WorldWideScience

Sample records for cement industry technical

  1. Technical and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement and greenhouse gas emission reduction potentials in Thai cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, A. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-uthit Rd, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand); Menke, C. [Department of Building Engineering Services, Energy Technology Division, University of Applied Sciences, Schneidershof, 54293 Trier (Germany); Therdyothin, A. [The School of Energy, Environment, and Material, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    The cement industry is one of the most energy-consuming industries in Thailand, with high associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The cement sector accounted for about 20.6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2005. The fuel intensity of the Thai cement industry was about 3.11 gigajoules (GJ)/tonne cement; the electricity intensity was about 94.3 kWh/tonne cement, and the total primary energy intensity was about 4.09 GJ/tonne cement in 2005 with the clinker to cement ratio of around 82%. In this study, the potential application of 47 energy-efficiency measures is assessed for the Thai cement industry. Using a bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency improvement potential for the Thai cement industry is estimated to be about 265 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 8% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 1,697 GWh, which accounts for 51% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. The CO2 emission reduction potential associated with the cost-effective electricity savings is 159 kilotonne (kt) CO2, while the total technical potential for CO2 emission reductions is 902 ktonne CO2. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows a cost-effective fuel-efficiency improvement potential of 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and a total technical fuel efficiency improvement potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel use in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. CO2 emission reduction potentials associated with cost-effective and technical fuel-saving measures are 2,229 ktonne and 2,603 ktonne, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for discount rate, electricity and fuel prices, and exchange rate that showed the significant influence of these parameters on the results. Hence, the results of the study should be interpreted with caution.

  2. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Pulverized coal and substitute fuels for the cement manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowsky, F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper comprises an article of general technical interest on coal and its use in the cement industry, plus the scope for using substitute fuels. Discusses coal properties and preparation (crushing). Describes the heating systems of the cement ovens: burners, combustion and parameters governing flame-length. Looks at operation problems connected with heating of the coal: caking, fusing, clinker quality and behaviour of the refractory bricks. Also discusses substitute fuels: type of fuel, scope for utilisation and requisite precautions. 32 refs.

  4. A Pause for China's Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cement industry suffers excess productionWith the advent of global financial crisis,the Chinese government has laid out a stimulus package on infrastructure construction.Driven by the investment spree,China's cement makers are flocking to expand output capacity,which is now leading the industry into a much-higher-thanneeded state.

  5. Thoughts on the Current Cement Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zhihe

    2003-01-01

    According to the analysis of cement capacity andits relations with macro economy running index, the mainreasons for the present rapid development of cement capacityare the rapid development of economy and the shot up ofwhole society fixed asset investment. According to the presentspeed of economy development, cement still enjoys a po-tential increase, So here has not been an overall excessivepopularity of cement industry. The best way to prevent lowlevel repeated construction is to promote the development ofnew dry- process cement as well as try to get rid of blindness.

  6. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  7. Discussion on the Technical of Total Nitrogen Removal in Cement Industry%水泥行业脱硝工艺技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾佳敏; 邓燕琳

    2012-01-01

    "十二五"期间,国家将氮氧化物列为大气污染物总量控制约束性指标。其中,水泥行业是氮氧化物减排的重点领域之一,新型干法水泥窑要进行低氮燃烧技术改造,新建水泥生产线要安装效率不低于60%的脱硝设施。文章根据目前水泥行业现状,探讨应相应匹配的脱硝工艺技术。%The "12th Five-Year Plan",the state will nitrogen oxide as the total control of air pollutant binding targets.Among them,the cement industry is one of the key fields of nitrogen oxide emission,cement kiln to low nitrogen combustion technology,a new cement production line to install the efficiency of not less than 60 % of the DeNOx facility.According to the current situation of cement industry,the corresponding matching denitration technology.

  8. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  9. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative fuel

  10. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total

  11. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Sobolev

    2003-01-01

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecologi...

  12. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Sobolev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and - at the same time - uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  13. Sustainable development of the cement industry and blended cements to meet ecological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Konstantin

    2003-05-05

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and--at the same time--uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  14. Copper Slag Blended Cement: An Environmental Sustainable Approach for Cement Industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmeet Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indian cement industry is facing environmental issue of emission of carbon dioxide (CO2, a greenhouse gas. Blended cements including supplementary cementitious materials are substitute of Portland cement to reduce CO2 emission. The present paper investigates theappropriateness of copper slag (CS as supplementary cementitious material. Strength properties and hydration of mixes were determined at different replacement levels of CS with cement. Compressive, flexural and tensile strength of each mix was found out at different curing periods. The hydration of cement was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD. The strength test results showed that substitution of up to 20% of CS can significantly replace Portland cement.XRD test results were corresponding to strength test results. The present study encourages the utilization of CS as supplementary cementitious material to make economical and environmentally sustainable blended cement

  15. Secondary fuels and raw materials in the Spanish cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordobil, J.C.U.; Guede, Elena [Cementos Lemona s.a. (Spain)

    1997-03-01

    The growing environmental and energy concern are having an impact on the Spanish cement industry. This article describes the impact on waste management, the operation of cement kilns and the possibility for recycling. Current projects and future prospects are described. (UK)

  16. Production of cement requiring low energy expenditure. An industrial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, S.; Blanco, M.T.; Palomo, A.; Puertas, F. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A new method for making cement is proposed. It is based on the use of CaF{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} for partial replacement of the usual raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper shows the feasibility of the proposed method on an industrial scale. A test carried out in a Spanish cement factory (1500 t yield of the new cement) has revealed that the mehtod can not only be adapted to the current technology but also requires a much lower energy expenditure. The final product is shown to have excellent properties in comparison with OPC. (orig.).

  17. Estimation of Managerial and Technical Personnel Requirements in Selected Industries. Training for Industry Series, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).

    The need to develop managerial and technical personnel in the cement, fertilizer, pulp and paper, sugar, leather and shoe, glass, and metal processing industries of various nations was studied, with emphasis on necessary steps in developing nations to relate occupational requirements to technology, processes, and scale of output. Estimates were…

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  19. Study of energy efficiency measures in cement industry; Estudo de medidas de eficiencia energetica na industria de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Roberta Ferreira Carrijo; Gorla, Filipe Debonzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Methods of energy conservation play an important role in the future energetic supply. The cement industry, being energetic intensive, is an important niche of performance of such methods. It is intended, in the present work, to estimate the impact of energy conservation through different scenarios. The projections have been realized considering both the technical (equipment efficiency) and economical (Industrial Transformation Worth - ITW) aspects of the cement sector. (author)

  20. 水泥工业CO2减排及利用技术进展%Technical Progress of Emission-reduction and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide in Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠诚; 汪澜

    2011-01-01

    Emission-reduction exists potentially in cement industry, which is the key industry for carbon dioxide emission. Carbonate decomposition, fuel combustion and electric power consumption, etc. Which discharge carbon dioxide in cement industry, are introduced. A series of methods for decreasing carbon dioxide emission in cement industry, such as improving energy utilization, using alternative raw materials and fuels, developing new low carbone-mission binding materials, etc. Are expounded. Finally, several technologies for recycling of carbon dioxide, such as separation, capture, storage, fixation, etc. Are suggested.%水泥工业是CO2排放的重点行业,减排潜力巨大.全面介绍了水泥生产中碳酸盐分解、燃料燃烧和电力消耗等方面CO2的排放情况;详细阐述了水泥生产中通过提高能源利用率、使用替代原燃料、开发新型低碳排放的胶凝材料等措施实现CO2减排的方法,提出了对水泥工业CO2排放实施的分离、捕集、封存、固定等回收利用技术.

  1. Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 等

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilins(CRKs) is an alternative technology for the treatment of certain types of industrial waste(IW).In this paper,three typical types of industrial wastes were co-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal(especially solid waste disposal )on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission.Experimental results show that(1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash,and fly ash after the IW disposal can still be used in the cement production,(2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China National Standard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard(GB 16297-1996).

  2. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, J. (Cordi-Geopolymere SA, Saint-Quentin (France). Geopolymer Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requires the combustion of carbon-fuel to yield an additional 0.40 tons of CO[sub 2]. The 1987 1 billion metric tons world production of cement accounted for 1 billion metric tons of CO[sub 2], i.e., 5% of the 1987 world CO[sub 2] emission. A world-wide freeze of CO[sub 2] emission at the 1990 level as recommended by international institutions, is incompatible with the extremely high cement development needs of less industrialized countries. Present cement production growth ranges from 5% to 16% and suggests that in 25 years from now, world cement CO[sub 2] emissions could equal 3,500 million tons. Eco-taxes when applied would have a spectacular impact on traditional Portland cement based aggregates industries. Taxation based only on fuel consumption would lead to a cement price increase of 20%, whereas taxation based on actual CO[sub 2] emission would multiply cement price by 1.5 to 2. A 25--30% minor reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions may be achieved through the blending of Portland cement with replacement materials such as coal-fly ash and iron blast furnace slag.

  3. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  4. Cement Industry Overview and Market Price Forecasting In Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latafat Gardashova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global economic situation and energy resources’ prices influence local economic trends, investment of capital, status of financial institutions and cement industry in Azerbaijan in whole. These trends influence demand and activities of cement business communities which start to optimize expenses and find new priority decisions in business. Moreover some independent economic analysts refer to forecasts that since 2016 yearly demand will increase 4-5% in Azerbaijan. Objectives are to forecast cement price in the market using Fuzzy c-means (together with Fuzzy Inference System and ANFIS which are entered MATLAB mathematical packet and to compare the results of these methods.Taking into consideration the results of research and applied forecast models the cement price can show the stable slow increasing in the market even there is probability of some periodic fluctuations and regulating actions by the state authorities. Therefore it is high probability that the cement price will increase next 1-2 years.

  5. Application of Carbonate Looping to Cement Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, cycle experiments of different types of limestone, cement raw meal and a mixture of limestone and clay were carried out in laboratory scale setups at more realistic conditions (i.e. calcination temperature is 950°C and CO2 concentration is 80%) to simulate the performance...... with an increase in the CO2 partial pressure during calcination, indicating enhancement of sintering by the presence of CO2. As sorbents, cement raw meal and the mixture of limestone and clay show a similar trend as limestone with respect to the decay of the CO2 carrying capacity and this capacity is lower than...... that of limestone at the same conditions in most cases. SEM and XRD analyses indicate that a combination of severe sintering and formation of calcium silicates attributes to the poor performance of the cement raw meal....

  6. Cement Industry Overview and Market Price Forecasting In Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Global economic situation and energy resources’ prices influence local economic trends, investment of capital, status of financial institutions and cement industry in Azerbaijan in whole. These trends influence demand and activities of cement business communities which start to optimize expenses and find new priority decisions in business. Moreover some independent economic analysts refer to forecasts that since 2016 yearly demand will increase 4-5% in Azerbaijan. Objectives are to forecast c...

  7. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  8. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  9. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-05

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in

  11. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  12. The survey of cement dermatitis among construction industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride Sadeghian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cement has long been known as a cause of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. However, there are little data relating to occupational skin diseases (OSD in the Iranian construction industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology of cement dermatitis among terrazzo and cement manufactory workers. Methods: This is cross-sectional descriptive study. In this study 50 cement manufact-ory workers in Shahroud and 150 terrazzo workers in Lordegan were interviewed through questionnaire. Questionnaire includes demographic characteristics and questions about present dermatitis, background eczema, daily work hours, exposed chemical agents, using of gloves. Patients examined and patch tested by dermatologist. Data analyzed with SPSS software and c2, Mann Whitney and logistic regression statistical test. Results: The findings of the study showed that 8 workers (16% in cement factories and 52 workers (34.7% in Lordegan terrazzo enterprises had reported dermatitis at the time of review. Of which 15.5% in terrazzo workers had allergic contact dermatitis. In this study the prevalence of cement dermatitis increased with increasing age and there was significantly differences between dermatitis and background of dermatitis in terrazzo workers (P<0.05. Conclusion: Cement should be treated as hazardous materials, wearing of suitable gloves, early diagnosis and treatment of contact dermatitis and health education to workers is suggested.

  13. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  14. Industrial trial to produce a low clinker, low carbon cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno-Andrés, L. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of conditions for the industrial manufacture of a new cementitious system based on clinker-calcined clay and limestone, developed by the authors, referred as “low carbon cement” is presented. The new cement enables the substitution of more than 50% of the mass of clinker without compromising performance. The paper presents the follow-up of an industrial trial carried out in Cuba to produce 130 tonnes of the new cement at a cement plant. The new material proved to fulfill national standards in applications such as the manufacture of hollow concrete blocks and precast concrete. No major differences either in the rheological or mechanical properties were found when compared with Portland cement. Environmental assessment of the ternary cement was made, which included comparison with other blended cements produced industrially in Cuba. The new cement has proven to contribute to the reduction of above 30% of carbon emissions on cement manufacture.Se presenta la evaluación preliminar de las condiciones de fabricación industrial de un nuevo sistema cementicio a partir del empleo de clínquer; arcillas calcinadas y piedra caliza; desarrollado por los autores; denominado “cemento de bajo carbono”. El nuevo cemento posibilita la reducción de más de un 50% de la masa de clínquer; sin comprometer el comportamiento del material. El presente trabajo presenta el monitoreo de la producción industrial en una planta en Cuba; de 130 t del nuevo cemento. El cemento obtenido cumple con las regulaciones nacionales de calidad y su empleo tiene similar rendimiento que el cemento Pórtland para la producción de bloques y hormigón de 25 MPa. Se realiza el análisis de impacto ambiental del cemento ternario mediante la comparación con otros cementos producidos industrialmente. El nuevo cemento puede contribuir a la reducción de más del 30% de las emisiones de CO2 asociadas a la manufactura de cemento.

  15. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS ON INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN CEMENT INDUSTRY AND TEA INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The project aims at analyzing the feasibility of utilizing cement kiln dust (CKD in treating wastewater from tea industry with the concept of industrial symbiosis. CKD is the dust collected at the air pollution control device(s associated with a kiln system from cement industry. A very less percent of CKD is recycled and the rest is land filled /stockpiled; disrupts groundwater through leaching of minerals. Cement Kiln Dust (CKD, rich in CaO, SiO2, behaves as a neutralizing as well as stabilizing agent for tea effluent treatment. The ability of CKD to reduce the BOD, COD, TSS, and phosphates in tea effluent was analyzed and the optimum dosage is determined. The effect of different dosages of Cement Kiln Dust ranging from (1-3 gm/l has been discussed on the bench scale tests. The results show that, for different CKD concentrations, high removal efficiencies of 94.4 and 99.0, 58.9 for BOD, TSS, phosphates and a lower efficiency for COD with 9.09 are achieved for 2.5gm/l. The persistent presence of color providing proteins theaflavins (TF and the arubigins (TR from the leftover tea leaves in the effluent imparts the low removal efficiencies of COD. However, the COD value is within the dischargeable limits (CPCB standards. Moreover, a considerable removal efficiency and high SVI of 0.181 makes CKD a feasible coagulant in treating tea effluent with optimum dosage of 2.5g/l. The objective of developing industrial symbiosis network was thus achieved using the CKD to treat wastewater from tea industries.   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 20-34

  16. Polish cement industry cartel - preliminary examination of collusion existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Bejger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a case of a cartel in Polish cement industry. Short description of the industry and characteristics of the cartel with its fundamental illegal practices, market sharing and price fixing, have been done. We focused on examination of possibility of detection of a cartel-like behavior of players in an industry on a basis of cartel markers' evaluation, using statistical data we can actually obtain. On a basis of examination of market shares of players and price/supply processes we found distinctive, theoretically motivated patterns characteristic for collusive equilibrium in an industry.

  17. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  18. Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry). Changes in chlorophyll ...

  19. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  20. Technical Difficulties of Environmental Protection Acceptance for Cement Projects in Electronic Components Manufacturing Industry%电子元件行业环保验收监测技术难点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    This paper discussed the technical difficulties of environmental protection for the acceptance and monitoring of e-lectronic components manufacturing industry based on the practical experience and regulatory requirements in combination with technical guidelines for environmental protection acceptance of completed construction projects and the current situation in elec-tronic components manufacturing industry .In view of the technical difficulties of the process analysis of electronic components in-dustry, the determination of pollution factors, the verification of hazardous waste, and the implementation of the inspection and acceptance standards.This works provide a reference for environmental protection in electronic components manufacturing industry construction projects for check/acceptance completed project.%根据建设项目竣工环境保护验收规范要求及当前电子元件行业的发展情况,结合工作实践,探讨新形势下电子元件行业项目竣工环境保护验收监测工作中的技术难点,针对电子元件行业工艺分析及特征污染因子的确定、危险废物核查、验收监测标准执行等技术难点提出了具体解决建议,为电子元件行业项目竣工环境保护验收监测提供参考。

  1. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per

  2. Industrial Maintenance Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in industrial maintenance technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings,…

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  4. Technical difficulties in the cementing of horizontal shale gas wells in Weiyuan block and the countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When well cementing is conducted in horizontal shale gas wells in Weiyuan block of the Weiyuan–Changning State Shale Demonstration Area, Sichuan Basin, the oil-based drilling fluid is not compatible with cement slurry, is difficult to be displaced because of its high density, and cement sheath tends to be broken in the situations of large-scale stimulated reservoir volume fracturing. In view of these problems, a series of studies were carried out specifically on the theoretical basis of cement sheath sealing mechanical parameters, oil-displacement preflush improving the interface cementation quality, toughness set cement satisfying large-scale fracturing requirements and cementing technology conducive to the wellbore integrity. The following achievements were made. First, the theoretical model of cement sheath mechanical integrity taking into account the plastic characteristics and interface cementation strength of cement sheath is instructive to the mechanical design of set cement for horizontal shale gas wells, avoiding the micro-annulus as much as possible. Second, oil-displacement preflush is developed and it is well compatible with oil-based drilling fluids and cement slurry with the flushing efficiency on oil-based drilling fluids higher than 90%. Third, the tough set cement which is developed based on the theoretical model of cement sheath sealing integrity not only guarantees higher compressive strength, but decreases Young's modulus by 30%. Forth, it is confirmed that water displacement cementing technology suitable for shale gas wells is conducive to improving the wellbore seal integrity. These research findings were applied in 12 horizontal wells. It is indicated that the quality cementing ratio of horizontal segment reaches 92% and the post fracturing effect is very good, which guarantees the sealing integrity of wellbores and provides a technical support for the highly efficient development of shale gas reservoirs.

  5. Modeling forest industry in Sweden. Technical documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Ingrid [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Energy Systems Technology

    2001-02-01

    At the division of Energy Systems Technology at Chalmers University of Technology a study of energy and material flows in the Swedish forest industry has been made. The study includes analysis of potential long-term development paths for the forest industry and their impact on energy flows and energy related material flows in the forest industry. Within this study a forest industry model and a number of forest industry scenarios have been developed. This report presents a technical description of the constructed model, detailed scenario data and complete results tables for the scenario runs. The report does not include any discussion or analysis of model, input data or results.

  6. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II : Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within ...

  7. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  8. Screening for collusion: Evidences from the Indian cement industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Bejger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to evaluation of the econometric method applied as a part of a variance screen in collusion detection procedure. Validation is based on ex-post analysis of Indian cement industry in the 1994 - 2009 time period and comparative study of the obtained results with factual evidences of collusion at that market. The method in question is based on MS(MAR (p, q Markov switching model specification. As a result of the research we could identify variability regimes consistent with theoretical motivation of the marker and detect collusion and competition phases partly consistent with historical evidences. However promising, method had some drawbacks applied to high frequency data in the context of variance screen. We proposed some solutions for further research to overcome it.

  9. Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Alternative Fuel for Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuzhou; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of sewage sludge and coal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis.Both differential scanning calorimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric profiles showed differences between combustion of sewage sludge and coal, and non-isothermal kinetics analysis method was applied to evaluate the combustion process. Based on Coats-Redfem integral method, some reaction models were tested,the mechanism and kinetics of the combustion reaction were discussed. The results show that the combustion of sewage sludge is mainly in the Iow temperature stage, meanwhile the ignition temperature and Arrhenius activation energy are lower than that of coal. The combustion of sewage sludge has the advantage over coal in some aspects, thus sewage sludge can partly replace coal used as cement industry fuel.

  10. Cement Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China aims to streamline the crowded cement industry Policymakers are looking to build a concrete wall around the cement-making industry as they seek to solidify the fluid cement market and cut excessive production.

  11. Present Situation and Perspective of Chinese Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Changming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Totally, there are 12 types of cement kiln pro-duction lines in China and running with a quite differenttechnical- economical levels. The cement productionof different types product lines in 1997 ~ 2002 is shownin Table 1.

  12. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  13. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PRECONDITIONS FOR EXTRUDED LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreshkin Dmitriy Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    The paper also presents the results of the research of the microstructure of spilt Portland cement and hollow glass spheres, their mineral and chemical analyses, as well as the properties of masonry mortars. The paper presents a conclusion that their high process-dependent parameters and superior operating performance are attainable through the introduction of effective hollow glass spheres into masonry mortars and the application of the extrusion method. The aforementioned novelties may reduce the water consumption rate, improve the strength, freeze resistance and durability of cement mortars. The preparation of this paper involved the study of nine reference books. This paper is the first one of a series of papers covering the method of extrusion of lightweight cement mortars.

  14. Some technical writing skills industry needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is suggested that engineers and other technical students be taught three classes of skills in technical writing. First, "Big Picture Things", which includes: the importance of clear writing, the wide scope of writing, the wide scope of writing tasks that will be faced in industry, and the principles of organization of technical materials such as; how to analyze, classify, partition, and interpret. Second, "Writing Procedures", which encompasses: how to get words on paper efficiently and team-write. Third, "Writing Details", in which two considerations are important: how to achieve precision in the use of language and the aspects of style. Three problems in style are cited: the problem of sentence transition, overuse of attributive adjectives, and verbosity in paragraph structure. The most important thing in technical writing is considered to be functionality, economy and clarity.

  15. A study on respiratory problems and pulmonary function indexes among cement industry workers in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Rafeemanesh; Ashkan Alizadeh; Lahya Afshari Saleh; Hosein Zakeri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The respiratory system is the most vulnerable system in the cement industry. This study was conducted to determine the effects of occupational exposure to cement dust on the respiratory system more thoroughly. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study an interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and respiratory symptoms was completed and pulmonary function tests were carried out on 100 exposed and 120 non-exposed workers at the cement fa...

  16. The Office of Industrial Technologies technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts R D activities which focus on the objectives of improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial energy conservation. The Office also conducts programs to reduce waste generation, increase recycling efforts, and improve the use of wastes as process feedstocks. An active program of technology transfer and education supports these activities and encourages adoption of new technologies. To accomplish these objectives OIT cooperates with the private sector to identify its technological needs and to share R D efforts. R D is conducted to the point that a new technology is shown to work and that it can be transferred to the private sector end-users. This bibliography contains information on all scientific and technical reports sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program during the years 1988--1990.

