing material for replacing 50% clinker. The mechanical properties like, compressive strength, have been studied for the fly ash limestone ternary blends cements and the results have been compared with the other controlled blends and ternary blends. The effect of intergrinding of constituent materials has shown a comparable properties which can be used for various structural application. The effect of dolomitic limestone has also been studied in fly ash limestone ternary blends and the result shows the relation between compressive strength and dolomite content is inversely proportional.

  5. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility for the handling and sale, as fuel in cement industries, of petroleum coke produced at a petroleum refinery located in Moin, Limon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales Suarez, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    A study of the technical and financial pre-feasibility is realized for the handling, conditioning and sale as fuel in cement industries of petroleum coke, that is produced in the project of extension and modernization of the refinery of RECOPE in Moin, Limon. Daily production has been of 570 metric tons. The market study has determined a demand of approximately 120 000 metric tons in the country and in the region. The total production of coke has been possible place it at national and regional level, due to lack of another producer. The coke is recommended to crush it to decrease the size of the particles for the conditioning, handling and to facilitate their manipulation. Conveyor belts are used for handling on the inside of the refinery. The coke is transported in trucks type tanker on the exterior of the refinery. The moisture content is reduced by dryer vibratory of fluidized bed to 5% of moisture to guarantee a product better quality. The product is stored under roof in ventilated facilities and with appropriate systems of security to minimize the risk of an accident. The fixed capital investment to develop the project has been of USD 3,1 millions and working capital of USD 14,4 millions. The financial evaluation is realized considering two financing models of 70% and without financing. The net present value (NPV) has been of USD -13,0 millions and the desirability index of -6,6 for the model with financing. The model without financing has obtained a NPV of USD -1,9 millions and a desirability index of -1,2. The financial profitability of the project has been very sensitive to the sales price of the coke, to the coke volume of production, to the growth percentage of the sale price and the cost of the raw material for the two models considered. The financial risk analysis is realized by the Monte Carlo method, whereupon is obtained a probability of approximately 34% in that the internal rate of return (IRR) has been higher than the cut rate and of 36% in that

  6. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  7. Industrial trial to produce a low clinker, low carbon cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno-Andrés, L. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of conditions for the industrial manufacture of a new cementitious system based on clinker-calcined clay and limestone, developed by the authors, referred as “low carbon cement” is presented. The new cement enables the substitution of more than 50% of the mass of clinker without compromising performance. The paper presents the follow-up of an industrial trial carried out in Cuba to produce 130 tonnes of the new cement at a cement plant. The new material proved to fulfill national standards in applications such as the manufacture of hollow concrete blocks and precast concrete. No major differences either in the rheological or mechanical properties were found when compared with Portland cement. Environmental assessment of the ternary cement was made, which included comparison with other blended cements produced industrially in Cuba. The new cement has proven to contribute to the reduction of above 30% of carbon emissions on cement manufacture.Se presenta la evaluación preliminar de las condiciones de fabricación industrial de un nuevo sistema cementicio a partir del empleo de clínquer; arcillas calcinadas y piedra caliza; desarrollado por los autores; denominado “cemento de bajo carbono”. El nuevo cemento posibilita la reducción de más de un 50% de la masa de clínquer; sin comprometer el comportamiento del material. El presente trabajo presenta el monitoreo de la producción industrial en una planta en Cuba; de 130 t del nuevo cemento. El cemento obtenido cumple con las regulaciones nacionales de calidad y su empleo tiene similar rendimiento que el cemento Pórtland para la producción de bloques y hormigón de 25 MPa. Se realiza el análisis de impacto ambiental del cemento ternario mediante la comparación con otros cementos producidos industrialmente. El nuevo cemento puede contribuir a la reducción de más del 30% de las emisiones de CO2 asociadas a la manufactura de cemento.

  8. The use of conservation supply curves in energy policy and economic analysis: The case study of Thai cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Menke, Christoph; Therdyothin, Apichit

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the largest energy-consuming industries in Thailand with high carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Using a bottom-up electricity Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) model, the cost effective and the total technical electricity-efficiency potential for the Thai cement industry in 2008 is estimated to be about 265 and 1697 gigawatt-hours (GWh) which account for 8% and 51% of the total electricity used in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. The fuel CSC model shows the cost-effective fuel-efficiency potential to be 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and the total technical fuel-efficiency potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel used in cement industry in 2005, respectively. The economic analysis in this paper shows how the information from the CSCs can be used to calculate the present value (PV) of net cost savings over a period of time taking into account the energy price escalation rate. The results from the policy scenario analysis show that the most effective and efficient policy scenario is the introduction of an energy-related CO 2 tax for the cement industry under a voluntary agreement program. This scenario results in 16.9% primary energy-efficiency improvement over a 5-year implementation period.

  9. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS ON INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN CEMENT INDUSTRY AND TEA INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The project aims at analyzing the feasibility of utilizing cement kiln dust (CKD in treating wastewater from tea industry with the concept of industrial symbiosis. CKD is the dust collected at the air pollution control device(s associated with a kiln system from cement industry. A very less percent of CKD is recycled and the rest is land filled /stockpiled; disrupts groundwater through leaching of minerals. Cement Kiln Dust (CKD, rich in CaO, SiO2, behaves as a neutralizing as well as stabilizing agent for tea effluent treatment. The ability of CKD to reduce the BOD, COD, TSS, and phosphates in tea effluent was analyzed and the optimum dosage is determined. The effect of different dosages of Cement Kiln Dust ranging from (1-3 gm/l has been discussed on the bench scale tests. The results show that, for different CKD concentrations, high removal efficiencies of 94.4 and 99.0, 58.9 for BOD, TSS, phosphates and a lower efficiency for COD with 9.09 are achieved for 2.5gm/l. The persistent presence of color providing proteins theaflavins (TF and the arubigins (TR from the leftover tea leaves in the effluent imparts the low removal efficiencies of COD. However, the COD value is within the dischargeable limits (CPCB standards. Moreover, a considerable removal efficiency and high SVI of 0.181 makes CKD a feasible coagulant in treating tea effluent with optimum dosage of 2.5g/l. The objective of developing industrial symbiosis network was thus achieved using the CKD to treat wastewater from tea industries.   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 20-34

  10. Energy efficiency technologies in cement and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, Silvia Maria; Cocchioni, Francesco; Pepe, Crescenzo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, Advanced Process Control strategies aimed at energy efficiency achievement and improvement in cement and steel industry are proposed. A flexible and smart control structure constituted by several functional modules and blocks has been developed. The designed control strategy is based on Model Predictive Control techniques, formulated on linear models. Two industrial control solutions have been developed, oriented to energy efficiency and process control improvement in cement industry clinker rotary kilns (clinker production phase) and in steel industry billets reheating furnaces. Tailored customization procedures for the design of ad hoc control systems have been executed, based on the specific needs and specifications of the analysed processes. The installation of the developed controllers on cement and steel plants produced significant benefits in terms of process control which resulted in working closer to the imposed operating limits. With respect to the previous control systems, based on local controllers and/or operators manual conduction, more profitable configurations of the crucial process variables have been provided.

  11. Potential for energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions in the Brazilian cement industry through 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.B.; Tolmasquim, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The cement industry is characterized by intensive energy consumption throughout its production stages which, together with the calcination of its raw materials, accounts for significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 1996, the Brazilian cement industry consumed 4.3% of the energy required by the industrial sector, contributing over 22 Mtons (Million of tons) of CO 2 . The prospects for growth in this sector in Brazil indicate rising demands for fossil fuels, with a consequent upsurge in emissions. The purpose of this article is to present the prospects for energy conservation in the Brazilian cement industry through to 2015, taking into account the introduction of new production technologies in this sector, the use of waste and low-grade fuels, cogeneration, the use of additives, and other measures, based on a technical and economic energy demand simulation model

  12. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per

  13. Economic benefits of reducing emissions from the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Metni, M.; Nuwayhid, M.I.; Kobrossi, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Air pollution has recently been a growing concern in Lebanon particularly around industrial facilities and in urban areas. The cement industry constitutes a major polluting source and its impacts have historically raised considerable local public concern, as was previously the case in many developed countries. In this context, the town of Chekka, which is the site of four cement factories, has been the subject of long-lived controversy with respect to emissions and potential adverse environmental impacts. While field observations and public health complains support the presence of such impacts., scientific data are almost non-existent to adequately evaluate the actual situation. This paper describes recent efforts conducted towards a proper air quality characterization in order to shed light on the extent and nature of the impact of the cement industry in the Chekka region on its immediate vicinity. For this purpose, continuous monitoring of selected air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) was conducted during a limited period. In addition, pollutant dispersion modeling was performed to better define exposure areas. Field measurements coupled with simulation results were linked to a survey questionnaire to assess potential health and material damage on a sample area. The economic benefits of emissions reduction of selected pollutants are presented in the context of the results obtained during this study

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  15. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  16. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  17. Evaluation of cement treated base courses : technical assistance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to determine the strength characteristics of soil cement bases that were constructed under stabilized procedures (DOTD TR 432M/432-99) and the cement treated design philosophy. This was accomplished by using the Fal...

  18. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  19. Environmental health survey in asbestos cement sheets manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, F A; Bihari, V; Rastogi, S K; Ashquin, M; Ahmad, I

    2007-01-01

    About 673 small-scale asbestos mining and milling facilities and 33 large - scale asbestos manufacturing plants, (17 asbestos-cement product manufacturing plants and 16 other than asbestos-cement product plants) are situated in India. The present study reveals the exposure of commercial asbestos (chrysotile) in the occupational as well as ambient air environment of the asbestos-cement (AC) sheets industry using membrane filter method of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The fibre concentrations in 15 samples collected in the occupational environment at ingredient feeding site, sheet-producing site, fibre godown were 0.079, 0.057 and 0.078 f/cc, respectively and in five samples from surrounding ambient air at factory gate resulted fibre concentration of 0.071 f/cc. All the samples have shown fibre concentration lower than the threshold limit values (TLVs) prescribed by BIS. Morphological analysis of samples, further under phase contrast and polarized microscopy indicates the presence of chrysotile asbestos, which acts as carcinogen as well as co-carcinogen. A clinical examination of exposed subjects reveals that there was no case of clubbing, crepitation, ronchi and dyspnea on exertion; however, obstruction and restriction were 10.9 per cent and 25 per cent in exposed subjects, respectively while in control there were 12 per cent and 28 per cent, respectively. The study revealed that chrysotile asbestos is emitted in the occupational as well as ambient environment that may cause adverse health impact.

  20. The origins of American industrial success: Evidence from the US portland cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, David

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of innovations, factor endowments and institutions to American industrialization are examined through analysing the rise of the American portland cement industry. Minerals abundance contributed in multiple ways to the spectacular rise of the industry from the 1890s. However, the results of a structural econometric analysis of entry suggests geological surveys, institutions highlighted by David and Wright, played a contributing rather than critical rol...

  1. Technical development of industry for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book mentions the history for 30 years since 1979 on industrial technology, which records change of system and environment of industrial technology development, like economical and social environment, industrial technology policy, support system on technical development and enterprise institute, assignment for future and product of industrial technology by field such as electric electronic, information and communications, machine material and fiber chemistry, and the way which Korea industrial technology association walked on.

  2. A critical analysis of energy efficiency improvement potentials in Taiwan's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Lin; Fleiter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The cement industry is the second most energy-intensive sector in Taiwan, which underlines the need to understand its potential for energy efficiency improvement. A bottom-up model-based assessment is utilized to conduct a scenario analysis of energy saving opportunities up to the year 2035. The analysis is supported by detailed expert interviews in all cement plants of Taiwan. The simulation results reveal that by 2035, eighteen energy efficient technologies could result in 25% savings for electricity and 9% savings for fuels under the technical diffusion scenario. This potential totally amounts to about 5000 TJ/year, of which 91% can be implemented cost-effectively assuming a discount rate of 10%. Policy makers should support a fast diffusion of these technologies. Additionally, policy makers can tap further saving potentials. First, by decreasing the clinker share, which is currently regulated to a minimum of 95%. Second, by extending the prohibition to build new cement plants by allowing for replacement of existing capacity with new innovative plants in the coming years. Third, by supporting the use of alternative fuels, which is currently still a niche in Taiwan. - Highlights: •We analyze energy efficiency improvement potentials in Taiwan's cement industry. •Eighteen process-specific technologies are analyzed using a bottom-up model. •Our model systematically reflects the diffusion of technologies over time. •We find energy-saving potentials of 25% for electricity and 9% for fuels in 2035. •91% of the energy-saving potentials can be realized cost-effectively.

  3. Technical innovation and industrial change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, H

    1982-10-01

    Technical development is leading by rationalization at economical stagnation to a decrease in the working volume. The economic difficulties are based on the discrepancy between the offer of goods and services as well as the actual demand. The demand of common goods is growing compared to the consumption goods, which will decrease. The therefore necessary structure change requires a high standard of governmental efforts and social consensus.

  4. Technical innovation and industrial change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1982-01-01

    Technical development is leading by rationalization at economical stagnation to a decrease in the working volume. The economical difficulties are based on the discrepancy between the offer of goods and services as well as the actual demand. The demand of common goods is growing compared to the consumption goods, which will decrease. The therefore necessary structure change requires a high standard of governmental efforts and social consensus. (orig.) [de

  5. Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Alternative Fuel for Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuzhou; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of sewage sludge and coal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis.Both differential scanning calorimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric profiles showed differences between combustion of sewage sludge and coal, and non-isothermal kinetics analysis method was applied to evaluate the combustion process. Based on Coats-Redfem integral method, some reaction models were tested,the mechanism and kinetics of the combustion reaction were discussed. The results show that the combustion of sewage sludge is mainly in the Iow temperature stage, meanwhile the ignition temperature and Arrhenius activation energy are lower than that of coal. The combustion of sewage sludge has the advantage over coal in some aspects, thus sewage sludge can partly replace coal used as cement industry fuel.

  6. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  7. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  8. Technological, economic and financial prospects of carbon dioxide capture in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Tharakan, Pradeep; Macdonald, Douglas; Liang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Cement is the second largest anthropogenic emission source, contributing approximately 7% of global CO 2 emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as an essential technology capable of reducing CO 2 emissions in the cement sector by 56% by 2050. The study compares CO 2 capture technologies for the cement manufacturing process and analyses the economic and financial issues in deploying CO 2 capture in the cement industry. Post-combustion capture with chemical absorption is regarded as a proven technology to capture CO 2 from the calcination process. Oxyfuel is less mature but Oxyfuel partial capture—which only recycles O 2 /CO 2 gas in the precalciner—is estimated to be more economic than post-combustion capture. Carbonate looping technologies are not yet commercial, but they have theoretical advantages in terms of energy consumption. In contrast with coal-fired power plants, CO 2 capture in the cement industry benefits from a higher concentration of CO 2 in the flue gas, but the benefit is offset by higher SO x and NO x levels and the smaller scale of emissions from each plant. Concerning the prospects for financing cement plant CO 2 capture, large cement manufacturers on average have a higher ROE (return on equity) and lower debt ratio, thus a higher discount rate should be considered for the cost analysis than in power plants. IEA estimates that the incremental cost for deploying CCS to decarbonise the global cement sector is in the range US$350–840 billion. The cost estimates for deploying state-of-the art post-combustion CO 2 capture technologies in cement plants are above $60 to avoid each tonne of CO 2 emissions. However, the expectation is that the current market can only provide a minority of financial support for CO 2 capture in cement plants. Public financial support and/or CO 2 utilisation will be essential to trigger large-scale CCS demonstration projects in the cement

  9. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  10. Valorization of used tyres as fuel substitute in cement industry; Valorisation des pneus usages comme combustible de substitution en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    According to the French syndicate of cement industry, more than 350000 t of worn tyres are produced each year in France, among which only 143000 t are reused in retreading, exported as used tyres or valorized in cement industry. The rest is generally tipped or burnt in the open-air. In cement kilns, the organic matters of tyres are completely burnt while the metal belts supply the necessary amount of iron to the cement composition. The combustion of tyres produces no black smoke, no smell and no ash and has no significant influence on the effluents of cement factories: gases are directly filtered in the kiln by the important mass of raw materials which acts as quicklime. In 1997, 31500 t of used tyres were burnt in the seven French cement factories over 34 that use this kind of fuel and represents 1.5% of the total energy needs. This substitution ratio could easily reach 10 to 15% without leading to any additional environmental or technical problem. A project of collection and valorization of used tyres has been developed by the French ministry of environment and aims at completely eliminating tyres tipping since July 1, 2002. In order to illustrate the French policy of tyres valorization, two examples of actions are presented in this paper: the first one is carried out by the Michelin manufacturer in order to facilitate the recycling of civil engineering tyres, and the second is carried out by Ciments d`Origny company at the Rochefort factory where tyres are used as fuel substitutes. (J.S.)

  11. Obtaining a sulfoaluminate belite cement by industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhadiri, L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfoaluminate belite clinkers by burning raw at moderate temperatures near 1250 °C were synthesized. The used mixtures were made by calcium carbonate blended to two industrial wastes: low calcium fly ash and phosphogypsum. The clinkers were characterised by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and free lime. The hydraulic behaviour of the obtained cements, by adequate clinkers with 7% of added gypsum, was followed by XRD, scaning electronic microscopy (SEM, FTIR and NMR.

    Los clínkeres belíticos de sulfoaluminatos se obtienen por cocción de crudos a temperaturas moderadas, hacia 1.250 ºC. Esos crudos se componen de carbonato de calcio mezclados con dos subproductos industriales: cenizas volantes pobres en óxido de calcio y fosfoyeso. Los clínkeres obtenidos se caracterizaron a través de Difracción de Rayos X (DRX, Espectroscopia Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FTIR y por la determinación de CaO libre. El comportamiento hidráulico de los cementos elaborados de los clínkeres con el 7% de yeso se estudió por DRX, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM, FTIR y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (RMN

  12. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  13. Technical assessment of three layered cement-bonded boards produced from wastepaper and sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwape, Joseph Adeola; Fabiyi, James Sunday; Osuntuyi, Edward Olusola

    2007-01-01

    The technical properties of three layered cement-bonded boards (CBBs) made from wastepaper and sawdust were investigated. The CBBs were produced at three density levels of 1000, 1200 and 1300 kg/m 3 and at four cement/particle ratios of 2.0:1, 2.5:1, 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 on a weight to weight basis. The technical properties evaluated were modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS). The MOR values ranged from 4.85 to 11.69 MPa and MOE values ranged from 2.80 to 5.57 GPa. The mean values of WA and TS after 24 h of water soaking of the CBBs ranged from 18.18% to 40.49% and 3.55% to 12.13%, respectively. MOR and MOE of the CBBs increased with increase in board density, but MOR decreased with the increase in cement/particle ratio. On the other hand, WA and TS decreased with increase in board density and cement/particle ratio. CBBs produced from wastepaper and sawdust at cement/particle ratios of 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 are suitable for building construction such as paneling, ceiling and partitioning

  14. Some technical writing skills industry needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is suggested that engineers and other technical students be taught three classes of skills in technical writing. First, "Big Picture Things", which includes: the importance of clear writing, the wide scope of writing, the wide scope of writing tasks that will be faced in industry, and the principles of organization of technical materials such as; how to analyze, classify, partition, and interpret. Second, "Writing Procedures", which encompasses: how to get words on paper efficiently and team-write. Third, "Writing Details", in which two considerations are important: how to achieve precision in the use of language and the aspects of style. Three problems in style are cited: the problem of sentence transition, overuse of attributive adjectives, and verbosity in paragraph structure. The most important thing in technical writing is considered to be functionality, economy and clarity.

  15. NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Fact Sheets for Actions Since 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  16. Final Rule: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  17. Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Indian cement industry is one of the most efficient in the world. Its efforts to reduce its carbon footprint by adopting the best available technologies and environmental practices are reflected in the achievement of reducing total CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.719 tCO2/t cement in 2010 from a substantially higher level of 1.12 tCO2/t cement in 1996. However, because the manufacturing process relies on the burning of limestone, it still produced 137 MtCO2 in 2010 – approximately 7% of India’s total man-made CO2 emissions. Yet opportunity for improvement exists, particularly in relation to five key levers that can contribute to emissions reductions: alternative fuel and raw materials; energy efficiency; clinker substitution; waste heat recovery and newer technologies. This roadmap sets out one pathway by which the Indian cement industry can reach its targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions by 2050, thereby laying the foundation for low-carbon growth in the years beyond. The Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry builds on the global IEA technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s Cement Sustainability Initiative. It outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to reduce its direct CO2 emissions intensity to 0.35 tCO2/t cement and support the global goal of halving CO2 emissions by 2050.

  18. The Office of Industrial Technologies technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts R D activities which focus on the objectives of improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial energy conservation. The Office also conducts programs to reduce waste generation, increase recycling efforts, and improve the use of wastes as process feedstocks. An active program of technology transfer and education supports these activities and encourages adoption of new technologies. To accomplish these objectives OIT cooperates with the private sector to identify its technological needs and to share R D efforts. R D is conducted to the point that a new technology is shown to work and that it can be transferred to the private sector end-users. This bibliography contains information on all scientific and technical reports sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program during the years 1988--1990.

  19. Technical diagnosis of industrial plants with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of radioisotopes in technical diagnosis of industrial plants. Proceeding from the economic importance and the state of the art of radioisotope applications, the principles of tracer techniques are outlined including topical examples of application such as passage of coal through a steam generator, wear in impact crashing of coal, wear and corrosion in pipelines, testing the effective cross section of pipes, and investigations of microstructures. Limits and restrictions of applications are briefly discussed

  20. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China's cement industry: A perspective from LMDI decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinhua; Fleiter, Tobias; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fan Ying

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the change of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's cement industry and its driving factors over the period 1990–2009 by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. It is based on the typical production process for clinker manufacturing and differentiates among four determining factors: cement output, clinker share, process structure and specific energy consumption per kiln type. The results show that the growth of cement output is the most important factor driving energy consumption up, while clinker share decline, structural shifts mainly drive energy consumption down (similar for CO 2 emissions). These efficiency improvements result from a number of policies which are transforming the entire cement industry towards international best practice including shutting down many older plants and raising the efficiency standards of cement plants. Still, the efficiency gains cannot compensate for the huge increase in cement production resulting from economic growth particularly in the infrastructure and construction sectors. Finally, scenario analysis shows that applying best available technology would result in an additional energy saving potential of 26% and a CO 2 mitigation potential of 33% compared to 2009. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's cement industry. ► The growth of cement output is the most important driving factor. ► The efficiency policies and industrial standards significantly narrowed the gap. ► Efficiency gains cannot compensate for the huge increase in cement production. ► The potentials of energy-saving of 26% and CO 2 mitigation of 33% exist based on BAT.

  1. CEMENT. "A Concrete Experience." A Curriculum Developed for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Lou

    This instructor's guide contains 11 lesson plans for inplant classes on workplace skills for employees in a cement plant. The 11 units cover the following topics: goals; interpreting memoranda; applying a standard set of work procedures; qualities of a safe worker; accident prevention; insurance forms; vocabulary development; inventory control…

  2. Occupational dermatitis. An epidemiological study in the rubber and cement industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varigos, G A; Dunt, D R

    1981-03-01

    An epidemiological study of occupational dermatitis in a tyre company and a cement company is reported. Ninety-seven percent of 999 tyre workers and 78% of 151 cement workers were screened by an occupational nurse and subsequently assessed by a specialist dermatologist. Prevalence rates of occupational contact dermatitis were 37 per 1000 and 68 per 1000 in the tyre and cement companies, respectively. Maintenance workers and tyre builders - particularly if they were Yugoslav and female - had high prevalence rates amongst tyre workers. Worker's compensation claim rates for the tyre company are similar to U.K. and U.S. rates for this industry. Prevalence rates of 37 per 1000 can be considered as a lower limit for this industry. The high prevalence rates in the cement company are noteworthy and require further study.

  3. Microwave processing of cement and concrete materials – towards an industrial reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttress, Adam; Jones, Aled; Kingman, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Each year a substantial body of literature is published on the use of microwave to process cement and concrete materials. Yet to date, very few if any have lead the realisation of a commercial scale industrial system and is the context under which this review has been undertaken. The state-of the–art is evaluated for opportunities, and the key barriers to the development of new microwave-based processing techniques to enhance production, processing and recycling of cement and concrete materials. Applications reviewed include pyro-processing of cement clinker; accelerated curing, non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E), and end-of-life processing including radionuclide decontamination

  4. Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

  5. 3.7. Technical and economic aspects of the application of cement concretes obtained from local minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to technical and economic aspects of the application of cement concretes obtained from local minerals. The following composite materials obtained from local raw materials were considered: mineral (cement, lime), inorganic (phosphates, sodium silicate), organic (phenol formaldehyde, epoxide, urea-formaldehyde, carbamide, acryl, organosilicon, furfural aniline). It was concluded that from technical and economical points of view the most effective materials were: mineral composite materials, crude shale oils and ligno sulphonates.

  6. Can Imports Discipline Collusive Firms? Case of the Philippine Cement Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaelita M. Aldaba

    2008-01-01

    Applying a conjectural variations (CV) model introduced by Haskel and Scaramozzino (H&S model 1997), the paper examines the impact of trade liberalization on the Philippine cement industry where alleged cartel activities have taken place after the entry of the worlds Big Three cement firms : Holcim, Cemex, and Lafarge. In the H&S model, the relationship between firm behavior and competition is estimated with price cost margin (price minus marginal costs over price) as indicator of competition...

  7. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation rates of 37 EEMs are quantified for China’s cement industry. • Energy Supply Cost Curves were implemented in the GAINS model. • The economic energy saving potential is 3.0 EJ and costs is $4.1 billion in 2030. • Energy efficiency would lead to large reductions in air pollution. • The co-benefits decrease average marginal costs of EEMs by 20%. - Abstract: China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of GHGs and air pollutants emission. In this study, the energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) combined with the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) was used to estimate the co-benefits of energy savings on CO 2 and air pollutants emission for implementing co-control options of energy efficiency measures and end-of-pipe options in the China’s cement industry for the period 2011–2030. Results show that there are large co-benefits of improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions of CO 2 and air pollutants for the China’s cement industry during the study period. The cost-effective energy saving potential (EEP1 scenario) and its costs is estimated to be 3.0 EJ and 4.1 billion $ in 2030. The technical energy savings potential (EEP2 scenario) and its costs amount to 4.2 EJ and 8.4 billion $ at the same time. Compared to the baseline scenario, energy efficiency measures can help decrease 5% of CO 2 , 3% of PM, 15% of SO 2 , and 12% of NOx emissions by 2030 in EEP1 scenario. If we do not consider costs (EEP2 scenario), energy efficiency measures can further reduce 3% of CO 2 , 2% of PM, 10% of SO 2 , and 8% of NOx by 2030. Overall, the average marginal costs of energy efficiency measures will decrease by 20%, from 1.48 $/GJ to 1.19 $/GJ, when

  8. CT-guided vertebroplasty: analysis of technical results, extraosseous cement leakages, and complications in 500 procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Herber, Sascha; Koch, Ulrike; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Drees, Philip [University Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical results, the extraosseous cement leakages, and the complications in our first 500 vertebroplasty procedures. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures or osteolytic lesions caused by malignant tumors were treated with CT-guided vertebroplasty. The technical results were documented with CT, and the extraosseous cement leakages and periinterventional clinical complications were analyzed as well as secondary fractures during follow-up. Since 2002, 500 vertebroplasty procedures have been performed on 251 patients (82 male, 169 female, age 71.5 {+-} 9.8 years) suffering from osteoporotic compression fractures (n = 217) and/or malignant tumour infiltration (n = 34). The number of vertebrae treated per patient was 1.96 {+-} 1.29 (range 1-10); the numbers of interventions per patient and interventions per vertebra were 1.33 {+-} 0.75 (range 1-6) and 1.01 {+-} 0.10, respectively. The amount of PMMA cement was 4.5 {+-} 1.9 ml and decreased during the 5-year period of investigation. The procedure-related 30-day mortality was 0.4% (1 of 251 patients) due to pulmonary embolism in this case. The procedure-related morbidity was 2.8% (7/251), including one acute coronary syndrome beginning 12 h after the procedure and one missing patellar reflex in a patients with a cement leak near the neuroformen because of osteolytic destruction of the respective pedicle. Additionally, one patient developed a medullary conus syndrome after a fall during the night after vertebroplasty, two patients reached an inadequate depth of conscious sedation, and two cases had additional fractures (one pedicle fracture, one rib fracture). The overall CT-based cement leak rate was 55.4% and included leakages predominantly into intervertebral disc spaces (25.2%), epidural vein plexus (16.0%), through the posterior wall (2.6%), into the neuroforamen (1.6%), into paravertebral vessels (7.2%), and combinations of these and others. During follow

  9. CT-guided vertebroplasty: analysis of technical results, extraosseous cement leakages, and complications in 500 procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Herber, Sascha; Koch, Ulrike; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph; Drees, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical results, the extraosseous cement leakages, and the complications in our first 500 vertebroplasty procedures. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures or osteolytic lesions caused by malignant tumors were treated with CT-guided vertebroplasty. The technical results were documented with CT, and the extraosseous cement leakages and periinterventional clinical complications were analyzed as well as secondary fractures during follow-up. Since 2002, 500 vertebroplasty procedures have been performed on 251 patients (82 male, 169 female, age 71.5 ± 9.8 years) suffering from osteoporotic compression fractures (n = 217) and/or malignant tumour infiltration (n = 34). The number of vertebrae treated per patient was 1.96 ± 1.29 (range 1-10); the numbers of interventions per patient and interventions per vertebra were 1.33 ± 0.75 (range 1-6) and 1.01 ± 0.10, respectively. The amount of PMMA cement was 4.5 ± 1.9 ml and decreased during the 5-year period of investigation. The procedure-related 30-day mortality was 0.4% (1 of 251 patients) due to pulmonary embolism in this case. The procedure-related morbidity was 2.8% (7/251), including one acute coronary syndrome beginning 12 h after the procedure and one missing patellar reflex in a patients with a cement leak near the neuroformen because of osteolytic destruction of the respective pedicle. Additionally, one patient developed a medullary conus syndrome after a fall during the night after vertebroplasty, two patients reached an inadequate depth of conscious sedation, and two cases had additional fractures (one pedicle fracture, one rib fracture). The overall CT-based cement leak rate was 55.4% and included leakages predominantly into intervertebral disc spaces (25.2%), epidural vein plexus (16.0%), through the posterior wall (2.6%), into the neuroforamen (1.6%), into paravertebral vessels (7.2%), and combinations of these and others. During follow-up (15

  10. Reduction of environmental pollution through optimization of energy use in cement industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbassi, A.R.; Jafari, H.R.; Yavari, A.R.; Hoveidi, H. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran). Graduate Faculty of the Environment; Sid Kalal, H. [J.I.H. Research Laboratories, Tehran (Iran). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial development has lead to higher energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, as well as air pollutants. Cement factories play an important role in overall greenhouse emissions. This study aims to investigate the role of Iranian cement industries and their contribution of greenhouse gases contribution. The measured emission factors for oil and fuel gas shows that carbon dioxide contribution from fuel oil based cement industries is almost 2.7 times higher than gas based cement factories. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat technique analysis showed that the best strategy to combat greenhouse gases from Iranian cement factory is to implement energy efficiency measures. Further, strategic position and action evaluation matrix analysis indicates that Iranian cement industries fall within invasive category. Therefore, exploitation of opportunities must carefully be used. One of these opportunities is the utilization of financial assistance provided by clean development mechanism. The results show that replacement of ball mills with vertical roller mill can reduce the electricity consumption from 44.6 to 28 kWh/ton. As a result of such substitution about 720 million kWh/y of electricity would be saved (almost a power plant of 125 MW capacities). Though implementation of new mills may not be economic for the cement industries' owner, but the overall gain for the government of Iran will be about US$ 304 million. If the duration of such efficiency measure is considered as about 12 y, then the overall carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reduction/phase-out would be around 4.3 million tons.

  11. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix, Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test, especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guidelines, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes

  12. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form Technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix. Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test) especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guideline, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes. (author)

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change: policy implications for the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehan, R.; Nehdi, M.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing awareness that the cement industry is a significant contributor to global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. It is expected that this industry will come under increasing regulatory pressures to reduce its emissions and contribute more aggressively to mitigating global warming. It is important that the industry's stakeholders become more familiar with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and associated global warming issues, along with emerging policies that may affect the future of the industry. This paper discusses climate change, the current and proposed actions for mitigating its effects, and the implications of such actions for the cement industry. International negotiations on climate change are summarized and mechanisms available under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are explained. The paper examines some of the traditional and emerging policy instruments for greenhouse gas emissions and analyses their merits and drawbacks. The applicability, effectiveness and potential impact of these policy instruments for the global cement industry in general and the Canadian cement industry in particular are discussed with recommendations for possible courses of action

  14. Recent developments in the cement industry: a comparative study between Mexico and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Since early twentieth century, the use of cement has become a popular and strategic product for economic growth of every country. In India as in Mexico, the first factories began in the earlier twentieth century, India is nowadays the world’s second largest producer and Mexico is the third firm in cement production, despite being the tenth world producer. The eighties have significate for both countries major structural changes in its economy, which have radically altered the structure and functioning of the cement industry and even more during the decade of the nineties. This article discusses the recent performance of the cement industry in both countries, compares the dynamics and causes that gave rise to these changes. It examines changes in the structure of domestic market in both countries and the strategies employed by large companies that operate in both, including a brief analysis of the role of transnational corporations in their development at the stage of globalization and liberalization of markets that characterizes the last two decades. Finally, it explores the great changes that make possible the growth and expansion of the cement industry during the period, based on technological change, the determinants of competitiveness and the role of economic policies in the development of industry in both countries.