  17. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  18. Obtaining a sulfoaluminate belite cement by industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhadiri, L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfoaluminate belite clinkers by burning raw at moderate temperatures near 1250 °C were synthesized. The used mixtures were made by calcium carbonate blended to two industrial wastes: low calcium fly ash and phosphogypsum. The clinkers were characterised by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and free lime. The hydraulic behaviour of the obtained cements, by adequate clinkers with 7% of added gypsum, was followed by XRD, scaning electronic microscopy (SEM, FTIR and NMR.

    Los clínkeres belíticos de sulfoaluminatos se obtienen por cocción de crudos a temperaturas moderadas, hacia 1.250 ºC. Esos crudos se componen de carbonato de calcio mezclados con dos subproductos industriales: cenizas volantes pobres en óxido de calcio y fosfoyeso. Los clínkeres obtenidos se caracterizaron a través de Difracción de Rayos X (DRX, Espectroscopia Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FTIR y por la determinación de CaO libre. El comportamiento hidráulico de los cementos elaborados de los clínkeres con el 7% de yeso se estudió por DRX, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM, FTIR y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (RMN

  19. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions:Taking cement industry as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU¨ Yong-Long; GENG Jing; HE Gui-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP) is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies:1) policy integration for promoting green industry, 2) system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3) collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4) managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  20. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions: Taking cement industry as a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Long Lü

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies: 1 policy integration for promoting green industry, 2 system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3 collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4 managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  1. Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Indian cement industry is one of the most efficient in the world. Its efforts to reduce its carbon footprint by adopting the best available technologies and environmental practices are reflected in the achievement of reducing total CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.719 tCO2/t cement in 2010 from a substantially higher level of 1.12 tCO2/t cement in 1996. However, because the manufacturing process relies on the burning of limestone, it still produced 137 MtCO2 in 2010 – approximately 7% of India’s total man-made CO2 emissions. Yet opportunity for improvement exists, particularly in relation to five key levers that can contribute to emissions reductions: alternative fuel and raw materials; energy efficiency; clinker substitution; waste heat recovery and newer technologies. This roadmap sets out one pathway by which the Indian cement industry can reach its targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions by 2050, thereby laying the foundation for low-carbon growth in the years beyond. The Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry builds on the global IEA technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s Cement Sustainability Initiative. It outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to reduce its direct CO2 emissions intensity to 0.35 tCO2/t cement and support the global goal of halving CO2 emissions by 2050.

  2. Cement industry control system based on multi agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海东; 邱冠周; 黄圣生

    2004-01-01

    Cement production is characterized by its great capacity, long-time delay, multi variables, difficult measurement and muhi disturbances. According to the distributed intelligent control strategy based on the multi agent, the multi agent control system of cement production is built, which includes integrated optimal control and diagnosis control. The distributed and multiple level structure of multi agent system for the cement control is studied. The optimal agent is in the distributed state, which aims at the partial process of the cement production, and forms the optimal layer. The diagnosis agent located on the diagnosis layer is the diagnosis unit which aims at the whole process of the cement production, and the central management unit of the system. The system cooperation is realized by the communication among optimal agents and diagnosis agent. The architecture of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are designed. The detailed functions of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are analyzed.At last the realization methods of the agents are given, and the application of the multi agent control system is presented. The multi agent system has been successfully applied to the off-line control of one cement plant with capacity of 5 000 t/d. The results show that the average yield of the clinker increases 9.3% and the coal consumption decreases 7.5 kg/t.

  3. Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

  4. CO2 REDUCTION OPTIONS IN CEMENT INDUSTRY - THE NOVI POPOVAC CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana M Stefanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and is thus an important sector in CO2-emission mitigation strategies. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, and from the coal combustion during power generation. Strategies to reduce these CO2 emissions include energy efficiency improvement, new processes, shift to low carbon fuels or waste fuels in cement production, increased use of additives in cement production, alternative cements, and CO2 removal from flue gases in clinker kilns. Increased use of fly ash as an additive to cement and concrete has a number of advantages, the primary being reduction of costs of fly ash disposal, resource conservation, and cost reduction of the product. Since the production of cement requires a large amount of energy (about 2.9-3.2 GJt-1, the substitution of cement by fly ash saves not only energy but also reduces the associated greenhouse gas emissions. The paper evaluates the reduction of CO2 emissions that can be achieved by these mitigation strategies, as well as by partial substitution of cement by fly ash. The latter is important because the quality of the produced concrete depends on the physical-chemical properties of the fly ash and thus partial substitution as well as the type of fly ash (e.g., the content of CaO has an effect not only on energy consumption and emissions, but also on the produced concrete quality.

  5. Microwave processing of cement and concrete materials – towards an industrial reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttress, Adam, E-mail: adam.buttress@nottingham.ac.uk; Jones, Aled; Kingman, Sam

    2015-02-15

    Each year a substantial body of literature is published on the use of microwave to process cement and concrete materials. Yet to date, very few if any have lead the realisation of a commercial scale industrial system and is the context under which this review has been undertaken. The state-of the–art is evaluated for opportunities, and the key barriers to the development of new microwave-based processing techniques to enhance production, processing and recycling of cement and concrete materials. Applications reviewed include pyro-processing of cement clinker; accelerated curing, non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E), and end-of-life processing including radionuclide decontamination.

  6. CEMENT. "A Concrete Experience." A Curriculum Developed for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Lou

    This instructor's guide contains 11 lesson plans for inplant classes on workplace skills for employees in a cement plant. The 11 units cover the following topics: goals; interpreting memoranda; applying a standard set of work procedures; qualities of a safe worker; accident prevention; insurance forms; vocabulary development; inventory control…

  7. Oxygen transport membranes for biomass gasification and cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang

    Oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) are of particular interest for their potential applications in high purity oxygen separation, biomass gasification and carbon capture and storage in cement production. Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-δ (GCO) is one of the interesting materials of OTMs because of its high ionic...

  8. Recent developments in the cement industry: a comparative study between Mexico and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Since early twentieth century, the use of cement has become a popular and strategic product for economic growth of every country. In India as in Mexico, the first factories began in the earlier twentieth century, India is nowadays the world’s second largest producer and Mexico is the third firm in cement production, despite being the tenth world producer. The eighties have significate for both countries major structural changes in its economy, which have radically altered the structure and functioning of the cement industry and even more during the decade of the nineties. This article discusses the recent performance of the cement industry in both countries, compares the dynamics and causes that gave rise to these changes. It examines changes in the structure of domestic market in both countries and the strategies employed by large companies that operate in both, including a brief analysis of the role of transnational corporations in their development at the stage of globalization and liberalization of markets that characterizes the last two decades. Finally, it explores the great changes that make possible the growth and expansion of the cement industry during the period, based on technological change, the determinants of competitiveness and the role of economic policies in the development of industry in both countries.

  9. CT-guided vertebroplasty: analysis of technical results, extraosseous cement leakages, and complications in 500 procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Herber, Sascha; Koch, Ulrike; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Drees, Philip [University Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical results, the extraosseous cement leakages, and the complications in our first 500 vertebroplasty procedures. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures or osteolytic lesions caused by malignant tumors were treated with CT-guided vertebroplasty. The technical results were documented with CT, and the extraosseous cement leakages and periinterventional clinical complications were analyzed as well as secondary fractures during follow-up. Since 2002, 500 vertebroplasty procedures have been performed on 251 patients (82 male, 169 female, age 71.5 {+-} 9.8 years) suffering from osteoporotic compression fractures (n = 217) and/or malignant tumour infiltration (n = 34). The number of vertebrae treated per patient was 1.96 {+-} 1.29 (range 1-10); the numbers of interventions per patient and interventions per vertebra were 1.33 {+-} 0.75 (range 1-6) and 1.01 {+-} 0.10, respectively. The amount of PMMA cement was 4.5 {+-} 1.9 ml and decreased during the 5-year period of investigation. The procedure-related 30-day mortality was 0.4% (1 of 251 patients) due to pulmonary embolism in this case. The procedure-related morbidity was 2.8% (7/251), including one acute coronary syndrome beginning 12 h after the procedure and one missing patellar reflex in a patients with a cement leak near the neuroformen because of osteolytic destruction of the respective pedicle. Additionally, one patient developed a medullary conus syndrome after a fall during the night after vertebroplasty, two patients reached an inadequate depth of conscious sedation, and two cases had additional fractures (one pedicle fracture, one rib fracture). The overall CT-based cement leak rate was 55.4% and included leakages predominantly into intervertebral disc spaces (25.2%), epidural vein plexus (16.0%), through the posterior wall (2.6%), into the neuroforamen (1.6%), into paravertebral vessels (7.2%), and combinations of these and others. During follow

  10. Blended Cements Produced With Synthetic Zeolite Made from Industrial By-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitoldas Vaitkevičius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are appropriate supplementary cementitious materials in cement and concrete industry. In the present work synthetic zeolites was used like supplementary material in hardened cement paste and some properties as well as its influence on Portland cement hydration was determinate. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy were used as investigation methods. The compressive strength of hardened cement paste was measured at day 3, 28 and 60. The instrumental analysis showed that zeolite A(Na dominates and unreacted Al(OH3 remains in investigated synthetics zeolites, made from thermal and mechanical treated AlF3 production waste. The Chapelle test showed that both zeolites have good pozzolanic properties. The samples compressive strength remained close to the control samples compressive strength, reducing the amount of Portland cement, i.e., changing it by zeolite. After 60 days, the compressive strength was the best in the samples where 5% of Portland cement was replaced by the 2-zeolite. The compressive strength of the samples increased by 9 % compared with control samples. This research provides a real opportunity to save cement thus disposing the waste.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5635

  11. Feasibility study of the Portland cement industry waste for the reduction of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Ana Carla de Souza Masselli; Junqueira, Mateus Augusto F. Chaib; Jorge, Ariosto Bretanha; Silva, Rogerio Jose da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Institute of Mechanical Engineering]. E-mails: anacarlasz@unifei.edu.br; mateus_afcj@yahoo.com.br; ariosto.b.jorge@unifei.edu.br; rogeriojs@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The Portland cement industry demand a high specific consumption of energy for the production of the clinker. The energy consumption for clinker production varies between 3000 and 5300 kJ/kg of produced clinker. The clinker is produced by blending of different raw materials in order t o achieve precise chemical proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron in the finished product and by burning them at high temperatures. The Portland cement is a mixture of clinker, gypsum and other materials. Due to need of high temperatures, tradition ally the fuels used in the cement industry are mineral coal, fuel oil, natural gas and petroleum coke. The fuel burning in high temperature leads to the formation of the pollutant thermal NOx. The level of emissions of this pollutant is controlled by environmental law, thus the formation of pollutants in process need be controlled. Moreover, industrial waste has been used by Portland cement industries as a secondary fuel through a technique called co -processing. Materials like waste oils, plastics, waste tyres and sewage sludge are often proposed as alternative fuels for the cement industry. The residues can be introduced as secondary fuel or secondary raw material. For energy conservation in the process, mineralizers are added during the process production of the clinker. The mineralizers promote certain reactions which decrease the temperature in the kiln and improve the quality of the clinker. The adequate quantity of constituents in production process is complex, for maintain in controlled level, the quality of final product, the operational conditions of kiln, and the pollutant emissions. The purpose of the present work is to provide an analysis of an optimal production point through of the optimization technique considering, the introduction of the fuels, industrial wastes as secondary fuels, and raw materials, for the reduction of energy in the process of Portland cement production. (author)

  12. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

  13. HYDRATION AND PROPERTIES OF BLENDED CEMENT SYSTEMS INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikal M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the characteristics of ternary blended system, namely granulated blast-furnace slag (WCS, from iron steel company and Homra (GCB from Misr Brick (Helwan, Egypt and silica fume (SF at 30 mass % pozzolanas and 70 mass % OPC. The required water of standard consistency and setting times were measured as well as physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics of the hardened cement pastes were investigated. Some selected cement pastes were tested by TGA, DTA and FT-IR techniques to investigate the variation of hydrated products of blended cements. The pozzolanic activity of SF is higher than GCB and WCS. The higher activity of SF is mainly due to its higher surface area than the other two pozzolanic materials. On the other side, GCB is more pozzolanic than WCS due to GCB containing crystalline silica quartz in addition to an amorphous phase. The silica quartz acts as nucleating agents which accelerate the rate of hydration in addition to its amorphous phase, which can react with liberating Ca(OH2 forming additional hydration products.

  14. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China's cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Krol, Maarten; de Bruine, Marco; Geng, Guangpo; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China's cement industry is the second largest energy co

  15. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sambeek, Emiel van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yowargana, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuang, Liu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kejun, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  16. Factor ten emission reductions : the key to sustainable development and economic prosperity for the cement and concrete industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, R. [Alchemix Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes that the negative environmental effects of current cement/concrete production can be reduced by a factor of 10 by using cement blends with minimum portland cement and maximum pozzolanic loading. In addition to extending the longevity of concrete, such cement blends also avoid the huge cost of repairs and replacement cycles. Market forces will drive this transition toward sustainable development in the concrete and cement industry. The economic advantages of improving the quality of the concrete are great. Even if improving the concrete doubles the price of the highest quality cement, this would only add 2 per cent to the cost of the overall construction project, but the service life of the structure would give a many-fold return on this added investment. Also, regulations on carbon dioxide emissions in the near future will assume economic importance in the manufacturing of cement and concrete. While portland cements have dominated the construction industry for more than 150 years, new blended cements priced on a performance basis will become the standard in the twenty first century. Currently, the typical cement formulation in the United States, if it contains fly ash, contains 15 to 20 per cent fly ash by weight of the total cementitious material. This paper states that soon the number will be 50 to 60 per cent ash. Fly ash will be widely acknowledged for improving critical performance characteristics of concrete such as workability, impermeability and durability. Carbon dioxide credits will also be a major economic factor that will drive the cement industry toward a factor ten environmental improvement. The Kyoto Protocol calls for the trading of greenhouse gas credits which includes carbon dioxide credits. Under the new system, cement producers will be taxed on excess emissions, while those using pozzolans in their cements will earn credits to offset these penalties. 10 refs.

  17. A study on respiratory problems and pulmonary function indexes among cement industry workers in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rafeemanesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory system is the most vulnerable system in the cement industry. This study was conducted to determine the effects of occupational exposure to cement dust on the respiratory system more thoroughly. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study an interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and respiratory symptoms was completed and pulmonary function tests were carried out on 100 exposed and 120 non-exposed workers at the cement factory in Mashhad, Iran. The data was statistically analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: The mean of age and work duration in the exposed group was 37.5±6.3 and 10.7±5.4 years compared with the non-exposed group that was 36.1±7.1 and 10.1±5.7 years, respectively. Levels of exposure to inhalable cement dust in the exposed group were 23.13 mg/m3 (higher than national occupational exposure limits for such particles. Among the exposed group, respiratory symptoms as cough (6% vs. 0.8% of the non-exposed and sputum (7% vs. 0.8% of the nonexposed were significantly more prevalent (p < 0.05. Forced expiratory flow 25–75% (FEF25–75% was significantly lower in the exposed workers compared with non-exposed ones (p < 0.05. Also forced expiratory volume in 1 s / forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC and FEF25–75% had a reverse correlation with the length of employment (p = 0.000 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that occupational exposure to cement dust could be a significant factor of respiratory system dysfunction. Strict implementation of a respiratory protection program is recommended in cement industries. Med Pr 2015;66(4:471–477

  18. X-ray powder diffractometry of emissions from the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, P. P.; Khan, A. R.; Davin, M. T.

    X-ray powder diffractometry has been found capable of identifying and distinguishing limestone and cement particles, the two important emissions of the cement industry. The limestone shows strong reflections principally at 1.87,1.91,2.09,2.28,2.49,3.03 and 3.83 Å from its main constituent, calcite, whereas cement shows reflections at 1.76, 2.18, 2.60, 2.64, a doublet at 2.73-2.77 and 3.02 Å from its main phases, the di-, and tri-calcium silicates. X-ray diffraction analysis of airborne particles collected on glass fibre filters in the vicinity of cement factories in Karachi, Pakistan and Ravena, New York State, revealed limestone but no cement particles. This observation was consistent with our earlier inference drawn from chemical and statistical methods for Karachi's ambient aerosols. The method can complement the selective leaching technique suggested earlier by us for source identification. On the basis of model calculations, a methodology has been worked out that would make the present technique adaptable to plant conditions.

  19. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  20. PROSPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES IMPLEMENTATION IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Peshkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Russian cement industry is in decline. Enterprises operate on the basis of technologies developed in USSR. In this connection such fundamental issues of the enterprises functioning, as energy efficiency, environmental safety, resource-saving, resources provision and others, are overlooked. The paper attempts to define the priorities of the Russian cement industry development based on the experience of developed countries. The most promising technologies for the designated key areas were described and their benefits and drawbacks were identified. Due to the major role of the raw resources in Russian economy, the issues of increasing the efficiency of cement plants, should be discussed with considering the efficiency of mining enterprises extracting mineral raw materials needed for manufacturing process. Given the significant investments required to the industry modernization, which can not be achieved through government support, it is proposed to create conditions for the development of the integrated companies. In addition, a key factor that can ensure the sustainable development of the industry is a cross-sectoral co-operation, which will allow to organize a low-waste production cycle with a minimal costs of raw materials.

  1. Innovation and technical efficiency in Malaysian family manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Munisamy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the technical efficiency for each industry in the Malaysian manufacturing sector is estimated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. In order to pursue a balance of innovation between long-term and short-term performance strategy, we integrate the Balance Scorecard (BSC approach with DEA. Furthermore, this paper looks at the determinants of efficiency using the Tobit regression model. In measuring the level of firms’ efficiency and innovation, the wood and wood based products industry is emphasized due to its importance in the economic growth of manufacturing sector. In the wood and wood based products industry, the highest level of technical efficiency was achieved by two sub-sectors i.e. veneer sheets and plywood and laminboard, particle board and other panels board, with the mean value of technical efficiency of 1.081 and 1.097 respectively. Generally, the majority of the manufacturing firms are operating technical inefficiently. The distribution of DEA and DEA-BCS technical efficiency in Malaysian Manufacturing Industries show that most of the industries have the average technical efficiency scores greater than 1.05 with only 7 industries (13.21% in DEA-BSC model operating at or near to the most optimal productions.

  2. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  3. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  4. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

  5. THE INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING IN AREAS AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some internal factors have both positive and negative effects to people’s health, especially those who live in a polluted area. The area around the cement industry is an example of polluted area in which the lung capacity will be harmed. Aim: This research aimed at finding out internal factors affecting lung capacity of people living in the area around the cement industry. Methods: This research used a cross sectional study plan by measuring lung capacity (FEV1 and FVC of people living in four different locations. The locations were based on wind directions and within 3 km from the cement industry. The study plan was also done by connecting the measurement with other factors, such as age, physical activities, nutrition status and passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Results: Based on the calculation of lung capacity 241 respondents obtained 123 respondents (51% had a normal lung capacity, 105 respondents (43.6% had a restricted lung capacity, 4 respondents (1.7% had an obstructed lung capacity and 9 respondents (3.7% had a combination of a restricted and obstructed lung capacity. The age (p=0.977 and physical activities (p=0.087 of respondents had no effect on the lung capacity. However, nutrition status (p=0.011 and passive smoking or ETS (p=0.003 do. Conclusion: The nutrition status and the presence of a passive smoker were the internal factors affecting people’s lung capacity, especially for those who live around the cement industry. Thus, in order to avoid the impairment of lung capacity, people need to improve their nutrition and to avoid people smoking around them.

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF THE DECISIONS OF CONTROL AND AUDIT IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN CEMENT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia £êgowik-Œwi¹cik

    2011-01-01

    Inventory management in enterprises of cement industry necessitates the assessment of the level of risk which is generated by production inventory. The processes of control and auditing allow for planning, monitoring and organization of inventory management in the analysed business entities. This paper is aimed at presentation of the phase of preparation of audit activities in the area of inventory and verification of model solutions for the processes of control and audit in terms of inventor...

  7. Critical elements in implementations of just-in-time management: empirical study of cement industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mehwish; Bhatti, Mansoor Nazir; Shams, Tauqeer; Zaman, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, inventory management is continuous challenge for all organizations not only due to heavy cost associated with inventory holding, but also it has a great deal to do with the organizations production process. Cement industry is a growing sector of Pakistan's economy which is now facing problems in capacity utilization of their plants. This study attempts to identify the key strategies for successful implementation of just-in-time (JIT) management philosophy on the cement industry of Pakistan. The study uses survey responses from four hundred operations' managers of cement industry in order to know about the advantages and benefits that cement industry have experienced by Just in time (JIT) adoption. The results show that implementing the quality, product design, inventory management, supply chain and production plans embodied through the JIT philosophy which infect enhances cement industry competitiveness in Pakistan. JIT implementation increases performance by lower level of inventory, reduced operations & inventory costs was reduced eliminates wastage from the processes and reduced unnecessary production which is a big challenge for the manufacturer who are trying to maintain the continuous flow processes. JIT implementation is a vital manufacturing strategy that reaches capacity utilization and minimizes the rate of defect in continuous flow processes. The study emphasize the need for top management commitment in order to incorporate the necessary changes that need to take place in cement industry so that JIT implementation can take place in an effective manner.

  8. Eco-efficiency of the world cement industry: A data envelopment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oggioni, G., E-mail: oggioni@eco.unibs.i [University of Brescia, Faculty of Economics, Department of Quantitative Methods, IT-25122 Brescia (Italy); Riccardi, R., E-mail: riccardi@ec.unipi.i [University of Brescia, Faculty of Economics, Department of Quantitative Methods, IT-25122 Brescia (Italy); Toninelli, R., E-mail: roberta.toninelli@unifi.i [University of Pisa, Faculty of Economics, Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, IT-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Chemical reactions and the combustion of dirty fuels, such as coal and petroleum coke (petcoke), that are used in cement production processes generate a significant amount of CO{sub 2} emissions. In this paper, we provide an eco-efficiency measure for 21 prototypes of cement industries operating in many countries by applying both a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a directional distance function approach, which are particularly suitable for models where several production inputs and desirable and undesirable outputs are taken into account. To understand whether this eco-efficiency is due to a rational utilization of inputs or to a real carbon dioxide reduction as a consequence of environmental regulation, we analyze the cases where CO{sub 2} emissions can either be considered as an input or as an undesirable output. Empirical results show that countries where cement industries invest in technologically advanced kilns and adopt alternative fuels and raw materials in their production processes are eco-efficient. This gives a comparative advantage to emerging countries, such as India and China, which are incentivized to modernize their production processes.

  9. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The ...

  10. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates.

  11. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  13. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co-Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10-15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC-Co materials.