  15. Analysis of energy-efficiency opportunities for the cement industry in Shandong Province, China: A case study of 16 cement plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou [China Energy Group, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lan, Wang [China Building Materials Academy, Guanzhuang, Chaoyang District, Beijing, Post code 100024 (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, 16 cement plants with New Suspension Preheater and pre-calciner (NSP) kiln were surveyed. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Then, using the bottom-up Electricity Conservation Supply Curve (ECSC) model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the 16 studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt-hours (GWh), and total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 16 and 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008, respectively. The Fuel Conservation Supply Curve (FCSC) model shows the total technical fuel efficiency potential equal to 7949 terajoules (TJ), accounting for 8% of total fuel used in the studied cement plants in 2008. All the fuel efficiency potential is shown to be cost effective. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency improvement potentials for the cement industry in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesema, Gudise; Worrell, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The cement sector is one of the fast growing economic sectors in Ethiopia. In 2010, it consumed 7 PJ of primary energy. We evaluate the potential for energy savings and CO_2 emission reductions. We start by benchmarking the energy performance of 8 operating plants in 2010, and 12 plants under construction. The benchmarking shows that the energy intensity of local cement facilities is high, when compared to the international best practice, indicating a significant potential for energy efficiency improvement. The average electricity intensity and fuel intensity of the operating plants is 34% and 36% higher. For plants under construction, electricity use is 36% and fuel use 27% higher. We identified 26 energy efficiency measures. By constructing energy conservation supply curves, the energy-efficiency improvement potential is assessed. For the 8 operating plants in 2010, the cost-effective energy savings equal 11 GWh electricity and 1.2 PJ fuel, resulting in 0.1 Mt CO_2 emissions reduction. For the 20 cement plants expected to be in operation by 2020, the cost-effective energy saving potentials is 159 GWh for electricity and 7.2 PJ for fuel, reducing CO_2 emissions by about 0.6 Mt. We discuss key barriers and recommendations to realize energy savings. - Highlights: • The cement sector in Ethiopia is growing rapidly, using mainly imported fuels. • Benchmarking demonstrates a significant potential for energy efficiency improvement. • A large part of the energy efficiency potential can be achieved cost-effectively. • Ethiopia should ban the construction of obsolete vertical shaft kilns.

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazards due to cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.; Abdel Halim, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in Assiut cement and other local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured by using γ-ray spectrometry. From the measured γ-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data for other countries. The average values obtained for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentration in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. The obtained results show that the averages of radiation hazard parameters for Assiut cement factory are lower than the acceptable level of 370 Bq kg -1 for radium equivalent Ra eq , 1 for level index Iγr, the external hazard index Hex ≤1 and 59 (nGy h -1 ) for absorbed dose rate. The manufacturing operation reduces the radiation hazard parameters. Cement does not pose a significant radiological hazard when used for construction of buildings.

  18. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Jing; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO 2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO 2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO 2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  19. HYDRATION AND PROPERTIES OF BLENDED CEMENT SYSTEMS INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikal M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the characteristics of ternary blended system, namely granulated blast-furnace slag (WCS, from iron steel company and Homra (GCB from Misr Brick (Helwan, Egypt and silica fume (SF at 30 mass % pozzolanas and 70 mass % OPC. The required water of standard consistency and setting times were measured as well as physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics of the hardened cement pastes were investigated. Some selected cement pastes were tested by TGA, DTA and FT-IR techniques to investigate the variation of hydrated products of blended cements. The pozzolanic activity of SF is higher than GCB and WCS. The higher activity of SF is mainly due to its higher surface area than the other two pozzolanic materials. On the other side, GCB is more pozzolanic than WCS due to GCB containing crystalline silica quartz in addition to an amorphous phase. The silica quartz acts as nucleating agents which accelerate the rate of hydration in addition to its amorphous phase, which can react with liberating Ca(OH2 forming additional hydration products.

  20. Oxygen transport membranes for biomass gasification and cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Shiyang; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Kaiser, Andreas; Søgaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    I dette projekt er udviklet keramiske ilt-membraner til anvendelse ved fremstilling af ren ilt. Membranerne egner sig endvidere til at levere ilt til en række høj-temperatur processer så som ilt-blæst termisk forgasning af biomasse, cement fremstilling og diverse ”oxyfuel” processer til omsætning af kul med CO2-indfagning. De udviklede membraner er alle baseret på Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-δ (GCO). Betydningen af diverse substituenter (f.eks. Pr og Co), der kan øge materialets elektronledningsevne, og ...

  1. Dynamic technical inefficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Maman; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between industrial concentration and technical inefficiency in the Indonesian food and beverages industry using a dynamic performance measure (dynamic technical inefficiency) that accounts for the presence of adjustment costs.

  2. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura; Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Subpart LLL Rule Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Spring 2016 document is intended for the use of EPA staff, State and Local regulatory agencies and their staff, and industry plant managers for the NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry.

  4. MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebastard, G.; Bairiot, H.

    1990-01-01

    The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

  5. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China's cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Krol, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; de Bruine, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411965085; Geng, Guangpo; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China's cement industry is the second largest energy

  6. Queue balancing of load and expedition service in a cement industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Custódio de Sena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The load and weight process in a cement industry is one of logistic step that shows the biggest time of occurrence, increasing the queues. This study aims to do a scenarios to solve this queue problem. This way, it pretends to find an better resources distribuition.

  7. Employing 3R Techniques in Managing Cement Industry Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management conserves human health, ownership, environment, and keeps valuable natural resources. Lean-green waste of an organization’s operations can be decreased through implementation 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling techniques by reduction of manufacturing system wastes. This research aims to integrate lean-green waste of the manufacturing system throughout employing 3R techniques and weighted properties method in order to manage waste. Al-Kufa cement plant is employed as a case study. Results are generated using Edraw Max Version 7 and Excel. Overall results show reduce technique of lean-green waste management has major contribution of 55 % and recycling technique has minor contribution 18 %. Defects waste has major integration of lean-green waste, while air emissions waste has minor integration of lean-green waste.

  8. Co-controlling CO2 and NOx emission in China's cement industry: An optimal development pathway study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhao Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is of important practical significance to reduce NOx emission and CO2 emission in China's cement industry. This paper firstly identifies key factors that influence China's future cement demand, and then uses the Gompertz model to project China's future cement demand and production. Furthermore, the multi-pollutant abatement planning model (MAP was developed based on the TIMES model to analyze the co-benefits of CO2 and NOx control in China's cement industry. During modeling analysis, three scenarios such as basic as usual scenario (BAU, moderately low carbon scenario (MLC, and radically low carbon scenario (RLC, were built according to different policy constraints and emission control goals. Moreover, the benefits of co-controlling NOx and CO2 emission in China's cement industry have been estimated. Finally, this paper proposes a cost-efficient, green, and low carbon development roadmap for the Chinese cement sector, and puts forwards countermeasures as follows: first, different ministries should enhance communication and coordination about how to promote the co-control of NOx and CO2 in cement industry. Second, co-control technology list should be issued timely for cement industry, and the R&D investment on new technologies and demonstration projects should be increased. Third, the phase-out of old cement capacity needs to be continued at policy level. Fourth, it is important to scientifically evaluate the relevant environmental impact and adverse motivation of ammonia production by NOx removal requirement in cement industry. Keywords: Cement industry, CO2 abatement, NOx reduction, Co-benefit analysis

  9. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanium dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields such a as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  10. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sambeek, Emiel van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yowargana, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuang, Liu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kejun, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  11. Industrial Wastes as Alternative Mineral Addition in Portland Cement and as Aggregate in Coating Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Kamilla Almeida; Nazário, Bruna Inácio; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Hotza, Dachamir; Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation study of wastes from pulp and paper as well as construction and demolition industries for application in cement-based materials. The alternative raw materials were used as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and as pozzolanic material (water-reactive SiO2) in partial replacement of Portland cement. In addition to the hydraulic binder, coating mortars were composed by combining the pulp and paper fluidized bed sand residue with construction and demolition wa...

  12. The application of CFD modelling to support the reduction of CO2 emissions in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Fidaros, Dimitris K.; Priesching, Peter; Minić, Ivica; Tatschl, Reinhard; Duić, Neven; Stefanović, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the leading producers of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, of which CO 2 is the most significant. Recently, researchers have invested a considerable amount of time studying ways to improve energy consumption and pollutant formation in the overall cement manufacturing process. One idea involves dividing the calcination and clinkering processes into two separate furnaces. The calcination process is performed in a calciner while the clinkering process takes place in a rotary kiln. As this is new technology in the cement manufacturing process, calciners are still in the research and development phase. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of CFD to support the design and optimization of calciners, whose use appears to be essential in reduction of CO 2 emission during cement production. The mathematical model of the calcination process was developed, validated and implemented into a commercial CFD code, which was then used for the analysis. From the results obtained by these simulations, researchers will gain an in-depth understanding of all thermo-chemical reactions in a calciner. This understanding can be used to optimize the calciner's geometry, to make production more efficient, to lower pollutant formation and to subsequently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: ► The potential of CO 2 emissions reduction, by using a cement calciner was presented. ► When a cement calciner is used, CO 2 emissions reduction of 3–4% can be achieved. ► The calcination model was developed, validated, and then used for the analysis. ► Shown method can be applied for investigation and optimization of cement calciners.

  13. [Silicosis and industrial bronchitis by exposure to silica powders and cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Báez-Revueltas, Fabiola Berenice; López-Rojas, Pablo; Tovalín-Ahumada, José Horacio; Zamudio-Lara, José Othón; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Villeda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    to identify the association between the exposure of workers to inorganic dust in a quarry and a cement factory and pulmonary diseases. a transverse study on data from 32 quarry workers (QWs) and 57 cement production line workers (CFWs) to inorganic-dust exposure was performed. Pulmonary function tests and chest X ray were done in both groups. there were differences between QWs and the CFWs; QWs were younger, shorter and thinner. The number of sick individuals might be considered significantly different, showing a smaller proportion on the cement production line. The quarry workers have been on the company for a shorter period of time and, in the end, they present more serious pulmonary problems with an average of 3 years working. the amount of free-silica that is managed on the quarry affects the workers in some way, even when literature states that the evolution of industrial bronchitis and silicosis have a period development of approximately 10 years.

  14. Assessment of the thermal performance and energy conservation opportunities of a cement industry in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, M.G.; Widianto, W.; Mohanty, B.

    2005-01-01

    A simple model is presented to assess the thermal performance of a cement industry with an integrated view to improve the productivity of the plant. The model is developed on the basis of mass, energy and exergy balance and is applied to an existing Portland cement industry in Indonesia. The data obtained from industry show that the burning efficiency and the second law efficiency of the kiln system are 52.07% and 57.07% respectively. Cooler efficiency and heat recovery efficiency are 47.75% and 51.2% respectively. The unaccounted loss at kiln system was found to be 1.85% and that of cooler system was 19%. The high loss at cooler was mainly due to the convection and radiation losses from the uninsulated cooler. Irreversibility of the system was found to be about 20%, which is due to the conversion from chemical to thermal energy. The thermal energy conservation opportunities are identified. This study show that by replacing industrial diesel oil (IDO) with waste heat recovery from kiln and cooler exhaust for drying of raw meal and fuel, and preheating of combustion air, a cement industry in Indonesia can save about 1.264 x 10 5 US dollars per year

  15. Advanced Technical Drafting (Industrial Arts) Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1751.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a 17-unit course in advanced technical drafting, a followup to the basic technical drafting course in the industrial arts curriculum for grades 10-12. It is intended for use by industrial arts teachers, supervisors, counselors, administrators, and teacher educators. A three-page course overview provides…

  16. Dust exposure and the risk of cancer in cement industry workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seunghee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Cement is used widely in the construction industry, though it contains hazardous chemicals such as hexavalent chromium. Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between cement dust exposure and cancer, but these associations have proved inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the association between dust exposure and cancer in cement industry workers in Korea. Our cohort consisted of 1,324 men who worked at two Portland cement manufacturing factories between 1997 and 2005. We calculated cumulative dust exposures, then categorized workers into high and low dust exposure groups. Cancer cases were identified between 1997 and 2005 by linking with the national cancer registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all workers and the high and low dust exposure groups, respectively. The SIR for overall cancers in all workers was increased (1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.78). The SIR for stomach cancer in the high dust exposure group was increased (2.18, 95% CI: 1.19-3.65), but there was no increased stomach cancer risk in the low dust exposure group. The SIR for rectal cancer in all workers was increased (3.05, 95% CI: 1.32-6.02). Rectal cancer risk was similar in the high and low exposure groups. Our findings suggest a potential association between exposure in the cement industry and an increased risk of stomach and rectal cancers. However, due to the small number of cases, this association should be further investigated in a study with a longer follow-up period and adjustment for confounders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Investigating different factors influencing job satisfaction: A case study of cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Shirvani; Asghar Mohammadi; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Saeed Yousef Pour; Allahyar Arabmomeni; Shirin Mirhaj; Akram Fakhri Fakhramini

    2013-01-01

    Job satisfaction plays an important role on increasing business productivity and efficiency. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ personal characteristics including gender, marital status, etc. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 244 out of 800 employees who worked for cement industry in Iran. The data are analyzed using different statistical tests such as t-student and analysis of vari...

  18. QUANTIFICATION OF THE DECISIONS OF CONTROL AND AUDIT IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN CEMENT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia £êgowik-Œwi¹cik

    2011-01-01

    Inventory management in enterprises of cement industry necessitates the assessment of the level of risk which is generated by production inventory. The processes of control and auditing allow for planning, monitoring and organization of inventory management in the analysed business entities. This paper is aimed at presentation of the phase of preparation of audit activities in the area of inventory and verification of model solutions for the processes of control and audit in terms of inventor...

  19. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  20. Energetic and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery systems in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Leontaritis, A.-D.; Panousis, G.; Bellos, E.; Kakaras, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical cement producing procedure, 25% of the total energy used is electricity and 75% is thermal energy. However, the process is characterized by significant heat losses mainly by the flue gases and the ambient air stream used for cooling down the clinker (about 35%–40% of the process heat loss). Approximately 26% of the heat input to the system is lost due to dust, clinker discharge, radiation and convection losses from the kiln and the preheaters. A heat recovery system could be used to increase the efficiency of the cement plant and thus contribute to emissions decrease. The aim of this paper is to examine and compare energetically and exergetically, two different WHR (waste heat recovery) methods: a water-steam Rankine cycle, and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). A parametric study proved that the water steam technology is more efficient than ORC in exhaust gases temperature higher than 310 °C. Finally a brief economic assessment of the most efficient solution was implemented. WHR installations in cement industry can contribute significantly in the reduction of the electrical consumptions operating cost thus being a very attractive investment with a payback period up to 5 years. - Highlights: • This paper presents waste heat recovery as a way to gain energy from the exhaust gases in a cement plant. • Water steam cycle and ORC has been analyzed for waste heat recovery. • The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two waste heat recovery processes is presented and compared

  1. The ovens of the industry of the cement and their contribution to the handling of solid residuals and dangerous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros Rojas, Marcelo

    1995-01-01

    The substitution of certain row matters in the process of elaboration of the cement, as flying ashes, polluted soils with petroleum, muds of the industry of the petroleum, oxides of the industry of the steel, foundry sand and tires, they can replace until 40% of the necessities of energy of a cement oven contributing to improve the conservation of the environment. This new technology is using with success in United States and some countries of Europe

  2. Critical elements in implementations of just-in-time management: empirical study of cement industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mehwish; Bhatti, Mansoor Nazir; Shams, Tauqeer; Zaman, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, inventory management is continuous challenge for all organizations not only due to heavy cost associated with inventory holding, but also it has a great deal to do with the organizations production process. Cement industry is a growing sector of Pakistan's economy which is now facing problems in capacity utilization of their plants. This study attempts to identify the key strategies for successful implementation of just-in-time (JIT) management philosophy on the cement industry of Pakistan. The study uses survey responses from four hundred operations' managers of cement industry in order to know about the advantages and benefits that cement industry have experienced by Just in time (JIT) adoption. The results show that implementing the quality, product design, inventory management, supply chain and production plans embodied through the JIT philosophy which infect enhances cement industry competitiveness in Pakistan. JIT implementation increases performance by lower level of inventory, reduced operations & inventory costs was reduced eliminates wastage from the processes and reduced unnecessary production which is a big challenge for the manufacturer who are trying to maintain the continuous flow processes. JIT implementation is a vital manufacturing strategy that reaches capacity utilization and minimizes the rate of defect in continuous flow processes. The study emphasize the need for top management commitment in order to incorporate the necessary changes that need to take place in cement industry so that JIT implementation can take place in an effective manner.

  3. International comparisons of energy efficiency in power, steel, and cement industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Junichiro; Akimoto, Keigo; Tomoda, Toshimasa; Nagashima, Miyuki; Wada, Kenichi; Sano, Fuminori

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is of paramount importance both for conserving energy resources and reducing CO 2 emissions. In this paper, we compare specific energy consumption among countries in fossil power generation, steel, and cement sectors. The evaluations were conducted using common system boundaries, allocation, and calculation methods. In addition, we disaggregate within sectors, such as with blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) steel and scrap-based electric arc furnace (Scrap-EAF) steel. The results reveal that characteristics vary by sub-sector. Regional differences in specific energy consumption are relatively large in the power, BF–BOF steel, and cement sectors. For coal power generation and BF–BOF steel production, continual maintenance and rehabilitation are of key importance. We confirm these key factors identified in the previous work on our estimated numerical values. In BF–BOF steel production, corrections for hot metal ratios (pig iron production per unit of BOF crude steel production) and quality of raw materials have a large effect on the apparent specific energy consumption. Available data is not yet sufficient for straightforward evaluation of the steel and cement sectors. - Highlights: ► We compare energy efficiency among countries in power, steel, and cement sectors. ► In steel and cement sectors, the results are provided in terms of specific energy consumption (GJ/ton of product). ► We distinguish BOF steel and EAF steel. ► New installation and continual maintenance are the key for energy efficiency. ► Corrections have a large impact on apparent specific energy consumption.

  4. The European cement industry's approach to the use of secondary raw materials and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    Position statements prepared by the European cement industry on the use of secondary raw materials and secondary fuels are introduced and presented. The statements indicate the approach of the industry to the use of these materials and, in the wider context, form part of the industry's overall approach to the environment. (Author). 2 refs.

  5. Eco-efficiency of the world cement industry: A data envelopment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oggioni, G., E-mail: oggioni@eco.unibs.i [University of Brescia, Faculty of Economics, Department of Quantitative Methods, IT-25122 Brescia (Italy); Riccardi, R., E-mail: riccardi@ec.unipi.i [University of Brescia, Faculty of Economics, Department of Quantitative Methods, IT-25122 Brescia (Italy); Toninelli, R., E-mail: roberta.toninelli@unifi.i [University of Pisa, Faculty of Economics, Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, IT-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Chemical reactions and the combustion of dirty fuels, such as coal and petroleum coke (petcoke), that are used in cement production processes generate a significant amount of CO{sub 2} emissions. In this paper, we provide an eco-efficiency measure for 21 prototypes of cement industries operating in many countries by applying both a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a directional distance function approach, which are particularly suitable for models where several production inputs and desirable and undesirable outputs are taken into account. To understand whether this eco-efficiency is due to a rational utilization of inputs or to a real carbon dioxide reduction as a consequence of environmental regulation, we analyze the cases where CO{sub 2} emissions can either be considered as an input or as an undesirable output. Empirical results show that countries where cement industries invest in technologically advanced kilns and adopt alternative fuels and raw materials in their production processes are eco-efficient. This gives a comparative advantage to emerging countries, such as India and China, which are incentivized to modernize their production processes.

  6. Advanced dust control techniques in cement industry electrostatic precipitator - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, Z.; Ahmad, J.

    2011-01-01

    The case study deal with the current day problem of pollution by industrial zones in Pakistan with emphasis on the cement Industry which has been proved to be the second revenue generating hub after textile sector of the Pakistan. A pilot study into the identification and available removal Techniques of particulates from the exhaust of a cement plant clinker cooler was carried out. The objective of this work was to study the performance of the each technique in detail in the removal of a particulate with a wide range of sizes, under different operational conditions and to compare the results for collection efficiency with predictions by available theoretical models. A brief and comprehensive discussion regarding design, construction and bottlenecks of each tool has been discussed to fully ascertain it's scope and usability. First part of the study identifies the various pollutants being emitted from the chimney of a specific cement plant in Pakistan and while last portion deals with the ways to curtail these pollutants. (author)

  7. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clays; however, it proves to be ineffective in sulphate rich clays and performs poorly under extreme conditions. With such drawbacks, lots of researches have been undertaken to address the issues faced with each stabilization method, in particular, the use of solid wastes for soil stabilization. Solid waste reuse has gained high momentum for achieving sustainable waste management in recent times. Research has shown that the use of solid wastes as additives with and replacement for conventional stabilizers has resulted in better results than the performance of either individually. This review provides insight into some of the works done by earlier researchers on lime/cement stabilization with industrial wastes as additives and helps to form a sound platform for further research on industrial wastes as additives to conventional stabilizers.

  8. Eco-efficiency of the world cement industry: A data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oggioni, G.; Riccardi, R.; Toninelli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions and the combustion of dirty fuels, such as coal and petroleum coke (petcoke), that are used in cement production processes generate a significant amount of CO 2 emissions. In this paper, we provide an eco-efficiency measure for 21 prototypes of cement industries operating in many countries by applying both a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a directional distance function approach, which are particularly suitable for models where several production inputs and desirable and undesirable outputs are taken into account. To understand whether this eco-efficiency is due to a rational utilization of inputs or to a real carbon dioxide reduction as a consequence of environmental regulation, we analyze the cases where CO 2 emissions can either be considered as an input or as an undesirable output. Empirical results show that countries where cement industries invest in technologically advanced kilns and adopt alternative fuels and raw materials in their production processes are eco-efficient. This gives a comparative advantage to emerging countries, such as India and China, which are incentivized to modernize their production processes.

  9. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2, sulfur oxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO. Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noon, and evening in four different settlements within 3 km from the cement industry. The measurement is then correlated with the FEV1 and FVC of lung capacity of people living around the area. Result: Of all four locations, three have ambient air quality (PM2.5 = 109.47 µg/Nm3, TSP = 454.7 µg/Nm3 that surpass the quality standard (PM2.5 = 65 µg/Nm3, TSP = 230 µg/Nm3. Of 241 respondents, the average level of FVC and FEV1 is respectively 1.9352 liter (SD: 0.45578 and 1.7486 liter (SD: 0.43874. Furthermore, the level of PM2.5 in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.009 and p=0.003; the level of TSP in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.003 and p=0.01; the level of NO2 in the morning is p=0.006; the level of SO2 in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.000, p=0.022, and p=0.000; and the level of CO in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.003, p=0.015, and p=0.024. Those levels are associated with the level of respondents’ FEV1. Moreover, the level of TSP in the morning is p=0.024; the level of SO2 in the morning and in the evening is p=0.007. These levels relate to the level of respondents’ FVC. Conclusion: The ambient air quality around a cement industry is affected by dispersion of industrial emission and of other sources which can cause some impairment to lung capacity.

  10. Palisades technical specification conversion from custom to new industry standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.J.; Young, B.

    1990-01-01

    Consumers Power Company's (CPCo) Palisades plant is in the process of converting from custom technical specifications to the new industry standard, Restructured Standard Technical Specifications (RSTS). Custom technical specifications were the precursor to standard technical specifications, being issued to plants built prior to 1972. In May 1989, each of the four light water reactor owners' groups completed topical reports presenting their version of Restructured Standard Technical Specifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After approval of the owners' groups versions of the RSTs by the NRC, individual operating reactors will begin to make the conversion to the RSTS. Each owners' group has designated a lead plant, which will be the first of that vendor type to convert. All of the lead plants currently operate under standard technical specifications. The content of the RSTS was determined by comparing the standard technical specifications with selection criteria specified in the Commissions Interim Policy Statement

  11. Using Scientific and Industrial Films in Teaching Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, Gerry

    A film course especially designed for technical communication students can illustrate basic film concepts and techniques while showing how film effectively communicates ideas in an industrial and scientific communication system. After a basic introduction to film terms, the study of actual scientific and industrial films demonstrates the following…

  12. Natural radioactivity and human exposure by raw materials and end product from cement industry used as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Z.; Nedelkovski, D.; Ristova, M.

    2010-01-01

    During the manufacturing process in the cement industry, raw materials of different levels of natural radioactivity are utilized. In this study we present the radiological impact of cements as a building material and the different raw materials used in their manufacture. A total of 218 samples of raw materials and their end product cements were collected from the cement industry of Macedonia (The Former Yugoslav Republic) during the period 2005-2007. The specific activities, evaluated by gamma spectrometry analysis, showed the highest mean specific activity in fly ash ( 226 Ra, 107 ± 45 Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 109 ± 30 Bq kg -1 ; 40 K, 685 ± 171 Bq kg -1 ), which is used as a raw material. However, the final cement product usually has relatively lower activity compared with the activity of the raw material and the mean specific activity of the final cement products were lower ( 226 Ra, 42 ± 10 Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 28 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ; 40 K, 264 ± 50 Bq kg -1 ). The radium equivalent activity and the hazard index were calculated for each sample to assess the radiation hazard. The mean annual effective dose originating from the cements was found to be 111 ± 22 μSv y -1 , which is below the recommended EC limit of 300 μSv y -1 .

  13. A new on-belt elemental analyzer for the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Lim, C.S.; Tickner, J.R.; Manias, C.; Retallack, D.

    2001-01-01

    On-line control of raw mill feed composition is a key to the improved control of cement plants. Elements of primary importance to the industry are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron. Direct on-conveyor belt analysis of raw mill feed is required, independent of changes in belt loading, moisture content, and both horizontal and vertical segregation. A new and improved on-conveyor belt elemental analyzer for cement raw mill feed has been developed and tested successfully in Adelaide Brighton's Birkenhead cement plant. The analyzer utilizes two 241 Am-Be neutron sources and multiple BGO detectors to measure both neutron inelastic scatter and thermal neutron capture gamma rays. Dynamic tests in the plant on highly segregated material having depths in the range 100 to 200 mm have shown analyzer total RMS errors of 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.23 wt.% (on a loss free basis) for CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3 respectively, when 10-minute counting periods are used

  14. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates

  15. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates.

  17. The Tournemire industrial analogue: reactive-transport modelling of cement-clay interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Benbow, S.; Savage, D.; Walker, C.; Norris, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In a number of concepts for geological disposal facilities (GDFs) for radioactive waste, cement-based materials are used for a variety of purposes including mechanical support, backfilling of cavities, grouting of fractures in the host rock, and immobilisation of radionuclides in waste-forms. Such facilities will ultimately re-saturate with encroaching groundwater, at which point leaching of the cement components is likely to give rise to an alkaline pore fluid, regardless of cement type. This pore fluid will be in disequilibrium with both the host rock and other engineered barrier system (EBS) materials used in the construction of the facility, such as bentonite. The interaction of the pore fluid could lead, for example, to the reduction in the swelling capacity of the clay, alteration of porosity and permeability both in the host rock and in EBS materials, and reduction of sorption capacities. Analogue systems can provide information about hyper-alkaline alteration that it is not possible to obtain from short-term experimental studies alone, because they have evolved in situ over many tens, hundreds or thousands of years. These systems can be used to improve scientific understanding and consequently mathematical models, which in turn can be used to simulate the performance of the engineered and natural materials over the lifetime of the GDF. Industrial analogues provide a kind of 'halfway house' between natural analogues and laboratory experimental studies; the initial and boundary conditions are often better understood than natural analogues, and the timescales involved, whilst much shorter than natural analogues, are generally of much greater duration than laboratory studies. One such analogue can be found at Tournemire, southern France, where a tunnel excavated in the 1880's had several exploration boreholes drilled into its basement in the 1990's. These boreholes were then filled with concrete and cement

  18. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemantle, C.S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  19. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  20. Critical elements in implementations of just-in-time management: empirical study of cement industry in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mehwish; Bhatti, Mansoor Nazir; Shams, Tauqeer; Zaman, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, inventory management is continuous challenge for all organizations not only due to heavy cost associated with inventory holding, but also it has a great deal to do with the organizations production process. Cement industry is a growing sector of Pakistan?s economy which is now facing problems in capacity utilization of their plants. This study attempts to identify the key strategies for successful implementation of just-in-time (JIT) management philosophy on the cement indust...

  1. Investigating different factors influencing job satisfaction: A case study of cement industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shirvani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction plays an important role on increasing business productivity and efficiency. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ personal characteristics including gender, marital status, etc. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 244 out of 800 employees who worked for cement industry in Iran. The data are analyzed using different statistical tests such as t-student and analysis of variance. The results indicate that while there was not any meaningful relationship between gender and job satisfaction there was some meaningful relationship between marital status and job satisfaction.

  2. Use of secondary fuels in rotary kilns of the cement industry; Einsatz von Sekundaerstoffen in Drehofenanlagen der Zementindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, V. [Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Most cement works in Germany use secondary materials for cement production or are planning to do so. Many of the materials in question, such as used tyres, have been recycled in an environmentally acceptable way for decades, and a large body of experience has accumulated on their use in the cement industry. In the cement industry secondary materials are understood to comprise secondary fuels as well as secondary raw materials. The latter have for some part replaced the natural raw materials used for burning cement clinker, the preliminary product of cement. By using used tyres, used oil and other waste materials as secondary fuels the cement industry has for decades contributed to an environmentally acceptable form of waste disposal. The use of secondary materials has also enabled the cement industry to improve its economic situation. In response to the enactment of the Materials Recycling Law the cement industry has during the past few years turned its attention to the utilisation of other waste materials. The criteria relevant to the cement industry`s choice of a waste material as secondary material lastly depends on the process-related side constraints attending the clinker burning process and the requirements on the burning process with regard to product quality and environmental acceptability. [Deutsch] Die meisten Zementwerke in Deutschland setzen bei der Zementherstellung Sekundaerstoffe ein oder planen ihren Einsatz. Fuer einige dieser Stoffe, wie z.B. Altreifen gilt, dass sie bereits seit Jahrzehnten umweltvertraeglich verwertet werden, so dass viele Erfahrungen ueber deren Einsatz in der Zementindustrie vorliegen. Unter Sekundaerstoffen werden in der Zementindustrie sowohl Sekundaerbrennstoffe wie auch Sekundaerrohstoffe verstanden. Letztere ersetzen teilweise die natuerlichen Rohstoffe, aus denen der Zementklinker, das Vorprodukt des Zements, gebrannt wird. Bezueglich der Sekundaerbrennstoffe traegt die Zementindustrie schon seit Jahrzehnten zu einer

  3. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of

  4. Supplier selection in supply chain management using analytical network process for Indonesian cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Mahardika, R. Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Supply chain management has increased more significance with the impact of globalization. In the present worldwide market, well-managed supply chain is a standout amongst the most vital requirement to be more competitive in the market. For any organization incorporate cement industry, the most critical decision in initial process of supply chain management is to buy products, materials or services from suppliers. So the role of suppliers is irrefutable important in the global aggressive markets. Appropriate decision of supplier selection can lead to reducing cost in supply chain management. However, it is becoming more complex because of existing various criteria and involving the suitable experts in the company to make valid decision in accordance with its criteria. In this study, the supplier selection of an Indonesia’s leading cement company is analyzed by using one of the popular multi-criteria decision making method, Saaty’s analytical network process (ANP). It is employed for the selection of the best alternative among three suppliers of pasted bag. Supplier with the highest rank comes from several major steps from building the relationship between various criteria to rating the alternatives with the help of experts from the company. The results show that, Communication capability, Flexible payment terms, Ability to meet delivery quantities are the most important criteria in the pasted bag supplier selection in Indonesian cement industry with 0.155, 0.110 and 0.1 ANP coefficient respectively. And based on the ANP coefficient values in limit supermatrix, the A2 or supplier 2 had the highest score with 64.7% or 0.13 ANP coefficient.

  5. Potential use of pyrite cinders as raw material in cement production: results of industrial scale trial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Yazici, E Y; Türk, T; Süngün, Y H

    2009-07-15

    Pyrite cinders, which are the waste products of sulphuric acid manufacturing plants, contain hazardous heavy metals with potential environmental risks for disposal. In this study, the potential use of pyrite cinders (PyCs) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker was demonstrated at the industrial scale. The chemical and mineralogical analyses of the PyC sample used in this study have revealed that it is essentially a suitable raw material for use as iron source since it contains >87% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The samples of the clinkers produced from PyC in the industrial scale trial operation of 6 months were tested for the conformity of their chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products. The data were compared with the clinker products of the iron ore, which is used as the raw material for the production Portland cement clinker in the plant. The chemical compositions of all the clinker products of PyC appeared to conform to those of the iron ore clinker, and hence, a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the mortars prepared from the PyC clinker was found to be consistent with those of the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. It can be inferred from the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) that PyC could be a potential source of heavy metal pollution while the mortar samples obtained from the PyC clinkers present no environmental problems. These findings suggest that the waste pyrite cinders can be readily used as iron source for the production of Portland cement. The availability of PyC in large quantities at low cost provides further significant benefits for the management/environmental practices of these wastes and for the reduction of mining and processing costs of cement raw materials.

  6. Stabilization techniques for reactive aggregate in soil-cement base course : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research are 1) to identify the mineralogical properties of soil-cement bases which have heaved or can potentially heave, 2) to simulate expansion of cement-stabilized soil in the laboratory, 3) to correlate expansion with the ...

  7. Maintenance Free and Sustainable High-Level Control in Cement and Mining Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Fink

    2009-01-01

    High-level control systems have been utilized in the process industry for decades, and also in cement production their use is well established. In comparison to manual control their ability to increase production and quality of end product, while reducing energy consumption and emission, is well...... but nevertheless still require maintenance. For the 10% of the algorithm that is control related, the maintenance issue is to some extent addressed by research topics such as adaptive control, which aim at retuning the parameters of the algorithm to match the changing process. In this project however, it has been...... chosen to focus on the remaining 90% of the algorithm which still require manual modifications to cope with a changed process. Although this issue has gained limited attention from academia so far it is well recognized by the industry. In the process of maintaining an algorithm it has turned out...

  8. Technical results French electricity supply industry 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents provisional results for the French electricity supply industry (excluding overseas territories). Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE. Data from 2001 to 2005 were updated in order to take into account additional information given by different actors of the electrical energy sector. Contents: 1 - General results in France (National consumption, Physical exchanges with foreign countries, Net generation, Energy consumed, Electrical energy balance in France, Energy generated); 2 - Consumption in France (Annual consumption, Weekly consumption in 2007, Temperature, Daily consumption); 3 - Electrical energy flows (End consumption by type of customer, Physical flows of electrical energy, Physical exchanges with foreign countries); 4 - Trend of the electricity market (Cross-border contractual exchanges, Balance Responsible Entities, Sales of generation capacity auction, Energy sales on Powernext Day-Ahead TM , Balancing mechanism); 5 - Generation in France (Installed capacity and generation by type of facility, thermal, hydro, other renewable energy sources); 6 - Equipment on the electricity network (Equipment in operation as of 31 December); 7 - Power system operation (Equivalent time of interruption, Long outage frequency, Short outage frequency, Number of annual Significant System Events by severity); 8 - Access to the RTE network; 9 - Development over the past 15 years (Facilities in France at year-end, Annual results in France); 10 - International comparisons (Energy data of UCTE countries in 2006); 11 - Terminology

  9. Schlumberger demonstrates technical leadership to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-12-01

    The PowerDrive 900 system with a Reed Hycalog drill bit is described. The system is used by Schlumberger in offshore Newfoundland exploration drilling, and is said to have radically reduced the amount of time it takes to drill wells. It is heralded as having allowed Schlumberger to revolutionize the drilling of extended reach wells during 2001. The nine-inch diameter PowerDrive tool is new on the market. It was used on Canada's east coast for the first time in January 2001 on the Hibernia B16-23 wells. Although the original expectation was that the system would improve the removal of drill cuttings from the well, engineers found an even more significant benefit, i. e. well sections are drilled up to 47 per cent faster than with a conventional drilling tool. The new tool is said to be uniquely suited to work above the hard, abrasive Catalina sandstones on Newfoundland's offshore, hence it is very likely to become an important tool for Canada's east coast oil and gas industry. Schlumberger has invested over half a million dollars in developing a service and maintenance centre at its oilfield facility in Mount Pearl, Newfoundland. The PowerDrive 900 is also being used in exploration drilling offshore Nova Scotia. Another Schlumberger innovation, the Modular Formation Dynamic Tester (MDT) is also highlighted as a tool for effectively evaluating reservoirs and acquiring early formation fluids. MDT has been widely utilized in Atlantic Canada's offshore environment recently to map reservoir block pressures. collect representative fluids, and to study well productivity. By using the MDT's optical fluid analyzer Schlumberger was also able to provide a solution for distinguishing formation oil from oil based mud filtrate by measuring the oil-based mud contamination after a few minutes of pumping. 2 photos.