  14. German Cement Industry's voluntary efforts on the issue of climate change : a success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, V.; Schneider, M. [German Cement Industry (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In 1995, the cement industry in Germany stated that it would reduce energy consumption by 20 per cent between 1987 and 2005. In 2000, this commitment was adapted to international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. The voluntary agreement now includes a reduction of the specific energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2008/12 by 28 per cent. Burning and grinding facilities have been optimized in recent years and the cement industry in Germany is planning to increase the use of fossil fuels by using waste products and by promoting the marketing of blended cements. The energy related carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by 3.6 million tonnes per year from 1987 to 1999 in the German cement industry as a result of these efforts. The use of waste products has also been increased from 4 to 23 per cent during this same time period and the clinker portion in cement has been decreased from 86 to 80.6 per cent. Granulated blast-furnace slag and unburned limestone has become the main constituent in cement. This paper also discussed the extent to which other instruments such as emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism will have on the future of the cement industry. This paper was divided into several sections entitled: (1) voluntary agreement on climate change, (2) improvement in manufacturing processes, (3) optimization of existing kilns, (4) waste heat recovery, (5) reduction of electric power consumption, (6) remaining energy reduction potentials, (7) promotion of blended cement consumption, (8) market development, (9) use of secondary fuels, (10) greenhouse gas emissions, (11) energy related carbon dioxide emissions, (12) carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of limestone, and (13) other greenhouse gas emissions. 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Use of secondary fuels in rotary kilns of the cement industry; Einsatz von Sekundaerstoffen in Drehofenanlagen der Zementindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, V. [Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Most cement works in Germany use secondary materials for cement production or are planning to do so. Many of the materials in question, such as used tyres, have been recycled in an environmentally acceptable way for decades, and a large body of experience has accumulated on their use in the cement industry. In the cement industry secondary materials are understood to comprise secondary fuels as well as secondary raw materials. The latter have for some part replaced the natural raw materials used for burning cement clinker, the preliminary product of cement. By using used tyres, used oil and other waste materials as secondary fuels the cement industry has for decades contributed to an environmentally acceptable form of waste disposal. The use of secondary materials has also enabled the cement industry to improve its economic situation. In response to the enactment of the Materials Recycling Law the cement industry has during the past few years turned its attention to the utilisation of other waste materials. The criteria relevant to the cement industry`s choice of a waste material as secondary material lastly depends on the process-related side constraints attending the clinker burning process and the requirements on the burning process with regard to product quality and environmental acceptability. [Deutsch] Die meisten Zementwerke in Deutschland setzen bei der Zementherstellung Sekundaerstoffe ein oder planen ihren Einsatz. Fuer einige dieser Stoffe, wie z.B. Altreifen gilt, dass sie bereits seit Jahrzehnten umweltvertraeglich verwertet werden, so dass viele Erfahrungen ueber deren Einsatz in der Zementindustrie vorliegen. Unter Sekundaerstoffen werden in der Zementindustrie sowohl Sekundaerbrennstoffe wie auch Sekundaerrohstoffe verstanden. Letztere ersetzen teilweise die natuerlichen Rohstoffe, aus denen der Zementklinker, das Vorprodukt des Zements, gebrannt wird. Bezueglich der Sekundaerbrennstoffe traegt die Zementindustrie schon seit Jahrzehnten zu einer

  16. Writing Technical Documents for the Global Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    States that technical writers in the global pharmaceutical industry write for two audiences: regulatory agencies and healthcare practitioners. Contends that information products that address these audiences must balance the competing forces of business interests, market penetration, and the cultural variables of products so tied to people's…

  17. Writing Technical Documents for the Global Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    States that technical writers in the global pharmaceutical industry write for two audiences: regulatory agencies and healthcare practitioners. Contends that information products that address these audiences must balance the competing forces of business interests, market penetration, and the cultural variables of products so tied to people's…

  18. Job Stress and Burnout among Industrial and Technical Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; McMahan, Jama

    2003-01-01

    This study examined job stress and burnout among a random sample of 133 industrial and technical teacher educators. The Job Stress Survey (JSS) developed by Spielberger and Vagg (1999) measured stress; the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) developed by Maslach and Jackson (1996) measured burnout. Stepwise multiple…

  19. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China’s cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China’s cement industry is the second largest energy consumer and key emitter of CO2 and air pollutants, which accounts for 7% of China’s total energy consumption, 15% of CO2, and 14% of PM2.5, respectively. In this study, a state-of-the art modeling f...

  20. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of GHG

  1. Early Implementation of Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Removal Projects through the Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of large-scale carbon dioxide reduction projects requires high purity CO2and a reactive cation source. A project seeking to provide both of these requirements will likely face cost barriers with current carbon prices. The cement industry is a suitable early implementation site for such projects by virtue of the properties of its exhaust gases and those of waste concrete. Cement plants are the second largest source of industrial CO2 emissions, globally. It is also the second largest commodity after water, has no ready substitute and is literally the foundation of society. Finally, half of the CO2 emissions originate from process reactions rather than fossil fuel combustion resulting in higher flue gas CO2concentrations. These properties, with the co-benefits of oxygen combustion, create a favorable environment for spatially suitable projects. Oxygen combustion involves substituting produced oxygen for air in a combustion reaction. The absence of gaseous N2 necessitates the recirculation of exhaust gases to maintain kiln temperatures, which increase the CO2 concentrations from 28% to 80% or more. Gas exit temperatures are also elevated (>300oC) and can reach higher temperatures if the multi stage pre-heater towers, that recover heat, are re-designed in light of FGR. A ready source of cations can be found in waste concrete, a by-product of construction and demolition activities. These wastes can be processed to remove cations and then reacted with atmospheric CO2 to produce carbonate minerals. While not carbon negative, they represent a demonstration opportunity for binding atmospheric CO2while producing a saleable product (precipitated calcium carbonate). This paper will present experimental results on PCC production from waste concrete along with modeling results for oxygen combustion at cement facilities. The results will be presented with a view to mineral sequestration process design and implementation.

  2. Technical Efficiency of Automotive Industry Cluster in Chennai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-07-01

    Chennai is also called as Detroit of India due to its automotive industry presence producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, diagnostic study was conducted on the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai and in SWOT analysis it was found that it had faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. In the year 2004-2005 under the cluster development approach (CDA), they formed Chennai auto cluster, under public private partnership concept, received grant from Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu, Ambattur Municipality, bank loans and stake holders. This results development in infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships among ACI. The objective is to determine the correlation coefficient, regression equation, technical efficiency, peer weights, slack variables and return to scale of cluster before and after the CDA. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from ACI and analyzing using data envelopment analysis (DEA) of input oriented Banker-Charnes-Cooper model. There is significant increase in correlation coefficient and the regression analysis reveals that for one percent increase in employment and net worth, the gross output increases significantly after the CDA. The DEA solver gives the technical efficiency of ACI by taking shift, employment, net worth as input data and quality, gross output and export ratio as output data. From the technical score and ranking of ACI, it is found that there is significant increase in technical efficiency of ACI when compared to CDA. The slack variables obtained clearly reveals the excess employment and net worth and no shortage of gross output. To conclude there is increase in technical efficiency of not only Chennai auto cluster in general but also Chennai auto components industries in particular.

  3. Periclase spinel bricks in the cement industry. Periklas-Spinell-Steine in der Zementindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, M.; Dobrowsky, F.

    1989-10-01

    Intensified environmental requirements are leading some countries to abandon refractory products which contain chromium. The industry is being asked to develop corresponding products which are free from chrome ore so that substitution is possible without a break. In addition to spinel bricks which are produced by a reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO when the brick is fired there are also those containing spinel which has been prepared in advance. The present article makes a partial comparison of the two types with respect to their important physical test values. Details are also given of their thermomechanical and coating behaviours including a comparison with traditional magnesia chrome bricks. The comparison shows that the refractory industry is in a position to offer a complete, chrome-free, lining for rotary cement kilns which can even show improvements in quality. (orig.).

  4. Application of a system dynamics approach for assessment and mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions from the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalini Anand; Prem Vrat; R.P. Dahiya [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2006-06-15

    A system dynamics model based on the dynamic interactions among a number of system components is developed to estimate CO{sub 2} emissions from the cement industry in India. The CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to reach 396.89 million tonnes by the year 2020 if the existing cement making technological options are followed. Policy options of population growth stabilisation, energy conservation and structural management in cement manufacturing processes are incorporated for developing the CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios. A 42% reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved in the year 2020 based on an integrated mitigation scenario. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport of raw materials to the cement plants and finished product to market are also estimated.

  5. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.; Juan, C.A.S.; Rau, G.H.; Caldeira, K.

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

  7. Maintenance Free and Sustainable High-Level Control in Cement and Mining Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Fink

    2009-01-01

    High-level control systems have been utilized in the process industry for decades, and also in cement production their use is well established. In comparison to manual control their ability to increase production and quality of end product, while reducing energy consumption and emission, is well...... that navigating the source code, understanding the interaction of signals and tracking down the statement in the code responsible for the problem is the issues which require expert knowledge and they are very time consuming. In contrast, it is relatively simple to conduct the actual modification once the few...... to be logged is compatible with the storage capacity of current computers. Preliminary statistical analysis of the logged data shows that normal and abnormal behavior of a real-world control algorithm can be distinguished so an alarm can be raised. The method enables backtracking of signal dependencies...

  8. Process development for utilizing asbestos cement waste in rotary kilns for the cement industry. Final report; Erarbeitung eines Verfahrens zur stofflichen Verwertung von zementgebundenen Asbestprodukten in Drehrohroefen fuer die Zementindustrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, R.; Kieser, J.; Kraehner, A.

    1999-11-01

    The law for recycling and waste demands the utilization also for waste of asbestos cement (ac). The procedure of thermal utilization of ac in the flame of a rotary cement kiln was developed and patented by the research institute IBU-tec Weimar, Germany. The ac-material has to be pre-pulverized and grinded to a degree of fineness of R{sub 90}<15%. Considerations of safety engineering lead to the idea of common fine grinding of old oil (oo) and ac. This new procedure was searched in FuE-project in 1998/99 (financial support by BMBF). A mash of ac and oo was generated as a utilization product ready for firing which was injected into the flame of the rotary cement kiln. This particles of ac smelt to spherical shaped particles at a temperature above 1500 C. They were utilized by clinker formation. The material and gas stream leaving the kiln does not contain fibres of asbestos. This was demonstrated in a small equipment burning test. The industrial realization concerning cement plant Ruedersdorf, near Berlin, was searched, technologically described and safety engineeringly and financially assessed by a project study. Process-technical and financial advantages were seen for the dry fine grinding. The wet fine grinding with old oil could be used in cement plants using old oil as fuel. (orig.) [German] Das Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (1994) fordert u.a. die stoffliche Verwertung auch fuer Asbestzementabfaelle (AZ). Das vom Institut fuer Baustoff- und Umweltschutz-Technologie Weimar 1995 entwickelte und patentierte Verfahren zur thermischen Verwertung von AZ in der Flamme eines Zementdrehrohrofens erfuellt diese Forderung. Das AZ-Material muss vorzerkleinert und bis zur Rohmehlfeinheit (R{sub 90}<15%) feingemahlen werden. Sicherheitstechnische Ueberlegungen fuehrten zu der Idee, die Feinmahlung zusammen mit Altoel (AOe) zu erproben. Diese Verfahrensvariante wurde im Rahmen eines FuE-Projektes 1998/99 untersucht (finanzielle Foerderung durch das BMBF). Als

  9. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  10. TECHNICAL NOTE: Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric ceramic sulphoaluminate cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Huang, Shifeng; Chang, Jun; Lu, Lingchao; Liu, Futian; Ye, Zengmao; Wang, Shoude

    2005-10-01

    Using cement as the matrix of piezoelectric smart composites can solve the problem of mismatch of smart composites and concrete structure in civil engineering. 0 3 cement based piezoelectric composites were fabricated by a compression technique using PMN and sulphoaluminate cement as raw materials. The influence of the PMN content on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites was investigated. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the composites was discussed in detail. The results indicate that the dielectric constants are almost constant in the temperature range from -30 to 50 °C, which shows excellent dielectric temperature stability. With increasing PMN content, the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites increase. The theoretical values of the dielectric constants show good agreement with the experimental values for the composites.

  11. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  12. Reduction of soil pollution by usingwaste of the limestone in the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M. Cecilia Soto; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Blanco Fernandez, David; Diaz Gonzalez, Marcos; Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Moore Undurraga, Fernando; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    In the cement manufacturing process (wet) a residue is generated in the flotation process. This builds up causing contamination of soil, groundwater and agricultural land unusable type. In this study to reduce soil and water pollution 10% of the dose of cement was replaced by waste of origin limestone. Concretes were produced with 3 doses of cement and mechanical strengths of each type of concrete to 7, 28 and 90 days were determined. the results indicate that the characteristics of calcareous residue can replace up to 10% of the dose of cement without significant decreases in strength occurs. It is noted that use of the residue reduces the initial resistance, so that the dose of cement should not be less than 200 kg of cement per m3. The results allow recommends the use of limestone waste since it has been observed decrease in soil and water contamination without prejudice construction material Keywords: Soil contamination; Limestone residue; Adding concrete

  13. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    , significant excess risks were found for cancer of the lung (O/E 1.80; 95% CI 1.54-2.10), pleura (O/E 5.46; 95% CI 2.62-10.05), mediastinum (O/E 5.00; 95% CI 1.01-14.61), stomach (O/E 1.43; 95% CI 1.03-1.93), and other male genital organs (O/E 3.03; 95% CI 1.11-6.60). The mortality was significantly increased......In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600...

  14. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  15. Biomass use in the Dutch cement industry ENCI, Maastricht, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Based in the Netherlands, ENCI is a division of HeidelbergCement active in the Benelux countries. It possesses three main production facilities in the Netherlands, of which the biggest is the integrated production plant in Maastricht. ENCI has been generating cement from Maastricht since 1926, and d

  16. Impact of Working Capital Management on Firm’s Profitability: A Case Study of Cement Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Shahzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental purpose behind this study is to exactly test the effect of working capital management on profitability of cement industry of Pakistan. To explore this relationship between these two, the creator gathered auxiliary information from 12 listed firms in Karachi stock exchange (KSC for the time period of 2007-2013. For this reason, in this study we utilize variable of return on assets ratio to gauge the benefit of organization and variables of CR, QR, NCA/TA, WCT and ITR as living up to expectations working capital management criteria. The consequences of the research demonstrate that there is a huge effect of the working capital management on profitability of cement industry of Pakistan. Accordingly, manager may improve the Profitability of their organizations by minimizing the inventory turnover ratio, and by diminishing working capital turnover ratio but there is no impact of expanding or diminishing the current proportion on profitability. Along these lines, the results show that through fitting working capital management the organization can expand its benefit. This study shall be helping hand for the cement industry of Pakistan in the management of their working capital in such an effective way thus, to the point that they can increase their profitability.

  17. Review of Relationship between Capital and Stock Return in Automotive and Cement Industries at Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Gholami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to consider relationship between Increase of capital and Shares return in Automotive and Cement industries at Tehran Stocks Exchange. Statistical population under this study consists of any related companies to Automotive and Cement industries which were accepted in Tehran Stocks Exchange during 2005 to 2010. The Statistical population has been divided to experimental and control group, while experimental group faced with increase in capital the other group was not; 27 companies from first group and 12 companies of second group were chosen as statistical samples under this study. Student’s T-test and paired T-test were utilized in order to test hypotheses of this study and 19SPSS software was applied for analyzing data. Results have indicated increase in capital is not positive factor to increase in shares return. On the other hand, there is no impact of increasing in capital on shares return in the companies of Automotive and Cement industries which were accepted at Tehran Stocks Exchange.

  18. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K; Korsgaard, B

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600 times over the present Danish threshold limit value of 0.5 fibre/ml. In 1973 more than 41% of personal samples were higher than 2 f/ml. About 76% of the workforce left the factory within five years of starting employment. A total of 1346 deaths and 612 cases of cancer were observed in the cohort between 1943 and 1984. Among employed men the overall mortality (O/E 1.18; 95% CI 1.12-1.25), cancer mortality (O/E 1.32; 95% CI 1.19-1.46), and overall incidence of cancer (O/E 1.22; 95% CI 1.12-1.32) were significantly increased compared with all Danish men. This was not so among employed women. For men, significant excess risks were found for cancer of the lung (O/E 1.80; 95% CI 1.54-2.10), pleura (O/E 5.46; 95% CI 2.62-10.05), mediastinum (O/E 5.00; 95% CI 1.01-14.61), stomach (O/E 1.43; 95% CI 1.03-1.93), and other male genital organs (O/E 3.03; 95% CI 1.11-6.60). The mortality was significantly increased for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed when the original notification forms were reviewed for all patients with cancer in the cohort. PMID:2923830

  19. Energy conservation in industry: Technical feasibility and obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy))

    A comparison of Italy's energy requirements with those of other industrialized countries reveals that, while this nation does not have a particularly burdensome energy demand, it is strongly dependent on foreign energy supplies, and thus must have recourse to energy conservation. This analysis of energy demand and energy conservation in Italy focusses on industrial trends witnessed over the last decade. Here, it is noted that energy conservation received attention early in the 1980's as energy prices increased - a trend which died, however, with this current span of relatively stable prices. Noted obstacles to vigorous energy conservation include: a strong tendency towards the use of conventional, proven technologies; difficulties in evaluating the benefits of innovative energy savings equipment alternatives due to oil price uncertainty; and the pronounced lack of sufficiently well trained energy managers. On the technical side, sound energy savings systems are coming on the market, e.g., heat pumps, cogeneration systems, etc., but marketing efforts for these products have yet to incorporate effective programs for information dissemination and operator training.

  20. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  1. 水泥窑处理工业废物的工厂实验研究%Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 白庆中

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilns (CRKs) is an alternative technology for thetreatment of certain types of industrial waste (IW). In this paper, three typical types of industrial wastes wereco-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal (especially solid wastedisposal) on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission. Experimental results showthat (1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash, and fly ash after the IW disposal can still beused in the cement production, (2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China NationalStandard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard (GB 16297-1996).

  2. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 °C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY·AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY·AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3)] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO(5)]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY·AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  3. Improvement of Early Strength of Cement Mortar Containing Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Using Industrial Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyoung Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of construction, securing the early strength of concrete (on the first and third days of aging has been an important problem in deciding the mold release time (i.e., shortening the construction time period. Therefore, the problem of reduced compressive strength in the early aging stage caused by mixing granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS with concrete must certainly be resolved. In this study, we conduct experiments to explore methods for generating a concrete that develops an early strength equivalent to that of 100% OPC. The objective of this study is the development of an early-strength accelerator (ESA made from an industrial by-product, for a GBFS-mixed cement mortar. This study also analyzes the mechanism of the early-strength generation in the concrete to evaluate the influence of the burning temperature of ESA on the optimal compressive strength of the concrete. According to the results of the experiment, GBFS, whose ESA is burnt at 800 °C, shows an activation factor of 102.6–104.7% in comparison with 100% OPC on the first and third days during early aging, thereby meeting the target compressive strength. The results of the micro-analytic experiment are as follows: ESA showed a pH of strongly alkaline. In addition, it was found that the content of SO3 was high in the chemical components, thus activating the hydration reaction of GBFS in the early age. This initial hydration reaction was thought to be due to the increase in the filling effect of the hydrate and the generation of C-S-H of the early age by the mass production of Ettringite.

  4. Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case Study of the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lobscheid, Agnes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dai, Yue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    China’s cement industry accounted for more than half of the world’s total cement production in 2010. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of total national PM emissions. Although specific regulations and policies are needed to reduce the pollutant emissions from the cement industry, air pollution can also be reduced as a co-benefit of energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation policies and programs. Quantifying and accounting for these co-benefits when evaluating energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation programs reveals benefits beyond the programs’ energy and global warming impacts and adds to their cost effectiveness. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reductions that result from energy-saving measures in China’s cement industry.

  5. Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Hediat M H; Al-Rumaih, M M; Al-Dosary, M A

    2011-07-01

    Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollutant emissions. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents recorded reductions in values compared to control plant, and the lowest values of chlorophyll A, B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total pigments were 0.431, 0.169, 0.60, 0.343 and 0.943 mg/g respectively at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory in fruiting stage. These changes in values may be attributed to a probable deceleration of the biosynthetic process rather than degradation of pigments. Further D. innoxia showed a significant (P plant. The root system recorded the lowest values of reducing sugars (0.350 mg/g f. wt.), non-reducing sugars (0.116 mg/g f. wt.), total sugars (0.466 mg/g f. wt.), protein content (0.931 mg/g f. wt.) and total lipids content (0.669 mg/g f. wt.) in fruiting stage at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory. The peroxidase activity of shoot and root systems of the studied plant was also significantly higher than those of control plant. Thus a highest value of (29.616 units/g f. wt.) peroxidase activity was recorded in vegetative stage of shoot system at a distance 1-5 m from the cement factory. Results of the study indicated that cement industry emission strongly influence the physiology and morphology of date palm D. innoxia which contribute date fruits, a staple food in the Arab world.

  6. Use of the “red gypsum” industrial waste as substitute of natural gypsum for commercial cements manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gázquez, M. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research has been the valorisation of a waste from the TiO2 production process (sulphate method, called red gypsum, in the production of cements. This waste is mainly formed by di-hydrate calcium sulphate and iron hydroxides. To cover this objective it has been necessary to perform the physico-chemical characterisation of the red gypsum as well as the main components in the production of cements and of the new cements generated. Moreover, for the red gypsum, has been analyzed its radioactive content because it is generated in a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials industry. Finally, the most important properties of the obtained cements with different proportions of red gypsum in their composition have been studied by comparing them with the standard ones obtained in a Portland cement. Lastly, we have demonstrated that the new cements fulfil all the quality tests imposed by the European legislation.

    El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar la valorización de un residuo generado en el proceso de producción de dióxido de titanio (vía sulfato, denominado yeso rojo, en la producción de cementos. Dicho residuo está compuesto fundamentalmente por sulfato de calcio di-hidratado e hidróxidos de hierro. Para ello, ha sido necesaria la caracterización físico-química del yeso rojo, así como la de los otros componentes fundamentales en la fabricación de cementos y de los cementos generados con el mencionado residuo. Además, en el caso del yeso rojo, se ha analizado su contenido radiactivo al generarse éste en una industria NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials. Posteriormente, se han estudiado las propiedades más importantes de los cementos producidos con diferentes porcentajes de yeso rojo añadido, comparando estas mezclas con las propiedades de un cemento Portland comercial, comprobándose que se cumplen todas las normas Europeas de calidad exigibles.

  7. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF RAW MATERIALS FOR THE CEMENT INDUSTRY OF SPLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Matijaca

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to the last two decades cement was produced from mari called »tupina« (with about 76% CaCOj which is an ideal mixture for cement production. Due to the quantity decrease of this raw material, cement production went on using the mixture of other members of the flysch series: limestones, marls, clay, loess, sandstones a.o. By the analysis of natural materials the CaCO^ content has mostly been proved. Therefore, knowing the correlation of oxides in mineral raw material is of special significance. The article discusses investigation results of the correlation between CaCO-i and other oxides of the raw material (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Explorations on Energy Management System Standardization in Cement Industry%水泥行业能源管理体系标准进展及实施探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 王赓; 任香贵

    2014-01-01

    The energy-saving management of China’s cement industry has gradually improved in recent years;however, cement industry still faces big pressure of facilitating energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on the current development of cement industry, the paper summarizes and analyzes the application and promotion of energy management system (EnMS) standardization in cement industry, then gives a brief introduction to the implementation of related standards and at last explores the positive function of energy management system in enhancing enterprises’ energy management and improving energy performance.

  9. Application of thermal energy storage in the cement industry. Final report, September 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegr, F.A.; Beshore, D.G.; Miller, F.M.; Gartner, E.M.

    1978-10-01

    In the manufacture of cement, literally trillions of Btu's are rejected to the environment each year. The purpose of this feasibility study program was to determine whether thermal energy storage could be used to conserve or allow alternative uses of this rejected energy. This study identifies and quantifies the sources of rejected energy in the cement manufacturing process, establishes use of this energy, investigates various storage system concepts, and selects energy conservation systems for further study. Thermal performance and economic analyses are performed on candidate storage systems for four typical cement plants representing various methods of manufacturing cement. Through the use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year, or an equivalent of 4.0 x 10/sup 6/ barrels of oil per year, can be conserved. Attractive rates of return on investment of the proposed systems are an incentive for further development.

  10. Effect of high-quality technical capacity characteristics to the impact of industrial production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of the qualitative assessment of the technical capacity of the economic industrial organizations, in which the development of methods for assessment and management of heterogeneous quality of resources requires establishing their resultant value at any ratio of the structural elements (resources and the definition (increase or decrease the effectiveness of their quantitative characteristics. The extent of the qualitative assessment of the adequacy of technical capacity of industry organizations has a direct impact on the efficiency of its formation. The article made specific calculations to identify the functional relationship between the productivity of industrial production and the main characteristics of the technical capacity of industry organizations Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions. It was concluded that the negative correlation between the quantitative security technology and efficiency of industrial production - the last influence energy power technical capacity. The equations of regression, depending on the factor variable, made their forecast.

  11. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voglar, Grega E. [RDA - Regional Development Agency Celje, Kidriceva ulica 25, 3000 Celje (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. {yields} Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. {yields} We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm{sup -2} achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  12. Ranking of Companies based on TOPSIS-DEA Approach Methods (Case Study of Cement Industry in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mansory

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ranking options has always been the main issue for managers. There are a lot of qualitative and quantitative approaches for ranking. However most of the approaches for separating and ranking corporations in stock market are less reliable and the results obtained will be invalid. While the evaluation obtained merely through qualitative or quantitative approaches alone, the advantages of integration will be ignored. Thus logically the efficiency of result will be questionable. Thus in this paper the advantages of qualitative and quantitative approaches are integrated which in turn bring about more precision in values of input and output indices. Hence in this paper the approaches, TOPSIS & DEA, have been introduced to rate active companies in cement industry accepted in Tehran stock market. The approach adopted in this paper is applicable and carried out during 2006-2011 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock market in cement industry (28 companies and at the end a precise ranking of the companies is presented by integrattive techniques.

  13. THE LIMITATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CEMENT INDUSTRY IN HUANGSHI%黄石水泥工业的限制与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范方禄

    2001-01-01

    国家明令控制水泥总量,关闭小水泥厂,调整产业结构,黄石水泥工业产品过剩,且良莠不齐。本文就现状情况进行分析讨论,从小水泥厂淘汰看黄石水泥工业的出路。%It is ordered by our country that we should control the totaloutput of cement, close down small cement plants and adjust the industrial structure. In Huangshi,the product of the cement industry is overproduced and the industrial development is inhomogeneous. This essay discusses the current situation, Looking into its future when the small plants are eliminated.

  14. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  15. Functioning of Oil and Gas Industry Technical Committees in Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanserik B. Ilmaliev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings in complex analysis of the existing legal, organizational problems of technical committees, particularly the ones in oil and gas industry and offers ways to overcome them

  16. Application of Technical and Economic Anatomy(TEA)in Industrial Engineering(IE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZengJianqiu

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,a new method,Technical and Economic Anatomy(TEA),is introduced and further,to discuss its application in industrial Engineering(IE).TEA is a method of after-evaluation which is being used in more and more fields.Feasibility Study(FS).Value Engineering(VE)and Technical and Economic Anatomy(TEA) will be called before-evaluation,Middle-evaluation and after-evaluation in Technical Economics or Engineering Economics.

  17. Getting Technical: The Vicissitudes of Academic Industrial Chemistry in Nineteenth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the history of chemistry instruction in English higher education, particularly the development of technical, or industrial, chemistry. Describes attempts to develop independent courses and departments of technical chemistry in the second half of the 19th century and the difficulties experienced. Extends the discussion to applied science…

  18. Synthesis and mechanical properties of a calcium sulphoaluminate cement made of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally-friendly calcium sulphoaluminate clinkers were obtained from a mixture of aluminium dross, fluorgypsum, fly ash and CaCO₃ at temperatures within the range of 1100 to 1400 °C. After the heat treatments Ca₄Al₆O₁₂SO₄ was the main phase. Three different cements were prepared using the clinkers synthesized at 1250, 1350 and 1400 °C; the clinker powders were mixed with 20 wt% of hemihydrate. Cement pastes were prepared using a water/cement ratio (w/c, 0.4 followed by curing at 20 or 40 °C for periods of time ranging from 1 to 28 days. Most of the samples showed high compression strengths 40–47 MPa after 28 days, which were comparable to the strength of Portland cement. Ettringite was the main hydration product and its morphology consisted of acicular and hexagonal plates, which is typical of this phase.Se fabricaron clinkers de bajo impacto ambiental a base de sulfoaluminato de calcio calcinando mezclas de escoria de aluminio, fluoryeso, ceniza volante y CaCO₃ a diferentes temperaturas dentro de un rango de 1100 a 1400 °C. Se observó la formación de Ca₄Al₆O₁₂SO₄ como fase principal. Para obtener los cementos, los clinkers obtenidos a 1250, 1350 y 1400 °C se mezclaron con 20% en peso de hemihidrato. Se prepararon pastas usando una relación agua/cemento, de 0.4 y se curaron a 20 y 40 °C por diferentes periodos de tiempo desde 1 hasta 28 días. Los valores de resistencia a la compresión a los 28 días de curado de la mayoría de las muestras estuvieron entre 40–47 MPa, equiparables a los de referencia de pastas de cemento Portland. La etringita fue el principal producto de hidratación y su morfología consistió de placas hexagonales y aciculares, típicas de esta fase.

  19. POZZOLAN AND CEMENTS WITH POZZOLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan KAPLAN; Hanifi BİNİCİ

    1995-01-01

    Cement, one of the basic material of construction engineering, has an important place in view of strength and cost of structures. Cement consumption is increasing parallel to development of building construction sector. For cement producers, minimal cost is desired by using new and economical material sources. On the other hand, the controllers and contractors need cheaper, safer and higher strength materials. From this respect cement industry tends to use cement with pozzolan. In Türkiye, ce...

  20. Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2emissions from the global steel and cement industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ruijven, Bas J.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Boskaljon, Willem; Neelis, Maarten L.; Saygin, Deger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a global simulation-model for the steel and cement industries. The model covers the full modelling chain from economic activity, to materials consumption, trade, technology choice, production capacity, energy use and CO2emissions. Without climate policy, the future projections

  1. Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2emissions from the global steel and cement industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ruijven, Bas J.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Boskaljon, Willem; Neelis, Maarten L.; Saygin, Deger; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a global simulation-model for the steel and cement industries. The model covers the full modelling chain from economic activity, to materials consumption, trade, technology choice, production capacity, energy use and CO2emissions. Without climate policy, the future projections ba

  2. Design, Explanation, and Evaluation of Training Model Structures Based on Learning Organization--In the Cement Industry with a Nominal Production Capacity of Ten Thousand Tons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mojtaba; Abbspour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effectiveness of training based on learning organization in the staff of cement industry with production capacity over ten thousand tons. The purpose of this study is to propose a training model based on learning organization. For this purpose, the factors of organizational learning were introduced by…

  3. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of calcined alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of conventional and low-cement ferrochrome slag-based castables were prepared from 40 wt.% ferrochrome slag and 45 wt.% calcined bauxite. Rest fraction varied between high alumina cement (HAC acting as hydraulic binder and calcined alumina as pore filling additive. Standard ASTM size briquettes were prepared for crushing and bending strengths evaluation, and the samples were then subjected to firing at 800, 1100 and 1300 °C for a soaking period of 3 h. The microstructure and refractory properties of the prepared castables have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cold crushing strength, modulus of rupture and permanent linear changes (PLCs test. Castables show good volume stability (linear change <0.7% at 1300 °C. The outcomes of these investigations were efficacious and in accordance with previously reported data of similar compositions. High thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties were attained pointing out an outstanding potential to increase the refractory lining working life of non-recovery coke oven and reheating furnaces.

  4. System of lower cogeneration in the cement industry; Sistema de cogeneracion inferior en la industria del cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H.; Vazquez, A; Ambriz, J. J.; Fosado, A.; Cedillo, D.; Sanchez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper present work, the design of a cogeneration system was made, taking advantage of the waste thermal flows in a cement manufacturing industry. The costs by concept of energy sources in the cement industry represent between 30 and 60% of the production costs, reason why any diminution in its consumption, will be reflected considerably in the productivity of the company. In order to determine the available capacity of waste energy and to establish the dimension of the cogeneration system it was decided to initially conduct balances of matter and energy of a cement production train. For the evaluation and numerical simulation a case study of a national plant was taken. The analysis takes only into account the rotary kiln, the pre roaster, the gas cooler or conditioner, the cooler of clinker and the separators or dust recuperators. In this study the electrical mills nor the systems that operate all over the plant have been taken in consideration. The results show that in general a high potential of co-generation exists since in some cases the heat losses can reach up to a 50% of the calorific energy input. The capacity of electrical generation by means of a steam turbine when taking advantage of a fraction (in the order of 60%) the residual heat, can be between 200 and 300 watts per kilogram of clinker produced. In conclusion, when recovering by means of appropriate heat exchangers for each one of the mentioned equipment the wasted energy and a network of heat interchange optimized by means of modern technologies an important part of the electrical energy that a cement mill uses can be generated. The method used has been very attractive and with the possibility of applying it to any cement mill and thus evaluate the potentials of energy co-generation. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, se realizo el diseno de un sistema de cogeneracion aprovechando las corrientes termicas de desecho en una industria de fabricacion de cemento. Los costos por concepto de

  5. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, E M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III : The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involvi...

  7. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  8. Lime mud from cellulose industry as raw material in cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo, R. C.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of lime mud (LM in cement-based-mortars. Lime mud is a waste generated in the production of cellulose by the kraft mill process. It is mainly composed of CaCO3, a small amount of magnesium carbonate and other trace minerals. Mortars were prepared by adding different amounts of LM (10, 20 and 30% by weight of cement in dry weight. The mortar compositions were evaluated through rheology and flow table measurements, assuring that all the samples exhibited adequate conditions for testing in both equipments. The hardened state properties were also evaluated through mechanical strengths at 7, 28 and 90 days of curing. Following a waste management solution perspective, this work intend to provide a general evaluation of LM application in cement based mortars, looking at both fresh and hardened properties in order to guarantee that the final application requirements are not hindered.Este estudio revela el uso de lodo de carbonato (LM en morteros de cemento. El LM es un residuo compuesto principalmente por CaCO3 generado en la producción de pasta de papel por el método Kraft. Los morteros se prepararon a partir de la adición de diferentes niveles de LM (10, 20 y 30% en peso de cemento en peso seco. Las composiciones de los morteros fueron caracterizadas através de mediciones de reología de mesa y de flujo, asegurando que las muestras exhibían condiciones adecuadas para su caracterización en ambos equipamientos. Las propiedades en estado endurecido también se evaluaron através de resistencias mecánicas a los 7, 28 y 90 días de cura. Con objeto de gestión de residuos, este trabajo tiene la intención de proporcionar una visión general de la aplicación de LM en los morteros, haciendo hincapié en las propiedades con el fin de garantizar que los requisitos para su aplicación final no se vean obstaculizados.

  9. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Gul, Rahmat; Ara, Tauseef; Hussain, Manzur

    2012-09-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in latrite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E(eff)) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications.

  10. A study on the effect of working capital management on profitability on Cement and Petrochemical industries: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khaksarian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of working capital management on profitability on Cement and Petrochemical industries. The study uses the information of 24 firms from Cement industry and 19 firms from Petrochemical industry listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. There are two independent variables including the ratio of current assets on total assets as well as the ratio of current liabilities on total assets in this survey. In addition, there are two dependent variables including return on assets (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study also considers firm size, sales’ growth, financial leverage, gross domestic product growth as control variables. Using stepwise regression technique, the study confirms a positive and meaningful relationship between working capital criteria and profitability. In addition, the study confirms that as the ratio of current assets to total assets increases, ROA and Tobin’s Q will be reduced, which means lower profitability would be resulted. In addition, as financial leverage increases, ROA in both industries will reduce while Tobin’s Q will increase in Cement industry and will reduce in Petrochemical industry.

  11. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of microsilica addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Samples with decreasing cement content 15–05 wt.% were formulated in combination of both slag and calcined bauxite as matrix components. Effects of varying 0–10 wt.% microsilica as a micro-fine additive in these castables were investigated in this work. Pore filling properties of microsilica improved apparent porosity and bulk density. Phase analysis through X-ray diffraction techniques demonstrates successful formation of spinel and mullite crystalline phases. Mechanical behavior was evaluated through cold crushing strength and residual cold crushing strength after five consecutive water quenching cycles. Scanning electron microscopy measurements were carried out in order to better understand the packing density and reaction mechanisms of fired castables. Slag containing castables portrays good thermal properties such as thermal shock resistance, permanent linear change and pyrometric cone equivalent.

  12. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    times over the present Danish threshold limit value of 0.5 fibre/ml. In 1973 more than 41% of personal samples were higher than 2 f/ml. About 76% of the workforce left the factory within five years of starting employment. A total of 1346 deaths and 612 cases of cancer were observed in the cohort between...... for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  13. Corporate Governance Impact on Firm Performance: Evidence from Cement Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals relation between three corporate governance instruments (Board Size, Board Composition and CEO-Status and one firm performance is measured using accounting-based measures (return on asset (ROA of Karachi Stock Exchange listed cement firms is observed for the period 2007–2013. The ADF Test Multiple Regression and T-test exploration are applied to examine the significance & dependency of the overhead stated variables. Panel data methodology is utilized by estimate the arithmetic means, T-test and OLC by using the E-views. The finding revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between ROA with board size and negative significant relationship between ROA with CEO-Status furthermore insignificant relationship between ROA with Board composition. The ramifications of this is that the board size ought to be restricted to a sizeable utmost also that the post of the CEO ought to be possessed by distinctive persons.

  14. 53rd Cement Technical Conference. Expansion and contraction 1; Dai 53 kai semento gijutsu taikai. Bocho, shushuku 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, Takumi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    Mokuzen et al studied the relationship of gas pressure and speed constant while deriving suction speed constant from the results of suction experiments of gas molecule to minute pore wall, and discussed what changes will occur caused by different cement water ratio and ages of the cement. Baba et al reported the experiment results concerning changing of gap pressure and contraction of very initial age cement paste under dry and non-dry conditions. Yamada et al reported the experiment results concerning water motion and contraction properties inside plane plate specimens of super high strength concrete. Imori et al reported the experiment results of shearing resistance of reinforced concrete beams that have cracks pre-introduced in cross section by dry contraction or temperature stress, and discussed its calculation method. Hotta et al studied the experimental method concerning volume changing of cement paste including that before agglutination, and reported the experiment results. (NEDO)

  15. 53rd Cement Technical Conference. The property of cement and mortar 2; Dai 53 kai semento gijutsu taikai. Semento, morutaru noseishitsu 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Naohiro [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    Shin et al examined the neutralization phenomena in the placing joint part of mortar in the relation the placing joint time and the pore structure. Especially, it was concluded that pores more than 0.1{mu}m increased in the placing joint part by the influence of the freezing water and neutralization was promoted with an increasing of the placing joint time. Kawabe et al measured the radio wave absorption characteristics by mixing the conductive carbon fiber into mortar to be used as an electromagnetic wave absorption wall. Tokawa et al evaluated the flowability of concrete by separation of mortar from high flow concrete. Kojima et al. examined the reuse to lightweight mortar to be an aggregate of the discarded epoxy resin chip. Kawano et al. adjusted the clinker containing several percent crystals as the super fast-strong cement. The hydration reaction of alite from the initial age was promoted in addition of sodium sulfate anhydride, and high compress strength more than that in the fast-strong cement hardening body was obtained regardless of age. (NEDO)

  16. How to Set the Allowance Benchmarking for Cement Industry in China’s Carbon Market: Marginal Analysis and the Case of the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG benchmarking for allocation serves as rewards for early actions in mitigating GHG emissions by using more advanced technologies. China Hubei launched the carbon emission trading pilot in 2014, with the cement industry represented as a major contributor to the GHG emissions in Hubei. This article is set to establish a general benchmarking framework by describing and calculating the marginal abatement cost curve (MACC and marginal revenue and then comparing the different GHG benchmarking approaches for the cement industry in the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot (Hubei ETS case. Based on the comparison of three GHG benchmarking approaches, the Waxman-Markey standard, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS cement benchmarking, and the benchmarking approach applied in California Cap-and-Trade program, it is found that; (1 the Waxman-Markey benchmark is too loose to apply in Hubei as it provides little incentive for companies to mitigate; (2 the EU ETS benchmark approach fits the current cement industry in Hubei ETS; and (3 the GHG benchmarking standard in the California Cap-and-Trade Program is the most stringent standard and drives the direction of the future development for Hubei ETS.

  17. System for Sewing Machine Industry Standard Innovation——Constructive Research for a Technical Standards System for Sewing Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Constructive research of a market-oriented industry's system of technical standardization by redefining those technical standards is the basis of innovation. Through considering and implementing innovation of the industry's standards,rapid development and standardization of the industry can be achieved.

  18. Ocular injuries in industrial technical workers in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.T.Edema; A.E.Omoti; F.B.Akinsola; P.A.Aigbotsua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the types and causes of eye injury in industrial workers. Methods: A cross sectional study of the pattern of ocular injuries in Delta state of Nigeria was carried out over 3 months. Five hundred workers were interviewed and examined using the Snellen's chart, pen-torch, direct ophthalmoscope, magnifying loupe and the Perkin's hand-held applanation tonometer. Results: All the 500 workers were males. One hundred and twenty-three workers (24.6%) reported a history of ocular injury at work. The most common causative agents were sand dust, 53 workers (25.1%); cake dust, 27 workers (12.8%) and chemicals, 32 workers (15.1%). The main types of ocular injury were corneal/ conjunctival foreign bodies, 79 workers (64.2%); burns, 35 workers (28.5%) and blunt injury, 9 workers (7.3%). Only 36 (7.2%) workers used protective eye devices at work. Thirteen workers (2.6%) developed monocular blindness from ocular injury. Conclusion: Ocular injury at work is common and few workers wear protective devices at work in industries in Delta state, Nigeria. Industrial workers should have regular eye services and wear eye safety devices at work.

  19. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry--semi-automated sample preparation unit as a means for facilitated practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Pomberger, Roland; Lorber, Karl E; Sipple, Ernst-Michael

    2016-03-01

    One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohožnik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample.

  20. State-of-the-art of furnace recuperation in the primary metals industry: technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, N.L.

    1983-08-01

    Existing and emerging recuperator technology is identified, as well as the technical and economic issues in applying such technology. An overview of recuperation and its relevance to the primary metals industry is presented. Design considerations, equipment, and energy and cost savings of five recuperator applications in the primary metals industry are examined. Three applications include a case history of a recent recuperator installation. A cost engineering analysis of recuperator technology is included to ensure that technically feasible engineering projects are also economically attractive business ventures. An overview of emerging recuperation technology is presented.

  1. Technical training of indigenous people for resource industry jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millbank, G. [Praxis Technical Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The economic, moral and legal arguments for employing local indigenous people for resource extraction jobs are discussed. In addition to explaining the 'why' for training, similar arguments are developed for the 'when' , 'where', and 'how' aspects of training, stressing the superior qualities of DeepLearning(TM), a method developed by the Praxis Technical Group, which embodies many aspects of teaching and learning technologies utilized in indigenous communities around the world. In this training technology the most intense teaching is said to occur during the performance of rites and ceremonies, common to indigenous cultures. While the emphasis in all rituals may appear to be focused entirely upon deities or ancestors, careful observation reveals that there is also a hidden emphasis on creating an appropriate, receptive state of mind among the participants in the ritual. DeepLearning(TM) makes use of this technique by making the learner relaxed, focused and receptive before presenting examples of optimal behaviour. The style of learning is individual, unstressed, free of distractions, and claimed to be many times more effective than typical classroom sessions.

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  3. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS OF CEMENT INDUSTRY IN CHINA%我国水泥工业“生态化”的研究现状和发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭随华; 翁端; 陈益民

    2001-01-01

    Ecological status and development directions of cement industry in China are discussed in this paper. To improve the ecological situation of the cement industry, the structure of products and the structure of the cement industry should be optimized. These optimizations include improvement of some small-scale cement plants to decrease the whole pollution level of the cement industry. Furthermore, researches on high reactive clinker, high reactive fine admixture of concrete and low-calcium series cement should be emphasized, by which the ecological design of cement, to reduce consumption and pollution of cement production and to improve the utilization efficiency of waste in cement production, can be realized. To produce low-calcium cement such as HBC would be benefit to the ecological production of cement because the clinker can be burned in a relatively low temperature and can be prepared with many low quality raw materials. The cement made from high reactive clinker can u utilize more wastes than traditional cement of the same grade. The cement containing no clinker or only a small amount of clinker is a typical kind of ecological cement. In addition, many researches also showed that the cement production could also be applied to environment protection such as soil upgrading or the use of domestic wastes as fuels in clinker burning.%分析探讨了中国水泥工业“生态化”的研究现状及发展趋势。为提高我国水泥工业发展的生态化水平,必须调整我国水泥工业的产业结构和产品结构,将高性能水泥熟料、高活性细掺料及低钙水泥系列熟料作为今后的研究重点,提高水泥中工业废弃物的利用效率,进行水泥产品生态化设计,以实现水泥生产的低消耗和低污染。

  4. 3D printing cement based ink, and it’s application within the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D printing technology is the engine key of the third industrial revolution, after introduction of the automation in the eighteenth century and the concept of mass production in early of twentieth century. 3D printing technology now offers the magic solution to balance both the benefits, and overcome the major associated problem with the previous concept which was the need of repetition. The 3D printing technology has two main critical success factors: the printing machine and the printing material (ink. This paper focusses on cementitious-based materials and the ability to utilize the technology in the construction industry. The research took a qualitative approach based on previous literature reviews as well as in-house research results carried out by the authors’ employer Research and Development Center. The paper summarizes the approach towards to an appropriate mix design which can achieve the requirement of the printing process, and overcome the current constraints which are hindering the wide application of 3D print in construction industry. The authors believe that the research topic and result will have great impact on pushing the construction industry forward towards achieving the UAE Government’s strategy and target to achieve twenty-five percent (25% of the buildings in Dubai by the year of 2030 relying on the 3D printing methodology. The research also concluded that even though the technology is adding a great value to the construction industry, it must be remembered that the technology is still in its infancy, and further research is required to achieve even higher strength printing materials that would be workable in multi-story buildings without the need of additional steel reinforcement.