  10. Technical property and application of industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingxia; Ye Yunchang

    2006-01-01

    The main technical property of industrial computed tomography (ICT) and its application in non-destructive testing (NDT) were described. And some examples of ICT applications in such fields as defects detection, welding quality, density uniformity, structure analysis and making-up quality were given. (authors)

  11. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China’s cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Krol, Maarten; Bruine, Marco de; Geng, Guangpo; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated model was used to model the co-benefits for China’s cement industry. • PM_2_._5 would decrease by 2–4% by 2030 through improved energy efficiency. • 10,000 premature deaths would be avoided per year relative to the baseline scenario. • Total benefits are about two times higher than the energy efficiency costs. - Abstract: Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China’s cement industry is the second largest energy consumer and key emitter of CO_2 and air pollutants, which accounts for 7% of China’s total energy consumption, 15% of CO_2, and 14% of PM_2_._5, respectively. In this study, a state-of-the art modeling framework is developed that comprises a number of different methods and tools within the same platform (i.e. provincial energy conservation supply curves, the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies, ArcGIS, the global chemistry Transport Model, version 5, and Health Impact Assessment) to assess the potential for energy savings and emission mitigation of CO_2 and PM_2_._5, as well as the health impacts of pollution arising from China’s cement industry. The results show significant heterogeneity across provinces in terms of the potential for PM_2_._5 emission reduction and PM_2_._5 concentration, as well as health impacts caused by PM_2_._5. Implementation of selected energy efficiency measures would decrease total PM_2_._5 emissions by 2% (range: 1–4%) in 2020 and 4% (range: 2–8%) by 2030, compared to the baseline scenario. The reduction potential of provincial annual PM_2_._5 concentrations range from 0.03% to 2.21% by 2030 respectively, when compared to the baseline scenario. 10,000 premature deaths are avoided by 2020 and 2030 respectively relative to baseline scenario. The

  12. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.; Juan, C.A.S.; Rau, G.H.; Caldeira, K.

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

  13. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600...... for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  14. Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an asbestos cement sheet manufacturing industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Davood; Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein; Mehrdad, Ramin; Golhosseini, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 tons of Chrysotile asbestos per year and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, airborne asbestos concentrations during AC sheet manufacturing were measured. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Airborne total fiber concentrations of 45 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. The results have highlighted that 15.5% of samples exceed the threshold limit value (TLV) established the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, which is 0.1 fiber per milliliter (f/ml). Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.16 ± 0.03 f/ml. The geometrical mean was 0.05 ± 1.36 f/ml, which is considerably lower than the TLV. SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of Chrysotile (55.89%) and amphiboles (44.11%). We conclude that the industrial consumption of imported Chrysotile asbestos is responsible for the high airborne amphibole asbestos levels in the AC sheet industry. More research is needed to improve characterization of occupational exposures by fiber size and concentration in a variety of industries.

  15. Coal as a source of energy to alleviate the crisis facing the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, N

    1979-01-01

    After recalling the importance of coal in the cement industry up until the end of the 1950s, and the regeneration of interest in this fuel, the author presents some views on the stocking of coal, on its preparation and on its application for firing. The advantages of linear stocking and of de-stocking by the 'front slice' method to ensure good homogenization are described. The precautions to be taken during the fine-grinding process and the transport of the pulverized coal in order to prevent coal-dust explosions are discussed. The main firing systems (direct, semi-direct and indirect) are discussed and their respective advantages and drawbacks examined. (In French)

  16. Crop residues as a potential renewable energy source for Malawi's cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Kenneth J.; Chiotha, Sosten S.; Mkandawire, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    that the projected total energy demands in 2020, 2025 and 2030 were approximately 177 810 TJ, 184 210 TJ and 194 096 TJ respectively. The highest supply potentials were found to be in the central and southern regions of Malawi, coinciding with the locations of the two clinker plants. Crop residues could meet 45......-57% of the national total energy demand. The demand from the cement industry is only 0.8% of the estimated biomass energy potential. At an annual production of 600 000 t of clinker and 20% biomass co-firing with coal, 18 562 t of coal consumption would be avoided and 46 128 t of carbon dioxide emission reduction...

  17. Process development for utilizing asbestos cement waste in rotary kilns for the cement industry. Final report; Erarbeitung eines Verfahrens zur stofflichen Verwertung von zementgebundenen Asbestprodukten in Drehrohroefen fuer die Zementindustrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, R.; Kieser, J.; Kraehner, A.

    1999-11-01

    The law for recycling and waste demands the utilization also for waste of asbestos cement (ac). The procedure of thermal utilization of ac in the flame of a rotary cement kiln was developed and patented by the research institute IBU-tec Weimar, Germany. The ac-material has to be pre-pulverized and grinded to a degree of fineness of R{sub 90}<15%. Considerations of safety engineering lead to the idea of common fine grinding of old oil (oo) and ac. This new procedure was searched in FuE-project in 1998/99 (financial support by BMBF). A mash of ac and oo was generated as a utilization product ready for firing which was injected into the flame of the rotary cement kiln. This particles of ac smelt to spherical shaped particles at a temperature above 1500 C. They were utilized by clinker formation. The material and gas stream leaving the kiln does not contain fibres of asbestos. This was demonstrated in a small equipment burning test. The industrial realization concerning cement plant Ruedersdorf, near Berlin, was searched, technologically described and safety engineeringly and financially assessed by a project study. Process-technical and financial advantages were seen for the dry fine grinding. The wet fine grinding with old oil could be used in cement plants using old oil as fuel. (orig.) [German] Das Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (1994) fordert u.a. die stoffliche Verwertung auch fuer Asbestzementabfaelle (AZ). Das vom Institut fuer Baustoff- und Umweltschutz-Technologie Weimar 1995 entwickelte und patentierte Verfahren zur thermischen Verwertung von AZ in der Flamme eines Zementdrehrohrofens erfuellt diese Forderung. Das AZ-Material muss vorzerkleinert und bis zur Rohmehlfeinheit (R{sub 90}<15%) feingemahlen werden. Sicherheitstechnische Ueberlegungen fuehrten zu der Idee, die Feinmahlung zusammen mit Altoel (AOe) zu erproben. Diese Verfahrensvariante wurde im Rahmen eines FuE-Projektes 1998/99 untersucht (finanzielle Foerderung durch das BMBF). Als

  18. Disposal of historically contaminated soil in the cement industry and the evaluation of environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Jiang; Miao, Wenjuan; Wang, Huanzhong; Wei, Mao

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 400000t of DDTs/HCHs-contaminated soil (CS) needed to be co-processed in a cement kiln with a time limitation of 2y. A new pre-processing facility with a "drying, grinding and DDTs/HCHs vaporizing" ability was equipped to meet the technical requirements for processing cement raw meal and the environmental standards for stack emissions. And the bottom of the precalciner with high temperatures >1000°C was chosen as the CS feeding point for co-processing, which has rarely been reported. To assess the environmental performance of CS pre- and co-processing technologies, according to the local regulation, a test burn was performed by independent and accredited institutes systematically for determination of the clinker quality, kiln stack gas emissions and destruction efficiency of the pollutant. The results demonstrated that the clinker was of high quality and not adversely affected by CS co-processing. Stack emissions were all below the limits set by Chinese standards. Particularly, PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.0023 to 0.0085ngI-TEQNm(-3). The less toxic OCDD was the peak congener for CS co-processing procedure, while the most toxic congeners (i.e. 2,3,7,8-TeCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDD) remained in a minor proportion. Destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and destruction efficiency (DE) of the kiln system were better than 99.9999% and 99.99%, respectively, at the highest CS feeding rate during normal production. To guarantee the environmental performance of the system the quarterly stack gas emission was also monitored during the whole period. And all of the results can meet the national standards requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikols, E.H.; Gill, A.S.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

  20. Challenges of technical cooperation in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Athel, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    The need and prospects for international technical cooperation in the petroleum industry are reviewed. Since it directly affects the survival of the inhabitants of the planet, environmental protection is a field that could enjoy maximum international cooperation; oil spills, product environmental hazards, waste minimization and disposal and oil field fires are the main areas identified. Technical cooperation in other areas of the industry, namely exploration, production, oil field development, refining and petrochemicals, may involve some controversy. Attention is drawn to the conflicting interests of multinational companies, who almost completely control the technology of these activities, and host developing countries. It is advocated that arrangements involving technology transfer should make provision for the growth of indigenous technology. (UK)

  1. Innovation and technical efficiency in Malaysian family manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Susila Munisamy; Edward Wong Sek Khin; Chia Zi Fon

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the technical efficiency for each industry in the Malaysian manufacturing sector is estimated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In order to pursue a balance of innovation between long-term and short-term performance strategy, we integrate the Balance Scorecard (BSC) approach with DEA. Furthermore, this paper looks at the determinants of efficiency using the Tobit regression model. In measuring the level of firms’ efficiency and innovation, the wood and wood b...

  2. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  3. Mapping and modeling multiple benefits of energy efficiency and emission mitigation in China’s cement industry at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provincial disparities in energy use and emissions are quantified for China’s cement industry. • We describe emission mitigation impacts on EEMs with integrated assessment model. • We quantify the multiple benefits potential in China’s cement industry on provincial level. • Energy efficiency would lead to huge reductions in air pollution in all provinces. • We discuss uncertainty in relation to distribution of energy saving and emission reduction. - Abstract: China’s cement industry is the second largest energy consumer and key emitter of CO 2 and air pollutants. It accounts for 7% of total energy consumption in China and 15% of CO 2 , 21% of PM, 4% SO 2 and 10% of NOx of total emissions, respectively. Provincial disparities in energy consumption and emissions of CO 2 and air pollutants in China’s cement industry are rarely quantified. In this study, an integrated assessment model including provincial energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) (which can shows the cost-effective and technical energy saving potential per province), the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model (which can be used to calculate air pollutant emissions), and ArcGIS (a geographical information system (GIS) with elaborated spatial functions) is developed and used to assess the potential of energy savings in terms of emission mitigation of CO 2 and air pollutants and multiple benefits of energy efficiency measures at the provincial level during the period 2011–2030. The results show significant heterogeneity across provinces in terms of potential of energy saving as well as emission mitigation of CO 2 and air pollutants (i.e. PM, SO 2 , and NOx) in the next two decades. Seven provinces (i.e. Shandong, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Henan, Hebei), six of which are located in the central- and east-China, account for 47% of the total energy saving potential, equivalent to 26% of baseline energy use in 2030. The energy

  4. Reaping the carbon rent: Abatement and overallocation profits in the European cement industry, insights from an LMDI decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branger, Frédéric; Quirion, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We analyse variations of carbon emissions in the European cement industry from 1990 to 2012, at the European level (EU 27), and at the national level for six major producers (Germany, France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy and Poland). We apply a Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, cross-referencing data from three databases: the Getting the Numbers Right (GNR) database developed by the Cement Sustainability Initiative, the European Union Transaction Log (EUTL), and the Eurostat International Trade database. Our decomposition method allows seven channels of emission change to be distinguished: activity, clinker trade, clinker share, alternative fuels, thermal and electrical energy efficiency, and electricity decarbonisation. We find that, apart from a slow trend of emission reductions coming from technological improvements (first from a decrease in the clinker share, then from an increase in alternative fuels), most of the emission change can be attributed to the activity effect. Using counterfactual scenarios, we estimate that the introduction of the EU ETS brought small but positive technological abatement (2.2% ± 1.3% between 2005 and 2012). Moreover, we find that the European cement industry has gained 3.5 billion Euros of “overallocation profits”, mostly due to the slowdown of production. - Highlights: • We analyse variations of carbon emissions in the European cement industry. • We apply a Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. • Most of the emission changes can be attributed to the activity effect. • The EU ETS brought small but positive technological abatement. • The European cement industry has gained 3.5 billion Euros of “overallocation profits”

  5. Durability of saw-cut joints in plain cement concrete pavements : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing the durability of the joints in portland cement concrete pavement in the state of Indiana. : The scope of the research included the evaluation of the absorption of water in concrete...

  6. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A [Statoil (Norway)

    1999-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Coal-Mining Tailings as a Pozzolanic Material in Cements Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Yagüe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of enormous volumes of mine-tailing waste is standard practice in the mining industry. Large quantities of these tailings are also sources of kaolinite-rich materials that accumulate in slag heaps, causing significant environmental degradation and visual impacts on the landscape. The consequences of coal refuse dumped in slagheaps calls for the study of eco-innovative solutions and the assessment of waste types. Moreover, the environmental benefits of reusing large amounts of contaminated waste are also evident. Hence, the objective of this investigation is to expand current knowledge of new siliceous-aluminium minerals and their pozzolanic activity. Four raw tailing samples are characterized to determine their chemical (by ICP/MS analysis, morphological (by SEM/EDX analysis, and mineralogical (by XRD analysis compositions prior to their thermal activation that transforms the inert wastes at various temperatures into materials with cementitious properties. The results of XRD analysis following activation confirmed that the kaolinite content is fully transformed into metakaolinite. The coal refuse samples presented sufficiently reliable levels of pozzolanic activity for use as additives in industrial cements.

  9. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  10. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  11. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in China on effective utilization of cement waste heat; 1999 nendo Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although China ranks first in the world in the manufacture of cement, yet the energy consumption rate is high and there remains room for improvement. Effective utilization of energy at cement making plants will not only profit the industry but also contribute to the stabilization of energy supply for China. The model project on power generation using cement waste heat implemented at Ningguo Cement Plant was concluded successfully. For the purpose of enabling China to domestically manufacture the equipment, the installation of such equipment at Zhujiang Cement Plant and Liuzhou Cement Plant in Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu was assumed, and their locations and plant operating conditions were studied. In addition, surveys were conducted of manufacturers of important components of the power generation equipment such as boilers, steam turbines, generators, and breaker boards. Two manufacturers were visited for each of the components, and they were checked for records of manufacturing similar equipment, quality assurance and process management capabilities, and for ability to satisfy required specifications. Among the visited manufacturers were Nanjing Turbine and Electric Machinery Co., Jinan Power Equipment Factory, and Hangzhou Boiler Works. Based on the results of the surveys, it was concluded that the model project may be implemented. (NEDO)

  12. Captive power plant selection for pakistan cement industry in perspective of current energy crises: a fuzzy-ahp approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.M.; Sultan, A.; Rana, B.B.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the prevailing energy crisis, it is reasonable for the Cement industry of Pakistan to look for alternate sources of electricity generation. The decision of selecting a CPP (Captive Power Plant) depends on a broad variety of parameters which may be conflicting to each other. A comparative evaluation of these CPP's should be helpful for industry, particularly if the applied methodology can handle with the real world ambiguities and imprecisions associated with the data pools and expert opinions. This paper utilizes an F-AHP (Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process) based multi-attribute framework to prioritize the affecting parameters and assign rankings to the CPP alternatives. The CPP's recommended by experts for this study are RDF-CPP (Refused Derived Fuel CPP), CF-CPP (Coal Fired CPP) and WHR-CPP (Waste Heat Recovery CPP). The factors affecting the decision of selecting the optimum CPP are prioritized by the experts using our F-AHP approach. Real world quantitative data is extracted from different online resources and financial reports of cement companies in Pakistan. The F-AHP model is flexible enough to deal with a variety of inputs including qualitative scales, crisp values and standard fuzzy numbers. The model is solved and a sensitivity analysis is performed in respective software. This study shows that non-conventional CPPs are highly demanded for cement industry in Pakistan and while selecting these CPPs, management gives high priority to factors like 'automation' and 'environment' whereas associated "initial cost"is not given much weight in decision making. In concluding ranking list, WHR-CPP is at the top and CF-CPP is at the bottom. This study may facilitate decision makers of cement industry in Pakistan and international CPP manufacturers alike in their forthcoming strategic decisions. (author)

  13. Impact of Working Capital Management on Firm’s Profitability: A Case Study of Cement Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Shahzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental purpose behind this study is to exactly test the effect of working capital management on profitability of cement industry of Pakistan. To explore this relationship between these two, the creator gathered auxiliary information from 12 listed firms in Karachi stock exchange (KSC for the time period of 2007-2013. For this reason, in this study we utilize variable of return on assets ratio to gauge the benefit of organization and variables of CR, QR, NCA/TA, WCT and ITR as living up to expectations working capital management criteria. The consequences of the research demonstrate that there is a huge effect of the working capital management on profitability of cement industry of Pakistan. Accordingly, manager may improve the Profitability of their organizations by minimizing the inventory turnover ratio, and by diminishing working capital turnover ratio but there is no impact of expanding or diminishing the current proportion on profitability. Along these lines, the results show that through fitting working capital management the organization can expand its benefit. This study shall be helping hand for the cement industry of Pakistan in the management of their working capital in such an effective way thus, to the point that they can increase their profitability.

  14. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  15. Quantifying the co-benefits of energy-efficiency policies: a case study of the cement industry in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lobscheid, Agnes; Lu, Hongyou; Price, Lynn; Dai, Yue

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, China's cement industry accounted for more than half of the world's total cement production. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries, and thus a key industrial contributor to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40% of industrial PM emissions and 27% of total national PM emissions. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission reductions that result from energy-saving measures in the cement industry in Shandong Province, China. We use a modified form of the cost of conserved energy (CCE) equation to incorporate the value of these co-benefits. The results show that more than 40% of the PM and SO2 emission reduction potential of the electricity-saving measures is cost effective even without taking into account the co-benefits for the electricity-saving measures. The results also show that including health benefits from PM10 and/or SO2 emission reductions reduces the CCE of the fuel-saving measures. Two measures that entail changing products (production of blended cement and limestone Portland cement) result in the largest reduction in CCE when co-benefits were included, since these measures can reduce both PM10 and SO2 emissions, whereas the other fuel-saving measures do not reduce PM10. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. An outlook into energy consumption in large scale industries in India: The cases of steel, aluminium and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Monica; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2010-01-01

    All the growth-oriented sectors in a developing economy consume enormous energy in their production processes. Steel, aluminium and cement are the key manufacturing industries in India which provide inputs to various other sectors such as construction, transportation, power transmission, etc. As a result, their demand is consistently rising. These industries are heavily energy-intensive and use raw materials such as iron ore, coal, electricity, steam, and fuel oil, whose supply can act as severe production constraints over a period of time and can hinder sustainable development. Hence it becomes imperative for these industries to continuously innovate more energy efficient techniques. This paper makes a foray into the energy demand for these industries and explores the potential of any future reduction in their energy consumption. The paper offers a projection scenario for 2001-2031 (based on the MARKAL Modeling exercise for India) for possible catching up in reduction in energy consumptions in these sectors under alternative situations. The analysis suggests the existence of some plausible energy efficiency enhancing techniques in these industries. Exploring these options will definitely ensure cost effectiveness and competitiveness of these three key sectors in the global market. -- Research highlights: →Energy reduction potential exists in Indian steel, aluminium and cement sectors and can go up to 8%, 17% and 6% respectively in these sectors in 2031 if appropriate energy saving technologies are introduced and implemented. →In aluminium industry energy reduction potential is huge in fabrication stage in the production process and extensive improvement can be done in terms of energy efficiency in this stage. Cogeneration of power through waste heat recovery, change in norms in standard to take advantage of producing composite cements using more than one industrial waste, like both fly ash and slag are important required changes in Indian cement sector.

  17. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Vigreux, B.

    1988-01-01

    Cement solidification technology has been applied to spent ion exchange resins for many years in countries throughout the world (at reactors, research centers and spent fuel reprocessing plants). Changing specifications for storage of radioactive waste have, however, confronted the operators of such facilities with a number of problems. Problems related both to the cement solidification process (water/cement/resin interactions and chemical interactions) and to its utilization (mixing, process control, variable feed composition, etc.) have often led waste producers to prefer other, polymer-based processes, which are very expensive and virtually incompatible with water. This paper discusses research on cement solidification of ion exchange resins since 1983 and the development of application technologies adapted to nuclear service conditions and stringent finished product quality requirements

  18. Rheological study of interactions between MHEC and superplasticizers in aqueous solutions for applications in cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Innovative cement-based materials are characterized today by rather complex formulations. In particular, when cement pastes are considered, their formulation generally includes two different types of polymers: a rheology modifier (RM) (typically a cellulose derivative), which is used to control the viscosity of the system, and a superplasticizer (SP), which is used as an anti-flocculant for the solid phase suspension. Owing to the polar nature of both polymer and solvent (water), chemico-phys...

  19. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jijo; Pandian, P. Kasinatha

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clay...

  20. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 o C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY.AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY.AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca 3 Cr 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 ] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO 5 ]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY.AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  1. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  2. Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case Study of the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lobscheid, Agnes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dai, Yue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    China’s cement industry accounted for more than half of the world’s total cement production in 2010. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of total national PM emissions. Although specific regulations and policies are needed to reduce the pollutant emissions from the cement industry, air pollution can also be reduced as a co-benefit of energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation policies and programs. Quantifying and accounting for these co-benefits when evaluating energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation programs reveals benefits beyond the programs’ energy and global warming impacts and adds to their cost effectiveness. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reductions that result from energy-saving measures in China’s cement industry.

  3. Technical Writing in the Computer Industry: Job Opportunities for PH.D.'s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Andrew D.

    1981-01-01

    Answers questions about the field of technical writing, especially in the computer industry. Explains what "software" and "software documentation" are, what the "software documentation specialist" (technical writer) does, and how to prepare for such a job. (FL)

  4. Integrated energy optimisation for the cement industry: A case study perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanepoel, Jan Adriaan; Mathews, Edward Henry; Vosloo, Jan; Liebenberg, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of all energy-intensive components of a cement plant production process in a simulation package. • Uniquely, the simulation model incorporates constraints such as maintenance, production and dynamic energy costs. • The system was implemented on four different cement plants and a total energy cost saving of 7.1% was achieved. - Abstract: Energy costs play a major role in the cement production process. As much as 60% of total cost is allocated to energy and 18% to the consumption of electrical energy. Historically, energy cost savings were achieved by large infrastructure upgrades. These upgrades are often costly and lead to interruptions in production. In this paper the operation of all the energy intensive components of the cement production process are identified, modelled, integrated and optimised for minimum operational costs while meeting production targets. This integrated approach allows for simulation of the collective effect of individual production components. The system incorporates constraints such as maintenance, production and dynamic energy costs. No published research could be found where these constraints are incorporated into a single operational solution. The system was implemented on four cement plants and a total energy cost saving of 7% was achieved. This highlights the practical significance of an integrated approach to energy cost savings

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF RAW MATERIALS FOR THE CEMENT INDUSTRY OF SPLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Matijaca

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to the last two decades cement was produced from mari called »tupina« (with about 76% CaCOj which is an ideal mixture for cement production. Due to the quantity decrease of this raw material, cement production went on using the mixture of other members of the flysch series: limestones, marls, clay, loess, sandstones a.o. By the analysis of natural materials the CaCO^ content has mostly been proved. Therefore, knowing the correlation of oxides in mineral raw material is of special significance. The article discusses investigation results of the correlation between CaCO-i and other oxides of the raw material (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Use of the “red gypsum” industrial waste as substitute of natural gypsum for commercial cements manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gázquez, M. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research has been the valorisation of a waste from the TiO2 production process (sulphate method, called red gypsum, in the production of cements. This waste is mainly formed by di-hydrate calcium sulphate and iron hydroxides. To cover this objective it has been necessary to perform the physico-chemical characterisation of the red gypsum as well as the main components in the production of cements and of the new cements generated. Moreover, for the red gypsum, has been analyzed its radioactive content because it is generated in a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials industry. Finally, the most important properties of the obtained cements with different proportions of red gypsum in their composition have been studied by comparing them with the standard ones obtained in a Portland cement. Lastly, we have demonstrated that the new cements fulfil all the quality tests imposed by the European legislation.

    El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar la valorización de un residuo generado en el proceso de producción de dióxido de titanio (vía sulfato, denominado yeso rojo, en la producción de cementos. Dicho residuo está compuesto fundamentalmente por sulfato de calcio di-hidratado e hidróxidos de hierro. Para ello, ha sido necesaria la caracterización físico-química del yeso rojo, así como la de los otros componentes fundamentales en la fabricación de cementos y de los cementos generados con el mencionado residuo. Además, en el caso del yeso rojo, se ha analizado su contenido radiactivo al generarse éste en una industria NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials. Posteriormente, se han estudiado las propiedades más importantes de los cementos producidos con diferentes porcentajes de yeso rojo añadido, comparando estas mezclas con las propiedades de un cemento Portland comercial, comprobándose que se cumplen todas las normas Europeas de calidad exigibles.

  7. Incorporating environmental co-benefits into climate policies: A regional study of the cement industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xi; Teng, Fei; Wang, Gehua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First study on the co-benefits of mitigation measures in the cement sector in China. • We evaluate the economic value of damage of various pollutants at local level. • We evaluate 18 energy-saving technologies for 31 provinces in cement sector. • The value for the co-benefits ranged from 3 $/t CO 2 to 39 $/t CO 2 . • The large spatial variations may justify stringent targets for richer provinces. - Abstract: We analyzed the impacts of incorporating local air quality improvement and environmental co-benefits into the climate policy and mitigation technology assessment of the cement sector in China. Local air quality can benefit from reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which consequently lowers abatement costs and strengthens the cost-effectiveness of mitigation technologies. We used a simplified approach to estimate environmental damage factors due to air pollution at the sub-national level in China. The calculated economic costs of environmental damage due to PM 10 , NO x , and SO 2 were 7,714 $/t, 1,006 $/t, and 902 $/t, respectively. These values vary among the provinces. We found that most energy-saving technologies in the cement industry will create significant co-benefits, ranging from 3 $/t CO 2 to 39 $/t CO 2 at the national level; however, a tradeoff for carbon capture and storage (CCS) and energy-saving technologies also resulted with increased electricity consumption. Large spatial variations of co-benefits can be gained at the sub-national level and justify the enactment of more stringent climate policies in the wealthier regions in China

  8. Overview of BELGATOM's industrial experience in the field of radwaste bituminization, cementation and radwaste package storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.; Debieve, P.; Averbeke, J. van; Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive waste processing experience in Belgium is introduced. BELGATOM partners in Belgium have accumulated experience for over 25 years in the field of rad waste treatment and conditioning by bituminization and cementation and in the storage of the resulting rad waste packages

  9. SNCR technology for NO sub x reduction in the cement industry. [Selective non-catalytic reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupper, D; Brentrup, L [Krupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)

    1992-03-01

    This article discusses the selective non-catalytic (SNCR) process for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases from cement plants. Topics covered include operating experience, injection of additives, selection of the additive, operating costs, reduction efficiency of SNCR, capital expenditure, secondary emissions and cycles of ammonium. (UK).

  10. Trust and communication as predictors of customer satisfaction in business-to-business relationship marketing in the South African cement manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phineas Mbango

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction has become relevant in the South African cement industry as it leads to customer loyalty and cooperation. In the current climate, to ensure long-term profitability, cement suppliers need to adopt strategies to ensure customer satisfaction. This study’s literature search has revealed that there is limited published research, particularly in South Africa, which deals with customer satisfaction determinants in the cement industry. The major objective of the study was to test if trust and communication influence customer satisfaction in the context of business-to-business relationship marketing in the South African cement manufacturing industry. The methodology involved a survey and was quantitative in nature. Data were collected from 362 major business-to-business cement customers throughout South Africa’s nine provinces using the face-to-face interview technique using a seven-point Likert scale structured self-administered questionnaires. The data collected in the empirical study were analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. The empirical results of this study suggest that, in order to maintain customer satisfaction, a cement supplier has to invest in ways of enhancing customer trust and communication. As a result this study makes both theoretical and practical contribution in the field of relationship marketing

  11. Explorations on Energy Management System Standardization in Cement Industry%水泥行业能源管理体系标准进展及实施探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 王赓; 任香贵

    2014-01-01

    The energy-saving management of China’s cement industry has gradually improved in recent years;however, cement industry still faces big pressure of facilitating energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on the current development of cement industry, the paper summarizes and analyzes the application and promotion of energy management system (EnMS) standardization in cement industry, then gives a brief introduction to the implementation of related standards and at last explores the positive function of energy management system in enhancing enterprises’ energy management and improving energy performance.

  12. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglar, Grega E.; Lestan, Domen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. → Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. → We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg -1 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm -2 achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  13. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voglar, Grega E. [RDA - Regional Development Agency Celje, Kidriceva ulica 25, 3000 Celje (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. {yields} Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. {yields} We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm{sup -2} achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  14. Discussion on technical intelligence of nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming

    2010-01-01

    The very Paper introduces the contemporary challenges faced by the profession of technical intelligence on nuclear power, and expatiates the functions of technical intelligence such as sources of experience feedback, background information and supports for decision-making. Afterwards, the Paper explains characteristics of technical intelligence and its working methods, i.e., quantitative changes to reach qualitative changes, approve-negate-approve and oppositeness unity of comprehensiveness and limitation of technical intelligence. (authors)

  15. Combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using a navigational radiofrequency ablation device and ultrahigh viscosity cement: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Adam N; Huang, Ambrose J; Vaswani, Devin; Chang, Randy O; Jennings, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty is an alternative palliative therapy for painful metastases involving axial load-bearing bones. This technical report describes the use of a navigational radiofrequency probe to ablate acetabular metastases from an anterior approach followed by instillation of ultrahigh viscosity cement under CT-fluoroscopic guidance. The tumor ablation databases of two institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using the STAR Tumor Ablation and StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation Systems (DFINE; San Jose, CA). Pre-procedure acetabular tumor volume was measured on cross-sectional imaging. Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were measured using the Numeric Rating Scale (10-point scale) and compared. Partial pain improvement was categorically defined as ≥ 2-point pain score reduction. Patients were evaluated for evidence of immediate complications. Electronic medical records were reviewed for evidence of delayed complications. During the study period, 12 patients with acetabular metastases were treated. The median tumor volume was 54.3 mL (range, 28.3-109.8 mL). Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were obtained from 92% (11/12) of the cohort. The median pre-procedure pain score was 8 (range, 3-10). Post-procedure pain scores were obtained 7 days (82%; 9/11), 11 days (9.1%; 1/11) or 21 days (9.1%; 1/11) after treatment. The median post-treatment pain score was 3 (range, 1-8), a statistically significant difference compared with pre-treatment (P = 0.002). Categorically, 73% (8/11) of patients reported partial pain relief after treatment. No immediate symptomatic complications occurred. Three patients (25%; 3/12) were discharged to hospice within 1 week of treatment. No delayed complications occurred in the remaining 75% (9/12) of patients during median clinical follow-up of 62 days (range, 14-178 days). Palliative percutaneous

  16. Innovative process routes for a high-quality concrete recycling in the aggregates and cement industries

    OpenAIRE

    Bru , Kathy; Menard , Yannick; Touzé , Solène; Le Moign , Alain; Poirier , Jean Eric; Ruffié , Gilles; Bonnaudin , Fabrice; Von Der Weid , Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Hardened concrete is a composite material that contains two main phases: the matrix (hardened cement paste, 20 %) and aggregates (gravels and sand, 80 %). The liberation and the recycling of these constituents can provide an answer to i) the exploration of new aggregates supply sources imposed by the depletion of natural deposit and the faced difficulties when trying to open new quarries and ii) the reduction of CO2 emissions in the clinker manufacturing process throug...

  17. Case study: improvement of performance of cement industry rotary kilns by using a solid radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    In the present report, residence time distribution (RTD) of the cement blended raw meal has been determined by the use of 7,4x10 8 Bq (20 mCi) of La 40 as a dust radioactive tracer in the chemical form of La 2 O 3 . Five scintillation detector were installed alongside the kiln. Analysis and interpretation of response curves were made to draw conclusions about the improvement of the rotary kiln performance

  18. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  19. Technical roles and success of US federal laboratory-industry partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Bozeman; Dennis Wittmer

    2001-01-01

    Drawing from questionnaire-based data of 229 US federal laboratory-industry joint R&D projects, this research examines the composition of the technical interaction by character of the R&D performed to determine the impacts on effectiveness of the technical roles played by research partners. In addition to the particular technical roles, their number and diversity are examined, giving particular attention to the subset of projects in which the company played no technical role. Our findings sho...

  20. Relationships between Personal Measurements of 'Total' Dust, Respirable, Thoracic, and Inhalable Aerosol Fractions in the Cement Production Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notø, Hilde P; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationships and establish conversion factors between 'total' dust, respirable, thoracic, and inhalable aerosol fractions measured by parallel personal sampling on workers from the production departments of cement plants. 'Total' dust in this study refers to aerosol sampled by the closed face 37-mm Millipore filter cassette. Side-by-side personal measurements of 'total' dust and respirable, thoracic, and inhalable aerosol fractions were performed on workers in 17 European and Turkish cement plants. Simple linear and mixed model regressions were used to model the associations between the samplers. The total number of personal samples collected on 141 workers was 512. Of these 8.4% were excluded leaving 469 for statistical analysis. The different aerosol fractions contained from 90 to 130 measurements and-side-by side measurements of all four aerosol fractions were collected on 72 workers.The median ratios between observed results of the respirable, 'total' dust, and inhalable fractions relative to the thoracic aerosol fractions were 0.51, 2.4, and 5.9 respectively. The ratios between the samplers were not constant over the measured concentration range and were best described by regression models. Job type, position of samplers on left or right shoulder and plant had no substantial effect on the ratios. The ratios between aerosol fractions changed with different air concentrations. Conversion models for estimation of the fractions were established. These models explained a high proportion of the variance (74-91%) indicating that they are useful for the estimation of concentrations based on measurements of a different aerosol fraction. The calculated uncertainties at most observed concentrations were below 30% which is acceptable for comparison with limit values (EN 482, 2012). The cement industry will therefore be able to predict the health related aerosol fractions from their former or future measurements of one of the

  1. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Grega E; Leštan, Domen

    2011-08-30

    In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12N mm(-2) achieved after S/S with CAC+PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC+Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of limestone fines co-produced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive and environmentally benign. Waste CO2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid. This reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate.

  3. Synthesis and mechanical properties of a calcium sulphoaluminate cement made of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally-friendly calcium sulphoaluminate clinkers were obtained from a mixture of aluminium dross, fluorgypsum, fly ash and CaCO₃ at temperatures within the range of 1100 to 1400 °C. After the heat treatments Ca₄Al₆O₁₂SO₄ was the main phase. Three different cements were prepared using the clinkers synthesized at 1250, 1350 and 1400 °C; the clinker powders were mixed with 20 wt% of hemihydrate. Cement pastes were prepared using a water/cement ratio (w/c, 0.4 followed by curing at 20 or 40 °C for periods of time ranging from 1 to 28 days. Most of the samples showed high compression strengths 40–47 MPa after 28 days, which were comparable to the strength of Portland cement. Ettringite was the main hydration product and its morphology consisted of acicular and hexagonal plates, which is typical of this phase.Se fabricaron clinkers de bajo impacto ambiental a base de sulfoaluminato de calcio calcinando mezclas de escoria de aluminio, fluoryeso, ceniza volante y CaCO₃ a diferentes temperaturas dentro de un rango de 1100 a 1400 °C. Se observó la formación de Ca₄Al₆O₁₂SO₄ como fase principal. Para obtener los cementos, los clinkers obtenidos a 1250, 1350 y 1400 °C se mezclaron con 20% en peso de hemihidrato. Se prepararon pastas usando una relación agua/cemento, de 0.4 y se curaron a 20 y 40 °C por diferentes periodos de tiempo desde 1 hasta 28 días. Los valores de resistencia a la compresión a los 28 días de curado de la mayoría de las muestras estuvieron entre 40–47 MPa, equiparables a los de referencia de pastas de cemento Portland. La etringita fue el principal producto de hidratación y su morfología consistió de placas hexagonales y aciculares, típicas de esta fase.

  4. Mining and geologic characterization of calcareous resources for the cement industry in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santana, H.; Veroslavsky, G.; Sanchez, L.; Rossini, C.; Aubet, N.; Loureiro, J.; Gutierrez, L.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this work was the study of geological and mining potential that Uruguay has on limestone rocks rich in calcium and poor in magnesium and silica, which are considered primary requirements suitable for the manufacture of cement. The results obtained allow defining four major regions of the country that although do not include all occurrences of calcareous rocks, they do not constitute the most important areas concerning: rock quality, higher volumes and improved extraction possibilities. The areas are: Queguay, Minas, Carape and Treinta y tres

  5. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of calcined alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of conventional and low-cement ferrochrome slag-based castables were prepared from 40 wt.% ferrochrome slag and 45 wt.% calcined bauxite. Rest fraction varied between high alumina cement (HAC acting as hydraulic binder and calcined alumina as pore filling additive. Standard ASTM size briquettes were prepared for crushing and bending strengths evaluation, and the samples were then subjected to firing at 800, 1100 and 1300 °C for a soaking period of 3 h. The microstructure and refractory properties of the prepared castables have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cold crushing strength, modulus of rupture and permanent linear changes (PLCs test. Castables show good volume stability (linear change <0.7% at 1300 °C. The outcomes of these investigations were efficacious and in accordance with previously reported data of similar compositions. High thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties were attained pointing out an outstanding potential to increase the refractory lining working life of non-recovery coke oven and reheating furnaces.

  6. An investigation on the technical standard strategy for China's manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Limin; Jiang Xiangqian; Xu Zhengao; Li Zhu

    2005-01-01

    China's manufacturing industry is now the 4th largest manufacturing power in the world, second only to the US, Japan, and Germany. Large but not strong, it is still way behind developed countries. In the technical standard field, the gap between China's manufacturing industry and industrially developed countries is showing that there is a low level of technological standards and lack of professional talent versed in technical standards. A technical standards strategy is of importance to the development of China's manufacturing industry has been as one of the major strategies in the 10th Five-Year Plan period. The overall objective of the strategy for China's technical standards should be capable of supporting Chinese enterprises and products in entering the international market and ensuring the superiority of China's key industries in international competition. The implementing tactics of the strategy are all-round tracking, effective adoption, crucial participation, and strong dominance

  7. A contribution to the industrial valorization of tannery waste: the case of cement industry; Contribution a la valorisation industrielle des dechets de tanneries: cas de la cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatribi, A.; Boukhars, L. [Service de l' Environnement, Div. de l' Urbanisme, Province de Kenitra (Morocco); Nejmeddine, A. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologi, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2001-04-01

    The present work addresses the possibility of valorization of tannery waste incineration ashes in the cement industry. To this end, the impact of the addition of ashes at various percentages (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 % in mass) on some mechanical and physical parameters of cement was examined: normal consistency (%), the beginning of setting (hr), the end of setting (hr), the hot expansion (mm), the resistances to compression and to bending (N/mm{sup 2}) determined on normalized 4 x 4 x 16 cm samples. The impact of the treatment environment (20 deg C and 100 % of relative humidity RH, 30 deg C and 70 % RH, 45 deg C and 45 % RH) was also taken into consideration. The obtained results reveal that the normal consistency, the beginning and the end of setting vary linearly with the quantity of added ashes. Above an addition of ashes of 30 %, the end of setting exceeds the standards demanding a maximum of 10 hours. Additionally, the results indicate that whatever the environment treatment may be, the resistances to compression and to bending increase with the increase of the sample age; they vary inversely to the amount of ash addition. The results allow to conclude that for an ash addition of 15 % and after an ageing of 30 days, the resistance to compression is higher than 40 N/mm{sup 2}, thus allowing the production of CPA 400 cement. These results also allow to conclude that samples kept in a humid environment give the best resistances to compression and to bending, by comparison with those kept in a dry environment. (authors)

  8. System of lower cogeneration in the cement industry; Sistema de cogeneracion inferior en la industria del cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H.; Vazquez, A; Ambriz, J. J.; Fosado, A.; Cedillo, D.; Sanchez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper present work, the design of a cogeneration system was made, taking advantage of the waste thermal flows in a cement manufacturing industry. The costs by concept of energy sources in the cement industry represent between 30 and 60% of the production costs, reason why any diminution in its consumption, will be reflected considerably in the productivity of the company. In order to determine the available capacity of waste energy and to establish the dimension of the cogeneration system it was decided to initially conduct balances of matter and energy of a cement production train. For the evaluation and numerical simulation a case study of a national plant was taken. The analysis takes only into account the rotary kiln, the pre roaster, the gas cooler or conditioner, the cooler of clinker and the separators or dust recuperators. In this study the electrical mills nor the systems that operate all over the plant have been taken in consideration. The results show that in general a high potential of co-generation exists since in some cases the heat losses can reach up to a 50% of the calorific energy input. The capacity of electrical generation by means of a steam turbine when taking advantage of a fraction (in the order of 60%) the residual heat, can be between 200 and 300 watts per kilogram of clinker produced. In conclusion, when recovering by means of appropriate heat exchangers for each one of the mentioned equipment the wasted energy and a network of heat interchange optimized by means of modern technologies an important part of the electrical energy that a cement mill uses can be generated. The method used has been very attractive and with the possibility of applying it to any cement mill and thus evaluate the potentials of energy co-generation. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, se realizo el diseno de un sistema de cogeneracion aprovechando las corrientes termicas de desecho en una industria de fabricacion de cemento. Los costos por concepto de

  9. The use of by-products from metallurgical and mineral industries as filler in cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosberg, Helena; Lagerblad, Björn; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-02-01

    This investigation has been made in order to make it possible to increase the use of by-products in cement-based materials. Use of by-products requires a screening procedure that will reliably determine their impact on concrete. A test procedure was developed. The most important properties were considered to be strength development, shrinkage, expansion and workability. The methods used were calorimetry, flow table tests, F-shape measurements, measurements of compressive and flexural strength and shrinkage/expansion measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify some results. Twelve by-products were collected from Swedish metallurgical and mineral industries and classified according to the test procedure. The investigation showed that the test procedure clearly screened out the materials that can be used in the production of concrete from the unsuitable ones.

  10. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, E M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Design, Explanation, and Evaluation of Training Model Structures Based on Learning Organization--In the Cement Industry with a Nominal Production Capacity of Ten Thousand Tons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mojtaba; Abbspour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effectiveness of training based on learning organization in the staff of cement industry with production capacity over ten thousand tons. The purpose of this study is to propose a training model based on learning organization. For this purpose, the factors of organizational learning were introduced by…

  12. New product evaluation : Aucem cement blend, Lone Star Industries, Inc. : technical assistance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) receives many requests to use new products for soil treatment, soil stabilization, or reinforcements on construction projects. The product information provided by the manufacturer gene...

  13. Lime mud from cellulose industry as raw material in cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo, R. C.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of lime mud (LM in cement-based-mortars. Lime mud is a waste generated in the production of cellulose by the kraft mill process. It is mainly composed of CaCO3, a small amount of magnesium carbonate and other trace minerals. Mortars were prepared by adding different amounts of LM (10, 20 and 30% by weight of cement in dry weight. The mortar compositions were evaluated through rheology and flow table measurements, assuring that all the samples exhibited adequate conditions for testing in both equipments. The hardened state properties were also evaluated through mechanical strengths at 7, 28 and 90 days of curing. Following a waste management solution perspective, this work intend to provide a general evaluation of LM application in cement based mortars, looking at both fresh and hardened properties in order to guarantee that the final application requirements are not hindered.Este estudio revela el uso de lodo de carbonato (LM en morteros de cemento. El LM es un residuo compuesto principalmente por CaCO3 generado en la producción de pasta de papel por el método Kraft. Los morteros se prepararon a partir de la adición de diferentes niveles de LM (10, 20 y 30% en peso de cemento en peso seco. Las composiciones de los morteros fueron caracterizadas através de mediciones de reología de mesa y de flujo, asegurando que las muestras exhibían condiciones adecuadas para su caracterización en ambos equipamientos. Las propiedades en estado endurecido también se evaluaron através de resistencias mecánicas a los 7, 28 y 90 días de cura. Con objeto de gestión de residuos, este trabajo tiene la intención de proporcionar una visión general de la aplicación de LM en los morteros, haciendo hincapié en las propiedades con el fin de garantizar que los requisitos para su aplicación final no se vean obstaculizados.

  14. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Gul, R.; Ara, T.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in laterite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), internal hazard index (H in ), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E eff ) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications. (authors)

  15. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of microsilica addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Samples with decreasing cement content 15–05 wt.% were formulated in combination of both slag and calcined bauxite as matrix components. Effects of varying 0–10 wt.% microsilica as a micro-fine additive in these castables were investigated in this work. Pore filling properties of microsilica improved apparent porosity and bulk density. Phase analysis through X-ray diffraction techniques demonstrates successful formation of spinel and mullite crystalline phases. Mechanical behavior was evaluated through cold crushing strength and residual cold crushing strength after five consecutive water quenching cycles. Scanning electron microscopy measurements were carried out in order to better understand the packing density and reaction mechanisms of fired castables. Slag containing castables portrays good thermal properties such as thermal shock resistance, permanent linear change and pyrometric cone equivalent.

  16. Research of cement mixtures with additions of industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papesch, R.; Klus, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zajac, R.

    2017-10-01

    The main goal of the article is the comparison of the possible use of secondary energy products. Used fly ashes, respectively steel dusts in cement mixes derive from production in Moravian-Silesian Region. The research focused on their influence on the chemical and physico-mechanical characteristics of the fresh and solid mixture. The aim was to find suitable formulations for grouting works, highway construction possibly rehabilitation of underground cavities created by mining activities. The introduction is mentioned the history of waste utilization up to current use as a product and the overall state of the problem. The conclusion is an evaluation of possible use in practice, including recommendations to carry out further tests.

  17. Maintenance Free and Sustainable High-Level Control in Cement and Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Ole Fink; Andersen, Nils Axel; Recke, Bodil; Recke, Bodil Olesen; Ravn, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Højniveau reguleringssystemer har været anvendt i processindustrien i årtier og udgør et veletableret marked også i cement produktion. Tilføjelsen af et sådant reguleringssystem medfører øget produktivitet, nedsat energiforbrug og forbedret kvalitet af slutproduktet så tilbagebetalingen typisk er under ét år. Desværre sker det ofte at systemet bliver taget ud af brug, få måneder efter installation. Årsagen hertil er mangeartet og skyldes grundlæggende at miljøet omkring systemet ændrer sig så...

  18. Evaluation of Technical Efficiency in Indian Sugar Industry: An Application of Full Cumulative Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil KUMAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the inter-temporal and inter-state variations in technical and scale efficiency levels of Indian sugar industry. In the first stage, full cumulative data envelopment analysis (FCDEA is used to derive efficiency scores for 12 major sugar producing states. The panel data truncated regression is employed in the second stage to assess the key factors explaining the observed variations in the efficiency levels. The results suggest that the extent of technical inefficiency in Indian sugar industry is about 35.5 percent per annum, and the observed technical inefficiency stems primarily due to managerial inefficiency rather scale inefficiency. Also, a precipitous decline in the level of technical efficiency has been noticed in the postreforms period relative to the level observed in the pre-reforms period. The availability of skilled labour and profitability have been found to be most significant determinants of technical efficiency in Indian sugar industry.

  19. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  20. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  1. Technical note: Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these ...

  2. The technical and industrial evolutions in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Guais, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The fuel cycle industry is a vital part of nuclear energy generation. Producers in every step of this industry, from uranium to reprocessing are working to adapt their products and services both to the more and more competitive conditions of the market and to the utilities evoluting specific needs. For the next decade, the main trend is uranium economy and reduction of industrial costs. For the longer term, the difficult prevision of nuclear energy developments, in particular with new types of reactors necessitates a true capacity of adaptation both from the utilities and from the fuel cycle industry. Cogema has already demonstrated the ability to adapt its industrial capabilities and therefore can prepare confidently for the future challenges [fr

  3. The relationship between technical efficiency and industial concentration: Evidnce from the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between technical efficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages sector. Firm-level data obtained from the Indonesian Bureau of Central Statistics (BPS) are used to estimate technical efficiency scores and calculate measures of

  4. Waste-form development for conversion to portland cement at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veazey, G.W.; Schake, A.R.; Shalek, P.D.; Romero, D.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    The process used at TA-55 to cement transuranic (TRU) waste has experienced several problems with the gypsum-based cement currently being used. Specifically, the waste form could not reliably pass the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) prohibition for free liquid and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) standard for chromium. This report describes the project to develop a portland cement-based waste form that ensures compliance to these standards, as well as other performance standards consisting of homogeneous mixing, moderate hydration temperature, timely initial set, and structural durability. Testing was conducted using the two most common waste streams requiring cementation as of February 1994, lean residue (LR)- and oxalate filtrate (OX)-based evaporator bottoms (EV). A formulation with a pH of 10.3 to 12.1 and a minimum cement-to-liquid (C/L) ratio of 0.80 kg/l for OX-based EV and 0.94 kg/L for LR-based EV was found to pass the performance standards chosen for this project. The implementation of the portland process should result in a yearly cost savings for raw materials of approximately $27,000 over the gypsum process

  5. Workshop on technical assessment of industrial thermal insulation materials: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    1976-07-01

    Over 80 participants representing 50 organizations met to discuss the report, Industrial Thermal Insulation--An Assessment, ORNL/TM-5283. Presentations on the performance of available materials, economic considerations, and measurement problems were followed by discussion. A final wrap-up session concluded that the report was valuable in pointing the direction for needed effort in the area, confirmed the indicated actions needed to further industrial application of insulation, and called for future meetings to continue the dialogue between the various facets of the industry

  6. Air Quality Co-benefits of Energy Policy in China: Evidence from Iron & Steel and Cement Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M.; Weng, Y.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has calculated large air quality co-benefits from policies that reduce CO2 emissions and increase energy efficiency. These (often prospective) studies rely on assumptions about how air pollutant emissions respond to energy use changes. Using a unique firm-level data set from China, we examine how a real-world energy efficiency policy affected SO2 emissions, estimate its actual effects on atmospheric PM2.5, and compare to ex ante theoretical estimates. During the 11th Five-year plan (2006-2010), the Chinese government implemented policies directing large energy-consuming firms to reduce their energy consumption per unit of economic output. The Top 1000 Enterprises Program (T1000P) set binding energy intensity targets for China's 1000 highest energy-consuming firms. This program is widely considered a policy success, as 92% of firms met their energy intensity target. Focusing on the cement and iron and steel industry, we examine how T1000P (and related provincial policies) affected firms' SO2 emissions and coal consumption from 2005 to 2008. By comparing T1000P firms with similar firms not subject to the policy, we find that T1000P had a very limited incremental effect on energy use or on air quality co-benefits. Compared to firms not subject to the policy, T1000P firms had 14.7% (cement) and 24.0% (iron & steel) lower reductions in SO2 emission per unit energy use. We also observe large, heterogeneous changes in emission factors (defined as SO2 emissions per unit of coal consumption) among all firms during this period. In comparison to co-benefits estimates that assume constant emission factors, SO2 emissions from T1000P firms in the post-policy period are 23.2% (iron and steel) and 40.2% (cement) lower, but spatially heterogeneous, with some regions experiencing increases. Using the GEOS-Chem model, we estimate the air quality co-benefits of the T1000P policy with realized SO2 emissions changes and compare them with two theoretical estimations

  7. Realizing CO2 emission reduction through industrial symbiosis: A cement production case study for Kawasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shizuka; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Nagasawa, Emiri

    2010-01-01

    This article is one effort to examine the present and potential performances of CO2 emission reduction though industrial symbiosis by employing a case study approach and life cycle CO2 analysis for alternative industrial symbiosis scenarios. As one of the first and the best-known eco-town projects, Kawasaki Eco-town was chosen as a case study area. First, the current industrial symbiosis practices in this area are introduced. To evaluate the potential of reducing the total CO2 emission throug...

  8. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry--semi-automated sample preparation unit as a means for facilitated practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Pomberger, Roland; Lorber, Karl E; Sipple, Ernst-Michael

    2016-03-01

    One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohožnik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. [Has application of the decree banning the use of cement with a high chromium VI content led to a reduction in occupational cement dermatitis in salaried workers in the construction industries?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halioua, Bruno; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Crepy, Marie-Noëlle; Bouquiaux, Barbara; Assier, Haudrey; Billon, Stéphane; Chosidow, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Active employees in the construction industry are particularly exposed to occupational cement eczema (OCE) which affects the hands in 80 to 90% of cases. The importance of OCE in France and the impact of the application of decree n(o). 2005-577 on 26 May 2005 were estimated from data collected by the Occupational risks division of the French national health insurance fund for salaried workers (CNAMTS). This decree prohibits the placing on the market and use of cement (and preparations containing it) with a chromium VI content above 0.0002% in order to reduce its hazardousness. All cases of OCE reported to and recognized by the CNAMTS between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008 among construction workers were selected. The following parameters were noted in each case: age, gender, industrial sector concerned, local French National health insurance agency, causal agent and the number of working days lost. The incidence per 100,000 salaried workers could be determined from the total number of salaried workers followed up by occupational medicine as well as those working in the construction industry. For the five years studied, 3698 cases of occupational eczema (OE) were reported in construction workers and this was 17.1% of the total number of cases of OE for all salaried employees (n=12.689). Cement was the causal agent most frequently involved in the construction sector (57.8%, 2139/3698). The annual incidence of OCE decreased from 37.8 to 21.1 new cases per 100,000 employees in the construction industry per year between 2004 and 2008. The total number of days lost from work due to OCE decreased by 39% during the study period. This descriptive study highlights the importance and socio-economic impact of OCE in the construction industry. Application of decree n(o). 2005-577 on 26 May 2005 may explain a reduction in OCE. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Statistical handbook for Canada's upstream petroleum industry : technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document is an up-to-date reference source that summarizes the progress of Canada's petroleum industry. It includes detailed statistical data from 2006 and 2007 in one publication. The handbook features a compilation of key data on major economic sectors of the petroleum industry. It includes real-time drilling, reserves, and production data for crude oil and natural gas along with expenditures by province, revenues, prices, demand, consumption, refining, transportation, imports, and exports. Ethane production was also summarized along with electricity generation capacity in Canada and the status of oil, gas and product pipelines. tabs

  11. MENINGKATKAN TECHNICAL SKILL SISWA SMK TEKNIK BANGUNAN MELALUI PELAKSANAAN PRAKTIK KERJA INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blima Oktaviastuti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to expose the study of: (1 technical skill; (2 the working practices of the industry (Prakerin; and (3 technical skill on implementation prakerin. Conclusions it can be concluded that, the real form of Prakerin is the implementation of the system of education in SMK is Double System Education (PSG. The program was drawn up jointly between prakerin school and industrial world in order to meet the needs of students. The party was active in the activities of prakerin include: (1 the implementing party as students practice; and (2 the industrial world and the teacher as the party that train students. The existence of activities expected prakerin can give students experience before entering the world of work. Through the activities, indirectly prakerin students have gained technical skill required as a provision for entering the workforce. Given the current state of infrastructure development is preferred, the demand for construction workers is the main one. Graduates of Vocational School building techniques is expected to have the technical skill to be able to compete with the foreign worker entering the era of the MEA as of now. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan kajian tentang: (1 technical skill; (2 Praktik Kerja Industri (Prakerin; dan (3 technical skill pada pelaksanaan prakerin. Kesimpulan yang dapat disimpulkan bahwa, prakerin merupakan wujud nyata dari pelaksanaan sistem pendidikan di SMK yaitu Pendidikan Sistem Ganda (PSG. Program prakerin disusun bersama antara sekolah dan dunia industri dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhan siswa. Pihak yang aktif dalam kegiatan prakerin, meliputi (1 siswa sebagai pihak pelaksana praktik; serta (2 dunia industri dan guru sebagai pihak yang melatih siswa. Adanya kegiatan prakerin diharapkan dapat memberi pengalaman siswa sebelum memasuki dunia kerja. Melalui kegiatan prakerin, secara tidak langsung siswa telah mendapatkan technical skill yang dibutuhkan sebagai bekal memasuki dunia kerja

  12. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  13. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  14. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  15. Causes and outcomes of customer satisfaction in business-to-business markets relationship marketing in the South African cement manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phineas Mbango

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Close relationships between cement manufacturers and their customers in business-to-business markets are becoming a necessity in today’s competitive markets. The literature search reveals that, three constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment and satisfaction are the most studied and well known. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by adding two constructs (supplier competencies and communication as vital causes to customer satisfaction and the outcome being customer loyalty and cooperation. The study produced a framework of dimensions of relationship marketing in the South African Cement Industry and its hoped will help marketing managers in the industry and related sectors in coming up with relationship marketing strategies that can go a long way in helping them retain, attract, satisfy, and achieve long-term profitable relationships for both the supplier and the customer. A judgemental sample of major cement customers (362 throughout South Africa’s nine provinces were contacted using face-to-face interview technique with self-administered questionnaires. The results support the conceptual model presented; supplier competencies, trust, commitment and communication have a positive association with satisfaction; and satisfaction, in turn, relates positively to all the two outcomes of cooperation and loyalty. It is recommended that a cement manufacturer must invest in strategies that enhance trust, communication, commitment and supplier competencies in order to satisfy its customers who will in turn contribute to customer cooperation and loyalty.

  16. Advantage of irradiation in food industry, technical and economical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation is an effective method to extend the conservation and to increase the hygienic security of food. Nevertheless the use of irradiation remains limited in food industry. The prospects of different applications are evaluated, referring to the other alternative technologies. The advantage of adequate irradiation facilities incorporated or not into the plants are compared [fr

  17. Technical aspects of coal use in the Japanese steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, T.

    1991-01-01

    Japan's crude steel production exceeded 100 million tons for the first time in fiscal 1972 and reached a peak of 120 million tons in fiscal 1973, as shown in this paper. The Japanese steel industry then switched from quantity to quality in line with production and market trends in the world. In fiscal 1987, all steelmakers announced future plans for reductions in steel production facilities on the assumption that Japan's crude steel production would hover around 90 million tons in response to the change in the country's production structure. Although steel production has held strong with the expansion in domestic steel demand triggered by the government's economic policy and the production plans that have eventually put their original production plans into practice. In its energy-saving activities prompted by 2 oil rises, the Japanese steel industry has dramatically improved its energy costs through energy conservation, waste heat recovery and process step consolidation, as represented by the reductions in blast furnace fuel rate and coke-oven heat consumption. During this period, the Japanese steel industry has won independence from oil and increased dependence on coal. This paper describes coal utilization technologies in coke ovens and blast furnaces, 2 major coal consuming processes in the steel industry. The environmental problems associated with the use of coal are discussed as well

  18. The role of technical museums in the regeneration of industrial functionally: Restructured regions Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merciu Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to depict the evolution of technical museums across Romania, high-lighting a new trend - visible in the past few years - towards preservation of industrial heritage assets in areas that have undergone functional reorganization. This trend is the result of the country's adaptation to the new socio-economic conditions, but also an accession into the stage of cultural and touristic capitalization on industrial heritage assets, acting as a support-activity in boosting the economy of dis advantaged industrial areas. The second purpose of the study consists of elaborating a critical analysis of technical museums from Romania in order to identify the characteristics to use to increase their cultural role. Also, the analysis is focused on the premise to make technical museums stand out as tourist attraction hubs and to preview their role in the redevelopment of industrial areas in decline, banking on a positive economic and socio-cultural impact.

  19. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  20. Measuring improvement in energy efficiency of the US cement industry with the ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.; Zhang, G. [Department of Economics, Duke University, Box 90097, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The lack of a system for benchmarking industrial plant energy efficiency represents a major obstacle to improving efficiency. While estimates are sometimes available for specific technologies, the efficiency of one plant versus another could only be captured by benchmarking the energy efficiency of the whole plant and not by looking at its components. This paper presents an approach used by ENERGY STAR to implement manufacturing plant energy benchmarking for the cement industry. Using plant-level data and statistical analysis, we control for factors that influence energy use that are not efficiency, per se. What remains is an estimate of the distribution of energy use that is not accounted for by these factors, i.e., intra-plant energy efficiency. By comparing two separate analyses conducted at different points in time, we can see how this distribution has changed. While aggregate data can be used to estimate an average rate of improvement in terms of total industry energy use and production, such an estimate would be misleading as it may give the impression that all plants have made the same improvements. The picture that emerges from our plant-level statistical analysis is more subtle; the most energy-intensive plants have closed or been completely replaced and poor performing plants have made efficiency gains, reducing the gap between themselves and the top performers, whom have changed only slightly. Our estimate is a 13 % change in total source energy, equivalent to an annual reduction of 5.4 billion/kg of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.

  1. 3D printing cement based ink, and it’s application within the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D printing technology is the engine key of the third industrial revolution, after introduction of the automation in the eighteenth century and the concept of mass production in early of twentieth century. 3D printing technology now offers the magic solution to balance both the benefits, and overcome the major associated problem with the previous concept which was the need of repetition. The 3D printing technology has two main critical success factors: the printing machine and the printing material (ink. This paper focusses on cementitious-based materials and the ability to utilize the technology in the construction industry. The research took a qualitative approach based on previous literature reviews as well as in-house research results carried out by the authors’ employer Research and Development Center. The paper summarizes the approach towards to an appropriate mix design which can achieve the requirement of the printing process, and overcome the current constraints which are hindering the wide application of 3D print in construction industry. The authors believe that the research topic and result will have great impact on pushing the construction industry forward towards achieving the UAE Government’s strategy and target to achieve twenty-five percent (25% of the buildings in Dubai by the year of 2030 relying on the 3D printing methodology. The research also concluded that even though the technology is adding a great value to the construction industry, it must be remembered that the technology is still in its infancy, and further research is required to achieve even higher strength printing materials that would be workable in multi-story buildings without the need of additional steel reinforcement.

  2. Playing on strengths : technical innovations keep Canadian industry on top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, W.

    1997-01-01

    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is one of Canada's major petroleum regions. Some fields in the region have been in production for 80 years. Since most of the major discoveries have been made, the challenge today is to use new technologies to find smaller reservoirs and to extract as much oil as possible from the depleting reserves. The following technical innovations were developed by Canadian companies for enhanced oil recovery: (1) steam assisted gravity drainage for heavy oil, (2) horizontal drilling, (3) coiled tube drilling, (4) single well steam assisted gravity drainage, (5) hydrocyclone technology in which briny water is sent down the borehole for reinjection and in which centrifugal force sends the lighter oil to the middle of the hydrocyclone where it is collected, and (6) portable top drives aimed at newer versions of large land drilling rigs and offshore operations. Multi-lateral techniques have also been used to increase production on heavy oil properties. These and other technical innovations are recognized as the single best advantage that Canadians have to offer the global marketplace. 4 figs

  3. Behavioral reliability program for the nuclear industry. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.C.; Davis, S.O.; Dunnette, M.D.; Meyer, P.; Sharac, J.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of the study was the development of standards for a behavioral observation program which could be used by the NRC licensed nuclear industry to detect indications of emotional instability in its employees who have access to protected and vital areas. Emphasis was placed on those observable characteristics which could be assessed by supervisors or peers in a work environment. The behavioral reliability program, as was defined in this report, encompasses the concept and basic components of the program, the definition of the behavioral reliability program, the definition of the behavioral reliability criterion, and a set of instructions for the creation and implementation of the program by an individual facility

  4. Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and the Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R. L.; Amos, W. P.; Downing, M.; Perlack, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the state of the biopower industry and the technology for producing electricity and heat from biomass. Biopower (biomass-to-electricity generation), a proven electricity generating option in the United States and with about 11 GW of installed capacity, is the single largest source of non-hydro renewable electricity. This 11 GW of capacity encompasses about 7.5 GW of forest product industry and agricultural industry residues, about 3.0 GW of municipal solid waste-based generating capacity and 0.5 GW of other capacity such as landfill gas based production. The electricity production from biomass is being used and is expected to continue to be used as base load power in the existing electrical distribution system. An overview of sector barriers to biopower technology development is examined in Chapter 2. The discussion begins with an analysis of technology barriers that must be overcome to achieve successful technology pathways leading to the commercialization of biomass conversion and feedstock technologies. Next, an examination of institutional barriers is presented which encompasses the underlying policies, regulations, market development, and education needed to ensure the success of biopower. Chapter 3 summarizes biomass feedstock resources, characteristics, availability, delivered prices, requirements for processing, and the impediments and barriers to procurement. A discussion of lessons learned includes information on the California biomass energy industry, lessons from commercial biopower plants, lessons from selected DOE demonstration projects, and a short summary of the issues considered most critical for commercial success is presented in Chapter 4. A series of case studies, Chapter 5, have been performed on the three conversion routes for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications of biomass--direct combustion, gasification, and cofiring. The studies are based on technology characterizations developed by NREL and EPRI

  5. (Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract.

  6. [Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract

  7. Technical training of indigenous people for resource industry jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millbank, G. [Praxis Technical Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The economic, moral and legal arguments for employing local indigenous people for resource extraction jobs are discussed. In addition to explaining the 'why' for training, similar arguments are developed for the 'when' , 'where', and 'how' aspects of training, stressing the superior qualities of DeepLearning(TM), a method developed by the Praxis Technical Group, which embodies many aspects of teaching and learning technologies utilized in indigenous communities around the world. In this training technology the most intense teaching is said to occur during the performance of rites and ceremonies, common to indigenous cultures. While the emphasis in all rituals may appear to be focused entirely upon deities or ancestors, careful observation reveals that there is also a hidden emphasis on creating an appropriate, receptive state of mind among the participants in the ritual. DeepLearning(TM) makes use of this technique by making the learner relaxed, focused and receptive before presenting examples of optimal behaviour. The style of learning is individual, unstressed, free of distractions, and claimed to be many times more effective than typical classroom sessions.

  8. Radiation and applications: Technical innovation made by industrial irradiation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, L.

    1986-01-01

    The innovation represented by irradiation as a means of industrial process technology lies in the very special way in which energy is introduced into some object in which it initiates reactions. This is based on the penetrating capability of ionizing radiation, which can produce reactive species, especially radicals, inside an object without requiring the whole object to be subjected to such conditions as, e.g., high temperatures or pressures, which would otherwise be needed to initiate the corresponding reactions. This unique advantage of triggering off reactions by means of ionizing radiation results in possibilities of process technology no other procedure can offer. An aspect becoming more and more important is the possibility to replace expensive materials hard to process by cheaper materials brought into a specific form more easily. Irradiation processes can assign to these materials at least some of the properties and combinations of properties, respectively, of higher-grade materials. (orig.) [de

  9. Customer satisfaction as a mediator between causes (trust and communication) and the outcome (customer loyalty) in business-to-business relationship marketing in the South African cement manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Phineas Mbango; Maxwell A. Phiri

    2015-01-01

    Customer loyalty has become more relevant in the cement industry since the unbundling of the cartel system in 1994, the entrance of new competitors into the market and the effect of globalization. This study’s literature review reveals that there is limited published research in the Cement Industry, particularly in South Africa, which deals with customer loyalty management. The major objective of the study was to test satisfaction as a mediator between causes and outcome, the causes being tru...

  10. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  11. State-of-the-art of furnace recuperation in the primary metals industry: technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, N.L.

    1983-08-01

    Existing and emerging recuperator technology is identified, as well as the technical and economic issues in applying such technology. An overview of recuperation and its relevance to the primary metals industry is presented. Design considerations, equipment, and energy and cost savings of five recuperator applications in the primary metals industry are examined. Three applications include a case history of a recent recuperator installation. A cost engineering analysis of recuperator technology is included to ensure that technically feasible engineering projects are also economically attractive business ventures. An overview of emerging recuperation technology is presented.

  12. 50-year of the Technical Assistance Service to Industry (SATI): notes from a heterodoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriquez, Santiago N.

    2011-01-01

    This report is in honor of the 50° creation anniversary of the Service of Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI),a service with no background in Argentina. This occasion is appropriate to think the historical conditions which made possible the existence of the SATI in the National Atomic Energy Commission. Secondly, this report describes its operative characteristics and its achievements in different fields: from the technical and industry-learning aspects, up to the development of the conception about the relation between Science, Technology and Society. (author) [es

  13. Physico-Chemical Studies Involving Incorporation of Radioactive and Industrial Waste In Cement-Epoxy Resin Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.; Hafez, N.