  5. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  6. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  7. The Dynamics of Technical and Business Knowledge Networks in Industrial Clusters: Embeddedness, status or proximity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Belso-Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Morrison, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although informal knowledge networks have often been regarded as a key ingredient behind the success of industrial clusters, the forces that shape their structure and dynamics remain largely unknown. Drawing on recent network dynamic models, we analyze the evolution of business and technical knowled

  8. Managing the Process of Protection Level Assessment of the Complex Organization and Technical Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, A. P.; Averchenkov, V. I.; Rytov, M. Yu; Eryomenko, V. T.

    2017-01-01

    The article is concerned with mathematical simulation of protection level assessment of complex organizational and technical systems of industrial enterprises by creating automated system, which main functions are: information security (IS) audit, forming of the enterprise threats model, recommendations concerning creation of the information protection system, a set of organizational-administrative documentation.

  9. Evaluation of the Industrial Maintenance Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipes, V. David

    In 1982-83, a study was conducted at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute to determine whether the objectives of the Industrial Maintenance Program were being met, to measure program success, and to identify aspects needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 30 students who graduated from the program before 1978, yielding a 57%…

  10. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  11. Briefing Paper regarding the Establishment of a Regional Technical and Industrial Skills Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Roger Baden

    In spring 1997, Oregon's Regional Workforce Committee commissioned a study to investigate the feasibility of creating a technical and industrial skills training center in Region 12 of the state. Interviews were conducted with 40 individuals from area companies, social service agencies, and training organizations regarding the need for such a…

  12. The Role of Vocational and Technical Education in the Industrialization of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ramlee B.

    The Industrialized Needs study identified the perceptions of Malaysian educators and employers regarding the role of vocational and technical education (VTE) in the economic development of Malaysia. The first survey used a random sample of 300 (276 responses) from the population of 4,316 VTE educators in public VT schools and polytechnics in…

  13. The Dynamics of Technical and Business Knowledge Networks in Industrial Clusters: Embeddedness, status or proximity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Belso-Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Morrison, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although informal knowledge networks have often been regarded as a key ingredient behind the success of industrial clusters, the forces that shape their structure and dynamics remain largely unknown. Drawing on recent network dynamic models, we analyze the evolution of business and technical knowled

  14. Cements containing by-product gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensted, J. [University of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Chemical by-product gypsum can readily replace natural gypsum in Portland cements and in blended cements like Portland pfa cement and Portland blast furnace cement without technical detriment in many instances. Indeed, sometimes the technical performance of the cement can be enhanced. The hydration chemistry is often changed, in that where there is at least some retardation of setting, more AFT phase (ettringite) is formed during early hydration at the expense of calcium silicate hydrates. By-product gypsum can also replace natural gypsum in speciality products like calcium aluminate cement-Portland cement mixes for producing quick setting cements and in calcium sulphoaluminate-type expansive cements. However, by-products gypsum have proved to be less successful for utilization in API Classes of oilwell cements, because of the greater difficulty in obtaining batch-to-batch consistency in properties like thickening time and slurry rheology. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The Materials and Energy Potential Method for the quantitative distincion between Valorization and Elimination in the Cement Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevalkink, J.A.; Alkemade, M.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report proposes a quantitative method to distinguish between valorization and elimination of waste in a cement kiln. Examples are calculated to illustrate the consequences of the developed approach. Valorization is defined as the processing of a waste in a cement kiln to substi-tute raw materia

  16. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martauz, P; Janotka, I; Strigáč, J; Bačuvčík, M

    2016-01-01

    .... H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.

  17. The Materials and Energy Potential Method for the quantitative distincion between Valorization and Elimination in the Cement Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevalkink, J.A.; Alkemade, M.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report proposes a quantitative method to distinguish between valorization and elimination of waste in a cement kiln. Examples are calculated to illustrate the consequences of the developed approach. Valorization is defined as the processing of a waste in a cement kiln to substi-tute raw

  18. Recomendations concerning technical research and development with the purpose to industrially exploit marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1980-10-01

    This report formulates a proposal for a program for technical research and development concerning use of Marine algae.The report is based on a retrospective literature search, an inquiry to potential algae users and producers in Sweden, visits to and correspondence with scientists and industries in Sweden and abroad. Technical research and development concerning marine algae is needed within the following fields: -Development of new sorts of algae offering resistance to parasite and disease adoptation to cultivation and har- vesting systems,and high-yielding concerning technically interesting components. -Development of suitable cultivation systems for Swedish conditions. -Co-cultivation of fish, mussels, oysters and crustaceans with algae. -Development of harvesting systems. -Methane rotting. -Fatty acid/hydrocarbon production as an alternative to methane rotting. -Physical-chemical properties of marine polysaccharides in relation to their technical properties. -Marine algae as fodder supplement.

  19. Preparation of Super Composite Cement with a Lower Clinker Content and a Larger Amount of Industrial Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhen; LIANG Wen-quan; LI Bei-xing; LI Xiang-guo

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the grinding mode,fineness, gypsum kinds and dosage, mix proportions on properties of the composite cements consisting of slag,fly ash, limestone and a lower content clinker were investigated,respectively. The results show that when the proportions among slag, fly ash and limestone are appropriate, the grinding technology and system are reasonable, the optimized gypsums and additives are effective, the 52.5 R grade cement (52.5 R grade cement means a higher strength than 52.5 at early age ) can be prepared by clinker dosage of 50% in weight, the 42.5R or 42.5,32.5 grade composite cement containing 40% and 30% clinker also may be made, respectively. Moreover, the high performance concrete prepared from the above composite cements was studied experimentally.

  20. Employers' Perception of Graduates with Entry-Level Technical Skills from Construction Industry Programs in Ghana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…

  1. Employers' Perception of Graduates with Entry-Level Technical Skills from Construction Industry Programs in Ghana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…

  2. Discussion on the application of the oxygen enriched combustion technology in cement industry%富氧燃烧技术在水泥企业应用的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干志强

    2014-01-01

    通过对国内几家采用富氧燃烧技术企业的考察,结合水泥企业的现状,提出了富氧燃烧技术在水泥行业应用的一些建议。%Through the use of several domestic company visits,combined with the status of the cement industry,proposed some recommendations of the applications in the cement industry.

  3. Cement industry structure adjustment and macro regulation and control%水泥结构调整与宏观调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛建国

    2004-01-01

    This article recalled the background of our national economy development in 2003, namely our GDP increase, total amount of import and export,industrial increase scale all reached quite high level and at the same time showed such problems like excessive large fixed assets investment scale and coal, electricity, oil, transport and price in economic operation.The article further expounds on the principle, stress and measure of macro regulation and control as well as the good trend of our general national economy operation in the first half of this year.This article also made introduction about relative state policy concerning cement industry development.

  4. Industrial Equipment Maintenance. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains 10 units that provide the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the industrial equipment maintenance curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the learning outcomes and…

  5. A socio-technical analysis of work with ideas in NPD: an industrial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2013-01-01

    on piecing together a number of ideas that were developed and disseminated in a large industrial company. We do this through an in-depth case study of the development of the energy-labeled circulation pump Alpha Pro, developed by one of the world’s leading pump manufacturers, Grundfos. Using a socio-technical...... approach, we focus especially on the actors involved and the contextual factors, and less on the detailed development of technical ideas. In our study, we observe that (1) ideas are pieced together from previous ideas and results; (2) ideas are implemented through continuous mobilization of support...... and development of legitimate arguments; and (3) idea work is also a socio-technical process, because contextual factors matter. We observe that idea work is an ongoing process undertaken across different projects, actors, departments, strategies, and visions within Grundfos, while also involving external actors...

  6. Technical Progress Has Positive,Differentiated Effects on Energy Efficiency of Chinese Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廉水; 周勇

    2007-01-01

    The rebound effects of technological advancement on energy consumption make it very complicated to measure the impact of technological advancement on energy efficiency.This article,taking 35 industries as samples,utilizes the non-parameter DEA-Malmquist productivity approach to subcategorise technological advancement into three parts:science-technological(sci-tech)progress,pure technical efficiency and efficiency of scale.The panel technique is then used to work out each subcategory’s contribution to energy efficiency individually.Findings show that technological efficiency (calculated by multiplying the results of pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency)is the principal factor in the improvement of energy efficiency while the contribution from sci-tech progress is comparatively less.Overtime,however,the effect of sci-tech progress is gradually heightened while the effect of technical efficiency slowly diminishes.

  7. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martauz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Utility properties of novel hybrid cement (H-Cement are influenced by pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, latent hydraulic reaction of metallurgical slag together with the alkali activation of inorganic geopolymer based on precipitated waste water coming from bauxite residues. Content of Portland cement clinker is at maximum of 20 mass %, the remaining portion consists of inorganic geopolymer. Up to 80% of CO2 emissions are saved by H-Cement manufacture compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. No heat treatment or autoclaving is needed at H-Cement production. The field application of H-Cement is performed by the same way than that of common cements listed in EN 197-1, and is also connected with highly efficient recovery and safe disposal of red mud waste. H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.Las propiedades de un nuevo cemento híbrido (cemento-H vienen determinadas por la reaccion puzolánica de cenizas volantes, la hidráulica latente de las escorias metalúrgicas y la activación alcalina mediante las aguas residuales generadas por el tratamiento de la bauxita para dar un geopolímero inorgánico. La proporción máxima de clínker de cemento en este nuevo material es del 20%, y por ello, en su fabricación se emite hasta un 80% menos de CO2 que en la producción del cemento portland (OPC. El cemento-H se prepara sin necesidad de tratamiento térmico ni de estancia en autoclave y su aplicación es la misma que los cementos convencionales definidos en la norma EN 197-1. Por otra parte, su fabricación supone la recuperación y la valorización segura de los lodos rojos de bauxita. El cemento-H es apto para la preparación de hormigones premezclados hasta la categoría C30/37, presentando el nuevo material, además, una menor retracción que los cementos convencionales, por lo que su

  8. Lung function reduction and chronic respiratory symptoms among workers in the cement industry: a follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Zeyede K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only a few follow-up studies of respiratory function among cement workers. The main aims of this study were to measure total dust exposure, to examine chronic respiratory symptoms and changes in lung function among cement factory workers and controls that were followed for one year. Methods The study was conducted in two cement factories in Ethiopia. Totally, 262 personal measurements of total dust among 105 randomly selected workers were performed. Samples of total dust were collected on 37-mm cellulose acetate filters placed in closed faced Millipore-cassettes. Totally 127 workers; 56 cleaners, 44 cement production workers and 27 controls were randomly selected from two factories and examined for lung function and interviewed for chronic respiratory symptoms in 2009. Of these, 91 workers; 38 cement cleaners (mean age 32 years, 33 cement production workers (36 years and 20 controls (38 years were examined with the same measurements in 2010. Results Total geometric mean dust exposure among cleaners was 432 mg/m3. The fraction of samples exceeding the Threshold Limit Value (TLV of 10 mg/m3 for the cleaners varied from 84-97% in the four departments. The levels were considerably lower among the production workers (GM = 8.2 mg/m3, but still 48% exceeded 10 mg/m3. The prevalence of all the chronic respiratory symptoms among both cleaners and production workers was significantly higher than among the controls. Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and FEV1/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced from 2009 to 2010 among the cleaners (p Conclusions The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and reduction in lung function is probably associated with high cement dust exposure. Preventive measures are needed to reduce the dust exposure.

  9. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  10. Penetration of natural gas in industrial processes for direct burning: the case of ceramics, cement and glass industries; Penetracao do gas natural em processos industriais de queima direta: caso das industrias ceramica, cimento e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti; Leite, Alvaro A. Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Industrial sector can use the natural gas (NG) as raw material, as fuel and in co-generation. The NG as fuel is used, predominantly, to produce heat in the Brazilian industries. That rate, both main forms of industrial use of the NG are its direct burning in kilns - when the direct contact is had with the product - and the supply of process heat through boilers, for instance. Direct burning is used in the ceramic, cement and glass industries. This work discuss the penetration opportunity of the NG in the direct burning regarding the fuel oil and other energy that it can substitute, the environmental effects and the co-generation possibilities in each one of the analyzed industrial blanches in this work. (author)

  11. TECHNICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES OF AN INTELLIGENCE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM FOR WOODWORKING MACHINERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Hofmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a competitive intelligence system developed for the entrepreneurs of the Brazilian woodworking machinery industry. The system, called MaqMad, was designed as a tool to support the enterprise decision-making and gathers information on the competitive and technological environment of the industry. The architecture of the system allows customizing the access to the information available concerning the particularities of each user. Unlike the original conceptions of IC, eminently intra-organizational, MaqMad was structured as an area of inter-organizational cooperation among companies that make up the industry, as well as suppliers and consumers of such equipment. Based on the characterization of technical and institutional aspects, the main limits of the system operation are presented and the possibilities of overcoming them. Keywords: competitive intelligence; MaqMad, woodworking machinery, benchmarking; technology, competitiveness

  12. Uncertified and Teaching: Industry Professionals in Career and Technical Education Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geralyn E. Stephens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Industry professionals are permitted to teach in Michigan’s federally funded Career and Technical Education (CTE secondary programs, before completing a teacher certification program, under the Annual Occupational Authorization (AOA provision. This study reviews their academic foundations, professional credentials and their pedagogical knowledge and skill levels. Findings include that most AOA teachers possess post-secondary academic credentials and extensive service records in their previous industry careers. The study identified relationships between the age and educational backgrounds of AOA teachers and their use of specific instructional activities and a statistical relationship between their years teaching in the CTE classroom and the degree of collaboration with academic, industry and occupational colleagues. While AOA teachers are confident in their ability to share occupational knowledge and skills, they lack an extensive awareness of authentic assessment strategies. Recommendations include establishing Teacher Mentoring programs, where both academic and occupational peers serve as mentors to AOA teachers.

  13. Analysis on Denitrification Measures and Applications in Cement Industry%水泥行业降氮脱硝措施及工程应用浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪好芬; 查小明

    2012-01-01

    Cement industry is the second largest nitrogen oxides( NOx )emission source of China's industrial enterprise. NOx emissions control is the key for energy saving and emission reduction during the "12th Five - Year Plan" period. The implementa- tion of denitrification policy and promotion of discharge standards will reduce the NOx emission. Through reviews on common deni- gration technologies and comparison of their applications, this paper briefly analyzed the status of NOx emissions from cement in- dustry. Results show that it is feasible and urgent to enhance the NOx emission standards in cement industry. Some proposals in the application of denigration technology were put forward.%水泥行业是中国工业企业中第二大氮氧化物排放源,对水泥行业进行氮氧化物控制是中国"十二五"节能减排工作的重点,实施强制脱硝政策和提高排放标准有利于水泥行业减少氮氧化物排放。通过综述几种常用脱硝技术的原理和应用比较,简要分析中国当前水泥行业氮氧化物排放现状,得出提高水泥行业氮氧化物排放标准的可行性和迫切性,同时对脱硝技术应用提出建议。

  14. Solidification/stabilisation of metals contaminated industrial soil from former Zn smelter in Celje, Slovenia, using cement as a hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Grega E; Lestan, Domen

    2010-06-15

    In a laboratory study, Portland cement (15%, w/w) was used for solidification/stabilisation (S/S) of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As contaminated soils from the former industrial site. Soils formed solid monoliths with cement. S/S effectiveness was assessed by measuring the mechanical strength of the monoliths, concentrations of metals in deionised water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) soil extracts, and mass transfer of metals. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in water extracts from S/S soils generally decreased, concentrations of As remained unchanged, while concentrations of Cu increased. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in the TCLP extracts from S/S soils were lower than from original soils. Cu extractability was lower in most soil samples, while the extractability of As from S/S soils increased. Overall, the concentration of metals in deionised water and TCLP solution, obtained after extraction of the S/S soils, was below the regulatory limits. S/S greatly reduced the mass transfer of Cd (up to 83-times), Pb (up to 13.7-times) and Zn (up to 294-times). Mass transfer of Ni and As was generally also reduced, while that of Cu increased in some S/S soils. Based on the findings of mass-transfer mechanism analysis the predominant mechanism of release was surface wash-off of metals otherwise physically encapsulated within the cementous soil matrix. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach.

  16. Causality between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry: An application of the panel vector error correction model (VECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Mandal, Sabuj, E-mail: sabujecon@gmail.co [T.A. Pai Management Institute (TAPMI), Manipal 576104, Karnataka (India); Madheswaran, S. [Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 560072, Karnataka (India)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to examine the existence and direction of the causal relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the period 1979-80 to 2004-05. The most recently developed panel unit root, a heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based error correction model, is applied within a multivariate framework. The empirical results confirm a positive, long-run cointegrated relationship between output and energy consumption when heterogeneous state effects are taken into account. We also found a long-run, bi-directional relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the study period, implying that an increase in energy consumption directly affects the growth of this sector and that growth stimulates further energy consumption. These empirical findings imply that energy consumption and output are jointly determined and affect each other. The empirical evidence also suggests the implementation of energy conservation policies oriented toward improving energy-use efficiency to avoid any negative impacts of the conservation policies on the growth of this industry.

  17. Causality between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry. An application of the panel vector error correction model (VECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Mandal, Sabuj [T.A. Pai Management Institute (TAPMI), Manipal 576104, Karnataka (India); Madheswaran, S. [Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 560072, Karnataka (India)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to examine the existence and direction of the causal relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the period 1979-80 to 2004-05. The most recently developed panel unit root, a heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based error correction model, is applied within a multivariate framework. The empirical results confirm a positive, long-run cointegrated relationship between output and energy consumption when heterogeneous state effects are taken into account. We also found a long-run, bi-directional relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the study period, implying that an increase in energy consumption directly affects the growth of this sector and that growth stimulates further energy consumption. These empirical findings imply that energy consumption and output are jointly determined and affect each other. The empirical evidence also suggests the implementation of energy conservation policies oriented toward improving energy-use efficiency to avoid any negative impacts of the conservation policies on the growth of this industry. (author)

  18. Empirical Study on the Measurement of the Technical Efficiency of Jilin Province’s Five High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper first analyzed the industrial distribution of Jilin province’s high-tech enterprises, and then selected 13 input and output indicators based on analyzing the influence factors of high-tech industry. Through the correlation analysis between each indicator’s relevant data, the paper constructed the technical efficiency evaluation model of Jilin Province’s high-tech industries including 12 indicators. After that it measured the technical efficiency of Jilin Province’s five high-tech industries from 2004 to 2013 by using DEA analysis method. Finally, this paper drew conclusions and gave suggestions.

  19. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  20. Utilization of the waste from the marble industry for application in transport infrastructure: mechanical properties of cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prošek, Zdeněk; Trejbal, Jan; Topič, Jaroslav; Plachý, Tomáš; Tesárek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    This article is focused on the mechanical testing of cement-based samples containing a micronized waste marble powder used as replacement of standard binders. Tested materials consisted of cement CEM I 42.5 R (Radotín, Czech Republic) and three different amounts of the marbles (25, 50 and 70 wt. %). Standard bending and compressive tests of the prismatic samples having dimensions equal to 40 × 40 × 160 mm were done in order to reveal an influence of marble amount on flexural and compressive strength, respectively. Moreover, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and dynamic shear modulus were examined and compared after 7 and 28 days of mixture curing.

  1. Economic Operating Status of Chinese Cement Industry in 2002 and Its Prospect for 2003%水泥工业2002年经济运行情况及2003年展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾学敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Economic Operating Status of Cement Industry in 2002 1.1 Firnal Status of Various Economic Indexes in 2002(according to monthly reports ) The statistical data of all state - owned industrial enterprises and non - state - owned ones with an annual sales income of more than 5 million yuan (including 5 million yuan) for each of them are as follows:

  2. Conversion of Moroccan Cement Works to Coal Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmouz, B.

    1988-02-01

    The cement sector is generally described as an ''energivorous'' sector because of the large quantities of energy consumed by it. In fact, the manufacture of one tonne of cement needs 80 to 120 kWh and from 680 to 1250 Mcal, depending on the process used. Since 1973, the fuel used by the sector was exclusively heavy fuel oil no.2, until 1982 when the Meknes cement works took into service its old coal-fired mill which had been at a standstill since 1973. Several months later, Lafarge Casablanca re-started its old mill after a renovation. The other cement works also began to envisage their conversion because of the constant price rise of the energy bill and its bearing on the operational costs. The Agidir Cement Works took its plant into service in November 1984. The New Cement Works of Casablanca (Cinouca) began in January 1985 to use coal pulverized at the works of Lafarge Casablanca which has spare capacity in its plant, while waiting to take its own shop in service in May 1988. The year 1985 also saw the beginning of the coalfired plants of Asment and Temara in August and of the Tetouan Cement Works in October. The last cement works to be converted to coal is that of Tanger. At the present time, coal furnishes about 85 % of the heat formerly produced from fuel oil. On the technical level, this substitution has continued up to the present under good conditions. The use of coal is in fact particularly well suited to the cement industry. The total investment employed for the conversion to coal will have exceeded the sum of 192 mill. Dirhams. The expected savings of energy from this conversion at present are estimated as over 150 mill. Dirhams per year.

  3. Technical Progress of Domestic Iron & Steel Industry and Its Influence on the Development of Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINGShouwei; LIUJiehua

    2001-01-01

    The quick increase of domestic iron and steel output,the great improvement of steel quality and variety,the improtation of advanced equipment and the diminution and elimination of some backward technology and facilities have brought about great influence on the development of refracetories.In order to meet the technical progress of iron and steel industry,domestic refractories industry has,in the last industry,domestic refractories industry has,in the last decades ,concentrated its efforts on the development and production of new Sialon bonded SiC bricks and micropore carbon blocks for giant blast furnaces;new refractories for coke oven and non-coke iron making furnaces;MgO-C bricks for converters and electric conductive refractories for UHP EAF;refractories for slag splashing technology;and the highy technology-intensive refractories for continuous casting facilities.The paper reviews the great change occurred in the industries of iron-and steel-making and refratories during the last decaldes.

  4. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  5. An analysis on the marketing of engineering services for the cement manufacturing industry in Sub-Saharan Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, JAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the need to gain new insight into a sub-group of service marketing specific to the Sub-Saharan Africa cement market. The primary objective of this research is the evaluation of how engineering services currently conduct business in Sub-Saharan Africa...