    1999-01-01

    Cement and epoxy resin as chemical additives are proposed to incorporate different types of wastes. The study was extended to prepare different mixtures of cement and epoxy resin in presence of some toxic ions. The studied ions were Cd II, Ni II, Cu II, Fe III, Ce IV, 154+152 Eu, phenol and toluene. The physical, mechanical and leaching properties of the mixtures were studied. The thermal analysis and infrared spectra were also investigated. It was observed that all the studied properties of the epoxy modified cement as a disposal matrix was improved

  14. Cermet cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, J W

    1990-01-01

    Cermet ionomer cements are sintered metal/glass powders, which can be made to react with poly(acids). These new cements are significantly more resistant to abrasion than regular glass ionomer cements and are widely accepted as core build-up materials and lining cements. They can strengthen teeth and provide the clinician with an opportunity to treat early dental caries.

  15. Sulfoaluminate-belite cement from low-calcium fly ash and sulfur-rich and other industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, P.; Silsbee, M.R.; Roy, D.M.

    1999-08-01

    The study describes the preparation and characterization of an environmentally friendly cement with performance characteristics similar to those of Portland cement, from a lime kiln bag house dust, a low-calcium fly ash, and a scrubber sludge. Promising preliminary results show the formation of relatively low-temperature phases calcium sulfoaluminate (4CaO{center{underscore}dot}3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center{underscore}dot}SO{sub 3}) and dicalcium silicate (2CaO{center{underscore}dot}SiO{sub 2}) at {approximately} 1,250 C if nodulized raw means used for clinker preparation and at 1,175 C if powdered raw meal is used as compared to the {approximately} 1,500 C sintering temperature required for Portland cement. Phases of the developed cements were predicted using modified Bogue calculations. Isothermal calorimetric measurements indicate the hydration properties of the cements are comparable to ordinary Portland cement. Mechanical properties and microstructural evaluations also were carried out.

  16. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide in Basic Technical Drafting. Bulletin No. 1686.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide contains operational guidelines to help local administrators, teacher educators, and industrial arts teachers in the State of Louisiana determine the extent to which their technical drafting courses are meeting the needs of the youth they serve. It consists of a discussion of course prerequisites, goals, content, and…

  17. Technical efficiency and CO2 abatement policies in the Dutch glasshouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a short-run microeconomic simulation model of the Dutch glasshouse industry in order to investigate the relation between technical efficiency and marginal abatement costs of CO2 emission. The model is also used to determine the effects of an emission tax and systems of tradable

  18. Main conclusions of a seminar on managing technical resources in a changing nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    The author recapitulates the different points from I Mech E Conference (Managing Technical resources in a changing Nuclear Industry -London, 29 September 1999), as following: UK position, BNFL Magnox and AEAT, UK view from BEGL, view from WANO, UK view from UKAEA, USA view from PECO Energy, and view from OECD NEA

  19. Technical executive’s organizational commitment at Malaysian Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R; Binti Sofyan, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the levels of organizational commitment among technical executive, identifies factors that influence organizational commitment in the Malaysian oil and gas industry, and examines the impact of organizational commitment on organizational performance. This research was conducted at Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering (MMHE). The framework adopted the three component-conceptualization of organizational commitment. Among the findings is that organizational commitment ten...

  20. The Role of Vocational and Technical Education in the Industrialization of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ramlee B.

    The Industrialized Needs study identified the perceptions of Malaysian educators and employers regarding the role of vocational and technical education (VTE) in the economic development of Malaysia. The first survey used a random sample of 300 (276 responses) from the population of 4,316 VTE educators in public VT schools and polytechnics in…

  1. 78 FR 34392 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Technical Considerations for Pen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... adhesive label to assist the office in processing your requests. The guidance may also be obtained by mail... and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... June 2013. FDA is providing this final guidance document to assist industry in developing technical and...

  2. The Dynamics of Technical and Business Knowledge Networks in Industrial Clusters: Embeddedness, status or proximity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Belso-Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Morrison, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although informal knowledge networks have often been regarded as a key ingredient behind the success of industrial clusters, the forces that shape their structure and dynamics remain largely unknown. Drawing on recent network dynamic models, we analyze the evolution of business and technical

  3. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.; Wolek, W.

    1975-01-01

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications [fr

  4. Recomendations concerning technical research and development with the purpose to industrially exploit marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1980-10-01

    This report formulates a proposal for a program for technical research and development concerning use of Marine algae.The report is based on a retrospective literature search, an inquiry to potential algae users and producers in Sweden, visits to and correspondence with scientists and industries in Sweden and abroad. Technical research and development concerning marine algae is needed within the following fields: -Development of new sorts of algae offering resistance to parasite and disease adoptation to cultivation and har- vesting systems,and high-yielding concerning technically interesting components. -Development of suitable cultivation systems for Swedish conditions. -Co-cultivation of fish, mussels, oysters and crustaceans with algae. -Development of harvesting systems. -Methane rotting. -Fatty acid/hydrocarbon production as an alternative to methane rotting. -Physical-chemical properties of marine polysaccharides in relation to their technical properties. -Marine algae as fodder supplement.

  5. Lung function reduction and chronic respiratory symptoms among workers in the cement industry: a follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Zeyede K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only a few follow-up studies of respiratory function among cement workers. The main aims of this study were to measure total dust exposure, to examine chronic respiratory symptoms and changes in lung function among cement factory workers and controls that were followed for one year. Methods The study was conducted in two cement factories in Ethiopia. Totally, 262 personal measurements of total dust among 105 randomly selected workers were performed. Samples of total dust were collected on 37-mm cellulose acetate filters placed in closed faced Millipore-cassettes. Totally 127 workers; 56 cleaners, 44 cement production workers and 27 controls were randomly selected from two factories and examined for lung function and interviewed for chronic respiratory symptoms in 2009. Of these, 91 workers; 38 cement cleaners (mean age 32 years, 33 cement production workers (36 years and 20 controls (38 years were examined with the same measurements in 2010. Results Total geometric mean dust exposure among cleaners was 432 mg/m3. The fraction of samples exceeding the Threshold Limit Value (TLV of 10 mg/m3 for the cleaners varied from 84-97% in the four departments. The levels were considerably lower among the production workers (GM = 8.2 mg/m3, but still 48% exceeded 10 mg/m3. The prevalence of all the chronic respiratory symptoms among both cleaners and production workers was significantly higher than among the controls. Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and FEV1/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced from 2009 to 2010 among the cleaners (p Conclusions The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and reduction in lung function is probably associated with high cement dust exposure. Preventive measures are needed to reduce the dust exposure.

  6. A feasible process for simultaneous removal of CO2, SO2 and NOx in the cement industry by NH3 scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Lu, Hongfang; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Zaoxiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous removal of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x is realized by NH 3 scrubbing with NaClO 2 . ► The crystallization process of NH 4 HCO 3 is employed instead of CO 2 regeneration. ► Energy consumption reduces hugely while CO 2 removal rate remains higher than 90%. ► Exergy calculation reveals that a higher thermodynamic perfection degree is achieved. -- Abstract: With the rapid economic and industrial development, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing enormously, which has greatly affected the global climate and human living environment. At present, a lot of technologies have been applied to CO 2 removal in fossil fuel-fired power plants, which are one of the main CO 2 emission sources. But few researches have been done in the cement industry, which is the third largest CO 2 emission source. There is no mature technology of CO 2 removal in cement industry mentioned before. This paper proposes a feasible process for simultaneous removal of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x in the cement industry by NH 3 scrubbing. As there is no ready steam source for the regeneration of CO 2 -rich loading solvent after absorption, a process with the final product of ammonium bicarbonate is developed. With the oxidative additive of NaClO 2 added in the aqueous ammonium absorbent, the simultaneous removal of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x is feasible by NH 3 scrubbing. The products of the process are mainly ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, which are all good fertilizers for crops and plants. The crystallization of NH 4 HCO 3 is easier for storage and transportation than that for liquid carbon dioxide, which becomes more stable when dicyandiamide (DCD) is added. The thermodynamic analysis proves that the proposed process has the advantages of energy conservation and high thermodynamic perfection degree compared with the traditional ones.

  7. Case study: evaluation of continuos blending silos in the cement industry, by the aid of tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    Besides the actual burning process in cement manufacture, particular importance is attached to raw material preparation and homogenization, not only because of the quality of the kiln fed and therefore of the produced cement, but also because of the economy of the kiln operation, which significantly depends on the uniformity of the chemical composition of the material. As a result, the blending process of the cement raw material, before burning, is a basic stage of cement technology production. In this case, the pneumatic homogenization process is studied in a silo with a great storing and processing capacity. The objective is to evaluate the parameters which influence in the continuos operation. The method allows us to determine the optimal blending parameters, through the observation of the movement and distribution of the different fractions of fine dust raw meal, labelled with La-140 as tracer. Changes in blending according to time are discussed as well as the influence of the silo design on the degree of homogenization. It was showed that the silo blending operation has a strong influence on the production of good-quality cement as well as the implications on energy saving

  8. Recycling of spent catalyst and waste sludge from industry to substitute raw materials in the preparation of Portland cement clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae-Long Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using waste limestone sludge, waste stone sludge, iron oxide sludge, and spent catalyst as raw materials in the production of eco-cement. The compressive strength development of the Eco Cement-A (ECO-A paste was similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC pastes. The compressive strength development of the ECO-B paste was higher than that of OPC pastes. In addition, the C2S (Ca2SiO4, C2S and C3S (Ca3SiO5 minerals in the eco-cement paste were continuously utilized to hydrate the Ca(OH2 and calcium silicate hydrates gel (Ca6Si3O12·H2O, C–S–H throughout the curing time. When ECO-C clinker contained 8% spent catalyst, the C3S mineral content decreased and C3A (3 CaO·Al2O3 content increased, thereby causing the structure to weaken and compressive strength to decrease. The results showed that the developed eco-cement with 4% spent catalyst possessed compressive strength properties similar to those of OPC pastes.

  9. Employers' Perception of Graduates with Entry-Level Technical Skills from Construction Industry Programs in Ghana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…

  10. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  11. Utilization of the waste from the marble industry for application in transport infrastructure: mechanical properties of cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prošek, Zdeněk; Trejbal, Jan; Topič, Jaroslav; Plachý, Tomáš; Tesárek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    This article is focused on the mechanical testing of cement-based samples containing a micronized waste marble powder used as replacement of standard binders. Tested materials consisted of cement CEM I 42.5 R (Radotín, Czech Republic) and three different amounts of the marbles (25, 50 and 70 wt. %). Standard bending and compressive tests of the prismatic samples having dimensions equal to 40 × 40 × 160 mm were done in order to reveal an influence of marble amount on flexural and compressive strength, respectively. Moreover, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and dynamic shear modulus were examined and compared after 7 and 28 days of mixture curing.

  12. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Response to... by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants...

  13. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY...) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No...

  14. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 20131, 2. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production2, 3, but the natural reversal of the process—carbonation—has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondar...

  15. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  16. Penetration of natural gas in industrial processes for direct burning: the case of ceramics, cement and glass industries; Penetracao do gas natural em processos industriais de queima direta: caso das industrias ceramica, cimento e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti; Leite, Alvaro A. Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Industrial sector can use the natural gas (NG) as raw material, as fuel and in co-generation. The NG as fuel is used, predominantly, to produce heat in the Brazilian industries. That rate, both main forms of industrial use of the NG are its direct burning in kilns - when the direct contact is had with the product - and the supply of process heat through boilers, for instance. Direct burning is used in the ceramic, cement and glass industries. This work discuss the penetration opportunity of the NG in the direct burning regarding the fuel oil and other energy that it can substitute, the environmental effects and the co-generation possibilities in each one of the analyzed industrial blanches in this work. (author)

  17. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Cement-latex grouting mortar for cementing boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kateev, I S; Golyshkina, L A; Gorbunova, I V; Kurochkin, B M; Vakula, Ya V

    1980-01-01

    The need for the development of cement-latex grouting mortar for the purpose of separating strata when reinforcing boreholes at deposits in the Tatar Associated SSR is evaluated. Results of studies of the physical and mechanical properties of cement-latex grouting mortar systems (mortar plus brick) are presented. Formulas for preparing cement-latex grouting mortor are evaluated and results of industrial tests of such mortars shown.

  19. Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian wood, furniture, and paper industries

    OpenAIRE

    M Webber; S Tonkin

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the rate of profit is examined and the components of changes in the rate of profit are identified in the wood, furniture, and paper industries of Canada for the years 1952 to 1981. The rate of profit in the wood industry generally rose, until a dramatic fall since 1979 onwards; this fall was largely due to a collapse of market prices and to the effects of that collapse on the technical composition of capital (via changes in the rate of capacity utilization). Profit rates in the ...

  20. A socio-technical analysis of work with ideas in NPD: an industrial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2013-01-01

    on piecing together a number of ideas that were developed and disseminated in a large industrial company. We do this through an in-depth case study of the development of the energy-labeled circulation pump Alpha Pro, developed by one of the world’s leading pump manufacturers, Grundfos. Using a socio-technical...... approach, we focus especially on the actors involved and the contextual factors, and less on the detailed development of technical ideas. In our study, we observe that (1) ideas are pieced together from previous ideas and results; (2) ideas are implemented through continuous mobilization of support...... and development of legitimate arguments; and (3) idea work is also a socio-technical process, because contextual factors matter. We observe that idea work is an ongoing process undertaken across different projects, actors, departments, strategies, and visions within Grundfos, while also involving external actors...

  1. The Importance of Data Science in Technical Industry with Special Reference to Hardware/Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Laxmi Kalyani; Pooja Jha; Vaishali Ameta

    2017-01-01

    The data is converted into information from long time ago. Information is the key for any business to excel and overcome to competitions. Earlier the data was not so large and it was computed and converted into information. As the industry grows and with the growing need of demand and supply in comparison to increasing population of the world. Companies are strategically focusing on the information so that they can make the best strategy to win. The new flavor of the old win named as “Data Sc...

  2. The methodology of technical due diligence report preparation for an office, residential and industrial buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutera Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of a technical due diligence preparation is presented in this paper. It comprises actions that have to be undertaken prior to formal agreement with party ordering due diligence preparation, building a team of consultants, data collecting, preparing analysis and handing over the report to the client. All important issues were described and supported by examples. As there are many types of building objects this paper is limited to office, residential and industrial buildings.

  3. Productivity Change, Technical Progress, and Relative Efficiency Change in the Public Accounting Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Hsihui Chang; Ram Natarajan

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence on components of productivity change in the public accounting industry toward the end of the 20th century. Using revenue and human resource data from 64 of the 100 largest public accounting firms in the United States for the 1995--1999 period, we analyze productivity change, technical progress, and relative efficiency change over time. The average public accounting firm experienced a productivity growth of 9.5% between 1995 and 1999. We find support for the hypothesis that...

  4. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in India on cement calcination facilities waste heat recovery; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru cement shosei setsubi hainetsu kaishu model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    India produces 96-million tons/year of cement, ranking fourth in the world, and 55% of the yield comes from 1-million tons/year plants. Some of the waste heat from the manufacturing process is used to dry materials, etc., but much is discharged into the atmosphere. Estimation is made of the energy conservation effect expected to be brought about in case the waste heat power generation technology which is in use to good effect in Japan is introduced into Indian cement plants whose clinker production exceeds 3,000 tons/day. As the result, it is concluded that the model project may be implemented at any of the four plants for which power generation capability and CO2 reduction effect are tentatively calculated below. There will be power generation of 7,300kW and CO2 reduction of 43,125 tons for the Guijarat Ambuja Cement Ltd./Ambuja Cement Eastern plant; power generation of 7,700kW and CO2 reduction of 901,960 tons for the India Cement Ltd./Rassi Cement plant; power generation of 45,098kW and CO2 reduction of 1,140,220 tons for the Larsen and Toubro Ltd./Hirmi plant; and power generation of 5,450kW and CO2 reduction of 32,230 tons for the J. K. Corp Ltd./Lakshmi Cement Sirohi plant. (NEDO)

  5. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Arcuri, L.; Dotti, M.; Pace, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Ricci, G.; Basta, M.; Cali, V.; Pagliai, V.

    1989-05-01

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  6. Uncertified and Teaching: Industry Professionals in Career and Technical Education Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geralyn E. Stephens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Industry professionals are permitted to teach in Michigan’s federally funded Career and Technical Education (CTE secondary programs, before completing a teacher certification program, under the Annual Occupational Authorization (AOA provision. This study reviews their academic foundations, professional credentials and their pedagogical knowledge and skill levels. Findings include that most AOA teachers possess post-secondary academic credentials and extensive service records in their previous industry careers. The study identified relationships between the age and educational backgrounds of AOA teachers and their use of specific instructional activities and a statistical relationship between their years teaching in the CTE classroom and the degree of collaboration with academic, industry and occupational colleagues. While AOA teachers are confident in their ability to share occupational knowledge and skills, they lack an extensive awareness of authentic assessment strategies. Recommendations include establishing Teacher Mentoring programs, where both academic and occupational peers serve as mentors to AOA teachers.

  7. Ceramic microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The microspheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about 11 lbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  8. Ceramic microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The microspheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about 11 lbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  9. Ceramic microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The microspheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about 11 lbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  10. Impact of Environmental Regulation and Technical Progress on Industrial Carbon Productivity: An Approach Based on Proxy Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to 2014, in order to examine the impact of environmental regulation and technical progress on carbon productivity. Methods applied include panel fixed effect model, panel random effect model and two stage least squares with instrumental variables (IV-2SLS. The effect of environmental regulation and technical progress has industrial heterogeneity. The paper subdivides industrial sectors into capital and technology intensive, resource intensive and labor intensive sectors according to factor intensiveness. The estimation results of the subgroups have uncovered that for capital and technology intensive and resource intensive sectors, environmental regulation has a more significant impact than technical progress; while for labor intensive sectors, innovation more significantly influences carbon productivity. In addition, foreign direct investment (FDI and industrialization level facilitate improving carbon productivity for the full sample. By contrast, industrial structure inhibits the overall industrial carbon productivity. The industry-specific results indicate that for capital and technology intensive sectors, optimizing of the industrial structure can improve carbon productivity; for resource intensive sectors, FDI and energy consumption structure should be emphasized more; for labor intensive sectors, industrialization levels help enhance carbon productivity. Finally the industrial sector-specific policy suggestions are proposed.

  11. Understanding mineral trioxide aggregate/Portland-cement: a review of literature and background factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, R; van Waes, H

    2009-06-01

    This was to carry out a review of the literature concerning mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement with regards to clinical, biological and mechanical findings and a possible substitution of MTA through Portland cement for endodontic use. Electronic literature search of scientific papers from January 1993 to January 2009 was carried out on the MEDLINE and Scopus databases using specific key words. In total, 57 papers were identified that dealt with MTA and Portland cement in a relevant way. The review of 50 papers conforming to the applied criteria showed that MTA and Portland cements have the same clinical, biological and mechanical properties. In animal experiments and technical characterisations both materials seemed to have very similar properties. The only difference is bismuth oxide in MTA added for better radio opacity. It seems likely that MTA materials are based on industrial Portland cements mixed with bismuth oxide. More studies, especially some long-term studies comparing MTA and Portland cement, are necessary. The existing literature gives a solid base for clinical studies with Portland cement in order to replace MTA as an endodontic material. Portland cement could be a substitute for most endodontic materials used in primary teeth.

  12. Development of high-performance blended cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zichao

    2000-10-01

    This thesis presents the development of high-performance blended cements from industrial by-products. To overcome the low-early strength of blended cements, several chemicals were studied as the activators for cement hydration. Sodium sulfate was discovered as the best activator. The blending proportions were optimized by Taguchi experimental design. The optimized blended cements containing up to 80% fly ash performed better than Type I cement in strength development and durability. Maintaining a constant cement content, concrete produced from the optimized blended cements had equal or higher strength and higher durability than that produced from Type I cement alone. The key for the activation mechanism was the reaction between added SO4 2- and Ca2+ dissolved from cement hydration products.

  13. FDI Spill‑Overs, Absorptive Capacity and Domestic Firms’ Technical Efficiency in Vietnamese Wearing Apparel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Duong Vu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines relationship between FDI spill-overs and technical efficiency of domestic firms and role of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms. Data on Vietnamese Annual Enterprises Survey are exploited to build a firm-level panel data on the Vietnamese wearing apparel industry from 2009 to 2013. By applying stochastic production frontier model, this paper shows that there are positive vertical spill-over effects but no horizontal effects. Moreover, this study finds the negative impact of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms on benefits reaped from FDI externalities.

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  15. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Applications to Identify Iron Sand Reject and Losses in Cement Industry : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helia, V. N.; Wijaya, W. N.

    2017-06-01

    One of the main raw materials required in the manufacture of cement is iron sand. Data from the Procurement Department on XYZ Company shows that the number of defective iron sand (reject) fluctuates every month. Iron sand is an important raw material in the cement production process, so that the amount of iron sand reject and losses got financial and non-financial impact. This study aims to determine the most dominant activity as the cause of rejection and losses of iron sands and suggest improvements that can be made by using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). Data collection techniques in this study was using the method of observation, interviews, and focus group discussion (FGD) as well as the assessment of the experts to identify it. Results from this study is there are four points of the most dominant cause of the defect of iron sand (mining activities, acceptance, examination and delivery). Recommendation for overcoming these problem is presented (vendor improvement).

  16. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990; Residuos renovaveis e perigosos como combustiveis industriais. Estudo sobre a dificil sustentacao ambiental da fabricacao de cimento no Brasil, anos 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed.

  17. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  18. Technical and Economic Comparison of Conventional Wastewater Treatment Systems in the Sugar Industries in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s location in an arid and water scarce area characterized by qualititative and quantitative degradation in its water resources makes strict planning imperative for reduced water consumption and wastewater treatment and reuse, especially in the industry sector. The technical and economic evaluation of various industrial treatment processes is a key factor in the success of such schemes in the face of the effects of climate variety, high wastewater treatment costs, and environmental factors on selecting a most suitable alternative for industrial wastewater treatment. The situation is even more critical in the case of the sugar industry as the largest pollutant source and especially because more than 90% of its facilities are located on plains with a negative water balance. Reviewing wastewater problems associated with the Iranian sugar facilities, this paper will attempt to perform an economic assessment and a comparison of conventional anaerobic-aerobic processes under various conditions in order to identify the best aleternative and to determine the most important environmental and cost factors affecting the selection of a desirable alternative. For this purpose, six combined treatment systems are selected and their construction and operation costs and detailed uniform annual cost sensitivity analysis based on the most important parameters are presented. Finally, two different combined wastewater treatment systems of UASB + facultative lagoons and UASB + trickling filters will be introduced as the best treatment processes for Iranian conditions.

  19. Bonding with the Nuclear Industry: A Technical Communication Professor and His Students Partner With Y-12 National Security Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how a special kind of academe-industry collaboration--based on a joint appointment agreement between a university and an industry site--was set up, promoted, and experienced by a professor of technical communication and his student interns. To illustrate the nature and value of this kind of collaboration, the article…

  20. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-0087] Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer... discussions expected to help identify Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) challenges and technologies associated... structured venue for consultation among offshore deepwater oil and gas industry and regulatory experts in...

  1. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  2. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  3. The trilogy nuclear technology-quality-reliability in nuclear energy: the interface technical regulation/industrial norm in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jose Ribeiro da

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, it is tried to find out a compatibility among Regulations (mandatory) documents governing Quality Assurance Requirements for the Nuclear Industry (like IAEA/50-C-QA, IAEA/50-SG-QA1, IAEA/50-SG-QA7, and others), with similar documents prescribing same requirements for COnventional Industry (like ISO/900 Series), using the technical support of the prescriptions contained in the IAEA/TR-328 documents. Harmonization and compatibility of these documents is a great deal for Industries engaged -directly or indirectly - in the Nuclear Technology, taking into account that such compatibility can avoid troubles for already ISO/9000 Series Certified Industries in the fulfillment of its contract requirements in the nuclear field. Its also represents in that field a symbiosis between Technical Regulations (mandatory) and Voluntary Standards (Industrial, Consensual Standards). (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Physicochemical study of bagasse and bagasse ash from the sugar industries of NWFP, pakistan and its recycling in cement manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Amin, N.U.; Shah, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse and bagasse ash, obtained from the local sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, were analyzed for both physical and chemical parameters. Among the physical parameters, the moisture, ash contents, volatile matter, loss on ignition, and calorific value have been determined while the chemical constituents such as SiO/sub 2/, AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, K/sub 2/O, carbon and sulfur were also determined in both baggase and baggase ash. The physicochemical characterization of baggase ash suggests that it can be used as a part of the cement admixture, which could be cost effective and environmentally sustainable. (author)

  5. The cement recycling of the earthquake disaster debris by Hachinohe Cement Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous quantity of earthquake disaster debris and tsunami sediment was resulted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Hachinohe Cement Co., Ltd., a Sumitomo Osaka Cement subsidiary, was the first cement industry company to receive and process such waste materials outside of their usual prefecture area, while the company is performing their treatment and recycling services locally in Hachinohe City and Aomori Prefecture. This report provides an explanation about the recycling mechanism of waste materials and by-products in cement manufacturing process, and introduces an example of actual achievements for the disaster debris treatment by utilizing the cement recycling technologies at the Hachinohe Cement Plant. (author)

  6. Use of cement in concrete according to European standard EN 206-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Müller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of cements with several main constituents (blended cements is of particular importance with regard to reducing climatically relevant CO2 emissions in the cement industry. A wide variety of common cement products exists in the different EU Member States. They match local manufacturing conditions, throughout meeting particular climatic or other local conditions, including building practices. In general, all cements conforming to European Cement Standard EN 197-1 are suitable for the manufacture of concrete according to European Concrete Standard EN 206-1. Depending on the area of application, however, differences related to the cement type may possibly have to be taken into account to ensure the durability of the concretes manufactured with these cements. These regulations were laid down in National Application Documents (NADs to EN 206-1 dependent upon the exposure classes that a structural element is assigned to. This paper deals with the overall concept of EN 206-1 with regard to concrete durability. It gives an overview of the cement types used in Europe and the areas of application of cements conforming to EN 197-1 in concrete conforming to EN 206-1 and various national annexes. The option of combining several main constituents makes blended cements particularly well suited for combining the advantages of individual main constituents, and thus for developing these cements into even more robust systems. This process requires an integrated assessment of all requirements to be met by cements during manufacture and application. From a technical perspective these include the strength formation potential as well as good workability of the concrete and, in particular, the durability of the concrete made from these cements. The effects that the main constituents have with regard to properties relevant to durability can be utilized in particular in cements made from a combination of limestone/blastfurnace slag or limestone/fly ash as

  7. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington...

  8. Feasibility of using ceramic furnace wastes in cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Sanches, A.O.; Akasaki, J.L.; Malmonge, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the region of Epitacio-SP President is classified as Paulista West Center in the production of ceramic tiles and bricks. However, as these industries have also generated environmental impacts in the production process with the generation of waste, the construction industries presents as great potential to absorb a large portion of these materials, called Pozzolans. In this sense, the research aims to study the characterization of Ceramic Furnace Wastes (CFC) and the evaluation of their reactivity. Mortar specimens were molded with different waste percentages in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength and capillary water absorption test. The characterization results show that important properties can be obtained by the preparation conditions of ashes, besides obtaining resistant activity index higher than expected by technical standards when using the material in replacement of Portland cement. (author)

  9. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine

  10. Customer satisfaction as a mediator between causes (trust and communication and the outcome (customer loyalty in business-to-business relationship marketing in the South African cement manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phineas Mbango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty has become more relevant in the cement industry since the unbundling of the cartel system in 1994, the entrance of new competitors into the market and the effect of globalization. This study’s literature review reveals that there is limited published research in the Cement Industry, particularly in South Africa, which deals with customer loyalty management. The major objective of the study was to test satisfaction as a mediator between causes and outcome, the causes being trust and communication and the outcome being customer loyalty. The methodological approach followed was a survey and quantitative in nature. Data were collected from 362 major business-to-business cement customers throughout South Africa’s nine provinces using the face-to-face interview technique with self-administered questionnaires. The data collected in the empirical study were analysed using the structural equations modelling (SEM. The results show that in order to maintain customer loyalty, a cement supplier has to focus on strategies to build relationships on the basis of creating customer satisfaction and/or exceeding customer needs and wants. They also need to invest in enhancing customer trust and communication. Another important finding is that trust and communication have no direct effect on loyalty. Customer satisfaction is therefore the most important mediator as it leads to customer loyalty. Customer loyalty is crucial for business success in terms of repeat purchase, referrals (word-of-mouth marketing, retention and long-term profitability. There exists evidence from literature of an outcry for a need for future studies to examine causes and outcomes of satisfaction to specific industries. This study contributes to theory and practice by closing that gap, by providing a framework of causes and outcomes of satisfaction specifically aimed at the cement industry. Another contribution of this study is its examination of the sequential logic of

  11. Technical issues and solutions on ITER first wall beryllium application. Industrial viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadachi, T.; Uda, M.; Ito, M.; Miyakawa, M.; Ibuki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is selected as reference armor material of ITER primary first wall and is joined to the copper alloy heat sink such as CuCrZr or Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSCu) Various joining technologies have been successfully developed and the manufacturing possibilities of large size first wall panels with beryllium armor has been demonstrated. Based on such results, further technical improvement is needed to reduce manufacturing cost and ensure the reliability of joining in actual size first wall. The technical issues to optimize the fabrication process of beryllium attachment were shown in this paper from an industrial point of view. Determination of the optimum size and the surface qualities of beryllium tiles are important issues in term of the material specification to ensure joining reliability and to reduce cost. The consolidation method and the finish machining methods of beryllium tiles are also critical in terms of material cost. These items should be determined by paying concern to the accommodation of the joining methods. The selections of slitting methods for attached beryllium have a great influence on fabrication cost. In the actual fabrication of beryllium attachment, safety provisions for exposure to beryllium in working environment and the recycling of the waste from the fabrication processes will be concerned sufficiently. (author)

  12. Self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials state-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tittelboom, Kim; Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing materials are man-made materials which have the built-in capability to repair damage. Failure in materials is often caused by the occurrence of small microcracks throughout the material. In self-healing materials phenomena are triggered to counteract these microcracks. These processes are ideally triggered by the occurrence of damage itself. Thus far, the self-healing capacity of cement-based materials has been considered as something "extra". This could be called passive self-healing, since it was not a designed feature of the material, but an inherent property of it. Centuries-old buildings have been said to have survived these centuries because of the inherent self-healing capacity of the binders used for cementing building blocks together. In this State-of-the-Art Report a closer look is taken at self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials. It is shown what options are available to design for this effect rather than have it occur as a "coincidental extra".

  13. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  14. Effect of the activation of a clay-base paper industry by-product on cement matrix behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses variations in the calcination temperature (600-750 ºC and kiln time (two to five hours applied to activate coated paper waste and their effect on the rheological, physical and mechanical behaviour of cement matrices containing these active additions.The results obtained showed that the conditions under which kaolinite was activated had a direct effect on the subsequent behaviour of the calcined products. At activating temperatures of over 700 ºC, pozzolanic activity and mechanical strength were observed to be lower, setting time shorter and the mortar less workable.El presente trabajo de investigación aborda la influencia de las condiciones de activación (600-750 ºC y 2-5 horas de permanencia en el horno de los lodos de papel procedente de la fabricación de papel estucado en el comportamiento reológico, físico y mecánico de las matrices de cementos elaboradas con este tipo de adiciones activas.Los resultados obtenidos muestran una influencia directa entre las condiciones de activación de la caolinita y el comportamiento posterior de los productos calcinados. Así, en condiciones de activación superiores a 700 ºC se observa una menor actividad puzolánica, tiempo de fraguado más corto, disminución de la trabajabilidad de los morteros mezcla y resistencia mecánica más baja.

  15. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  16. The Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Textile Industry Clusters in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Indian textile industry is one the largest and oldest sectors in the country and among the most important in the economy in terms of output, investment and employment (E). The sector employs nearly 35 million people and after agriculture, is the second-highest employer in the country. Its importance is underlined by the fact that it accounts for around 4 % of Gross Domestic Product, 14 % of industrial production, 9 % of excise collections, 18 % of E in the industrial sector, and 16 % of the country's total exports (Ex) earnings. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the Textile Manufacturers has adopted the Cluster Development Approach. The objective is to study the physical and financial performance, correlation, regression and Data Envelopment Analysis by measuring technical efficiency (Ø), peer weights (λi), input slacks (S-), output slacks (S+) and return to scale of four textile clusters (TCs) namely IchalKaranji Textile Cluster, Maharashtra; Ludhiana Textile Cluster, Punjab; Tirupur Textile Cluster, Tamilnadu and Panipat Textile Cluster, Haryana in India. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper Model by taking number of units (U) and number of E as inputs and sales (S) and Ex in crores as an outputs. The non-zero λi's represents the weights for efficient clusters. The S > 0 obtained for one TC reveals the excess U (S-) and E (S-) and shortage in sales (S+) and Ex (S+). To conclude, for inclusive growth and sustainable development, the inefficient TC should increase their S/turnover and Ex, as decrease in number of enterprises and E is practically not possible. Moreover for sustainable development, the TC should strengthen infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships to decrease cost, increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  17. Integer programming of cement distribution by train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarsih

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry in Central Java distributes cement by train to meet daily demand in Yogyakarta and Central Java area. There are five destination stations. For each destination station, there is a warehouse to load cements. Decision maker of cement industry have a plan to redesign the infrastructure and transportation system. The aim is to determine how many locomotives, train wagons, and containers and how to arrange train schedules with subject to the delivery time. For this purposes, we consider an integer programming to minimize the total of operational cost. Further, we will discuss a case study and the solution the problem can be calculated by LINGO software.

  18. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Technical Note: An Assessment of Insurance Core Principles for the Reinsurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note discusses key findings of the assessment of Insurance Core Principles (ICP) for the reinsurance industry for Switzerland. It reveals that the Swiss reinsurance market is dominated by three large players with a strong international presence. The reinsurance industry comprises 20 professional reinsurers and 50 reinsurance captives with gross premiums written totaling SwF 37.4 billion for 2005. Swiss Re, European Re, and Converium have consistently maintained more than 75 per...

  19. Field and lab evaluation of the use of lime fly ash to replace soil cement as a base course : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and construct lime/fly ash stabilized base course test sections which would be economical compared to a soil cement stabilized base, utilize a recyclable material, and possibly reduce shrinkage cracking on ba...

  20. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Self Compacted Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with Industrial Wastes under Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Mansoor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC differs from the normal concrete as it has the basic capacity to consolidate under its own weight. The increased awareness regarding environmental disturbances and its hazardous effects caused by blasting and crushing procedures of stone, it becomes a delicate and obvious issue for construction industry to develop an alternative remedy as material which can reduce the environmental hazards and enable high-performance strength to the concrete, which would make it durable and efficient for work. A growing trend is being established all over the world to use industrial byproducts and domestic wastes as a useful raw material in construction, as it provides an eco-friendly edge to the construction process and especially for concrete. This study aims to enlighten the use and comparative analysis for the performance of concrete with added industrial byproducts such as Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS, Silica fumes (SF and Marble Powder (MP in the preparation of SCC. This paper deals with the prediction of mechanical properties (i.e., compressive, tensile and flexural Strength of self-compacting concrete by considering four major factors such as type of additive, percentage additive replaced, curing days and temperature using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs.

  1. Development of the Portland cement slurries with diatomaceous earth to the oil industry; Desenvolvimento de pastas de cimento Portland com adicao de diatomita para a industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Roseane A; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E.; Simao, Cristina A.; Paiva, Maria D.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Melo, Marcus A.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The class-G Portland cement has been used with success in oil well cementing. The material is usually shipped to the Northeast Brazil, because the only plant that manufactures class-G is located in Cantagalo/RJ. The present work investigates the influence of the partial substitution of Portland cement by diatomaceous earth, aiming at reducing the costs in oil well cementing, improving the slurry properties and using local raw material. The diatomaceous earth has pozzolanic properties and can be used as extenders of cement slurries. This properties added to the lower cost and availability of this material in Northeast Brazil, make the diatomaceous earth a candidate material to produce light cements, to well conditions in advanced phases of production. It were evaluated the rheological properties of the slurries (at 25 and 52 deg C), volume of free water, compressive strength after curing for 8, 24 and 48 h at 38 deg C, and consistometry tests. The results show that the diatomaceous earth maintain the viscosity values and gel force suitable for use in oil well cementing. No free water was observed in the formulations. It was also verified that the compressive strength of slurries hardened with diatomaceous earth is similar to those with only Portland cement and that the minimum compressive strength of 300 psi, after curing for 8 h was reached. The thickening time was longer than the average value and the application value. (author)

  2. Industrial & Engineering Systems Career Cluster ITAC for Career-Focused Education: Transportation Sub-Cluster. Integrated Technical & Academic Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Designed for Ohio educators responsible for planning programs to prepare high school students for careers in transportation, this document presents an overview of Ohio's Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITAC) system of career-focused education and specific information about the transportation subcluster of the industrial and…

  3. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S.

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal

  4. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was... Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants'' under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR...

  5. Cement replacement materials. Properties, durability, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the latest findings in the properties and application of Supplementary Cementing Materials and blended cements currently used in the world in concrete. Sustainability is an important issue all over the world. Carbon dioxide emission has been a serious problem in the world due to the greenhouse effect. Today many countries agreed to reduce the emission of CO2. Many phases of cement and concrete technology can affect sustainability. Cement and concrete industry is responsible for the production of 7% carbon dioxide of the total world CO2 emission. The use of supplementary cementing materials (SCM), design of concrete mixtures with optimum content of cement and enhancement of concrete durability are the main issues towards sustainability in concrete industry.

  6. Chemistry of cements for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, P.; Glasser, F.P.

    1992-01-01

    In recent times the nuclear industry has thrown up challenges which cannot be met by the application of conventional civil and materials engineering knowledge. The contributions in this volume investigate all aspects of cement performance. The scope of the papers demonstrates the current balance of activities which have as their objective the elucidation of kinetics and immobilization, determining material interactions and of assessing future performance. The papers reflect the varied goals of the sponsors who include national governments, the Commission of the European Communities and the nuclear industries. In six parts attention is paid to the durability of cement and concrete in repository environment; interactions between cement, waste components and ground water; properties and performance of cement materials; leach behavior and mechanisms, diffusional properties of cement and concrete, including porosity-permeability relationships; and thermodynamics of cementitious systems and modelling of cement performance

  7. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  8. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  9. Technical and Regulatory Considerations in Using Freight Containers as Industrial Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programmes. The EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up programme. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low level waste materials in a safe and cost effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation issued on 26 January 2004, included a new provision authorising the use of freight containers (e.g. 20 and 40 ft ISO containers) as industrial packages type 2 or 3. This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorised and large packages for the packaging and transportation of low level waste materials.

  10. Technical and economical feasibility of the hybrid adsorption compression heat pump concept for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Michel van der; Wemmers, Anton; Smeding, Simon; Boer, Robert de

    2013-01-01

    Heat pump technologies offer a significant potential for primary energy savings in industrial processes. Thermally driven heat pumps can use waste heat as driving energy source to provide either heating or cooling. A chemi-sorption heat transformer can upgrade a waste heat source to temperatures of 150–200 °C. The specific heat transformer process however requires waste heat temperatures in the range of 120 °C, whereas waste heat sources of lower temperatures are more abundant. Using this lower temperature waste heat, and still reach the desired higher output temperatures can be achieved by the integration of a chemisorption and mechanical compression step in a single hybrid heat pump concept. This concept can offer an increased flexibility in temperatures, both for the waste heat source as for the heat delivery. The technical and economical feasibility of the proposed hybrid heat pump concept is evaluated. The range of operating temperatures of different chemi-sorption working pairs for as heat driven and as hybrid systems are defined, as well as their energy efficiencies. Investment costs for the hybrid systems are derived and payback times are calculated. The range of payback times is from 2 to 9 years and are strongly influenced by the number of operating hours, the electrical COP of the compression stage, and the energy prices

  11. Compressive Strength and Physical Properties Behavior of Cement Mortars with addition of Cement Klin Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Auday A Mehatlaf

    2017-01-01

    Cement Klin Dust (CKD) was the waste of almost cement industry factories, so that in this paper utilization of CKD as filler in cement and/or concrete was the main objective. CKD from the Karbala cement factory had been used and analysis to know the chemical composition of the oxides was done. In this paper cement mortars with different weight percentages of CKD (0,5,10,20,30,40) had been prepared. Physical properties such as density and porosity were done in different age curing (3, 7, 28) d...

  12. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  13. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  14. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices; Inertizzazione di rifiuti tossici e nocivi (RTN). Parte seconda: Inertizzazione in matrici cementizie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, A; Arcuri, L; Dotti, M; Pace, A; Pietrelli, L; Ricci, G [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy); Basta, M; Cali, V; Pagliai, V [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia (Italy)

    1989-05-15

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  15. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  16. The Effects of the Asian Crisis To Turkish Manufacturing Industry : The Case of Textile, Food and Cement Industries = Asya Krizinin Türk İmalat Sanayisine Etkileri: Tekstil, Gıda ve Çimento Sanayileri Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdülmecit KARATAŞ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper hypothesizes that Asian crisis has severely affected the financial dimensions of the Turkish industries. The analysis of the financial data for 70 companies from textile, food and cement industries provides evidence to partially support this hypothesis. By principal components analysis we identified five statistical factors that is meaningful and economically significant to represent main financial dimensions contained in twenty-one financial variables of the sample firms. The discriminant analyses based on the identification of the discrimination between financial dimensions of the sample firms for pre- and post-crisis years identified that profitability margins of the export-oriented Turkish textile industry significantly decreased in post-crisis years. No statistically significant changes in financial dimensions are detected for food and cement industries in post-crisis years.

  17. Knowledge Boosting Curriculum for New Wind Industry Professionals Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Ruth H; Rogers, Anthony L

    2012-12-18

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV KEMA) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the curriculum for a series of short courses intended to address Topic Area 5 Workforce Development, one of the focus areas to achieve the goals outlined in 20% Wind by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to Electricity Supply. The aim of the curriculum development project was to provide material for instructors to use in a training program to help professionals transition into careers in wind energy. Under this grant DNV KEMA established a knowledge boosting program for the wind energy industry with the following objectives: 1. Develop technical training curricula and teaching materials for six key topic areas that can be implemented in a flexible format by a knowledgeable instructor. The topic areas form a foundation that can be leveraged for subsequent, more detailed learning modules (not developed in this program). 2. Develop an implementation guidance document to accompany the curricula outlining key learning objectives, implementation methods, and guidance for utilizing the curricula. This curriculum is intended to provide experienced trainers course material that can be used to provide course participants with a basic background in wind energy and wind project development. The curriculum addresses all aspects of developing a wind project, that when implemented can be put to use immediately, making the participant an asset to U.S. wind industry employers. The curriculum is comprised of six short modules, together equivalent in level of content to a one-semester college-level course. The student who completes all six modules should be able to understand on a basic level what is required to develop a wind project, speak with a reasonable level of confidence about such topics as wind resource assessment, energy assessment, turbine technology and project economics, and contribute to the analysis and review of project information. The content of

  18. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  19. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  20. Is it cement to be? Downhole cement that uses zeolite additive may offer lightweight alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2001-05-01

    C2C Zeolite Corporation produces zeolites from a large deposit near Cache Creek, British Columbia, and processes them for use as an additive in downhole cement well casings. Early research indicates that zeolites can significantly improve the way downhole cement is made in the oil industry. Zeolites are made up mostly of silicates of aluminum and calcium. They have a great ability to absorb water, resulting in a lighter and more fluid cement than is currently available. C2C claims that zeolites will reduce cement weight, column pressure and operator costs. The cost benefits of using lighter cement downhole includes easier moving, processing and handling of the mix. Initial research suggests that zeolites might prove to be viable alternatives to other cement lighteners such as silica fumes or flyash. Zeolite-based cement also performed reasonably well in freeze-thaw tests and showed good adhesion and no evidence of shrinkage in downhole tests. 3 figs.

  1. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  2. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  3. Traction batteries for industrial trucks. Technical aspects, selection criteria, operation. Antriebsbatterien fuer Flurfoerderzeuge. Technik, Auswahlkriterien und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, W

    1987-01-01

    This lavishly illustrated booklet presents an introduction to the technology of the lead battery, which is commonly used as traction battery for industrial trucks. Technical specifications and standards, selection criteria for batteries and the novel CSM battery technology are mentioned. Most of the book deals with the practical aspects of batteries, e.g. installation, starting, maintenance, servicing, battery change, battery charging, monitoring, measurement, etc.). Battery recycling is briefly gone into.

  4. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanum dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica y radiactiva de los sub-productos provenientes de la industria de dioxido de titanio para su valorizacion en la industria del cemento: implicaciones radiologicas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanum dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields sucha as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  5. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanium dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica y radiactiva de los sub-productos provenientes de la industria de dioxido de titanio para su valorizacion en la industria del cemento: implicaciones radiologicas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields such a as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  6. Rietveld analysis, powder diffraction and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Phase quantification of cement is essential in its industrial use, however many methods are inaccurate and/or time consuming. Powder diffraction is one of the more accurate techniques used for quantitative phase analysis of cement. There has been an increase in the use of Rietveld refinement and powder diffraction for the analysis and phase quantification of cement and its components in recent years. The complex nature of cement components, existence of solid solutions, polymorphic variation of phases and overlapping phase peaks in diffraction patterns makes phase quantification of cements by powder diffraction difficult. The main phase in cement is alite, a solid solution of tricalcium silicate. Tricalcium silicate has been found to exist in seven modifications in three crystal systems, including triclinic, monoclinic, and rhombohedral structures. Hence, phase quantification of cements using Rietveld methods usually involves the simultaneous modelling of several tricalcium silicate structures to fit the complex alite phase. An industry ordinary Portland cement, industry and standard clinker, and a synthetic tricalcium silicate were characterised using neutron, laboratory x-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction. Diffraction patterns were analysed using full-profile Rietveld refinement. This enabled comparison of x-ray, neutron and synchrotron data for phase quantification of the cement and examination of the tricalcium silicate. Excellent Rietveld fits were achieved, however the results showed that the quantitative phase analysis results differed for some phases in the same clinker sample between various data sources. This presentation will give a short introduction about cement components including polymorphism, followed by the presentation of some problems in phase quantification of cements and the role of Rietveld refinement in solving these problems. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  7. Tendencies in the energy consumption and in the carbon dioxide emissions in the Mexican cement industry; Tendencias del consumo de energia y emisiones de bioxido de carbono de la industria cementera mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa M, Leticia; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes occurred in the energy consumption and carbon dioxide in the Mexican cement industry. For this purpose, the energy consumption and the emissions are broken up into three types of changes that affect the energy demand of an industry: activity, structure and energy intensity. According to this analysis it is found that the Mexican cement industry has suffered an important reduction in the energy intensity as a result of the disappearance, almost complete, of the wet production process, of the increment in the production of pozzolanic cement and in the opening of new high technology industries. With respect to the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions it does not decrease at the same rate than the energy intensity due to the increased consumption of the fuel oil over the natural gas. At the end of this paper an international comparison is presented of the energy specific consumption and of its emissions. [Espanol] En este articulo se analizan los cambios ocurridos en el consumo de energia y emisiones de bioxido de carbono de la industria cementera mexicana. Para ello, se desagrega el consumo de energia y las emisiones en tres tipos de cambios que influyen en la demanda energetica de una industria: actividad, estructura, e intensidad energetica. De acuerdo con este analisis se encuentra que la industria cementera mexicana ha sufrido un importante decremento en la intensidad energetica producto de la desaparicion, casi por completo, del proceso de produccion por via humeda, del incremento en la produccion del cemento puzolanico y de la apertura de nuevas industrias con alta tecnologia. Por su parte, la intensidad en las emisiones de bioxido de carbono no disminuye a la misma tasa que la intensidad energetica debido al incremento en el uso del combustoleo sobre el gas natural. Al final del articulo se presenta una comparacion internacional del consumo especifico de energia y de las emisiones.

  8. Tendencies in the energy consumption and in the carbon dioxide emissions in the Mexican cement industry; Tendencias del consumo de energia y emisiones de bioxido de carbono de la industria cementera mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa M, Leticia; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes occurred in the energy consumption and carbon dioxide in the Mexican cement industry. For this purpose, the energy consumption and the emissions are broken up into three types of changes that affect the energy demand of an industry: activity, structure and energy intensity. According to this analysis it is found that the Mexican cement industry has suffered an important reduction in the energy intensity as a result of the disappearance, almost complete, of the wet production process, of the increment in the production of pozzolanic cement and in the opening of new high technology industries. With respect to the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions it does not decrease at the same rate than the energy intensity due to the increased consumption of the fuel oil over the natural gas. At the end of this paper an international comparison is presented of the energy specific consumption and of its emissions. [Espanol] En este articulo se analizan los cambios ocurridos en el consumo de energia y emisiones de bioxido de carbono de la industria cementera mexicana. Para ello, se desagrega el consumo de energia y las emisiones en tres tipos de cambios que influyen en la demanda energetica de una industria: actividad, estructura, e intensidad energetica. De acuerdo con este analisis se encuentra que la industria cementera mexicana ha sufrido un importante decremento en la intensidad energetica producto de la desaparicion, casi por completo, del proceso de produccion por via humeda, del incremento en la produccion del cemento puzolanico y de la apertura de nuevas industrias con alta tecnologia. Por su parte, la intensidad en las emisiones de bioxido de carbono no disminuye a la misma tasa que la intensidad energetica debido al incremento en el uso del combustoleo sobre el gas natural. Al final del articulo se presenta una comparacion internacional del consumo especifico de energia y de las emisiones.

  9. Cement analysis using d + D neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    In the cement industry, the primary concern is quality control. The earlier the cement industry can institute quality control upon their product, the more significant their savings in labor, energy and material. We are developing a prototype cement analyzer using pulsed neutrons from a d-D electronic neutron generator with the goal of ensuring quality control of cement in an on-line manner. By utilizing a low intensity d-D neutron source and a specially-designed moderator assembly, we are able to produce one of the safest neutron-based systems in the market. Also, this design includes some exciting new methods of data acquisition which may substantially reduce the final installation costs. In our proof-of-principle measurements, we were able to measure the primary components of cement (Al, Si, Ca and Fe) to limits required for the raw materials, the derived mixes and the clinkers utilizing this neutron generator

  10. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS...

  11. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  12. Strain Hardening Cement Composites Structural Design and Performance State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 208-HFC, SC3

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, Tetsushi

    2013-01-01

    Strain Hardening Cement Composites, SHCC hereafter, demonstrate excellent mechanical behavior showing tensile strain hardening and multiple fine cracks. This strain hardening behavior improves the durability of concrete structures employing SHCC and the multiple fine cracks enhance structural performance. Reliable tensile performance of SHCC enables us to design structures explicitly accounting for SHCC’s tensile properties. Reinforced SHCC elements (R/SHCC) indicate large energy absorbing performance under large seismic excitation. Against various types of loads, R/SHCC elements can be designed by superimposing re-bar performance and SHCC’s tensile performance.  This report focuses on flexural design, shear design, FE modeling and anti-seismic design of R/SHCC elements as well as application examples.  Establishing design methods for new materials usually leads to exploring application areas and this trend should be demonstrated by collecting actual application examples of SHCC in structures.

  13. Physical-Chemical and Mechanical characterization of some cement products in Madagascar by using Technical Analysis X-ray Fluorescence and tests receptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasolondraibe, I.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is completely realized at the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN - Madagascar)' and 'Laboratoire National des Travaux Publics et du Batiment (LNTPB)'. Its purpose is to carry out the physico - chemical and mechanical analysis of the cements products present in Madagascar in order to ensure their qualities in case of Building and Publics Works construction safety. The necessary chemical elements in cements are the loss in ignition (LOI), the insoluble residues (RI), the silica (SiO 2 ), the lime (CaO), the alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), the iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), the magnesia (MgO) and the sulfate (SO 3 ). In this work, analytical laboratory in X - Ray fluorescence department of INSTN - Madagascar using the direct excitation X - Ray fluorescence technique outline their research on lime and iron oxide while L.N.T.P.B materials laboratory can make all using test method by gravimetry and titrimetry according to EN 196 - 2. The results of INSTN - Madagascar show that the concentrations of calcium oxide and iron oxide are consistent with the concentration range provided by the laboratory materials L.N.T.P.B respectively equal to 50.00 % - 65.00 % and 1.00 % - 5.00 %. The results between the two laboratories have a - 4.76 % iron oxide maximum relative deviation and 4,77 % calcium oxide maximum relative deviation. Complementary physical and mechanical tests were performed at L.N.T.P.B materials laboratory respectively in accordance with EN 196 - 3 and EN 196 - 1. The used conventional X - ray fluorescence method fulfill the scope of application needed with good correlation less than ± 5 %. [fr

  14. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  15. Status quo of energy recovery from waste in special industrial facilities and evaluation of the environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns in Germany; Untersuchung der Umweltauswirkungen des Einsatzes von Abfaellen ausserhalb thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwast, H.; Marton, C.; Koepp, M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the study presented here the use of energy recovery from waste was analysed for several industrial facilities, focussing on cement plants, kilns in the lime and gypsum industry, steel works and plants for the production of non ferrous metals. 44 German cement plants dispose of an own clinker production. Presently 31 plants have a permit for recovering energy from waste. The total permitted capacity for energy recovery in German cement kilns amounts to nearly 2,6 Mio. t/a. Mainly waste oil, old tyres, fuel derived from processed production-specific and municipal waste, plastics, scrap wood and waste paper are co-incinerated. In 1998/99 a total amount of roughly 945.000 t refuse was processed in 30 units of the studied facilities. In five furnaces at three steel works waste can be used for energy or material recovery. The approved total capacity of high calorific waste for energy recovery comes to nearly 350,000 t/a. Especially industrial plastics and packaging waste from DSD, plastics processed in scrap mills and shreddered waste and granulated paint sludge are used. In 1998 the facilities processed only old plastic, representing a total amount of nearly 109.000 t. At present seven facilities in the non ferrous metal industry have a permit for energy recovery from waste. The maximum capacity amounts on national level to nearly 140.000 t/a. Especially waste oil, packaging waste, plastics and scrap wood can be processed. The analysis of respective applications of the 17th BImSchV shows an inconsistency within the amending permitting procedures. For the time to come a conformity between the respective regional permitting authorities would be recommendable. Moreover, the effects on air emission caused by using waste for energy recovery were analysed for cement kilns with own clinker production. Due to the amendment of the 17th BImSchV more stringent requirements regarding waste composition must be established. This is especially valid for the highly volatile

  16. New developments of high dust-SCR technology in the cement industry results of pilot tests in Solnhofen and development state of a full scale SCR unit; Nouveaux developpements de la technologie SCR ''High Dust'' dans l'industrie du ciment - resultats de tests pilotes a Solnhoffen et etat de developpement d'une unite pilote a l'echelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, G. [Lurgi Energie und Entsorgung GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany); Sauter, G. [Soinhofer Portland Zementwerke AG, Solnhofen (Germany); Haug, N. [Agence Federale de l' Environnement, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The production of clinker in the cement industry involve the formation of nitrous oxides, and the emission limits are becoming more stringent from year to year. The added up total NOx emissions from the European cement industry amounts at present approx. 450.000 Mg/year. As such it is high time for the decision to develop and implement a technology to reduce NOx-emissions. At present SCR technology which is implemented in the glass industry, waste incineration and power plants seems to be the best economical and ecological solution for cement industry. In the period time from 1997 to the end of 1999 pilot plant test work was carried out by the companies 'Solnhofer Portland Zementwerke AG' and 'mg Engineering Lurgi' in the cement plant in Solnhofen. The results of pilot plan test work show that NOx reduction rates above 90% with NH{sub 3} slip less then 5 vppm can be achieved. The results of the test work with different type of catalysts are discussed. Based on the results of the test work a suitable SCR-process for cement industry is developed. At present a High-Dust-SCR demonstration plant at 'Solnhofer Portland Zementwerke AG' with the help of German Federal Environmental Agency, UBA-Berlin, is under commissioning and going on stream. (authors)

  17. The Uses and Limits of Social Reinforcement and Industriousness for Learning to Read. Technical Report #60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Roland G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    This report describes a study of the use of social reinforcement to increase the industriousness, and subsequently the reading competence, of children in the kindergarten through third grade classes of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) demonstration school. Teacher behaviors, pupil industriousness, and pupil reading performance were…

  18. A Comparison of the Industriousness Levels of KEEP and Public School Students. Technical Report #55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, Ellen; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report compares the on-task behavior (industriousness) of K-3 students in the demonstration school of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) with that of children from classes in four public schools. Industriousness was measured by tallying the occurrence of such behaviors as working on an appropriate task, attending to the teacher, or…

  19. Technical Training Requirements of Middle Management in the Greek Textile and Clothing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotinopoulou, K.; Manolopoulos, N.

    A case study of 16 companies in the Greek textile and clothing industry elicited the training needs of the industry's middle managers. The study concentrated on large and medium-sized work units, using a lengthy questionnaire. The study found that middle managers increasingly need to solve problems and ensure the reliability of new equipment and…

  20. Technological and organizational diversity and technical advance in the early history of the American semiconductor industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, W.; Holbrook, D.; Klepper, S.

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the early years of the semiconductor industry and focuses on the roles played by different size firms in technologically innovative processes. A large and diverse pool of firms participated in the growth of the industry. Three related technological areas were chosen for in-depth analysis: integrated circuits, materials technology, and device packaging. Large business producing vacuum tubes dominated the early production of semiconductor devices. As the market for new devices grew during the 1950's, new firms were founded and existing firms from other industries, e.g. aircraft builders and instrument makers, began to pursue semiconductor electronics. Small firms began to cater to the emerging industry by supplying materials and equipment. These firms contributed to the development of certain aspects of one thousand firms that were playing some part in the semiconductor industry.

  1. The effects of carbon prices and anti-leakage policies on selected industrial sectors in Spain – Cement, steel and oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, Alberto; Linares, Pedro; Pintos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts on the cement, steel and oil refining sectors in Spain of the carbon prices derived from the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), and the potential effect on these sectors of the European Union anti-leakage policy measures. The assessment is carried out by means of three engineering models developed for this purpose. Our results show a high exposure to leakage of cement in coastal regions; a smaller risk in the steel sector, and non-negligible risk of leakage for the oil refining sector when carbon allowance prices reach high levels. We also find that the risk of leakage could be better handled with other anti-leakage policies than those currently in place in the EU. - Highlights: • We simulate the impact of carbon prices on the risk of leakage in the cement, steel and oil refining sectors. • We also assess the effectiveness of different anti-leakage policies in Europe. • Cement production in coastal areas is highly exposed. • The risk of leakage for steel and oil refining is smaller. • Anti-leakage policies should be modified to be efficient

  2. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Papers of 10. Scientific Technical Seminar on Materials Investigation for Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material and diagnostic problems occurring in the exploitation of power station as well as gas pipelines and underground gas storage technical condition survey. Education and training in welding and non-destructive testing according european rules are also presented as well as provisions of European standards concerning welding consumables. Technical supervision in the light of Poland accession to the european union and quality management system in face of the new standards requirements is described. (author)

  4. Compressive Strength and Physical Properties Behavior of Cement Mortars with addition of Cement Klin Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auday A Mehatlaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement Klin Dust (CKD was the waste of almost cement industry factories, so that in this paper utilization of CKD as filler in cement and/or concrete was the main objective. CKD from the Karbala cement factory had been used and analysis to know the chemical composition of the oxides was done. In this paper cement mortars with different weight percentages of CKD (0,5,10,20,30,40 had been prepared. Physical properties such as density and porosity were done in different age curing (3, 7, 28 day. In addition, mechanical properties included the coefficient of thermal conductivity and compressive strength had also observed with different age (3,7, and 28 for all prepared specimens. From the obtained the experimental results and their discussion, it was clear that the addition (20% of CKD had the good results in cement mortars.  

  5. Papers of Scientific Technical Seminar on Materials Investigation for Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report is an assembly of the papers concerning steel quality required during the exploitation of power station and gas pipelines. The new law of technical inspection and the changes in the prescription concerning accreditation process as results of PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025 are also discussed. (author)

  6. Examining the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency in the international textile and clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm suggests that intangible assets have a positive impact on firm performance. This study examined the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency of textile and clothing firms. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure

  7. Materials of 3. scientific-technical seminar: Materials Investigation for Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report is an assembly of the papers concerning material problems during the exploitation of power stations as well as during construction and exploitation of gas pipelines. The accreditation problems according to the European Standards and Office of Technical Inspection prescription are also discussed

  8. Technical report of comparison in design control on R and D and industrial quality requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to establish the requirements on nuclear R and D facilities. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in research reactor. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of nuclear project

  9. Industrial energy efficiency: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the thermodynamic, technical and economic constraints

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Overreliance on energy from fossil fuels is unsustainable because of their regional depletion and associated environmental impacts. The British industrial sector accounts for around one fifth of final energy demand and one third of carbon emissions nationally. This thesis attempts to quantify the potential for industrial energy efficiency from the current baseline, by adopting thermodynamic and economic perspectives. The methodology involves a top-down analysis of energy trends within the man...

  10. Technical potential for developing natural gas use in the Brazilian red ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca; Henriques, Mauricio Jr.; Szklo, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The red ceramic industry in Brazil, consisting of over 7000 companies, requires large amounts of thermal energy, currently being met mainly by native fuelwood, which causes serious deforestation and soil erosion problems. The use of firewood does not allow achieving good energy performance in industrial ceramic kilns, causing high energy losses, low productivity and low quality products (bricks and roof tiles). Thus, to implement higher added value products, besides mitigate environmental problems caused by deforestation, the use of natural gas by the sector seems to be a promising alternative. Brazil's natural gas market has grown at a fast pace in recent years. Its share in the country's primary energy consumption increased from 3.7% to 9.3% between 1998 and 2007, compared to almost 21% in the world. The development of the Brazilian natural gas industry was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with Bolivia from where natural gas is imported, together with fiscal incentives for promoting the demand. This paper estimates that the natural gas market that could be developed in the Brazilian red ceramic industry corresponds to less than 5% of the total industrial natural gas consumption, meaning that a major technological transformation of the country's red ceramic industry will not severely affect the natural gas market equilibrium, contributing to reduce the country's high rates of deforestation. (author)

  11. Low pH Cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven

    2007-05-01

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit ≤ 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio ≤ 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  12. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  13. Cement Types, Composition, Uses and Advantages of Nanocement, Environmental Impact on Cement Production, and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Dunuweera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We first discuss cement production and special nomenclature used by cement industrialists in expressing the composition of their cement products. We reveal different types of cement products, their compositions, properties, and typical uses. Wherever possible, we tend to give reasons as to why a particular cement type is more suitable for a given purpose than other types. Cement manufacturing processes are associated with emissions of large quantities of greenhouse gases and environmental pollutants. We give below quantitative and qualitative analyses of environmental impact of cement manufacturing. Controlling pollution is a mandatory legal and social requirement pertinent to any industry. As cement industry is one of the biggest CO2 emitters, it is appropriate to discuss different ways and means of CO2 capture, which will be done next. Finally, we give an account of production of nanocement and advantages associated with nanocement. Nanofillers such as nanotitania, nanosilica, and nanoalumina can be produced in large industrial scale via top-down approach of reducing size of naturally available bulk raw materials to those in the nanorange of 1 nm–100 nm. We mention the preparation of nanotitania and nanosilica from Sri Lankan mineral sands and quartz deposits, respectively, for the use as additives in cement products to improve performance and reduce the amount and cost of cement production and consequent environmental impacts. As of now, mineral sands and other treasures of minerals are exported without much value addition. Simple chemical modifications or physical treatments would add enormous value to these natural materials. Sri Lanka is gifted with highly pure quartz and graphite from which silica and graphite nanoparticles, respectively, can be prepared by simple size reduction processes. These can be used as additives in cements. Separation of constituents of mineral sands is already an ongoing process.

  14. Fitness for duty in the nuclear industry: Update of the technical issues 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.; Grant, T.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an update of information on the technical issues surrounding the creation, implementation, and maintenance of fitness-for-duty (FFD) policies and programs. It has been prepared as a resource for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and nuclear power plant personnel who deal with FFD programs. It contains a general overview and update on the technical issues that the NRC considered prior to the publication of its original FFD rule and the revisions to that rule (presented in earlier NUREG/CRs). It also includes chapters that address issues about which there is growing concern and/or about which there have been substantial changes since NUREG/CR-5784 was published. Although this report is intended to support the NRC's rule making on fitness for duty, the conclusions of the authors of this report are their own and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the NRC

  15. Fitness for duty in the nuclear industry: Update of the technical issues 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.; Grant, T. [eds.] [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an update of information on the technical issues surrounding the creation, implementation, and maintenance of fitness-for-duty (FFD) policies and programs. It has been prepared as a resource for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and nuclear power plant personnel who deal with FFD programs. It contains a general overview and update on the technical issues that the NRC considered prior to the publication of its original FFD rule and the revisions to that rule (presented in earlier NUREG/CRs). It also includes chapters that address issues about which there is growing concern and/or about which there have been substantial changes since NUREG/CR-5784 was published. Although this report is intended to support the NRC`s rule making on fitness for duty, the conclusions of the authors of this report are their own and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the NRC.

  16. Technical characteristics of rigid sprayed PUR and PIR foams used in construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravit, Marina; Kuleshin, Aleksey; Khametgalieva, Elina; Karakozova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the distinctive properties of rigid polyurethane foam and polyisocyanurate (PUR and PIR). A brief review of the research was carried out on their modification with an objective to improve the thermal insulation properties and reducing the combustibility. A comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of rigid PUR and PIR foams of various manufacturers is presented. The problems of the state of the market for the production of polyurethane foam and polyisocyanurate in Russia have been marked. It is established that the further development of the fabrication technology of heat-insulating sprayed rigid PUR and PIR foams requires uniformity of technical characteristics of original components and finished products. Moreover, it requires the creation of unified information base for raw materials and auxiliary materials used in the production of PUR and PIR foam.

  17. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  18. Design and application of environmentally effective concrete with usage of chrysotile-cement waste

    OpenAIRE

    Egorova Lada; Semenov Vyacheslav; Pligina Anna; Askhadullin Aizat

    2016-01-01

    Construction is resource-demanding industry, characterized by a large volume of waste. Particularly chrysotile cement waste obtained both in production and in dismantling over age chrysotile-cement products: corrugated asbestos boards and flat sheets, chrysotile-cement tubes. We propose to use dry chrysotile-cement waste as recycled aggregate for concrete. Based on developed compositions and identified properties of heavy concrete with chrysotile-cement waste introduce this technology to the ...

  19. Charges on emissions of nitrogen oxides from forest industry boilers. Technical and economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebscher, P.

    1998-09-01

    The charges on nitrogen oxide emission have been introduced in order to create an incentive for the industry to reduce emissions. A high cost in unproductive investment for monitoring systems, SNCR and gas recirculation systems was paid. However, the economic burden for the industry was less than initially feared, since the NO x emissions were moderate for most of the boilers, and since the potential for reducing NO x by rather simple means could be exploited. Also, the NO x charges have created an objective for industry to optimize their boilers in a way that raises efficiency and availability, which is of greater value to the environment than the reduction of the already low NO x emissions from these boilers

  20. NEW STUDY ABOUT STUDENTS PROFILE IN THE FIRST COURSE OF THE TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Valea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the results of a questionnaire answered by Industrial Engineering students specialized in Mechanics and Industrial Chemistry, who are taking their obligatory and first university course in Chemistry. The questionnaire has 30 multiple selection questions related to 4 significant areas (subject contents, methodology, faculty and student body. The study results were grouped in 12 significant blocks that report statistical results and/or results interpretation. The aim is to know, from the standpoint of the students, their habits and weakness as students.

  1. Economic and technical facts and developments in the field of energy in German industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolshoven, H.

    1979-07-01

    A review of the energy situation with regard to energy management and technological developments in Germany is presented. It is observed that the industrial consumption of energy is considerably lower than that of households and authorities of all kinds, leading to the conclusion that the greatest scope for saving on energy raw materials, particularly oil, lies in the area of households and small consumption areas. Some data and measures for conservation in the five most energy-intensive industries are briefly discussed. Examples of the national use of energy are given. (MCW)

  2. Contact dermatitis in cement workers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to recent industrialization and inadequately protected workers or in other words poor supervision on constructive workers habits in our large city of Isfahan cement contact dermatitis is relatively high especially among cement factory workers and constructive personnel. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence rate of cement contact dermatitis in cement factory workers in Isfahan. METHODS: A case-control clinical study was carried out by randomly selecing 150 factory workders and 150 official clerks in a cement factory in Isfahan in 2001. After a complete physical examination, data was recorded in observational checklists. FINDINGS: The percentages of contact dermatitis prevalences in the first and the second groups were 22% and 5.3% respectively. About 60% of cement workers with contact dermatitis were between 30-40 years of age. There was a direct relationship with age in both groups of the workers. In the high-exposure group, the hand eczema along was 70% but in the other group the percentage of involvement was the same in exposed and unexposed anatomical areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct relationship between occurrence and the severity of involvement and duration of contact in the first group. Cent percent of cement workers had contact dermatitis after 10 or less years, but the percentage among the other group was 35%. LIMITATION: Irritant contact dermatitis to cement has not been detected.