  6. On a nonlinear partial differential algebraic system arising in technical textile industry: Analysis and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Grothaus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a length-conserving numerical scheme for a nonlinear fourth order system of partial differential algebraic equations arising in technical textile industry is studied. Applying a semidiscretization in time, the resulting sequence of nonlinear elliptic systems with algebraic constraint is reformulated as constrained optimization problems in a Hilbert space setting that admit a solution at each time level. Stability and convergence of the scheme are proved. The numerical realization is performed by projected gradient methods on finite element spaces which determine the computational effort and approximation quality of the algorithm. Simulation results are presented and discussed in view of the application of an elastic inextensible fiber motion.

  7. FDI Spill‑Overs, Absorptive Capacity and Domestic Firms’ Technical Efficiency in Vietnamese Wearing Apparel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Duong Vu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines relationship between FDI spill-overs and technical efficiency of domestic firms and role of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms. Data on Vietnamese Annual Enterprises Survey are exploited to build a firm-level panel data on the Vietnamese wearing apparel industry from 2009 to 2013. By applying stochastic production frontier model, this paper shows that there are positive vertical spill-over effects but no horizontal effects. Moreover, this study finds the negative impact of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms on benefits reaped from FDI externalities.

  8. Technical edge for competitive advantage by patenting: A study of Indian semiconductor industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Jain, Prof. A.K. Saini, Prof. R.K. Verma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Every successful organization is a masterpiece of some brilliant minds and skills of knowledge workers. This can be seen in the fields like Pharmaceuticals, IT, Telecom, Electronics, Electricals Bio-technology, etc. They all emphasized on newer and competitive innovations resulting into patents for upliftment of their enterprises. This paper also tries to explain one such aspect of semiconductor industry. This paper establishes a relationship of patenting with competitive edge in the global market. The study is based on theanalysis of selected 20 Indian semiconductor product manufacturing companies. On the basis of the results from data collected, it has been observed that the firms with more inclination towards technical edge through newer innovations are leading a competitive and comfortable advantage in global market. This added advantage happened due to increase in the number of patents by the companies. This result is supported by almost all the sample companies whether from telecom or electronic industry.

  9. Evaluation of a lime-mediated sewage sludge stabilisation process. Product characterisation and technological validation for its use in the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N Husillos; Granados, R J; Blanco-Varela, M T; Cortina, J L; Martínez-Ramírez, S; Marsal, M; Guillem, M; Puig, J; Fos, C; Larrotcha, E; Flores, J

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes an industrial process for stabilising sewage sludge (SS) with lime and evaluates the viability of the stabilised product, denominated Neutral, as a raw material for the cement industry. Lime not only stabilised the sludge, raised the temperature of the mix to 80-100°C, furthering water evaporation, portlandite formation and the partial oxidation of the organic matter present in the sludge. Process mass and energy balances were determined. Neutral, a white powder consisting of portlandite (49.8%), calcite (16.6%), inorganic oxides (13.4%) and organic matter and moisture (20.2%), proved to be technologically apt for inclusion as a component in cement raw mixes. In this study, it was used instead of limestone in raw mixes clinkerised at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. These raw meals exhibited greater reactivity at high temperatures than the limestone product and their calcination at 1500°C yielded clinker containing over 75% calcium silicates, the key phases in Portland clinker. Finally, the two types of raw meal (Neutral and limestone) were observed to exhibit similar mineralogy and crystal size and distribution.

  10. Bonding with the Nuclear Industry: A Technical Communication Professor and His Students Partner With Y-12 National Security Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how a special kind of academe-industry collaboration--based on a joint appointment agreement between a university and an industry site--was set up, promoted, and experienced by a professor of technical communication and his student interns. To illustrate the nature and value of this kind of collaboration, the article…

  11. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  12. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  13. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  14. The Social-Technical View of Knowledge Management in Services Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong K. Fatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the social-technical view of knowledge management that supported a close social and technology relationship on automotive industry in Australia. It also examined the impacts of legacy EDI groupware technology as a mean to support knowledge management in providing value creation for an automotive company. The industry viewed legacy EDI groupware as an agent in converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. Approach: It was a descriptive study. In this study, an undertaking explored the implementation of this groupware application, its organizational impact, success factors and success indicators and this using the framework and analysis of legacy EDI groupware, which incorporated the objectives, strategies, success indicators and success factors. The study presented the finding of a case study of an automotive company, who contracted an external website design consultant to implement legacy EDI groupware system on their sites. The report explored the website design consultant company in order to gain an alternate perspective of topics and issues raised by the study. Results: In this study, legacy EDI groupware technology had successfully offered infrastructure to the automotive industry, which supported the acquisition of knowledge and enhanced the environment that supported the creation and management of knowledge artifacts. Conclusion: The choice and use of the legacy EDI groupware project as a means of supporting knowledge management in providing value creation for automotive industry, was because of the belief that this technology was able to provide a strategy for managing and exploiting knowledge. This project also served to help automotive industry in understanding its knowledge asset, i.e., the value of its knowledge and in assessing that the successful application of its knowledge.

  15. Application and Research Progress of Microwave in Cement Industry%微波在水泥工业中的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚浩; 李新杰; 席宗隆

    2014-01-01

    微波在材料合成方面的应用研究已引起越来越多的关注,论文从微波与材料作用的原理、特点和效果三方面综述了微波化学的研究进展及其在水泥工业中的应用及研究现状,并结合微波化学这门交叉学科的特点,对微波技术在水泥材料制备应用中的发展方向提出了几点建议。%More and more attentions have been attracted to the study of application of microwave in materials syn-thesis.The research progress in microwave chemistry and its application in cement industry were summarized from the mechanism of interaction between microwave and materials,characteristics and effects.Combining with the characteris-tics of microwave chemistry,several proposals were given for the developing direction of the application of microwave technology in preparation of cement materials.

  16. POZZOLAN AND CEMENTS WITH POZZOLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KAPLAN

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement, one of the basic material of construction engineering, has an important place in view of strength and cost of structures. Cement consumption is increasing parallel to development of building construction sector. For cement producers, minimal cost is desired by using new and economical material sources. On the other hand, the controllers and contractors need cheaper, safer and higher strength materials. From this respect cement industry tends to use cement with pozzolan. In Türkiye, cement with pozzolan is produced by adding the pozzolan, which has a large reservoir in the country, in cement in sertain amount. However this type of cement is consumed in the construction sector, sortage of scientific investigation and speculative news on the subject.are worried the users and producers. In this paper, prior to an experimental study on the cements having pozzolan additive, historical development of pozzolan, reservoir of Turkiye, and comparison with portland cement is carried out. Advantages and disadvantages of pozzolan are also discussed in some points.

  17. Constructivist assessment proposal a case study in a technical and industrial school environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Yohana Suescún Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the ongoing research “Constructivist AssessmentProposal” held at Institución Educativa Técnica Integral in Sogamoso. It isaimed at identifying why the assessment traditional approach is still beingapplied. Besides, it pretends to redefine new assessment practices in order toenhance students’ participation, speech and creativity. Likewise, it tends tomake teachers be aware of alternative assessment ways more relevant withthe education needs and demands. It is based on the case study researchapproach and developed in three stages: problematic description andcontextualization, analysis and comprehension of the assessment used bythe teacher in a technical and industrial setting and improvement alternativeproposals based on the problematic situation.

  18. [Technical assistance to North Carolina industries]. Final CRADA report for CRADA Number Y-1293-0231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, A.A.

    1997-03-14

    The purpose of this CRADA was to provide a mechanism whereby private sector companies within the State of North Carolina could access the vast technological resources available at the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This assistance was focused on assisting companies within the State to become more globally competitive. The North Carolina State University Industrial Extension Service and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES), provided companies within the state of North Carolina up to four days of technical assistance at no charge. As a result of those interactions, there has been an economic impact of $4.2 million dollars reported over the life of the CRADA. This report contains a review of the objectives of this CRADA, and the status of each objectives. It also contains information on how the work performed under this CRADA benefited the sponsor in pursuing its mission. Details of private sector impact and how it was measured and collected are discussed.

  19. Energy conservation in the meat-processing industry. Part 2. Technical report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.J.; Hendrickson, R.L.

    1979-06-30

    An in depth technical treatment of the hot boning process and its potential as a viable alternative for consideration by the beef processing industry are presented. An analysis of energy consumption is given considering traditional methods versus alternative methods. An analysis is presented for the year 1976 assessing the impact of hot boning as concerns the distribution of processed beef intra- and interregional. A methodology is presented for modeling a processing plant at the macro level including the assessment of all forms of utilities on an individual plant basis. Several important management considerations are developed including: a summary of potential energy savings, an approach for developing plant designs, and an economic analysis for comparing the relative advantage of hot vs cold processing of beef. (MHR)

  20. Risk management in the oil and gas industry : integration of human, organisational and technical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to provide knowledge and tools for the major hazard risk assessment for offshore installations (and onshore plants) based on an improved understanding of the influence of organisational, human and technical (OMT) factors. This extensive objective was further described by the following sub-goals: 1. Identify and describe human and organisational barriers in risk analysis, 2. Provide knowledge regarding human, organisational and technical factors that influence safety barriers, 3. Define indicators that are suitable for the measurement of barrier performance, 4. Develop models for barrier performance reflecting human, organisational and technical factors These four sub-goals formed the basis for the more specific objectives in the articles. The Deepwater Horizon accident and Macondo blowout were important inputs for several of the articles. One important acknowledgement is that risk management of major hazards differs from managing occupational safety. Another is that managing risks in the oil and gas (O&G) industry demands a high level due to the potential severe consequences. Quantitative risk analyses/assessments (QRAs) are used for risk control in the O&G industry. An important part of the QRA process is to identify and describe barriers in risk analysis. A study of offshore QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011b) showed that there were large differences between the analyses regarding incorporation of human and organisational factors (HOFs). The study divided the QRAs into a four-level classification system. Level 1 QRAs did not describe or comment on HOFs at all. By contrast, relevant research projects were conducted to fulfil the requirements of level 3 analyses. At this level, there was a systematic collection of data related to HOFs. The methods for analyzing the data were systematic and documented, and the QRAs were adjusted according to the status of the HOFs. A second study of QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011a) revealed

  1. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  2. Novorossiysk agglomeration landscapes and cement production: geochemical impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, A. V.; Pashkevich, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with assessing the environmental impact of marl mining and cement production in Novorossiysk city (Krasnodar krai, Russia). The existing methods of studying the environmental effects caused by the cement industry have been reviewed. Soil and aquatic vegetation sampling has been carried out and the gross concentration of metals in the samples has been defined. The research has been conducted in the certified and accredited laboratory using emission spectral analysis. The external control has been carried out via X-ray fluorescence analysis. Based on the collected data, main chemical pollutants in soil cover and water area near the cement plant have been identified. The contaminants released by urban enterprises and motor vehicle emissions, as well as fugitive dust from dumps and the cement factory, lead to multi-element lithogeochemical anomaly at geochemical barriers in soils. Accumulation of pollutants in soil depends on the type of land use and the area relief. The most contaminated aquatic landscapes have been identified in the inner bay. According to this information, the technical proposals can be prepared for environmental safety management in strongly polluted city areas, as well as for the reclamation design in the areas currently experiencing the negative impact of cement production.

  3. The Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Textile Industry Clusters in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Indian textile industry is one the largest and oldest sectors in the country and among the most important in the economy in terms of output, investment and employment (E). The sector employs nearly 35 million people and after agriculture, is the second-highest employer in the country. Its importance is underlined by the fact that it accounts for around 4 % of Gross Domestic Product, 14 % of industrial production, 9 % of excise collections, 18 % of E in the industrial sector, and 16 % of the country's total exports (Ex) earnings. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the Textile Manufacturers has adopted the Cluster Development Approach. The objective is to study the physical and financial performance, correlation, regression and Data Envelopment Analysis by measuring technical efficiency (Ø), peer weights (λi), input slacks (S-), output slacks (S+) and return to scale of four textile clusters (TCs) namely IchalKaranji Textile Cluster, Maharashtra; Ludhiana Textile Cluster, Punjab; Tirupur Textile Cluster, Tamilnadu and Panipat Textile Cluster, Haryana in India. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper Model by taking number of units (U) and number of E as inputs and sales (S) and Ex in crores as an outputs. The non-zero λi's represents the weights for efficient clusters. The S > 0 obtained for one TC reveals the excess U (S-) and E (S-) and shortage in sales (S+) and Ex (S+). To conclude, for inclusive growth and sustainable development, the inefficient TC should increase their S/turnover and Ex, as decrease in number of enterprises and E is practically not possible. Moreover for sustainable development, the TC should strengthen infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships to decrease cost, increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  4. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  5. Use of cement in concrete according to European standard EN 206-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Müller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of cements with several main constituents (blended cements is of particular importance with regard to reducing climatically relevant CO2 emissions in the cement industry. A wide variety of common cement products exists in the different EU Member States. They match local manufacturing conditions, throughout meeting particular climatic or other local conditions, including building practices. In general, all cements conforming to European Cement Standard EN 197-1 are suitable for the manufacture of concrete according to European Concrete Standard EN 206-1. Depending on the area of application, however, differences related to the cement type may possibly have to be taken into account to ensure the durability of the concretes manufactured with these cements. These regulations were laid down in National Application Documents (NADs to EN 206-1 dependent upon the exposure classes that a structural element is assigned to. This paper deals with the overall concept of EN 206-1 with regard to concrete durability. It gives an overview of the cement types used in Europe and the areas of application of cements conforming to EN 197-1 in concrete conforming to EN 206-1 and various national annexes. The option of combining several main constituents makes blended cements particularly well suited for combining the advantages of individual main constituents, and thus for developing these cements into even more robust systems. This process requires an integrated assessment of all requirements to be met by cements during manufacture and application. From a technical perspective these include the strength formation potential as well as good workability of the concrete and, in particular, the durability of the concrete made from these cements. The effects that the main constituents have with regard to properties relevant to durability can be utilized in particular in cements made from a combination of limestone/blastfurnace slag or limestone/fly ash as

  6. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  7. Conversion of Moroccan cement works to coal firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmouz, B.

    1988-01-01

    The manufacture of one tonne of cement needs 80 to 120 kWh and from 680 to 1250 Mcal, depending on the process used. Since 1973, the fuel used by the sector was exclusively heavy fuel oil no. 2, until 1982 when the Meknes cement works took into service its old coal-fired mill which had been at a standstill since 1973. Several months later, Lafarge Casablanca re-started its old mill after a renovation. The Agidir Cement Works took its plant into service in November 1984. The New Cement Works of Casablanca (Cinouca) began in January 1985 to use coal pulverized at the works of Lafarge Casablanca which has spare capacity in its plant, while waiting to take its own shop in service in May 1988. 1985 also saw the beginning of the coalfired plants of Asment and Temara in August and of the Tetouan Cement Works in October. The last cement works to be converted to coal is that of Tanger which is expected to commission its plant in October 1987. At present, coal furnishes about 85% of the heat formerly produced from fuel oil. On the technical level the use of coal is particularly well suited to the cement industry; but the use of coal is generally accompanied by certain inconveniences such as: losses of material during transit; floor space taken up by the stocks; the risk of explosions and of fires. The total investment will have exceeded the sum of 192 million Dirhams. The expected savings of energy from this conversion at present are estimated as over 150 million Dirhams per year. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Reactor Program Management; Chopra, O.K.; Ma, D.C.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal.

  9. Prospects for energy conservation in the pipeline industry. Technical report, tasks 4 and 5. [Growth projection to year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    A qualitative projection (the baseline scenario) is made of the pipeline industry growth to the year 2000. This projection is based on the conventional wisdom of the industry. It is concluded that, to achieve significant growth, the industry must develop the capability, called freight pipeline, to move other commodities than oil and gas, i.e., bulk and packaged goods. Technical and economic performance criteria are identified which, if met by the freight pipeline capability, could induce modal shifts resulting in a reduction of total transportation energy consumption, and would offer other benefits, including compatibility with high-speed rail passenger service.

  10. Sulfate specifications as a constraint to gypsum addition to cement and possible replacement of gypsum as an additive. Quarterly technical progress report, June-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantro, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    Potential alternatives to gypsum for controlling set in commercial cement, additives to deter sulfate-induced expansion, and the influence of clinker manufacture on expansion potential in cements were studied. If limitations on sulfate content were less restrictive, it would be possible to use kiln fuels with higher sulfur contents, and to employ energy efficient preheater kiln technology without risk of exceeding sulfate specifications. (FS)

  11. Modification of Red Mud and Application to Cement Industry%赤泥的改性及其在水泥生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任根宽

    2011-01-01

    The alkali content in the red mud is reduced by neutralization with industrial slag, acidic phosphogypsum.The γ-2CaO·SiO2 with low activity in the red mud is transformed into β-2CaO·SiO2 with high activity by roasting the mixture of red mud and phosphogypsum under some temperature, so the activity of red mud is increased.The results indicate that the red mud modified with the proportion of red mud to phosphogypsum 10∶ 1 , and roasted at 800℃ for 2h and natural cooling, as addition of cement, the favorable effect is achieved.With the comparison of the modified red mud and the red mud, the strength of cement is increased 16% with 45% admixture, physical properties of cement is consonant with 525# the state standard request.%采用酸性工业废渣磷石膏作为赤泥中和剂,降低赤泥中含碱量.通过在一定温度下煅烧赤泥和磷石膏的混合物,使低活性γ-2CaO·SiO2转化为高活性的β-2CaO·SiO2,提高赤泥的活性.结果表明,赤泥与磷石膏按10:1比例混合后,在800℃进行煅烧,保温2h后自然冷却,用改性赤泥作为水泥的混含材,并取的良好效果.在水泥中掺45%的混合材,改性赤泥比赤泥用作混合材时后期强度挺高近16%,水泥的各项物理性能仍能满足525#水泥国标的要求.

  12. Technical Breakthrough for Fracturing Gas Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Dakang

    1996-01-01

    @@ Huamei-Halliburton Petroleum Technical Service Co., Ltd. is the joint venture company established by CNPC and HALLIBURTON Companies. This company was approved by MOFERT and registered at SAFIAC on April 1, 1994 in Beijing.The scope of business is to provide well completion service, cementing service, fracturing service, acidizing service and supplies as well as consulting, contracting, and evaluation services to the hydrocarbon exploration and production industry operation.

  13. Application of Factor Analysis on the Financial Ratios of Indian Cement Industry and Validation of the Results by Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Chakraborty, B. N.

    2010-10-01

    Financial ratio analysis is an important and commonly used tool in analyzing financial health of a firm. Quite a large number of financial ratios, which can be categorized in different groups, are used for this analysis. However, to reduce number of ratios to be used for financial analysis and regrouping them into different groups on basis of empirical evidence, Factor Analysis technique is being used successfully by different researches during the last three decades. In this study Factor Analysis has been applied over audited financial data of Indian cement companies for a period of 10 years. The sample companies are listed on the Stock Exchange India (BSE and NSE). Factor Analysis, conducted over 44 variables (financial ratios) grouped in 7 categories, resulted in 11 underlying categories (factors). Each factor is named in an appropriate manner considering the factor loads and constituent variables (ratios). Representative ratios are identified for each such factor. To validate the results of Factor Analysis and to reach final conclusion regarding the representative ratios, Cluster Analysis had been performed.

  14. Use of Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Other Industrial Wastes as Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroccoli, M.; Montagnaro, F.; Pace, M. L.; Telesca, A.; Valenti, G. L.

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cements, mainly composed by 4CaO·3Al2O3·SO3 and 2CaO·SiO2, are special hydraulic binders which require limestone, bauxite and gypsum as natural raw materials for their manufacture. In order to save bauxite and natural gypsum, it has been explored the possibility of using, among the raw mix components, FBC waste together with pulverised coal fly ash or anodization mud and, when necessary, flue gas desulphurization gypsum. Mixtures containing limestone (29-39%), FBC waste (30-44%), pulverised coal fly ash (0-13%) or anodization mud (0-32%), bauxite (0-18%) and flue gas desulphurization gypsum (0-8%) were heated for 2 hours in a laboratory electric oven at temperatures ranging from 1150° to 1300°C. The X-ray diffraction patterns on the burnt products generally showed a good conversion of the reactants and a high selectivity degree towards 4CaO·3Al2O3·SO3, particularly at 1250°C.

  15. [Technical assistance to Tennessee industries]. Final CRADA report for CRADA Number Y-1294-0294

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, A.A.

    1997-03-14

    The purpose of this CRADA was to provide a mechanism whereby private sector companies within the State of Tennessee could access the vast technological resources available at the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This assistance was focused on assisting companies within the State to become more globally competitive. The State of Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development through the University of Tennessee Center for Industrial Services and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES), provided companies within the state of Tennessee up to four days of technical assistance at no charge. As a result of those interactions, there has been an economic impact of $19.2 million dollars reported over the life of the CRADA. This report contains a review of the objectives of this CRADA, and the status of each objective. It also contains information on how the work performed under this CRADA benefited the sponsor in pursuing its mission. Details of private sector impact and how it was measured and collected are discussed.

  16. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Fawcett-Long, J.; Toquam, J.; Baker, K.; Wieringa, D.; Olson, J.; Christensen, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine (PCP).

  17. Balancing the health workforce: breaking down overall technical change into factor technical change for labour-an empirical application to the Dutch hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart L

    2017-02-17

    Well-trained, well-distributed and productive health workers are crucial for access to high-quality, cost-effective healthcare. Because neither a shortage nor a surplus of health workers is wanted, policymakers use workforce planning models to get information on future labour markets and adjust policies accordingly. A neglected topic of workforce planning models is productivity growth, which has an effect on future demand for labour. However, calculating productivity growth for specific types of input is not as straightforward as it seems. This study shows how to calculate factor technical change (FTC) for specific types of input. The paper first theoretically derives FTCs from technical change in a consistent manner. FTC differs from a ratio of output and input, in that it deals with the multi-input, multi-output character of the production process in the health sector. Furthermore, it takes into account substitution effects between different inputs. An application of the calculation of FTCs is given for the Dutch hospital industry for the period 2003-2011. A translog cost function is estimated and used to calculate technical change and FTC for individual inputs, especially specific labour inputs. The results show that technical change increased by 2.8% per year in Dutch hospitals during 2003-2011. FTC differs amongst the various inputs. The FTC of nursing personnel increased by 3.2% per year, implying that fewer nurses were needed to let demand meet supply on the labour market. Sensitivity analyses show consistent results for the FTC of nurses. Productivity growth, especially of individual outputs, is a neglected topic in workforce planning models. FTC is a productivity measure that is consistent with technical change and accounts for substitution effects. An application to the Dutch hospital industry shows that the FTC of nursing personnel outpaced technical change during 2003-2011. The optimal input mix changed, resulting in fewer nurses being needed to let

  18. 小议桥梁工程中水泥混凝土技术性能及其应用%Technical Performance of Cement Concrete and Its Application in the Bridge Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫北辰

    2012-01-01

    在桥梁工程中应用最广泛的是普通混凝土:以水泥为胶凝材料,以砂,石为骨料,加水拌制成的水泥混凝土.普通混凝土normal concrete一般指以水泥为主要胶凝材料,与水、砂、石子,必要时掺入化学外加剂和矿物掺合料,按适当比例配合,经过均匀搅拌、密实成型及养护硬化而成的人造石材.因此,水泥混凝土技术性能控制对工程质量保证至关重要.%What is the most widely used in bridge engineering is the normal concrete which takes the cement as the cementitious material, the sand and stone as the aggregate, and then add water to mix. Normal concrete is generally refers to the artificial stone with cement which is the main cementitious material, water, sand and gravel, including chemical admixtures and mineral admixtures if necessary, with an appropriate proportion, uniform mixing, forming dense and conservation rigidification. Therefore, the technical performance control of cement concrete is essential to project quality assurance.