  3. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  4. Enhanced technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps operated in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    By operating heat pumps (HPs) in series, it is possible to obtain closer match between working fluid and sink- and source streams, resulting in higher coefficient of performance (COP). For industrial HPs, it was found that serial connection of either two or three units results in an increase in COP...

  5. Education and the Transformation of Markets and Technology in the Textile Industry. Technical Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas

    This report on the textile industry focuses on the training and education of production-level textile workers--from unskilled factory hands to first-level supervisors. It is part of a larger study of the educational implications of broad economic changes, particularly the spread of microelectronic technologies, growing national and international…

  6. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, V.; Fleming, I.; Grant, T.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas in nuclear power plants are fit for duty. The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in the report is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other sources of impairment on the job are discussed. The report examines the prevalence of fitness-for-duty problems and discusses the use and effects of illicit drugs, prescription drugs, over-the-counter preparations and alcohol. The ways in which fitness-for-duty concerns are being addressed in both public- and private-sector industries are reviewed, and a description is provided of fitness-for-duty practices in six organizations that, like the nuclear industry, are regulated and whose operations can affect public health and safety. Methods of ensuring fitness for duty in the nuclear industry are examined in detail. The report also addresses methods of evaluating the effectiveness of fitness-for-duty programs in the nuclear power industry

  7. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  8. On-The-Job Training and the Prlvate Industry Council: A Technical Assistance Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Claudia K.

    The 1978 reauthorization of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) introduced a new title, Title VII: the Private Sector Initiative Program (PSIP). This title instructs Prime Sponsors to form a new kind of intermediary organization, a Private Industry Council (PIC), which has the major objective of increasing the opportunities of…

  9. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  10. Values ​​education for strengthening the industriousness in Vocational Technical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gómez Pérez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational system treats ethics and value formation, develops the ideological and political work by reinforcing values as an entire and general culture of the students. The development of the value laboriosity in the Technical Professional Education at Los Palacios’ town is one of the most important objectives in the political and social aspects. The teacher ́s example is the main concern. It is developed through a system of teaching activities based on the contents of the subject Bases of the Agropecuarian Production II.

  11. The Education Industry: An Economic Baseline (Post Secondary Education and Vocational-Technical Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    industry. As Michael Porter points out in The Competitive Advantage of Nations: " Education and training constitute perhaps the single greatest long term...American education /training helping or hindering our competitiveness in an increasingly international marketplace? From the initial alarms of the 1983 "A...levels. Although not typically approaching the 22 percent student level of U.S. higher education , international private education does enjoy greater

  12. Economic and Technical Efficiency of the Biomass Industry in China: A Network Data Envelopment Analysis Model Involving Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the network data envelopment analysis (DEA model accounting for negative externalities and applies it for decomposition of profit inefficiency in the biomass-agriculture circular system (Bio-AG system. A circular structure of the Bio-AG system which is different from the previously applied network structures is assumed. Since the negative externalities (i.e., pollutant emissions from the biomass industry occur in the Bio-AG system, the property rights are taken into consideration to model the externalities-adjusted profits. Therefore, the changes in profits due to changes in the property rights (assuming no property rights, allocating property rights to agricultural sector, and allocating property rights to biomass power generation sector are quantified. Further, the decomposition shows that the biomass power generation sector is less affected by technical inefficiency if contrasted to allocative inefficiency in terms of the profit loss. The findings suggest that the biomass power generation technology influences the profits of the biomass industry. What is more, the inefficient allocation of resources is now the key factor undermining performance of the biomass industry. Therefore, the government should adopt measures to improve the allocation of resources and prevent excessive investments or development of less efficient technologies.

  13. The Training of Technical Staff in Libyan Industrial Companies: Issues in Traning Needs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shibani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available By implementing Training Needs Analysis (TNA, organisations can improve the training need identification process and minimise the influence of social factors on nominations for training; such as kinship and friendship, which makes the managers exercised mediation "wasta" and favouritism when they perform their tasks. Therefore, paper presents the results of an investigation into current TNA practice in Libyan industrial companies (LICs, including the barriers that prevent its successful implementation and how it might be improved. A qualitative approach was adopted in collecting data by means of semi-structured interviews with 17 senior managers in two selected companies. The findings show that training needs are mostly identified through an analysis at the individual level only and that no consideration is given to organisational or operational levels. The paper contributes to existing knowledge on the application and effectiveness of TNA in industrial sectors by specifically investigating the implementation of TNA in the Libyan industrial context; it offers ideas and insights to those responsible for training in LICs to improve their understanding of the role of TNA and how they can manage the TNA process to help develop their employees.

  14. Responding to non-technical challenges in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpyth, A.

    1997-01-01

    The modern uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan has been working with northerners, governments, and educational institutions for nearly 20 years to bring about one of the highest levels of northern and aboriginal participation in an industrial sector in Canada. It has accomplished this in the face of challenges - those arising from the demographics of the north, continuously rising expectations, and the at times difficult demands from evolving aboriginal political institutions. Every second apprenticeship vacancy at Key Lake is to be awarded to an employee of aboriginal ancestry. Saskatchewan dominates uranium mining because of the high grade of its deposits. Even though Key Lake, Rabbit Lake and Cluff Lake are coming near the end of their lives, they will be replaced by: McArthur River (with average grade 15% U 3 O 8 ), Cigar Lake (9%), McClean Lake (3.5), Midwest (4.5). Without doubt, the grade and size of these new deposits will contribute to the competitiveness of the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry; but so too will the workforce

  15. Technical and economic aspects of ancillary services markets in the electric power industry: an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, R.; Rios, S.; Schiele, D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis of technical and economic aspects of ancillary services on the markets of England and Wales, Nordic Countries, California, Argentina, Australia and Spain, comparing the services of voltage control, frequency regulation and system restoration. All the analyzed markets rely on the existence of an administrator of ancillary services, function that leads to the figure of the system operator. Among the services analyzed, the mandatory nature of voltage control and primary frequency regulation stands out, being both the ancillary services with the higher market price and the shortest period of time requirements. In general, the recognized costs of the services correspond to investments operation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. In the provision of these ancillary services, there are no clear preferences for a particular resource allocation mechanism, where mandatory provision, auctions, competitive offers and different time length bilateral contracts are combined

  16. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  17. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  18. Ultrafine portland cement performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By mixing several binder materials and additions with different degrees of fineness, the packing density of the final product may be improved. In this work, ultrafine cement and silica fume mixes were studied to optimize the properties of cement-based materials. This research was performed in mortars made of two types of cement (ultrafine Portland cement and common Portland cement and two types of silica fume with different particle-size distributions. Two Portland cement replacement ratios of 4% and 10% of silica fume were selected and added by means of a mechanical blending method. The results revealed that the effect of the finer silica fume mixed with the coarse cement enhances the mechanical properties and pore structure refinement at a later age. This improvement is somewhat lower in the case of ultrafine cement with silica fume.

  19. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe international best practices for pre-processing and coprocessing of MSW and sewage sludge in cement plants, for the benefit of countries that wish to develop co-processing capacity. The report is divided into three main sections. Section 2 describes the fundamentals of co-processing, Section 3 describes exemplary international regulatory and institutional frameworks for co-processing, and Section 4 describes international best practices related to the technological aspects of co-processing.

  20. The fundamentals of the radiation thermal technology for cement production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, I.G.; Kapralova, R.M.; Nikiforov, Yu.V.; Egorov, G.B.; Vaisman, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The fundamentals of principally new radiation thermal way of cement production are presented. The peculiarities of qualities and structure of clinker obtained by this way are given. The technical economic advantages of the new technology are shown

  1. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  2. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  3. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  4. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  5. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Alzheimer's disease management: Technical, industrial, and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming Ming; El-Salamouni, Noha S; El-Refaie, Wessam M; Hazzah, Heba A; Ali, Mai M; Tosi, Giovanni; Farid, Ragwa M; Blanco-Prieto, Maria J; Billa, Nashiru; Hanafy, Amira S

    2017-01-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high prevalence in the rapidly growing elderly population in the developing world. The currently FDA approved drugs for the management of symptomatology of AD are marketed mainly as conventional oral medications. Due to their gastrointestinal side effects and lack of brain targeting, these drugs and dosage regiments hinder patient compliance and lead to treatment discontinuation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (NTDDS) administered by different routes can be considered as promising tools to improve patient compliance and achieve better therapeutic outcomes. Despite extensive research, literature screening revealed that clinical activities involving NTDDS application in research for AD are lagging compared to NTDDS for other diseases such as cancers. The industrial perspectives, processability, and cost/benefit ratio of using NTDDS for AD treatment are usually overlooked. Moreover, active and passive immunization against AD are by far the mostly studied alternative AD therapies because conventional oral drug therapy is not yielding satisfactorily results. NTDDS of approved drugs appear promising to transform this research from 'paper to clinic' and raise hope for AD sufferers and their caretakers. This review summarizes the recent studies conducted on NTDDS for AD treatment, with a primary focus on the industrial perspectives and processability. Additionally, it highlights the ongoing clinical trials for AD management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical innovation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-15

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  7. Technical innovation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-01

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  8. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Callaghan Innovation, 69 Gracefield Road, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Gordon, L.E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ko, S.-C. [Holcim Technology Ltd, Hagenholzstrasse 85, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  9. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.; Gordon, L.E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste

  10. Integrated automatic non-destructive testing in industrial production and in the operation of technical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, P.

    1989-01-01

    The article deals with non-destructive testing (NDT) in automated manufacture and in the automated operation of industrial plant. In both areas of application, the tests are coupled to the process (real time operation) and the results are used for the control of manufacture or of the course of the process. The control process can be coupled to the process in open loop or closed loop. The subject is explained by the following examples: 1) Automated testing of sheets in a steelworks. 2) Automatic NDT on machine parts in tempering and machining by the 3MA system (3MA: micro-magnetic, multi-parameter, micro-structure and stress analysis). 3) Automated ultrasonic testing in manufacture and in the operation of plants with the ALOK data collection and processing system (ALOK: amplitude, running time, location curves). 4) Automated wheel running surface test on Intercity experimental train, and 5) automated level measurement on BWR pressure vessels. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Technical and economical aspects of mass spectrometry in food and agricultural industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, Ayme

    1975-01-01

    Mass spectrometry proved to be very useful for solving analytical problems in food and agricultural industries. Its essential properties are: high resolution mass spectrometry allows to find the molecular structure of an isolated compound, even with a very small sample; associated with on line gas chromatographic separation, it gives the possibility to identify a great number of components in a small complex extract; isotope determinations by mass spectrometry give an essential contribution to follow kinetic mechanisms of formation of natural molecules in plant-growing, photosynthesis, fertilization, ..., leading to identification of the origin of foods and beverages. The economical aspect of mass spectrometry is characterized by the cost of investment in instrumentation and the necessary high level of competence of the technicians [fr

  12. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  13. Environmental Assessment of Different Cement Manufacturing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its high environmental impact and energy intensive production, the cement industry needs to adopt more energy efficient technologies to reduce its demand for fossil fuels and impact on the environment. Bearing in mind that cement is the most widely used material for housing and modern infrastructure, the aim of this paper is to analyse the Emergy and Ecological Footprint of different cement manufacturing processes for a particular cement plant. There are several mitigation measures that can be incorporated in the cement manufacturing process to reduce the demand for fossil fuels and consequently reduce the CO2 emissions. The mitigation measures considered in this paper were the use of alternative fuels and a more energy efficient kiln process. In order to estimate the sustainability effect of the aforementioned measures, Emergy and Ecological Footprint were calculated for four different scenarios. The results show that Emergy, due to the high input mass of raw material needed for clinker production, stays at about the same level. However, for the Ecological Footprint, the results show that by combining the use of alternative fuels together with a more energy efficient kiln process, the environmental impact of the cement manufacturing process can be lowered. The research paper presents an analysis of the sustainability of cement production , a major contributor to carbon emissions, with respect to using alternative fuels and a more efficient kiln. It show

  14. Effects of Coal Gangue on Cement Grouting Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Y.; Chen, H. X.

    2018-05-01

    The coal gangue is one of the most abundant industrial solid wastes and pollute source of air and water. The use of coal gangue in the production of cement grouting material comforms to the basic state policy of environment protection and the circular using of natural resources. Through coal gangue processing experiment, coal gangue cement grouting materials making test, properties detection of properties and theoretical analysis, the paper studied the effects of coal gangue on the properties of cement grouting materials. It is found that at the range of 600 to 700 °C, the fluidity and the compressive and flexural strengths of the cement grouting materials increase with the rising up of the calcination temperatures of coal gangue. The optimum calcination temperature is around 700 °C. The part substitution of cement by the calcined coal gangue in the cement grouting material will improve the mechanical properties of the cement grouting material, even thought it will decrease its fluidity. The best substitution amount of cement by coal gangue is about 30%. The fluidity and the long term strength of the ordinary silicate cement grouting material is obviously higher than that of the sulphoaluminate cement one as well as that of the silicate-sulphoaluminate complex cement one.

  15. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs

  16. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter

  17. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job

  18. Technical analysis and economic effect of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorba, U.; Pauli, F.; Menna, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is assessed the potential economic impact of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic manufacturing sector, in terms of induced production and job creation, to be implemented in Morocco. This country exhibits indeed a high potential for photovoltaic installations as proved by the relevant number of national and international deployment programs currently underway. Solar electricity generation schemes look very promising for the relevant role they could play in the future, CO2-emission free, world energy scenarios making potentially more appealing the planning of longer-term public investments. In this study, it was described the manufacturing process providing the solar modules as final output and associate to each step of the process the corresponding costs. Then, using input-output method, it was evaluated the economic impact of the production of 5 MWp modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5MWp photovoltaic modules, which require an overall investment of Euro 16.3 millions increases gross domestic product of Euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and only of Euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of inputs in local economical context [it

  19. KEY TENDENCIES IN SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL (INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Dobrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article off ers the analysis of expenditures on technological innovation in Russia and abroad. The author outlines the main reasons of the low level of technological development of Russian industrial companies. A number of organizational and economic measures to create conditions for technological development of the Russian economy are considered. In recent years, there was an essential increase in output of innovative products, works and services that coincided with the increased ratio of volumes of technological innovations to their costs. However, the expected decrease of this ratio in the coming years may cause slower growth of volumes of innovative production that requires drastic measures, especially aimed at restricting key factors impeding innovative activities. These factors include lack of own funds, high cost of innovations, lack of fi nancial support from the state, high economic risk and low innovative potential of the organization.

  20. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  1. Cement and concrete options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of concrete are projected to increase from 10.5 million tonnes in 1990 to almost 14 million tonnes in 2010. Over half of this amount will be non-energy related emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from the conversion of limestone to lime. According to this report by industry experts, the industry has an excellent record of improving energy efficiency and there are few easy gains remaining. Nevertheless, improvements in energy efficiency and fuel use, increased use of concrete where it can be shown to result in net reduction of GHG emissions, and partial replacement of cement by supplementary cementitious materials that involve no additional generation of GHGs, could yield an approximate reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of nearly seven million tons in 2010. The industry proposes three measures to realise these benefits: (1) encouraging replacement of fossil fuels by otherwise waste material, (2) encouraging increased use of concrete in constructing houses and roads, and (3) encouraging increased use of supplementary cementing materials. The industry is opposed to carbon or energy taxes that increase the cost of doing business, on the grounds that such taxes would adversely affect the industry's competitive position internationally. tabs

  2. Carbonate Looping for De-Carbonization of Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Andersen, Maria Friberg; Lin, Weigang

    2011-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the largest emitter of CO2 other than power generation plants, which includes the emissions from combustion of fuel and also from calcination of limestone for clinker production. In order to reduce CO2 emissions from the cement industry an effective an economically...... feasible technology is to be developed. The carbonate looping process is a promising technology, which is particularly suitable for the cement industry as limestone could be used for capture and release of CO2. Integration of carbonate looping process into cement pyroprocess has two advantages: 1...... integrated into cement pyro-process. The energy required for regeneration in the calciner increases with increase in average conversion of calcined limestone and energy that can be extracted from carbonator decreases with increasing average conversion. Further the influence of type of limestone...

  3. Technology and automation of atomic power engineering and industry. TAAPEI-2009. Materials of branch scientific and technical conference covers the fiftieth anniversary of the Seversk State Engineering Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Materials of the branch scientific and technical conference Technology and automation of atomic power engineering and industry (18-22 May, 2009, Seversk) are performed. Scientific and practical results of investigations into chemical technological developments, creation of machinery and apparatuses, automation of technological processes, application of present-day information technologies in atomic industry as well as ecological and nuclear weapons proliferation problems are shown. Besides issues of professional education and social-economic problems of the atomic branch are considered [ru

  4. Cement dust exposure-related emphysema in a construction worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Karkhanis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker.

  5. Apparatus for manufacturing ceramics microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The micro spheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about Illbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  6. Nanoparticles usage tendencies in cementing systems for hydrocarbon wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balza, A.; Perera, Y.; Brito, J.; Hurtado, A.; Quercia Bianchi, G.; Corona, O.; Colina, A.; Blanco, A.; Palomo, A.; Zaragoza, A.; Lopez, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In oil and gas wells construction, one of the most critical processes is oil well cementing, whose function is to provide a zonal isolation between the pipe and sedimentary formation. For these reasons, one of the needs in the oil industry, specifically in cementing wells area, is the use of

  7. Study of technical and economical feasibility for implementation of a movable unit for treatment of industrial effluents with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina Sciamarelli

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of industrial effluents is a practice that is disseminating in accelerated rhythm, of contributing to reinforce the public image, through the combat of the pollution, it brings economical advantages allowing the companies the reuse of the treated water in their own processes. The liquid effluent treatment technique studied in the present work is the one that uses the chemical oxidation/reduction standing out the use of the electron beam (e.b.) radiation. This technique uses an advanced oxidation process, generating radicals highly reagents that provoke the oxidation, reduction, dissociation and degradation in composed organic and exercising lethal effect in general in the microorganisms and parasites. In this work a conceptual and basic project of a movable unit of effluents treatment using electron beam radiation process was developed, in order that the unit moves until the treatment point, where the effluent is produced, facilitating the logistics. A technical and economical feasibility study was also elaborated allowing data on the capacity and cost of effluents processing to consolidate the values of the necessary investments to be presented to foundations organs for the construction of a movable unit. The results of the studies demonstrated that it is technically viable attending the pertinent legislation of Brazil, in the aspects of Radiation Protection and transport limit capacity. The unitary cost of the e.b. radiation processing in the movable unit was shown more expensive than in the fixed unit, the reason is the decrease of the efficiency of the interaction of the incident electrons in the effluent, due to the reduction of electron energy operation time of the unit. (author)

  8. VUJE experience with cementation of liquid and wet radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravarik, Kamil; Holicka, Zuzana; Pekar, Anton; Zatkulak, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid and wet LLW generated during operation as well as decommissioning of NPPs is treated with different methods and fixed in a suitable fixation matrix so that a final product meets required criteria for its disposal in a final repository. Cementation is an important process used for fixation of liquid and wet radioactive waste such as concentrate, spent resins and sludge. Active cement grout is also used for fixation of low level solid radioactive waste loaded in final packing containers. VUJE Inc. has been engaged in research of cementation for long. The laboratory for analyzing radioactive waste properties, prescription of cementation formulation and estimation of final cement product properties has been established. Experimental, semi-production cementation plant has been built to optimize operation parameters of cementation. VUJE experience with cementation of liquid and wet LLW is described in the presented paper. VUJE has assisted in commissioning of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. Cement formulations for treatment of concentrate, spent resins and sludge have been developed. Research studies on the stability of a final concrete packaging container for disposal in repository have been performed. Gained experience has been further utilized for design and manufacture of several cementation plants for treatment of various liquid and wet LLW. Their main technological and technical parameters as well as characterization of treated waste are described in the paper. Applications include the Mochovce Final Treatment Centre, Movable Cementation Facility utilizing in-drum mixing for treatment of sludge, Cementation Facility for treatment of tritiated water in Latvia and Cementation Facility for fixation of liquid and solid institutional radioactive waste in Bulgaria, which utilizes lost stirrer mixer. (author)

  9. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  10. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 69: Writing for the Aerospace Industry. Chapter 3; The Practice of Technical and Scientific Communication: Writing in Professional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The large and complex aerospace industry, which employed approximately 850,000 people in 1994 (Aerospace Facts, 1994-95, p. 11), plays a vital role in the nation's economy. Although only a small percentage of those employed in aerospace are technical communicators, they perform a wide variety of communication duties in government and the private sector.

  12. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 21: US aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 2 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

  14. The polymer cement of sulfur as an alternative for the recycling of phosphogypsum. Corrosion testing of cements enriched with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Lopez, F. A.; Navarro, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sanz, B.; Ballesteros, O.; Higueras, E.; Roman, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of the use of cement for the recycling of materials is seen today as sustainable solution of the fertilizer industry for production of matches (NORM). In this paper presents some results of corrosion tests performed on these cements modified using buffer solutions of different pH. The analytical determinations in these matrices are new challenges. (Author)

  15. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... and 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... manufacturing plants. Federal government Not affected. State/local/tribal government.... Portland cement...

  16. LOW WATER DEMAND CEMENTS - WAY OF EFFICIENT USE OF CLINKER AND MINERAL FILLERS IN CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhryakov Oleg Viktorovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the provisions in the updated edition of the technical specifications for cements are analyzed. A trend to decrease the clinker volume in Portland cement due to the wider use of mineral additives, up to 95%, was observed. Research objectives: substantiation of the most complete and efficient use of Portland cement and mineral additives in the composition of low water demand cements. Materials and methods: portland cement, mineral additives and superplasticizer were used as raw materials for obtaining cements of low water demand. The experimental methods comply with the current standards. Results: comparative properties of low water demand cements and cements with mineral additives are presented. The properties of cement-water suspensions of these binders have been studied, and, on their basis, heavy concretes have been made. The results of the grindability of Portland cement and mineral components with a superplasticizer are given. Conclusions: it is shown that the cement of low water demand, in which the advantages of both Portland cement and mineral additives are more fully and efficiently presented, complies with the tendency to decrease the clinker volume to the greatest degree. It is established that the clinker volume index for heavy concrete prepared on low water demand cement is almost four times lower than that for heavy concrete based on common Portland cement.

  17. Reuse of a residue from petrochemical industry with portland cement Reutilización de un residuo de la industria petroquímica como adición al cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of using waste from the petrochemical industry,as partial replacement of Portland cement is studied, evaluating the presenceof contaminants in the waste and the encapsulation, once it is confined on the cement. This has been done, in order to find a use to this residue without cause damage to the environment. This residue, called spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC, is mainly formed by a type Y zeolite, which is dispersing in an inorganic oxides matrix. The toxicity characteristic leaching proceeding was applied, in mortars adding with 20% of FCC as Portland cement replacement. The results showed that the residue does not represent a problem from the point of view of the leaching of elements, such as As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and La, which were below to the permissible limits. Additionally, the pozzolanic activity of FCC was evaluated according to ASTM C311, where the efficiency of the residue as pozzolanic addition is demonstrated. With the results the importance of reusing a residue of the petrochemical industry is emphasized, that decreases the amount of cement to be used and improves the mechanical resistance of the materials containing it.En el presente artículo se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar un residuo de la industria petroquímica, como sustitución parcial del cemento Portland, evaluando la presencia de elementos contaminantes en el residuo y su encapsulación, una vez se haya confinado con el cemento. Lo anterior, con el fin de determinar si su uso como material de construcción, puede o no causar un efecto negativo al medio ambiente. El residuo, denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, es un material que está compuesto por una zeolita tipo Y, dispersa en una matriz de óxidos inorgánicos. Se aplicó la técnica de TCLP (del inglés Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, en morteros adicionados con un 20%, de FCC con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. Los resultados

  18. Production of brown coal fuel dust as a high value and effective energy carrier for substituting heating oil, natural gas and black coal in the cement and metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubasch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Poduction and industrial use of brown coal dust in the German Democratic Republic are reviewed. Dust production in 14 brown coal briquetting plants increased from 818.4 kt in 1980 to 2064 kt in 1984 and will exceed 4000 kt in 1990. Quality parameters of dusts according to the TGL 15380 industrial standard are listed. The railroad car loading and shipping technology is explained with the example of modern facilities of the Schwarze Pumpe briquetting plant: dust bunkers of 200 t storage capacity, pneumatic feeding and telescope discharge systems with nitrogen gas inertization, fire prevention, and railroad car cleaning equipment, rail track heating for improved winter loading conditions, etc. Since 1979 the Deuna, Karsdorf and Bernburg cement plants have been converted to brown coal dust combustion after installation of new fuel dust shipping, storage and combustion equipment. Substitution of heating oil and gas in metallurgical blast furnaces by brown coal dust is further described. Techogical advantages of the pneumatic KOSTE fuel feeding method are enumerated.

  19. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  20. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  1. European cement conference and exhibition. Proceedings volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, R. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    Topics covered various aspects of the European cement industry including trends, market, emissions trading, environment, state-of-the-art technology, kilns and dedusting solutions. Two papers have been abstracted separately. A CD-ROM of the conference papers, including additional papers not in the printed volume, is also available.

  2. On The Generation of Interferometric Colors in High Purity and Technical Grade Aluminum: An Alternative Green Process for Metal Finishing Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Ho, Daena; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Toward green processes in metal finishing industry by rationally designed electrochemical anodization. Biomimetic photonic films based on nanoporous anodic alumina produced in high purity and technical grade aluminum foils display vivid colors that can be precisely tuned across the visible spectrum. The presented method is a solid rationale aimed toward green processes for metal finishing industry. - Highlights: • Environmentally friendly approach to color aluminum through biomimetic photonic films. • Nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg Reflectors (NAA-DBRs). • Rationally designed galvanostatic pulse anodization approach. • Macroscopic and microscopic differences in high purity and technical grade aluminum. • Substitute method for conventional coloring processes in metal finishing industry. - Abstract: Metal finishing industry is one of the leading pollutants worldwide and green approaches are urgently needed in order to address health and environmental issues associated with this industrial activity. Herein, we present an environmentally friendly approach aimed to overcome some of these issues by coloring aluminum through biomimetic photonic films based on nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg Reflectors (NAA-DBRs). Our study aims to compare the macroscopic and microscopic differences between the resulting photonic films produced in high purity and technical grade aluminum in terms of color features, appearance, electrochemical behavior and internal nanoporous structure in order to establish a solid rationale toward optimal fabrication processes that can be readily incorporated into industrial methodologies. The obtained results reveal that our approach, based on a rational galvanostatic pulse anodization approach, makes it possible to precisely generate a complete palette of colors in both types of aluminum substrates. As a result of its versatility, this method could become a promising alternative to substitute

  3. Advanced cementation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this programme of work was to investigate whether improvements could be made to existing formulations for cement suitable for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste. Two additives were selected, microsilica and limestone flour. Improvements to the cement were only slight. (author)

  4. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  5. Low force cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P R

    1996-07-01

    The marginal adaptation of full coverage restorations is adversely affected by the introduction of luting agents of various minimum film thicknesses during the cementation process. The increase in the marginal opening may have long-term detrimental effects on the health of both pulpal and periodontal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of varying seating forces (2.5, 12.5, 25 N), venting, and cement types on post-cementation marginal elevation in cast crowns. A standardized cement space of 40 microns was provided between a machined gold crown and a stainless steel die. An occlusal vent was placed that could be opened or closed. The post-cementation crown elevation was measured, following the use of two commercially available capsulated dental cements (Phosphacap, and Ketac-cem Applicap). The results indicate that only the combination of Ketac-Cem Applicap and crown venting produced post-cementation crown elevation of less than 20 microns when 12.5 N seating force was used. Higher forces (25 N) and venting were required for comparable seating when using Phosphacap (19 microns). The amount of force required to allow maximum seating of cast crowns appears to be cement specific, and is reduced by effective venting procedures.

  6. Cementation process study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.H.; Han, K.W.; Ahn, S.J.; Choi, K.S.; Lee, M.W.; Ryu, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the cementation process study, in 1984, design of the waste treatment simulator was finished for the first step. We can experience not only the operation of solidification system but the design and construction of comming large scale plant through the design of cementation process. (Author)

  7. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  8. Hydration rate and strength development of low-heat type portland cement mortar mixed with pozzolanic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Jun

    1998-01-01

    Recently, low-heat type Portland cement was specified in Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). Its hydration proceeds slowly. The results of the research so far obtained indicate that slow hydration of cement and mixing of pozzolanic materials with cement make micro-structure of harded cement paste dense and durable. In this study, a blended cement using low-heat type Portland cement and some of pozzolanic materials has been newly developed and its strength property and hydration ratio were checked. The followings are conclusion. (1) Hydration rate of cement paste varies with the replacement ratio of pozzolanic materials. (2) A good liner relationship between strength and total hydration rate of cement paste was observed. (3) A proper replacement ratio of both base-cement and pozzolanic material for manufacturing a blended cement is 50%. (author)

  9. Cementation of the solid radioactive waste with polymer-cement solutions using the method of impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of solid radioactive waste (SRW), i.e. inclusion of solid radioactive waste into cement matrix without cavities - is one of the main technological processes used for conditioning low and intermediate level radioactive waste. At FSUE 'Radon' the industrialized method of impregnation has been developed and since 2003 has been using for cementation of solid radioactive waste. The technology is that the polymer-cement solution, having high penetrating properties, is supplied under pressure through a tube to the bottom of the container in which solid radioactive waste has preliminarily been placed. The polymer-cement solution is evenly moving upwards through the channels between the particles of solid radioactive waste, fills the voids in the bulk volume of the waste and hardens, forming a cement compound, the amount of which is equal to the original volume. The aim of the investigation was a selection of a cement solution suitable for SRW impregnation (including fine particles) without solution depletion and bottom layers stuffing. It has been chosen a polymer: PHMG (polyhexamethylene-guanidine), which is a stabilizing and water-retaining component of the cement solution. The experiments confirm that the polymer increases the permeability of the cement solution by a 2-2.5 factor, the viscosity by a 1.2 factor, the stability of the consistency by a 1.5-1.7 factor, and extends the operating range of the W/C ratio to 0.5-1.1. So it is possible to penetrate a volume of SRW bigger by a 1.5-2.0 factor. It has been proved, that PHMG polymer increases strength and frost-resistance of the final compounds by a 1.8-2.7 factor, and contributes to fast strength development at the beginning of hardening and it decreases Cs-137 leashing rate by a 1.5-2 factor

  10. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  12. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... in cooperation and development of ICTs seems to pass unnoticed. However, since they are aligned into ICTs, technicities impact innovation....

  13. Use of residual wood in the cement manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, R.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of wood residuals in the cement manufacturing process. An outline of the cement manufacturing process was presented. Raw materials are combined in exact proportions to create a chemically correct mix, which is then pulverized in a mill. The mix is then burned in a kiln. The end product is cooled to form the pellet sized material known as clinker, which is then milled to form cement. The combustion and destruction characteristics of a cement kiln were presented. Modern cement kilns require approximately 3.2 Gj of energy to produce one tonne of cement. It was noted that wood residuals do not contain halogens, sulfur or other materials detrimental to the cement manufacturing process. Possible injection points for kilns were presented. Various studies have shown that wood residuals can be safely used as a fuel in the manufacture of cement. Environmental benefits derived from using wood included the complete destruction of organic portions, and the fact that residual ash becomes an indistinguishable part of the final product. It was concluded that wood residual materials are a satisfactory alternative fuel for the cement industry. tabs., figs

  14. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  15. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement

  16. Retention of metal-ceramic crowns with contemporary dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Zhang, Hai; Wataha, John C

    2009-09-01

    New types of crown and bridge cement are in use by practitioners, and independent studies are needed to assess their effectiveness. The authors conducted a study in three parts (study A, study B, and study C) and to determine how well these new cements retain metal-ceramic crowns. The authors prepared teeth with a 20-degree taper and a 4-millimeter length. They cast high-noble metal-ceramic copings, then fitted and cemented them with a force of 196 newtons. The types of cements they used were zinc phosphate, resin-modified glass ionomer, conventional resin and self-adhesive modified resin. They thermally cycled the cemented copings, then removed them. They recorded the removal force and calculated the stress of dislodgment by using the surface area of each preparation. They used a single-factor analysis of variance to analyze the data (alpha = .05). The mean stresses necessary to remove crowns, in megapascals, were 8.0 for RelyX Luting (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), 7.3 for RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), 5.7 for Panavia F (Kuraray America, New York) and 4.0 for Fuji Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill.) in study A; 8.1 for RelyX Luting, 2.6 for RelyX Luting Plus (3M ESPE) and 2.8 for Fuji CEM (GC America) in study B; and 4.9 for Maxcem (Kerr, Orange, Calif.), 4.0 for BisCem (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.), 3.7 for RelyX Unicem Clicker (3M ESPE), 2.9 for iCEM (Heraeus Kulzer, Armonk, N.Y.) and 2.3 for Fleck's Zinc Cement (Keystone Industries, Cherry Hill, N.J.) in study C. Powder-liquid versions of new cements were significantly more retentive than were paste-paste versions of the same cements. The mean value of crown removal stress for the new self-adhesive modified-resin cements varied appreciably among the four cements tested. All cements retained castings as well as or better than did zinc phosphate cement. Powder-liquid versions of cements, although less convenient to mix, may be a better clinical choice when crown retention is an issue. All cements tested will retain castings

  17. Optimizing the hydraulic program of cementing casing strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, M

    1984-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the optimal parameters of the flow of plugging mud which takes into consideration the geometry of the annular space and the rheological characteristics of the muds. The optimization algorithm was illustrated by a block diagram. Examples are given for practical application of the optimization programs in production conditions. It is stressed that optimizing the hydraulic cementing program is effective if other technical-technological problems in cementing casing strings have been resolved.

  18. In-situ Mechanical Manipulation of Wellbore Cements as a Solution to Leaky Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupresan, D.; Radonjic, M.; Heathman, J.

    2013-12-01

    mechanical manipulation (shear stress). The main advantage of this methodology is that mechanical manipulation of cement can induce healing of existing fractures, channels and microannulus seal in a wellbore without introducing new materials (e.g. cement squeeze jobs). Furthermore, this methodology is less sensitive to the influence of downhole conditions such as pressure, temperature and formation fluids, since it uses cement pore water as a medium to alter cement sheath. Based on lab experiments observation, it is possible to perceive that once tested at the industrial scale and if successful, the implementation of this method in the field can potentially mitigate leaky wells in CO2 sequestration projects, wellbores completed for hydraulic-fracturing and other conventional oil and gas producing wells. Key words: Wellbore cement integrity; Leaky wells; Cement microstructures; Casing expansion effect on cement mineralogy alterations.

  19. Prize of the German gas-supply industry: Technical solutions poor cousin of the prize distribution. Preis der deutschen Gaswirtschaft: Handwerkliche Loesungen Stiefkinder der Preisvergabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, H.

    1991-03-01

    The German gas-supply industry annually awards particularly energy-saving and environment friendly installations. Unfortunately only little attention is paid to small technical solutions. The article presents as particularly worth mentioning the work of a hvac-company which uses a condensing boiler for water heating. With layer-storage and integration of solar energy the energy savings are as high as possible. (BWI).

  20. Development of low radio-activated cement. Characteristics of cement and clinker that decreased liquid phase content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichitsubo, Koki

    2008-01-01

    Low radio-activated cement was developed by decreasing the parent elements of radionuclides in the materials. The characteristics of products, decreasing method of Na, Eu and Co in cement, design, tests, evaluation, and analysis of low radio-activated cement clinker are reported. In order to decrease the content of Na, Eu and Co, the raw materials have to include natural materials such as limestone and silica stone. The production method is the same as white cement. The low radio-activated cement produced by rotary kiln showed 4.9% C 3 A, 1.1% C 4 AF, 26.9% C 3 S and 61.0% C 2 S, which values were standardized by the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) of low temperature Portland cement. Another product that decreased a little more liquid phase content showed 4.0% C 3 A, 1.0% C 4 AF, 32.3% C 3 S and 56.5% C 2 S, which was standardized by JIS of sulfate resisting Portland cement. In the case of decommissioning reactor constructed by the low radio-activated cement, the whole amount of waste cement will be no more than the clearance level. (S.Y.)

  1. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengtao, Feng; Li, Gong; Li, Cheng; Benli, Wang; Lihong, Wang [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 {+-} 5 wt% cement, 29 {+-} 2 wt% water, and 36 {+-} 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH{sub 4A} flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH{sub 4A} flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH{sub 4A} and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and {<=} 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs.

  2. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shengtao; Gong Li; Cheng Li; Wang Benli; Wang Lihong

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 ± 5 wt% cement, 29 ± 2 wt% water, and 36 ± 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH 4A flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH 4A flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH 4A and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and ≤ 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  3. The Methodological Foundations of the Economic Evaluation of the Level of Intensification of the Innovative Processes at Industrial Enterprise in the Part of Technical-Technological Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plakhotnik Olena О.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of technocratic changes define the change of technological methods of production and technological modes at the level of the stages of development of a production enterprise. An important role occupies the commercialization of technical-technological innovation. The article allocates the directions of impact on commodity markets and the production enterprises, which are operating there. It is using the exclusive rights tool will meet the challenges of changes in the structure of the national economy so as to increase the level of its competitiveness on the world market. The article proposes the improved methodological approach to forming a system of analytical indicators for evaluating the economic efficiency of the level of intensification of the technical-technological innovation processes at industrial enterprise, based on reasonable conditions and factors of innovation development of industrial enterprise, models of quantitative measuring the efficiency of innovative projects. Applying this approach would improve the efficiency of use of the technical-technological innovations of the industrial enterprises, having increased the profitability of intellectual activity.

  4. Modified pavement cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsman, L. N.; Ageeva, M. S.; Botsman, A. N.; Shapovalov, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests design principles of pavement cement concrete, which covers optimization of compositions and structures at the stage of mixture components selection due to the use of plasticizing agents and air-retaining substances that increase the viability of a concrete mixture. It also demonstrates advisability of using plasticizing agents together with air-retaining substances when developing pavement concrete compositions, which provides for the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of concrete and the reduction of cement binding agent consumption thus preserving strength indicators. The paper shows dependences of the main physical-mechanical parameters of concrete on cement consumption, a type and amount of additives.

  5. Radioactive waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano B, A.

    1996-01-01

    This research was carried out to develop the most adequate technique to immobilize low and medium-activity radioactive waste. different brands of national cement were used, portland and pozzolanic cement. Prismatic and cylindrical test tubes were prepared with different water/cement (W/C) relationship. Additives such a as clay and bentonite were added in some other cases. Later, the properties of these test tubes were evaluated. Properties such as: mechanical resistance, immersion resistance, lixiviation and porosity resistance. Cement with the highest mechanical resistance values, 62,29 MPa was pozzolanic cement for a W/C relationship of 0,35. It must be mentioned that the other types of cements reached a mechanical resistance over 10 MPa, a value indicated by the international standards for transportation and storage of low and medium-activity radioactive waste at a superficial level. However, in the case of immersion resistance, Sol cement (portland type I) with a W/C relationship of 0,35 reached a compression resistance over 61,92 MPa; as in the previous cases, the other cements reached a mechanical resistance > 10 MPa. Regarding porosity, working with W/C relationships = 0,35 0,40 and 0,45, without additives and with additives, the percentage of porosity found for all cements is lower than 40% percentage indicated by international standards. With regard to the lixiviation test, pozzolanic cement best retained Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60, and increased its advantages when bentonite was added, obtaining a lixiviation rate of 2,02 x E-6 cm/day. Sol cement also improved its properties when bentonite was added and obtained a lixiviation rate of 2,84 x E-6 cm/day for Cesium-137. However, Cobalt-60 is almost completely retained with the 3 types of cement with or without additives, reaching the limits indicated by the international standards for the lixiviation rate of beta-gamma emitter < 5,00E-4 cm/day. Characterizing the final product involves the knowledge of its

  6. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    with isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those...... of > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy...

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

  8. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…

  9. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Shushen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  10. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  11. Improvement of geotechnical properties of sabkha soil utilizing cement kiln dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Al-Homidy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of properties of weak soils in terms of strength, durability and cost is the key from engineering point of view. The weak soils could be stabilized using mechanical and/or chemical methods. Agents added during chemical stabilization could improve the engineering properties of treated soils. Stabilizers utilized have to satisfy noticeable performance, durability, low price, and can be easily implemented. Since cement kiln dust (CKD is industrial by-product, it would be a noble task if this waste material could be utilized for stabilization of sabkha soil. This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing CKD for improving the properties of sabkha soil. Soil samples are prepared with 2% cement and 10%, 20% or 30% CKD and are tested to determine their unconfined compressive strength (UCS, soaked California bearing ratio (CBR and durability. Mechanism of stabilization is studied utilizing advanced techniques, such as the scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, backscattered electron image (BEI and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. It is noted that the sabkha soil mixed with 2% cement and 30% CKD could be used as a sub-base material in rigid pavements. The incorporation of CKD leads to technical and economic benefits.

  12. Factors affecting bond cement across casing leak zones in oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Mohamed; Edbeib, Said [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Casing leaks have been a major concern to the oil industry because of their effect on lowering the production rate in many oil and gas wells. The leaks are the result of deterioration of the casing in the well, which is caused by severe corrosion due to the contact of the casing with high salinity foreign fluid. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing the mechanical properties of the hardened cement opposite the casing leak zones. This study is conducted by laboratory measurements of the compressive strength of the hardened cement when the cement slurry was mixed with different percentages of formation water and different concentrations of different cement additives. The results of this study indicate that the compressive strength readings obtained from the cement bond log and the cement evaluation tool against the casing leak zones are lower than those readings recorded in adjacent formations. The low cement compressive strength values observed across casing leak zones are due to the contamination of the cement with saline water present in these formations which, in turn, effects the hardening properties of the cement. The experimental results indicated that the salinity of the formation water when mixed with the cement slurry in the presence of cement additives, decreased the compressive strength of the bond cement and also decreased the thickening time of the cement slurry. It is concluded that casing leaks found in many wells observed in oil fields in Libya were due to the mixing of the cement with high salinity formation water present in the lost circulation zones. The high water salinity in these zones effects the setting time of the cement slurry which, therefore, decreased the hardening properties of the bond cement and caused cracks and channels in the hardened cement across lost circulation zones. (author)

  13. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  16. Corrosion resistance of cement brick on an organo-mineral base in a hydrogen sulfide medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, A G; Belousov, G A; Pustovalov, V I; Skorikov, B M

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of strength tests of cement brick made of different types of cement as a function of the composition of the mixing liquid and storage conditions. It is established that cement brick made of cement on a cinder base mixed in hydrogen sulfide water possesses the highest corrosive resistance to hydrogen sulfide attack. A marked increase in corrosion resistance is observed in cement brick on an organo-mineral base. Results of industrial tests of organo-mineral grouting mortar in a hydrogen sulfide medium are demonstrated.

  17. How Career and Technical Education Can Jump-Start a New Industry: Chinese Government Turns to Career-Focused Schools in Maryland for Video Game Industry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lawrence M.; Nikirk, F. Martin

    2009-01-01

    While career and technical education (CTE) has been an important part of the U.S. education system for decades, other countries have been slower to adopt and develop similar types of training. Realizing that CTE is crucial to developing homegrown talent capable of competing in a 21st century economy, countries like China are reaching out to…

  18. Self-healing polymer cement composites for geothermal wellbore applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Fernandez, C.; Childers, I.; Koech, P.; Um, W.; Roosendaal, T.; Nguyen, M.; Huerta, N. J.; Chun, J.; Glezakou, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cement is vital for controlling leaks from wellbores employed in oil, gas, and geothermal operations by sealing the annulus between the wellbore casing and geologic formation. Wellbore cement failure due to physical and chemical stresses is common and can result in significant environmental consequences and ultimately significant financial costs due to remediation efforts. To date numerous alternative cement blends have been proposed for the oil and gas industry. Most of these possess poor mechanical properties, or are not designed to work in high temperature environments. This research investigates novel polymer-cement composites which could function at most geothermal temperatures. Thermal stability and mechanical strength of the polymer is attributed to the formation of a number of chemical interactions between the polymer and cement matrix including covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. It has been demonstrated that the bonding between cement and casing is more predictable when polymer is added to cement and can even improve healing of adhesion break when subjected to stresses such as thermal shock. Fractures have also been healed, effectively reducing permeability with fractures up to 0.3-0.5mm apertures, which is two orders of magnitude larger than typical wellbore fractures. Additionally, tomography analysis was used to determine internal structure of the cement polymer composite and imaging reveals that polymers fill fractures in the cement and between the cement and casing. By plugging fractures that occur in wellbore cement, reducing permeability of fractures, both environmental safety and economics of subsurface operations will be improved for geothermal energy and oil and gas production.

  19. Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Elizondo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible [es

  20. Industrial coal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-25

    UK industrial coal sales were down 400,000t to 7.1mt in 1991. This was largely due to fall in cement purchases as the construction industry was badly hit in the recession. Increased competition from petroleum coke also had an effect. A brief roundup is presented of sales to the UK's major coal buyers: Alcan, ICI, Blue Circle, Castle Cement, Rugby Cement, British Steel, UK Paper, Courtaulds, Unilever, AHS Emstar, Tate Lyle, and British Sugar. 1 tab.

  1. Analysis of cement superplasticizers and grinding aids a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervanne, H.; Hakanen, M.

    2007-04-01

    This literature survey reviews the methods for analysis of cement plasticizers and organic grounding aids in cement solutions in preparation of grouts/concrete and methods for determination of plasticizers and grinding aids in groundwater conditions. The survey focuses on three different types of superplasticizers: sulphonated naphthalene condensates, sulphonated melamine condensates and polycarboxylates. There are various organic grinding aids, such as alkanolamines, glycols or phenolic compounds, used in the cement industry. This review is concerned with the following compounds: triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, triisopropanolamine, ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, aminoethylethanolamine, hydroxyethyl diethylenetriamine and phenol. (orig.)

  2. Energy optimization and reduction of carbon footprint in cement manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallestey, Eduardo; Crosley, Gabriela; Wilson, Andrew; Maier, Urs; Hoppler, Rolf; Boerrnert, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Cement producers are large consumers of thermal and electrical energy, which are only available at steadily increasing costs. Efforts to reduce demands by using higher efficiency equipment and substituting -fuels and raw materials to lower production costs have been addressed in recent years. Under the Kyoto Protocol industrialised countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions. Cement producers as some of the largest emitters of CO2 have been especially challenged to find new and innovative ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarise some ABB technologies developed to assist the cement industry to meet these goals.

  3. The effect of fly ash and coconut fibre ash as cement replacement materials on cement paste strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, R.; Kurniawan, R. W.; Yasin, A. K.; Fatoni, H. AT; Lutfi, F. M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Concrete is the backbone material in the construction field. The main concept of the concrete material is composed of a binder and filler. Cement, concrete main binder highlighted by environmentalists as one of the industry are not environmentally friendly because of the burning of cement raw materials in the kiln requires energy up to a temperature of 1450° C and the output air waste CO2. On the other hand, the compound content of cement that can be utilized in innovation is Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH), this compound will react with pozzolan material and produces additional strength and durability of concrete, Calcium Silicate Hydrates (CSH). The objective of this research is to explore coconut fibers ash and fly ash. This material was used as cement replacement materials on cement paste. Experimental method was used in this study. SNI-03-1974-1990 is standard used to clarify the compressive strength of cement paste at the age of 7 days. The result of this study that the optimum composition of coconut fiber ash and fly ash to substitute 30% of cement with 25% and 5% for coconut fibers ash and fly ash with similar strength if to be compared normal cement paste.

  4. Impact of Technology on Work : Technical Functionalities that Give Rise to New Job Designs in Industry 4.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waschull, S.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Lödding, Hermann; Riedel, Ralph; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Von Cieminski, Gregor; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    With rapid advancements in the application of Industry 4.0 technologies throughout industries, a collection of different views on its potential implications for workers are emerging. Various authors agree that these technologies and their application in manufacturing systems is structurally

  5. Compressive strength of different brands of cement (OPC) in province of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, G.B.; Kumar, A.; Sheikh, A.

    2009-01-01

    OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) is the most common type of cement used in construction industry. Three major brands of OPC are normal OPC, SRC (Sulphate Resisting Cement) and SC (Slag Cement). It is seen that the variation in constituents of cement may cause serious effects on the quality of cement. Thus the motivation of this research is to study the basic properties (consistency, setting time, and fineness), compressive strength (cement mortar and concrete cubes) and modulus of elasticity of all the OPC brands (OPC, SRC and SC) manufactured in Sindh. In total 10 cement factories, altogether 21 different brands of cement, were studied in the light of BS and ASTM Code specifications. In total 126 mortar cubes (1:3), 252 concrete cubes (126 for 3000 psi mix design and remaining for 5000 psi) and 126 concrete cylinders (6 for the each brand of cement pertaining to 3000 psi and 5000 psi mix design) were manufactured and tested. Experimental results demonstrated that all the cement brands fulfilled the BS and ASTM Code requirements for (i) basic properties (ii) compressive strength of mortar cubes at 3 and 28 days curing age (iii) compressive strength of concrete cubes at 28 days curing age, and (iv) modulus of elasticity. Some of the cements did not fulfill the BS and ASTM Code requirements for compressive strength of concrete cubes at 7 days curing age. (author)

  6. Investigations of the technical possibilities for the use of fly ash: the concrete industry as a market. Marktbeschrijving betonwarenindustrie ten behoeve van het onderzoek naar de technische mogelijkheden van het gebruik van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Desk research (analysis of the production figures of concrete) and field research (personal discussions with producers and merchants) are carried out to investigate whether the application of fly ash in the production of concrete is feasible. The introduction of fly ash depends on the properties of the final product and of the properties during the process of curing, and these depend on a large number of factors such as cement/sand ratio, quality of cement, specifications of the final product. Products such as paving stones, tiles and blocks are favourable for the application of fly ash in concrete. Building elements, pipes and floor elements are not. Market structure in The Netherlands is outlined and mapped, and the present use of fly ash in the concrete industry is discussed. (In Dutch)

  7. Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    For Portland cement to qualify as oil well cement, the chemical and physical properties must meet ..... Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University,. Stanford, California, pp. ... Construction”, PhD Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah. University of Science ...

  8. Assessment of radon and thoron exhalation from Indian cement samples using smart radon and thoron monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K; Agarwal, T.K.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that primarily, there exist two important sources that contribute to indoor radon/thoron namely, the exhalation from ground and building materials. The contribution from ground, although significant, is treated as a case of existing exposure. Then, the only source that can be controlled during the construction is the choice of building materials. Cement is an important building material used in the construction of houses and buildings in India. The housing sector is the largest cement consumer with 53% of the total Indian cement demand followed by the infrastructure sector. India with a production capacity of 165 million tones (MT) (in 2007), was the second largest cement producer in the world after China. The industry produces various types of cement like ordinary portland cement (OPC), Portland pozzolana cement (PPC), portland slag cement (PSC), rapid hardening portland cement (RHPC), sulphate resistant cement (SRC) and white cement (WC). Several studies have been undertaken on cement in various countries because it is commonly used in bulk quantities in the construction of houses and other civil structures. However, detailed information regarding the radon and thoron exhalation into indoor air from various types of cements produced in India is scarce. In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically determine the radon and thoron exhalation from 50 cement samples (17 OPC, 15 PPC, 04 PSC, 06 RHPC, 04 WC and 04 SRC). The data thus obtained is used to calculate the indoor radon and thoron source term and the contributed inhalation dose based on a model room structure. The measured values of radon and thoron exhalation from cement samples were comparable with the reported values in other countries. This study showed that the cement samples used in civil constructions do not pose any radiological hazard to the Indian population. (author)

  9. The asbestos cement container and its characterization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.; Oliver, J.; Jaouen, C.

    1986-01-01

    A new type of packing container is designed in France, by SGN, for the reprocessing wastes conditioning: the asbestos cement container (CAC) made by the industrial process for pipes fabrication. Two types of CAC are studied, differing from each other by their wall thickness. The technology of which SGN is in charge is presented. A characterization program is operated by CEA in view of satisfying to regulatory requirements. Emphasis is placed upon the radionuclides migration study, through different asbestos cement samples

  10. Fabrication of Phosphate Cement with High Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Lee, Chang Hwa; Heo, Cheol Min; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho

    2011-01-01

    As the development of industrial society has accelerated, hazardous wastes are generated as well. According to the 1986 statistics of U.S.A, each person made 40 tons of waste in America that year. Treatment of radioactive waste is one of the most important and serious problems related to waste treatments, because its radioactivity and decaying heat have harmful effects to human and environment for a long time. Nuclear developed countries have used conventional method of treatment such as vitrification or cementation in order to stabilize and solidify radioactive waste. Although the former guarantees the formation of high leaching resistant and durable waste form, it requires several hundred (or even more than one thousand) temperature to melt glass frit. This process generates secondary waste volatilized, as well as being non-economical. Cement technology played a role of immobilizing low and middle class wastes. It has advantages of low temperature setting, low cost, easy process, etc. The alkalinity of ordinary cement, however, constrains the utility of cement to the solidification of alkaline waste. In addition, leachability and mechanical strength of cements are not quite appropriate for the stabilization of high level waste. In this regard, chemically bonded phosphate cement(CBPC), which sets by an acid-base reaction, is a potentially expectable material for immobilization of radioactive waste. CBPC not only sets at room temperature, but also encapsulates various isotopes chemically. The performance of CBPC can be enhanced by the addition of fly ash, sand, wollastonite, etc. This study aims at fabricating the CBPC containing fly ash with high integrity. Morphology, microstructure, and compressive strength are evaluated using SEM, and digital compressing machine

  11. Feasibility of backfilling mines using cement kiln dust, fly ash, and cement blends

    OpenAIRE

    Beltagui, Hoda; Sonebi, Mohammed; Maguire, K.; Taylor, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is an industrial by-product of the cement manufacturing process, the composition of which can vary widely. Recent years of using alternative fuels have resulted in higher chloride and alkali contents within CKDs; as such, this limits the applications in which CKDs can be utilised. Using a CKD containing a high free lime content of 29.5%, it is shown that this CKD is capable of activating pulverized fuel ash (PFA) due to its high alkalinity, which can be utilised in low ...

  12. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  13. The transformation of waste Bakelite to replace natural fine aggregate in cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopagon Usahanunth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakelite material has been used to produce the various components for cars and consumer goods industry in Thailand. The growth of Bakelite consumption increases Bakelite waste. Bakelite waste is prohibited from disposing of direct landfilling and open burning because of the improper disposal and emission reasons. A large amount of this waste needs the large safe space of warehouse area for keeping which becomes a waste management problem. Size reduction by milling machine is helpful for waste handling and storing, however, the post-milling waste Bakelite plastic utilization shall be studied to maintain the waste storing capacity. There are some studies of the milling machine used for waste plastic size reduction. However, the particular study of milling machine application for waste size reduction and its milling waste utilization is still insufficient in Thailand. The purpose of this research is the use of waste Bakelite aggregate milling machine for Bakelite waste size reduction and use of the post-milling waste Bakelite as a fine aggregate to replace natural sand material in cement mortar. The waste Bakelite fine aggregate (WBFA was mixed in cement mortar mixture with the proportion 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% by volume for cement mortar sample preparation. The mortar sample was tested for compressive strength follow ASTM standard. The compressive test result of mortar samples will be compared between conventional mortar (0% WBFA and waste Bakelite mortar (WBM as well as comparing with the mortar standard. From an analysis of the sample test data found that the WBFA content in cement mortar mixture can predict the strength of WBM. The compressive strength of WBM at 28 days age with the fraction of WBFA is not exceeded 11.03%, and 23.08% respectively can be met the mortar standard according to the equation. The utilization of WBM to develop mortar non-structural mortar product can be usable from a technical point of view.

  14. The future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, K.P.; Lafond, R.

    1990-05-01

    Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ''South'', is limited in contrast to the countries in the ''North''. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range of services now commonplace in the information rich industrial countries of the ''North''. The programme of support to information systems and services in poorer countries by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is described with specific examples drawn from its industry and technology information programme. Third world countries are in a difficult position and need help to keep on the cutting edge of new information-communication technologies. Any help, however must focus on such factors as persistence, impact and sustainability of information systems and services. (author). 5 refs

  15. The future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, K P [International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). Science and Technology Information; Lafond, R [International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). Industry and Technology Programme

    1990-05-01

    Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ``South``, is limited in contrast to the countries in the ``North``. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range of services now commonplace in the information rich industrial countries of the ``North``. The programme of support to information systems and services in poorer countries by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is described with specific examples drawn from its industry and technology information programme. Third world countries are in a difficult position and need help to keep on the cutting edge of new information-communication technologies. Any help, however must focus on such factors as persistence, impact and sustainability of information systems and services. (author). 5 refs.

  16. Main scientific and technical development tasks for the coal industry during the 8th Five Year Plan and up to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, M.

    1987-05-01

    A general overview is given of the Czechoslovak coal industry from 1975 to 1985, when output increased from 114.4 Mt to 126.6 Mt, with statistics given in graphs and tables covering types of mining, types of coal and types of equipment used. The scientific and technical development plan is reviewed up to the year 2000 which will include intensive geological surveys, more automation, increasing productivity and more efficient use of coking coal. The paper describes in more detail State Scientific Program P01, Extraction and Processing of Selected Types of Fuel, which is broken down into 6 sections: forecasting reserves and geotechnical problems, design problems, surface mining, underground mining, extraction of bitumen and coal processing. This is the first time in the history of the Czechoslovak mining industry that its problems have been incorporated into a State Scientific Program. 6 refs.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  18. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  19. Thermal behavior of asphalt cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudy, P.M.; Letoffe, J.M.; Martin, D.; Planche, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt cements are highly complex mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules whose thermal behavior is of prime importance for petroleum and road industry. From DSC, the determination of several thermal properties of asphalts is given, e.g. glass-transition temperature and crystallized fraction content.The dissolution of a pure n-paraffin C n H 2n+2 in an asphalt, as seen by DSC, should be a single peak. For 20 g of these glasses change with time and temperature. The formation of the crystallized phases is superposed to the enthalpic relaxation of the glasses, making a kinetic study very difficult. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Concrete = aggregate, cement, water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concrete for the Temelin nuclear power plant is produced to about 70 different formulae. For quality production, homogeneous properties of aggregates, accurate proportioning devices, technological discipline and systematic inspections and tests should be assured. The results are reported of measuring compression strength after 28 days for different concrete samples. The results of such tests allow reducing the proportion of cement, which brings about considerable savings. Reduction in cement quantities can also be achieved by adding ash to the concrete mixes. Ligoplast, a plasticizer addition is used for improving workability. (M.D). 8 figs

  1. The main requirements for research work against the challenges of "Industry - 4.0" and the analysis of ongoing work in improving the state of the material and technical base and improving the level of training of young engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. С. Турманидзе

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work analyzes theoretical and practical results obtained after each of the first three world scientific - technical revolution, appreciated their role in the development of humanity, and improve the level of industry in different sectors of the economy. More discussed in detail situation on the threshold of the fourth scientific - technical revolution "industry-4". It is proved crucial in accelerating these processes, the level of training of young engineering staff and suggestions, some ideas and solutions to these problems on the example of the Georgian Technical University.

  2. Case study: evaluation of continuos blending silos in the cement industry, by the aid of tracer techniques; Caso de estudio: Evaluacion de silos continuos de homogenizacion en la industria del cemento, utilizando tecnicas de radiotrazadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, C; Maghella, G; Mamani, E [Direccion de Aplicaciones. Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2000-12-01

    Besides the actual burning process in cement manufacture, particular importance is attached to raw material preparation and homogenization, not only because of the quality of the kiln fed and therefore of the produced cement, but also because of the economy of the kiln operation, which significantly depends on the uniformity of the chemical composition of the material. As a result, the blending process of the cement raw material, before burning, is a basic stage of cement technology production. In this case, the pneumatic homogenization process is studied in a silo with a great storing and processing capacity. The objective is to evaluate the parameters which influence in the continuos operation. The method allows us to determine the optimal blending parameters, through the observation of the movement and distribution of the different fractions of fine dust raw meal, labelled with La-140 as tracer. Changes in blending according to time are discussed as well as the influence of the silo design on the degree of homogenization. It was showed that the silo blending operation has a strong influence on the production of good-quality cement as well as the implications on energy saving.

  3. Cementation of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenkov, V.

    2004-01-01

    The cementation methods for immobilisation of radioactive wastes are discussed in terms of methodology, chemistry and properties of the different types of cements as well as the worldwide experience in this field. Two facilities for cementation - DEWA and MOWA - are described in details

  4. Type 2 diabetes in Mexican workers exponed to a potential source of dioxins in the cement industry determined by a job exposure matrix Diabetes tipo 2 en trabajadores Mexicanos expuestos a una fuente potencial de dioxinas en la industria del cemento determinado a través de una matriz de exposición ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Haro-García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify association between type 2 diabetes (DM2 with occupational exposure to potential dioxins source in Mexican cement industry workers. Materials and Methods: 56 medical files of cement industry workers with diagnosis of DM2 were included; 56 medical files of workers from the same industry without DM2 were the controls. The daily dose of exposure (DDE to the potential dioxins source per work years was estimated by a job exposure matrix and categorized as low, moderate, and high. Logistic regression model that correlated high exposure to potential source of dioxins (cement clinker confinement per work years and presence of DM2 was adjusted by work seniority, patient age at which DM2 diagnosis was established and DM2 familiar background. Results: the OR for the presence of DM2 in workers with moderate and high exposure to potential source of dioxins in the cement industry was 3.25 (1.10-9.57, p= 0.03, adjusted by work seniority, worker age at which DM2 diagnosis was established, and DM2 familiar background. Conclusions: In according with the data explored in the medical files of cement industry workers, there is an association between high exposure to the industrial confinement of the cement clinker as a potential source of dioxins and presence of DM2 in a modest dose-response gradient.Propósito: Identificar asociación entre diabetes tipo 2 (DM2 en trabajadores Mexicanos con la exposición ocupacional a una fuente potencial de dioxinas de la industria cementera. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 56 expedientes clínicos de trabajadores de la industria cementera con diagnóstico de DM2; los controles lo constituyeron 56 expedientes clínicos de trabajadores de la misma industria pero sin DM2. La dosis diaria de exposición (DDE a la fuente potencial de dioxinas por años trabajados se estimó a través de una matriz de exposición ocupacional y fue categorizada como baja, moderada y alta. El modelo de regresión logística que

  5. Legal provisions governing technical installations, especially regulations of the Building Law, Trade-and-Industry Law, and Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    The author first shows the various legal regulation patterns of the German law system with regard to technical installations and in this context discusses the comprehensive clause method which refers to scientific-technical standards. This method is said to be an adequate means of achieving suitable results in the relationship between law and technology. However, three weak points can be seen: (1) The law system uses many different standards. (2) Due to uncertainty about the real meaning and content of these standards, it is not clear how these standards are defined. (3) This in practice puts up the question to what extent statutory works of technology are a suitable tool of making legal regulations more concrete, and whether they are to be given binding force. (HSCH) [de

  6. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  7. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  8. Kinetics of strength gain of biocidal cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion becomes the determinative durability factor of buildings and constructions. Damages of construction materials caused by bacteria, filamentous fungi, actinomycetes constitute a serious danger to the constructions of a building or a structure and to the health of people. Biodeteriorations are typical both in old and new constructions. A great quantity of destruction factors of industrial and residential buildings under the influence of microorganisms was established in practice. Providing products and constructions based on concretes fungicidal and bactericidal properties is an important direction of modern construction material science. The most efficient way to solve this task is creation of biocidal cements. The article presents the results of experimental studies of kinetic dependences of strength gain by biocidal cements by physico-mechanical and physico-chemical analysis methods. The identical velocity character of initial hydration of the developed compositions of biocidal cements is set, as well as a more calm behavior of hardening processes at later terms. It has been established that the compositions of biocidal cements modified by sodium sulfate and sodium fluoride possess the greatest strength.

  9. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  10. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  11. Micrometer-scale 3-D shape characterization of eight cements: Particle shape and cement chemistry, and the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction particle size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, S.T.; Nie, X.; Stutzman, P.E.; Garboczi, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Eight different portland cements were imaged on a synchrotron beam line at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray microcomputed tomography at a voxel size of about 1 μm per cubic voxel edge. The particles ranged in size roughly between 10 μm and 100 μm. The shape and size of individual particles were computationally analyzed using spherical harmonic analysis. The particle shape difference between cements was small but significant, as judged by several different quantitative shape measures, including the particle length, width, and thickness distributions. It was found that the average shape of cement particles was closely correlated with the volume fraction of C 3 S (alite) and C 2 S (belite) making up the cement powder. It is shown that the non-spherical particle shape of the cements strongly influence laser diffraction results, at least in the sieve size range of 20 μm to 38 μm. Since laser diffraction particle size measurement is being increasingly used by the cement industry, while cement chemistry is always a main factor in cement production, these results could have important implications for how this kind of particle size measurement should be understood and used in the cement industry.

  12. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending.

  13. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  14. Power, cement industries shape coke future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The production of petroleum coke by U.S. refineries is expected to continue to increase in the coming years. Process and market trends also indicate the likelihood of further increases in fuel-grade coke production. In this article, the properties and uses of the various grades of petroleum coke, as well as pricing and market trends, will be discussed

  15. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadasan, Jegathish; Abdul Razak, Hashim

    2015-12-16

    The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  16. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  17. Technical and marketing aspects of power use in industry and trade; Technik- und Marketingaspekte bei der industriellen und gewerblichen Stromanwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, E.W.; Duenkelberg, R.

    1997-02-01

    Using electric power permits energetic optimization of production processes in industry and trade. Because of the trend towards qualitatively high-grade products, the energy form electric power plays a key role. Increased power demand on the part of industrial customers coincides with increased competition in the energy supply sector at the national and international levels. Within short, therefore, these industrial customers may prompt a change in preferences at the supplier side. Utilities will adopt suitable marketing concepts in order to gain profile with their customers as service providers. Operating close to customers will essentially influence customer satisfaction and, thereby, customer loyalty. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Durch die Stromanwendung koennen Produktionsprozesse in Industrie und Gewerbe energetisch optimiert werden. Bei dem Trend zu qualitativ hochwertigen Produkten nimmt die Energieform Strom eine Schluesselstellung ein. Die erhoehte Stromnachfrage der Industriekunden trifft auf zunehmenden Wettbewerb bei der Energieversorgung auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene, wodurch in Kuerze Industriekunden andere Praeferenzen bei den Energielieferanten setzen koennen. Durch geeignete Marketingkonzepte werden sich die Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) als Energiedienstleister ihrer Kunden profilieren. Die Naehe zum Kunden wird wesentlich die Kundenzufriedenheit und damit letztlich auch die Kundenloyalitaet beeinflussen. (orig./RHM)

  18. Enhancing an Integrative Course in Industrial Engineering and Management via Realistic Socio-technical Problems and Serious Game Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, Nicolae; Pelletier, Christine; Velthuizen, Vincent; Umeda, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses specific educational issues encountered during the Systems Engineering Design course at the Industrial Engineering and Management master program at the University of Groningen. It explains first the concept of an integrative course, an innovation that was applied first in this

  19. Training youth workers: the industrial-technical training policy of Primo de Rivera’s Dictatorship | Adiestrando a la juventud obrera: la política de formación técnica-industrial de la dictadura primorriverista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Rico Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the reform of the industrial education of the working youth created by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, across the Statute of Industrial Education of 1924 and of the Statute of Vocational Training of 1928, inside the ideological orbit of "reactionary modernism". Under the dictatorship, the State, of corporate ideology, was in an epoch that, influenced by the consequences of the Great War, was perceiving the vocational training as a mechanism of indoctrination of the working youth, to construct a national and professional identity, to the same time that to modernize the national industry. For it, the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera decided to centralize the vocational training industrial of the working youth across a new technical and industrial study plan inside the industrial schools and work. It could control to the labour movement, to create a middle class of technical personnel, to satisfy the economic needs of the country, at the same time as to support the socio-political traditional hierarchical organization. But the application of this educational project during the Second Republic did not expire with the ideological and political expectations of the Primo de Rivera’s Dictatorship. | El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo la dictadura de Primo de Rivera llevó a cabo la reforma de la enseñanza industrial del joven obrero a través del Estatuto de Enseñanza Industrial de 1924 y del Estatuto de Formación Profesional de 1928, dentro de la órbita ideológica del “modernismo reaccionario”. La dictadura primorriverista se encontraba en una época influida por las consecuencias de la Gran Guerra y empezaba a percibir la formación profesional técnica-industrial como un mecanismo de adoctrinamiento de la juventud obrera, a partir del cual se podía construir una identidad nacional y profesional, a la vez que modernizar la industria nacional. Por ello, la dictadura de Primo de Rivera

  20. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make