  19. Effect of the activation of a clay-base paper industry by-product on cement matrix behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses variations in the calcination temperature (600-750 ºC and kiln time (two to five hours applied to activate coated paper waste and their effect on the rheological, physical and mechanical behaviour of cement matrices containing these active additions.The results obtained showed that the conditions under which kaolinite was activated had a direct effect on the subsequent behaviour of the calcined products. At activating temperatures of over 700 ºC, pozzolanic activity and mechanical strength were observed to be lower, setting time shorter and the mortar less workable.El presente trabajo de investigación aborda la influencia de las condiciones de activación (600-750 ºC y 2-5 horas de permanencia en el horno de los lodos de papel procedente de la fabricación de papel estucado en el comportamiento reológico, físico y mecánico de las matrices de cementos elaboradas con este tipo de adiciones activas.Los resultados obtenidos muestran una influencia directa entre las condiciones de activación de la caolinita y el comportamiento posterior de los productos calcinados. Así, en condiciones de activación superiores a 700 ºC se observa una menor actividad puzolánica, tiempo de fraguado más corto, disminución de la trabajabilidad de los morteros mezcla y resistencia mecánica más baja.

  20. Self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials state-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tittelboom, Kim; Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing materials are man-made materials which have the built-in capability to repair damage. Failure in materials is often caused by the occurrence of small microcracks throughout the material. In self-healing materials phenomena are triggered to counteract these microcracks. These processes are ideally triggered by the occurrence of damage itself. Thus far, the self-healing capacity of cement-based materials has been considered as something "extra". This could be called passive self-healing, since it was not a designed feature of the material, but an inherent property of it. Centuries-old buildings have been said to have survived these centuries because of the inherent self-healing capacity of the binders used for cementing building blocks together. In this State-of-the-Art Report a closer look is taken at self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials. It is shown what options are available to design for this effect rather than have it occur as a "coincidental extra".

  1. A review of binders used in cemented paste tailings for underground and surface disposal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amjad; Yanful, Ernest K

    2013-12-15

    Increased public awareness of environmental issues coupled with increasingly stringent environmental regulations pertaining to the disposal of sulphidic mine waste necessitates the mining industry to adopt more competent and efficient approaches to manage acid rock drainage. Cemented paste tailings (CPT) is an innovative form of amalgamated material currently available to the mining industry in developed countries. It is made usually from mill tailings mingled with a small amount of binder (customarily Portland cement) and water. The high cost associated with production and haulage of ordinary Portland cement and its alleged average performance as a sole binder in the long term (due to vulnerability to internal sulphate attack) have prompted users to appraise less expensive and technically efficient substitutes for mine tailings paste formulations. Generally, these binders include but are not limited to sulphate resistant cements, and/or as a partial replacement for Portland cement by artificial pozzolans, natural pozzolans, calcium sulphate substances and sodium silicates. The approach to designing environmentally efficient CPT is to ensure long-term stability and effective control over environmental contaminants through the use of composite binder systems with enhanced engineering properties to cater for inherit deficiencies in the individual constituents. The alkaline pore solution created by high free calcium rich cement kiln dust (CKD) (byproduct of cement manufacturing) is capable of disintegrating the solid glassy network of artificial pozzolans to produce reactive silicate and aluminate species when attacked by (OH(-)) ions. The augmented pozzolanic reactivity of CKD-slag and CKD-fly ash systems may produce resilient CPT. Since cemented paste comprising mine tailings and binders is a relatively new technology, a review of the binding materials used in such formulations and their performance evaluation in mechanical fill behaviour was considered pertinent in

  2. Knowledge Boosting Curriculum for New Wind Industry Professionals Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Ruth H; Rogers, Anthony L

    2012-12-18

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV KEMA) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the curriculum for a series of short courses intended to address Topic Area 5 Workforce Development, one of the focus areas to achieve the goals outlined in 20% Wind by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to Electricity Supply. The aim of the curriculum development project was to provide material for instructors to use in a training program to help professionals transition into careers in wind energy. Under this grant DNV KEMA established a knowledge boosting program for the wind energy industry with the following objectives: 1. Develop technical training curricula and teaching materials for six key topic areas that can be implemented in a flexible format by a knowledgeable instructor. The topic areas form a foundation that can be leveraged for subsequent, more detailed learning modules (not developed in this program). 2. Develop an implementation guidance document to accompany the curricula outlining key learning objectives, implementation methods, and guidance for utilizing the curricula. This curriculum is intended to provide experienced trainers course material that can be used to provide course participants with a basic background in wind energy and wind project development. The curriculum addresses all aspects of developing a wind project, that when implemented can be put to use immediately, making the participant an asset to U.S. wind industry employers. The curriculum is comprised of six short modules, together equivalent in level of content to a one-semester college-level course. The student who completes all six modules should be able to understand on a basic level what is required to develop a wind project, speak with a reasonable level of confidence about such topics as wind resource assessment, energy assessment, turbine technology and project economics, and contribute to the analysis and review of project information. The content of

  3. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final rules were published on September 9, 2010. This direct final action...

  4. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2012....

  5. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants issued under sections 112(d) and 111(b) of the Clean Air Act, respectively. The EPA is...

  6. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final rules were published on September 9, 2010... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania...

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  8. An Industrial System Powered by Wind and Coal for Aluminum Production: A Case Study of Technical Demonstration and Economic Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xun Dong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of an isolated industrial power system for aluminum production. The novel concept is that the cost of aluminum electrolysis can be significantly reduced by innovative application of hybrid systems incorporating wind energy and low-grade coal. In addition, the low-grade coal, which sale is not profitable in the market, can be locally consumed by the isolated power system. The power system thus fully utilizes the local resources in an effective and economic manner. However, several technical and economic issues are still of concern because the industrial system is isolated from the state grid. This paper hence discusses these issues and demonstrates the feasibility of such a hybrid power system from the technical and economic perspectives.

  9. The mineralogy and chemistry of cement and cement raw materials In the united arab emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; El Etr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The raw materials, clinkers and cements from different cement factories in the United Arab Emirates have been investigated using polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analyses. The chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that the local raw materials are suitable for cement industry. Geological review shows that there is a good potential for industrial-grade local occurrences of limestone, marl, gypsum and iron oxide, that may be ...

  10. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Janneth Torres Agredo; Ruby Mejía de Gutiérrez; Escandón Giraldo, Camilo E.; Luis Octavio González Salcedo

    2014-01-01

    Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA) is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows h...

  11. Development of the Portland cement slurries with diatomaceous earth to the oil industry; Desenvolvimento de pastas de cimento Portland com adicao de diatomita para a industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Roseane A; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E.; Simao, Cristina A.; Paiva, Maria D.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Melo, Marcus A.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The class-G Portland cement has been used with success in oil well cementing. The material is usually shipped to the Northeast Brazil, because the only plant that manufactures class-G is located in Cantagalo/RJ. The present work investigates the influence of the partial substitution of Portland cement by diatomaceous earth, aiming at reducing the costs in oil well cementing, improving the slurry properties and using local raw material. The diatomaceous earth has pozzolanic properties and can be used as extenders of cement slurries. This properties added to the lower cost and availability of this material in Northeast Brazil, make the diatomaceous earth a candidate material to produce light cements, to well conditions in advanced phases of production. It were evaluated the rheological properties of the slurries (at 25 and 52 deg C), volume of free water, compressive strength after curing for 8, 24 and 48 h at 38 deg C, and consistometry tests. The results show that the diatomaceous earth maintain the viscosity values and gel force suitable for use in oil well cementing. No free water was observed in the formulations. It was also verified that the compressive strength of slurries hardened with diatomaceous earth is similar to those with only Portland cement and that the minimum compressive strength of 300 psi, after curing for 8 h was reached. The thickening time was longer than the average value and the application value. (author)

  12. Understanding cement mechanical behavior in SAGD wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Zahacy, T. A. [C-FER Technologies (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but it can cause cracks in the cement sheath. These cracks are the result of high steam temperatures and thermal expansion. In order to mitigate this risk, improved well designs are required. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanical behavior of the cement sheath during the heating phase. An analysis of the impact of design and operating parameters was conducted through thermal hydraulic and thermal mechanical analyses to assess cement integrity. These analyses were then performed on an example of an SAGD project in the southern part of the Athabasca oilsands region to assess the performance of the cement sheath. Results showed that potential damage to the cement can be reduced by slow heating and a lower Young's modulus cement blend. This paper makes recommendations for optimizing cement design in thermal recovery wells.

  13. 2020年我国水泥行业CO2排放趋势与减排路径分析%Analysis on CO2 Emission Trend and Emission Reduction Path of China's Cement Industry in 2020

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小谦; 康艳兵; 刘强; 赵盟

    2012-01-01

    我国水泥行业的CO2排放仅次于电力行业,约占全国排放总量的15%.分析水泥行业的CO2排放趋势和减排路径对实现我国温室气体排放控制目标有着重要的现实意义.本文从影响水泥行业排放的主要影响因素着手,分析了水泥产量和单耗的现状及未来发展趋势,计算了水泥行业的历史排放、发展趋势以及减排潜力,指出了实现减排潜力面临的挑战和障碍,以及相应的措施建议.%CO2 emission from China's cement industry is only second to power industry, accounted for 15% of total national emissions. Analysis on CO2 emission trend and emission reduction path of cement industry is significant to the realization of GHG emissions control target in China. From the perspective of major influencing factors, this paper analyzes the status and future trend of cement production and energy consumption per unit of product, calculates history and future emissions as well as emission reduction potentials, also analyzes challenges and obstacles, and proposes appropriate measures recommendations.

  14. Surgical treatment of the osteoporotic spine with bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw fixation: technical description and preliminary application in 43 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe a new approach for the application of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws. METHODS: Between June 2010 and February 2013, 43 patients with degenerative spinal disease and osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5 underwent lumbar fusion using cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale and the Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were given radiographic follow-up examinations after 3, 6, and 12 months and once per year thereafter. RESULTS: All patients were followed for a mean of 15.7±5.6 months (range, 6 to 35 months. The Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores showed a significant reduction in back pain (p = 0.018 and an improvement in lower extremity function (p = 0.025 in patients who underwent lumbar fusion using the novel screw. Intraoperative cement leakage occurred in four patients, but no neurological complications were observed. Radiological observation indicated no loosening or pulling out of the novel screw, and bone fusion was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The described polymethylmethacrylate augmentation technique using bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws can reduce pain and improve spinal dysfunction in osteoporotic patients undergoing osteoporotic spine surgery.

  15. Analysis on Impacts and Co-Abatement Effects of Implementing the Low Carb on Cement Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jun; SHI Yuan-Chang; FENG Xiang-Zhao; WU Shi-Yu; SUN Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    Based on the MAP-CGE model, this paper simulated the impacts on the output, energy consumption and pollutant emissions of different cement production processes when implementing a low carbon cement standard in China. It also calculated the impacts on the marginal abatement cost and equilibrium price of the cement industry, and analyzed the co-abatement effects of different pollutants. The results showed that implementing the low carbon cement standard will be beneficial in promoting an upgrading of cement production processes, and strengthening the energy conservation and emission reduction in the cement industry. If there is no change in the existing technology, the cement industry will reduce SO2 emissions by 1.17 kg and NOx emissions by 4.44 kg per ton of CO2 emission reduction. Implementing low carbon cement standard can also promote NOx abatement in the cement industry. However, the cement industry will bear the abatement costs, and their equilibrium price will increase slightly.

  16. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  17. The Effects of the Asian Crisis To Turkish Manufacturing Industry : The Case of Textile, Food and Cement Industries = Asya Krizinin Türk İmalat Sanayisine Etkileri: Tekstil, Gıda ve Çimento Sanayileri Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdülmecit KARATAŞ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper hypothesizes that Asian crisis has severely affected the financial dimensions of the Turkish industries. The analysis of the financial data for 70 companies from textile, food and cement industries provides evidence to partially support this hypothesis. By principal components analysis we identified five statistical factors that is meaningful and economically significant to represent main financial dimensions contained in twenty-one financial variables of the sample firms. The discriminant analyses based on the identification of the discrimination between financial dimensions of the sample firms for pre- and post-crisis years identified that profitability margins of the export-oriented Turkish textile industry significantly decreased in post-crisis years. No statistically significant changes in financial dimensions are detected for food and cement industries in post-crisis years.

  18. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  19. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  20. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  1. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  2. From the Boom to the Collapse: a Technical Efficiency Analysis of the Spanish Construction Industry during the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé Luís Fernández-López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its contribution to the Spanish economy, as far as the authors are aware, the technical efficiency of the Spanish construction industry has neither been measured nor have the factors influencing it been analyzed. This paper measures the technical efficiency of the Spanish construction sector before and during the current financial crisis and investigates the degree to which factors influencing efficiency levels in this sector have changed. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA methods are applied to firm-level data (692 constructions firms over the period 1996-2011. The results show that the average Technical Efficiency of the sector is 0.85. Results also indicate that variables affecting Technical Efficiency in the construction sector must be analyzed depending on real state cycle. Based on the findings, policy recommendations to improve the sector efficiency were developed. Important factors affecting efficiency change have been identified, and some managerial recommendations to increase the sector efficiency have been developed. The main recommendations for construction companies include: (1 cooperation and company mergers have a positive impact on companies’ efficiency; (2 accumulation of excessive financial burden damages the business long-term stability; and (3 business strategy should be tailored to economic prospects. Paper Type: Viewpoint

  3. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanium dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica y radiactiva de los sub-productos provenientes de la industria de dioxido de titanio para su valorizacion en la industria del cemento: implicaciones radiologicas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields such a as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  4. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanum dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica y radiactiva de los sub-productos provenientes de la industria de dioxido de titanio para su valorizacion en la industria del cemento: implicaciones radiologicas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanum dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields sucha as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  5. Carbonate Looping for De-Carbonization of Cement Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the largest emitter of CO2 other than power generation plants, which includes the emissions from combustion of fuel and also from calcination of limestone for clinker production. In order to reduce CO2 emissions from the cement industry an effective an economically feasible technology is to be developed. The carbonate looping process is a promising technology, which is particularly suitable for the cement industry as limestone could be used for capture and release of...

  6. Tendencies in the energy consumption and in the carbon dioxide emissions in the Mexican cement industry; Tendencias del consumo de energia y emisiones de bioxido de carbono de la industria cementera mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa M, Leticia; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes occurred in the energy consumption and carbon dioxide in the Mexican cement industry. For this purpose, the energy consumption and the emissions are broken up into three types of changes that affect the energy demand of an industry: activity, structure and energy intensity. According to this analysis it is found that the Mexican cement industry has suffered an important reduction in the energy intensity as a result of the disappearance, almost complete, of the wet production process, of the increment in the production of pozzolanic cement and in the opening of new high technology industries. With respect to the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions it does not decrease at the same rate than the energy intensity due to the increased consumption of the fuel oil over the natural gas. At the end of this paper an international comparison is presented of the energy specific consumption and of its emissions. [Espanol] En este articulo se analizan los cambios ocurridos en el consumo de energia y emisiones de bioxido de carbono de la industria cementera mexicana. Para ello, se desagrega el consumo de energia y las emisiones en tres tipos de cambios que influyen en la demanda energetica de una industria: actividad, estructura, e intensidad energetica. De acuerdo con este analisis se encuentra que la industria cementera mexicana ha sufrido un importante decremento en la intensidad energetica producto de la desaparicion, casi por completo, del proceso de produccion por via humeda, del incremento en la produccion del cemento puzolanico y de la apertura de nuevas industrias con alta tecnologia. Por su parte, la intensidad en las emisiones de bioxido de carbono no disminuye a la misma tasa que la intensidad energetica debido al incremento en el uso del combustoleo sobre el gas natural. Al final del articulo se presenta una comparacion internacional del consumo especifico de energia y de las emisiones.

  7. Technical and economic aspects of electric machine industry development with account of electric power development directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Shevchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the existing views on the world energy development prospects is an integral part of independent policy elaboration in this field for any state. Consideration of prospective power industry development options is a determinative factor in electric machine-building progress as a generation system production industry.

  8. Technical Training Requirements of Middle Management in the Greek Textile and Clothing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotinopoulou, K.; Manolopoulos, N.

    A case study of 16 companies in the Greek textile and clothing industry elicited the training needs of the industry's middle managers. The study concentrated on large and medium-sized work units, using a lengthy questionnaire. The study found that middle managers increasingly need to solve problems and ensure the reliability of new equipment and…

  9. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  10. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  11. Technical Decision Making With Higher Order Structure Data: Perspectives on Higher Order Structure Characterization From the Biopharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William F; Gabrielson, John P; Al-Azzam, Wasfi; Chen, Guodong; Davis, Darryl L; Das, Tapan K; Hayes, David B; Houde, Damian; Singh, Satish K

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the higher order structure (HOS) of protein-based biopharmaceutical products is an important aspect of their development. Opinions vary about how best to apply biophysical methods, in which contexts to use these methods, and how to use the resulting data to make technical decisions as drug candidates are commercialized [Gabrielson JP, Weiss WF IV. J Pharm Sci. 2015;104(4):1240-1245]. The aim of this commentary is to provide guidance for the development and implementation of a robust and comprehensive HOS characterization strategy. We first consider important concepts involved in developing a strategy that is appropriately suited to a particular biologic, and then discuss ways industry can partner with academia, technology companies, government laboratories, and regulatory agencies to improve the consistency with which HOS characterization is applied across the biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, April 1-June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basuino, D.J.; Doyle, P.T.; May, S.C.

    1977-06-30

    The technical and economic feasibility of using low temperature geothermal brine in place of steam from conventional sources for industrial multi-effect evaporation and crystallization was studied. Work on the following is described: candidate industry evaluation, including process flow diagrams, heat and material balances; conceptual engineering, and a visit to Leslie Salt plant. The economic analysis includes economic groundrules established, capital and operating costs derived, and a cost comparison of geothermal vs. fossil fuel plants. Other topics covered are: the analysis of fuel savings by use of geothermal resources; the analysis of environmental impact of geothermal vs. fossil fueled plants; and a comparison of feed-and-bleed process with other geothermal heat utilization processes. (MHR)

  13. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between

  14. Remediation, General Education, and Technical Mathematics. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This document contains descriptions of adult education courses in remediation, general education, and technical mathematics. They are part of a program developed by the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology Educational Resources (MASTER) program to help workers become competent in the skills needed to be productive workers in the machine tools…

  15. Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    The development, organization, and operation of the Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Ohio was examined to identify those elements, policies, practices, and procedures that contribute to their effective operation and future growth. Data about individual consortia and general information were gathered by questionnaires completed by…

  16. Examining the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency in the international textile and clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm suggests that intangible assets have a positive impact on firm performance. This study examined the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency of textile and clothing firms. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure

  17. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  18. Stabilization effects of surplus soft clay with cement and GBF slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jiang; Chirdchanin MODMOLTIN; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of industrial waste and surplus construction soft clay as construction material was recommended, and many attempts at geotechnical waste utilization were undertaken. This study aimed at the application of cement and a kind of industrial wastes, i.e. granulated blast furnace slag, on stabilization of surplus soft clay. The results showed that the cement and slag can successfully stabilize Ariake clays even though this high organic clay fails to be stabilized by lime and cement. Addition of slag in cement for stabilization induces higher strength than cement alone for longer curing time. The application of the cement with slag is more suitable than cement alone for stabilization because of economical consideration.

  19. in the Portland cement industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Paredes-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe una herra mienta de simulación bajo el en torno de Matlab®, que puede ser utilizada para estimar la auton omía de un vehículo con baterías o híbrido con pila de combustible y bater ías. El modelo es función de variables mecánicas y físicas que dependerán no solo del propio vehículo sino también del terreno. Su uso es extendido para recorridos obtenidos mediante dispositivos GPS y para ciclos estándar. Pueden obtenerse diferentes variables de salid a tales como: el consumo de hidrógeno y batería, el nivel hidró geno, el estado de carga de la batería, la potencia consumida, la producción de energía por parte de la pila, el máximo alcance del vehículo y el máximo número de ciclos finalizados. La simulación de rutas reales pro porciona una buena aproximación de la velocidad del vehículo pa ra usos, en lugar de utilizar ciclos de c onducción estándar, obteniendo así aproximaciones bas tante arbitrarias para una ruta real.

  20. Fitness for duty in the nuclear industry: Update of the technical issues 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.; Grant, T. [eds.] [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an update of information on the technical issues surrounding the creation, implementation, and maintenance of fitness-for-duty (FFD) policies and programs. It has been prepared as a resource for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and nuclear power plant personnel who deal with FFD programs. It contains a general overview and update on the technical issues that the NRC considered prior to the publication of its original FFD rule and the revisions to that rule (presented in earlier NUREG/CRs). It also includes chapters that address issues about which there is growing concern and/or about which there have been substantial changes since NUREG/CR-5784 was published. Although this report is intended to support the NRC`s rule making on fitness for duty, the conclusions of the authors of this report are their own and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the NRC.

  1. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Industrial Organization and Competition: Pension System in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    The technical note on Mexico’s Financial Sector Assessment Program update analyzes that the private pension system’s regulator in Mexico has introduced innovate rules. Mexico, as with many other countries in Latin America, has adopted an individual capitalization pension system. The design of these pension reforms confers the administration of pension funds to private companies. Under these schemes, competition plays a key role, keeping prices low, a good quality of service, and an effici...

  2. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  3. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  4. Technical development give industrial gas turbines a new edge in offshore applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellberg, Anders; Thom, Dorian [Demag Delaval Industrial Turbines, Lincoln, Lincolnshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Gas turbines have been used as compressor and alternator drivers for many years, but over the last decade gas turbines have been subject to considerable technological development spurred on by economic changes and increased environmental concerns. Industrial types of gas turbines have been specifically designed and developed for mechanical drive and general industrial power applications. However, during the last decade, gas turbine manufacturers have concentrated their developments on the lucrative aircraft market, with some subsequent benefit for the aero derivative type gas turbines. Since the pre selection of a particular characteristic (e.g. emissions, fuel consumption, maintenance method, etc) will automatically preclude one or other type of gas turbine, by virtue of the turbine design, this has resulted in a more restrictive choice for end users. We will show in this paper how the new generation of industrial gas turbines (with specific focus on the GT10C) will redress this balance. It will be shown that the new generation of machines maintain all the benefits of the industrial design (maintenance, reliability, operability) but also inherit higher efficiency, lower weight, low emissions, higher power output and speed to address present market requirements. While the weight of an industrial gas turbine core engine is somewhat higher than that of an aero derivative, today's package design is more focused to the offshore needs and as such that the core engine does not have any significant effect on overall package weight or layout. The maintenance methods that have been developed are more suitable to demands of low downtime and faster maintenance activities. The impression of most customers has been that 'industrial' type gas turbines are not suitable for the high demands of the offshore market. However, recent developments have changed the technology and the aim of the paper is to change the image. (author)

  5. NEW STUDY ABOUT STUDENTS PROFILE IN THE FIRST COURSE OF THE TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Valea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the results of a questionnaire answered by Industrial Engineering students specialized in Mechanics and Industrial Chemistry, who are taking their obligatory and first university course in Chemistry. The questionnaire has 30 multiple selection questions related to 4 significant areas (subject contents, methodology, faculty and student body. The study results were grouped in 12 significant blocks that report statistical results and/or results interpretation. The aim is to know, from the standpoint of the students, their habits and weakness as students.

  6. Strain Hardening Cement Composites Structural Design and Performance State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 208-HFC, SC3

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, Tetsushi

    2013-01-01

    Strain Hardening Cement Composites, SHCC hereafter, demonstrate excellent mechanical behavior showing tensile strain hardening and multiple fine cracks. This strain hardening behavior improves the durability of concrete structures employing SHCC and the multiple fine cracks enhance structural performance. Reliable tensile performance of SHCC enables us to design structures explicitly accounting for SHCC’s tensile properties. Reinforced SHCC elements (R/SHCC) indicate large energy absorbing performance under large seismic excitation. Against various types of loads, R/SHCC elements can be designed by superimposing re-bar performance and SHCC’s tensile performance.  This report focuses on flexural design, shear design, FE modeling and anti-seismic design of R/SHCC elements as well as application examples.  Establishing design methods for new materials usually leads to exploring application areas and this trend should be demonstrated by collecting actual application examples of SHCC in structures.

  7. 硬质合金孔加工刀具的技术进展%Technical Development of Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools for Hole Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王弢; 柯亚仕; 周一丹

    2011-01-01

    The types of cutting tools for hole machining commonly used in modem manufacturing techniques, carbide cutting tool materials and preparations were introduced briefly. Taking drill as an example, the influences of tool parameters design, edge grinding and cutting edge preparation technology on cutting performance were analyzed. The developing trends of cemented carbide cutting tools for hole machining were summarized.%简要介绍了现代制造技术中常用孔加工刀具的种类、硬质合金刀具的材料与制备.以钻头为例,分析了刀具参数、刃磨、刃口钝化技术对切削性能的影响,综述了硬质合金孔加工刀具技术的发展趋势.

  8. Enhanced technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps operated in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    By operating heat pumps (HPs) in series, it is possible to obtain closer match between working fluid and sink- and source streams, resulting in higher coefficient of performance (COP). For industrial HPs, it was found that serial connection of either two or three units results in an increase in COP...

  9. Business-Industry-Labor Involvement in Lifelong Vocational-Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmbrod, Catharine P.

    The knowledge explosion dramatizes the need for education throughout peoples' lives, while technological change in particular fuels business, industry, and labor's imperative to cooperate closely with education to prepare people for work. In order to obtain the training, retraining, upgrading, and recycling of persons and skills, changes in work…

  10. Education and the Transformation of Markets and Technology in the Textile Industry. Technical Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas

    This report on the textile industry focuses on the training and education of production-level textile workers--from unskilled factory hands to first-level supervisors. It is part of a larger study of the educational implications of broad economic changes, particularly the spread of microelectronic technologies, growing national and international…

  11. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  12. Analysis of Waste Gas Volume and Pollutants Reduction Potential for Cement Industry in China%我国水泥工业废气量减排与污染物减排潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅; 刘宇; 王凡; 都基峻; 张凡; 石应杰

    2015-01-01

    水泥工业是颗粒物等大气污染物排放量较大的行业,因排放标准中颗粒物等污染物浓度限值已非常严格,依靠加严标准减排污染物的空间已经越来越小,标准减排难以使水泥工业实现更高的减排目标。水泥生产多个工序会排放废气,在排放标准限值不变的条件下,各类废气的排放总量决定了颗粒物等污染物的排放总量。通过实例分析得出利用窑头余风再循环、减少窑头喂煤一次风比例和分解炉喂煤风机的风量可实现高温废气量的减排,利用窑头窑尾低温废热进行烘干物料可实现低温烘干废气量的减排,将常温废气作为水泥窑窑头和分解炉煤粉的助燃空气可实现常温废气量的减排,进一步分析了通过废气量减排可实现颗粒物等污染物的减排量。%Cement industry yields a large air pollution emission including particulate matters.As the particulate concentration limits in the industrial emission standard has been very strict, it leaves smaller and smaller space to further reduce the pollutant emission by setting stricter standard limits.Therefore, the emission reduction by standard has been difficult to make cement industry to achieve a higher reduction target.There are several processes in cement production that emit waste gases.Under the same emission standard limits, the total emissions of various pollutants will be determined by the total waste gas volumes of various kinds.Through case studies, it was shown that the kiln end afterwinds could be recycled to reduce the primary air ratio in kiln end coal feeding and the coal-feeding fan air volume in calcining combustors, so as to realize reduction of high-temperature waste gas volume. The cement kiln end low-temperature waste heat could be used to dry materials and thus realize reduction of waste gas volume in low-temperature drying.The room-temperature exhaust gas could be used as pulverized coal combustion air

  13. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS FOR THE TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL ENTERPRISE TRAINING (TIVET SECTOR IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina Maringa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of TIVET in Kenya (history and present, the laws governing TIVET, and its structure and challenges today. A robust review of various relevant concepts that are in use in TVET is presented and solutions to identified shortcomings of the Kenyan TIVET system proposed. The Develop a Curriculum, (DACUM and the Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID methods of developing demand led and competency based occupational profiles and arising curricula are recommended for adoption in the country’s TIVET system. It is further recommended that On-Job-Training is introduced in addition to the creation of strong linkages with industry in order to increase relevance to and absorption of TIVET graduates in industry. The paper touches on the issues of specification and sourcing of equipment and identifies possible source markets. More study is recommended in order to obtain a complete and comprehensive assessment of TIVET in the country.

  15. [Technical assistance to Georgia industries]. Final CRADA report for CRADA Number Y-1293-0230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, A.A.

    1997-03-14

    The purpose of this CRADA was to provide a mechanism whereby private sector companies within the State of Georgia could access the vast technological resources available at the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee. This assistance was focused on assisting companies within the State to become more globally competitive. The Georgia Tech Research Corporation and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES), provided companies within the state of Georgia up to four days of technical assistance at no charge. As a result of those interactions, there has been an economic impact of $5.1 million dollars reported over the life of the CRADA. This report contains a review of the objectives of this CRADA, and the status of each objective. It also contains information on how the work performed under this CRADA benefited the sponsor in pursuing its mission. Details of private sector impact and how it was measured and collected are discussed.

  16. Technical aspects of a large size industrial process turbo compressor revamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świder, Piotr; Kozanecki, Zbigniew, Jr.; Graczykowski, Marek; Kryłłowicz, Władysław

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes several modernization aspects of the process 8 MW air compressor and its driver. The main aim of the revamp was to increase internal efficiencies of both the compressor and turbine and increase the load of the compressor without additional power consumption. The original pressure ratio was preserved. To meet these requirements a redesign of the flow path of both machineswas necessary.Moreover, the turbineworking conditions were changed from extraction-condensing to condensing. In terms of compressor, impeller blade redesign, adaptation of diffusers and Abradable seals were a part of the scope. The revamp was completed in April 2014 with all the requirements met. This paper covers the general outline and a comparison of the original and modernized machine operating parameters, design and technical assumptions and also describes some problematic issues which occurred during the realization of the project.

  17. Technical and economic aspects of ancillary services markets in the electric power industry: an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raineri, R. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rraineri@ing.puc.cl; Rios, S. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Schiele, D. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparative analysis of technical and economic aspects of ancillary services on the markets of England and Wales, Nordic Countries, California, Argentina, Australia and Spain, comparing the services of voltage control, frequency regulation and system restoration. All the analyzed markets rely on the existence of an administrator of ancillary services, function that leads to the figure of the system operator. Among the services analyzed, the mandatory nature of voltage control and primary frequency regulation stands out, being both the ancillary services with the higher market price and the shortest period of time requirements. In general, the recognized costs of the services correspond to investments operation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. In the provision of these ancillary services, there are no clear preferences for a particular resource allocation mechanism, where mandatory provision, auctions, competitive offers and different time length bilateral contracts are combined.

  18. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  19. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  20. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  1. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Alzheimer's disease management: Technical, industrial, and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming Ming; El-Salamouni, Noha S; El-Refaie, Wessam M; Hazzah, Heba A; Ali, Mai M; Tosi, Giovanni; Farid, Ragwa M; Blanco-Prieto, Maria J; Billa, Nashiru; Hanafy, Amira S

    2017-01-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high prevalence in the rapidly growing elderly population in the developing world. The currently FDA approved drugs for the management of symptomatology of AD are marketed mainly as conventional oral medications. Due to their gastrointestinal side effects and lack of brain targeting, these drugs and dosage regiments hinder patient compliance and lead to treatment discontinuation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (NTDDS) administered by different routes can be considered as promising tools to improve patient compliance and achieve better therapeutic outcomes. Despite extensive research, literature screening revealed that clinical activities involving NTDDS application in research for AD are lagging compared to NTDDS for other diseases such as cancers. The industrial perspectives, processability, and cost/benefit ratio of using NTDDS for AD treatment are usually overlooked. Moreover, active and passive immunization against AD are by far the mostly studied alternative AD therapies because conventional oral drug therapy is not yielding satisfactorily results. NTDDS of approved drugs appear promising to transform this research from 'paper to clinic' and raise hope for AD sufferers and their caretakers. This review summarizes the recent studies conducted on NTDDS for AD treatment, with a primary focus on the industrial perspectives and processability. Additionally, it highlights the ongoing clinical trials for AD management.

  2. 利用水泥固化废弃物减少有害金属离子溶出的试验探索%Use of cement curing a variety of industrial waste reduction of underground water pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军志; 赵国燕

    2012-01-01

    水泥和混凝土行业对工业废弃物以及生活废弃物的利用虽然减少了环境负荷,在水泥水化过程中废弃物中存在的有害金属离子受到一定程度的固结,但在某种条件下还会有所溶出而重新释放到大自然,造成对环境的二次污染,需要探寻能够模拟真实状况的浸出试验对混凝土材料中有害金属离子的浸出进行测试,来考察水泥混凝土材料与炉渣以及垃圾焚烧灰、电镀污泥、城市污水河底泥、建筑垃圾、建材废料、电池废渣、污水处理厂污泥等配制成的复合废弃物对有害金属离子的固化程度,进而考察水泥混凝土材料在利用废弃物的同时对环境保护所起的作用,这对水泥工业利用各种废物降低成本、固结有害成分的实验方法、组合配方、掺料路径的筛选有着重要的指导意义.%For the cement and concrete industry, although a lot of applications of industrial waste and domestic waste can reduce environmental load of cement hydration process in the presence of waste in the heavy metal ions and other harmful metals to a certain extent, under certain conditions it can also be stripping back the release to the nature to cause secondary pollution to the environment. This paper can simulate the real situation of the leaching tests on concrete materials and harmful heavy metals in the leaching of metal ions which were measured to evaluate the use of cement and concrete materials fly ash, slag, waste incineration ash, sludge, sewage river sediment, construction waste, building materials waste, battery waste, sewage sludge and other waste during the performance in ensuring the use of materials under the premise on one of the heavy metals and harmful metal ions curing degree, then study the use of cement and concrete waste, and the role of environmental protection.

  3. Characteristics of Carbon Dioxide Emission from China's Cement Industry and Its Dynamic Development%我国水泥工业碳排放特征及动态变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 吕淑珍; 王海滨; 石建屏

    2013-01-01

    水泥工业是温室气体二氧化碳(CO2)的主要排放源,利用碳排放数学模型计算2001-2010年我国水泥工业碳的排放量,分析碳排放量的变化特点和发展趋势.结果表明:水泥工业碳排放总量逐年增长,与水泥产量和排放强度呈线性关系.“十一五”期间单位产品碳排放强度由0.69t/t下降到0.65t/t.万元GDP碳排放量2008年达到最低值为0.295 1 t,平均每年万元GDP碳排放量下降2.85%.水泥工业十年间实施节能降耗、资源循环利用、提高经济效益等措施,对于减少碳排放具有明显效果.%Cement industry is a major source of greenhouse gas- carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Mathematical model was used to calculate carbon emission quantities for China's cement industry during 2001 to 2010, and change characteristics and trend for carbon emission with cement outputs and emission factors were analyzed. Results indicated that carbon emissions quantities increased rapidly every year, and there is a linear relationship between carbon emission quantities and cement output, emission factors. Carbon emission factors decreased from 0.69 t/t to 0.65 t/t during the 11 th Five- Year- Plan period. Carbon emission quantities of ten thousand Yuan GDP decreased to minimum 0.295 1 t in 2008, decreased by 2.85%. Results showed that the energy saving and resource recycling and increase of economic efficiency are appearing in the reduction of carbon emissions.

  4. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  5. Gaps between China and developed countries for disposal of social wastes in cement industry%中国水泥工业消纳社会废弃物与发达国家的差距

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高长明

    2009-01-01

    PC kiln systems can digest various wastes which contain combustible matters.It can not only make full use of their surplus calorie,but also can absolutely dispose their residuals after combustion to eliminate thepossibility of secondary contamination.Because of the extensive adaptability of cement kiln,which can dispose various wastes in great quantity,it is more economical,convenient and effective to use cement kiln than to build new waste land-filling deposits or new incinerators for waste disposal.Also,cement industry can utilize various industrial slags as admixture to be blended into clinker for cement grinding;and even some of the industrial wastes can be used as substitutiOns of natural raw materials like limestone,clay or pyrites etc.Gaps still exist between China and developed countries like Germany,Japan and U.S.In both ideology and technology for disposal of social wastes in cement industry.In China, although admixtures are widely used to outward seeming,but inded,this is resulted by over-intermingled or indiscriminately-intermingled.There are still big rooms for raising the substitution rate for raw materials and gypsum in China,and also,application of alternative fuels is in backward position,with which we must rouse ourselves to catch up.%预分解水泥窑消纳各种含有可燃质的废物,既可充分利用其残留的热值,还能彻底干净地处置其燃烧后的残渣,消除二次污染隐患;加之水泥窑适应范围广,可以消纳各种状态的废料,处置能力很大.此法比新建垃圾填埋场或焚烧厂等办法经济得多,收效更快.水泥工业还可以将各种工业废渣用作混合材掺于水泥熟料中一并粉磨成水泥;有的工业废料还可以用作水泥原料以替代天然的石灰石、粘土或铁矿石等.在水泥工业消纳社会废弃物方面,我国与德日美等发达国家,在理念和技术上还有差距:我国看似消纳混合材不少,实为部分超掺滥掺所致;我国原料和石膏的

  6. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  7. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  8. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  9. Spalling Resistant Bauxite Based Bricks for Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,labeling,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.This standard is applicable to the spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.

  10. District heating by radiant heat recovery from cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Palumbo, Mario; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.; Salini, Paolo [University of L' Aquila, Monteluco (Italy). Dept. of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering]. E-mail: caputo@ing.univaq.it; palumbo@ing.univaq.it; pelmar@ing.univaq.it; salini@ing.univaq.it

    2008-07-01

    Heat loss from rotary kilns may represent a significant percentage of the total energy input especially in high energy-intensive industrial sectors such as cement production. In this paper the technical and economic feasibility of recovering radiant heat lost through the kiln surface, by means of a secondary external shell acting as a heat exchanger for a transfer fluid, is evaluated for district heating purposes. At first the system architecture is outlined and a technical and economical model addressing both the performances and cost estimation for the heat exchanger and the district heating network is developed. Subsequently, a parametric profitability analysis is carried out with reference to some relevant parameters characterizing the available recoverable waste heat and the size of the heat distribution network, namely the distance between kiln and user area and extension of the district heating network. This is made to obtain a mapping of the conditions were the proposed heat recovery system is economically feasible. In the paper it is demonstrated that the relevant heat consumption of cement production may make the district heating option for heat recovery a viable one even in case of low density of inhabitants in the surroundings of the plant. Furthermore significant fuel savings and emission reductions are achieved respect the adoption of traditional residential boilers. author)

  11. Contact dermatitis in cement workers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to recent industrialization and inadequately protected workers or in other words poor supervision on constructive workers habits in our large city of Isfahan cement contact dermatitis is relatively high especially among cement factory workers and constructive personnel. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence rate of cement contact dermatitis in cement factory workers in Isfahan. METHODS: A case-control clinical study was carried out by randomly selecing 150 factory workders and 150 official clerks in a cement factory in Isfahan in 2001. After a complete physical examination, data was recorded in observational checklists. FINDINGS: The percentages of contact dermatitis prevalences in the first and the second groups were 22% and 5.3% respectively. About 60% of cement workers with contact dermatitis were between 30-40 years of age. There was a direct relationship with age in both groups of the workers. In the high-exposure group, the hand eczema along was 70% but in the other group the percentage of involvement was the same in exposed and unexposed anatomical areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct relationship between occurrence and the severity of involvement and duration of contact in the first group. Cent percent of cement workers had contact dermatitis after 10 or less years, but the percentage among the other group was 35%. LIMITATION: Irritant contact dermatitis to cement has not been detected.

  12. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  13. Ecology and economics : emerging technical, environmental and economic challenges confronting the nickel and base metal industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvi, A.D. [Dalvi Associates Inc., ON (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Eco-efficiency refers to the concept that economic and environmental efficiencies can be achieved simultaneously. It can be achieved by improving material and energy efficiency, reducing environmental and human health-related risks, designing products to fit into ecological cycles, and making products more recyclable or durable. This article discussed the challenges confronting sulphide-based nickel producers regarding cost reduction while maximizing processing feed value. Processing facilities are required to devise processes that remove toxic emissions at reasonable cost while minimizing energy requirements and producing a quality nickel that is optimized for the stainless steel industry. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999 stipulates that new nickel smelters and refineries must capture over 96 per cent of their sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Regulatory requirements already necessitate the provision of facilities at every project to control emissions. In order to meet market requirements, process and project metallurgists and engineers will be required to design processes and facilities that meet social, environmental and energy objectives, while minimizing capital and operating costs. 2 figs.

  14. Federal regulation of the pipeline industry. A summary review. Technical report, Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-05-31

    The principal purposes of this report are to identify the jurisdiction areas of the federal pipeline regulating agencies, and to examine the amenability of the regulatory system to the introduction of energy-conservative new technology into the pipeline industry. The history, scope, and agency structure of state and federal regulation are recounted and some gaps, overlaps, and ambiguities are identified. The only significant inhibitory effects upon technological innovation are found to derive from the FPC and ICC limits upon profit, the 1941 Justice Department consent decree limiting dividends to shipper-owned pipelines, and the income tax rules governing recovery of investment credits and startup losses. Effects of these limits are explored by simulation studies using the Systems, Science and Software pipeline economic model (PEM). Two new concepts of regulation are proposed which would neutralize the inhibitory effect of the present regulatory system and would motivate pipeline operators to conserve energy: one, the use of a national equivalent value in the economic trade-off analyses which justify entry of a technological innovation into the rate base (valuation); and two, a valuation allowance which would reverse the presently often-existing situation and insure that the pipeline operator would realize a greater profit from saving energy than from wasting it.

  15. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Gordon, L. E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-09-01

    Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  16. Contributing to Tourism Industry Vitality of a Natural Resource Based Region through Educational/Technical Assistance. Staff Paper Series P83-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Uel; And Others

    From 1979 to 1982 an extension education program provided assistance to the tourism industry in rural communities adjoining northeastern Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA). Program activities involved needs assessment, educational and technical assistance to communities and tourism-related firms, marketing programs, grants management…

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 69: Writing for the Aerospace Industry. Chapter 3; The Practice of Technical and Scientific Communication: Writing in Professional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The large and complex aerospace industry, which employed approximately 850,000 people in 1994 (Aerospace Facts, 1994-95, p. 11), plays a vital role in the nation's economy. Although only a small percentage of those employed in aerospace are technical communicators, they perform a wide variety of communication duties in government and the private sector.

  18. The Level/Preventive Approach to Solving Technical and Economic Tasks as One of Directions in Development of the Enterprises of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damineva, R.; Daminev, R.; Karimov, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, as a tool of strategy generation in development of industrial enterprise, a methodological approach is considered, that allows the choosing the best path of development among many solutions of technical and economic tasks, taking into account both the interests of enterprises and of society as a whole.

  19. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  20. Assessing the Animal Science Technical Skills Needed by Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates for Employment in the Animal Industries: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education courses, such as agricultural education, exist, in part, to assist students in acquiring the competencies needed to achieve employability. However, whether the current secondary agricultural education curriculum meets the needs of industry leaders who employ high school graduates of agricultural education programs is…

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 21: US aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 2 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

  2. Preparing Technical Workers for the New Industrial Era: The Need for a Fundamental Shift in Federal Policy toward Technical Education. Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    The United States will not be competitive in the global economy of the 21st century without a technically trained work force. Community colleges and secondary schools offering technical programs are becoming increasingly important to local businesses as companies rely on a combination of schools and on-the-job training to help their employees…

  3. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe international best practices for pre-processing and coprocessing of MSW and sewage sludge in cement plants, for the benefit of countries that wish to develop co-processing capacity. The report is divided into three main sections. Section 2 describes the fundamentals of co-processing, Section 3 describes exemplary international regulatory and institutional frameworks for co-processing, and Section 4 describes international best practices related to the technological aspects of co-processing.

  4. 战略性新兴产业技术链与产业链协同发展研究%Research on Collaborative Development of Technical Chain and Industrial Chain of Strategic Emerging Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳中刚

    2014-01-01

    Strategic emerging industries are the convergence of emerging technologies and emerging industries and are the important opportunity for developing countries to implement Forging Ahead Strategy. Emerging technolo-gies are the competency or core for the industrial development and emerging industries are the bridge for introduc-ing the emerging technologies to the new market. Collaborative development of technical chain and industrial chain is the key factor for the growth of strategic emerging industries. The theoretical exploration and practices of IoT industry testify that autonomous technical chain should be constructed by the strategy of patent and standard to avoid the technical hollowing-out and should be developed by the innovation of business model to avoid the worthlessness of technical innovations.%战略性新兴产业是新兴技术与新兴产业的深度融合,是发展中国家实施“赶超战略”的机会窗口。新兴技术链是产业发展的“能力”或“内核”,新兴产业链是把这种能力引入新市场并实现价值的媒介,二者的协同发展是战略性新兴产业成长的关键。理论探索和物联网产业的实践表明:要以专利和标准战略构建自主技术链,避免产业发展陷入“技术空心化”;以商业模式创新整合自主产业链,避免技术创新进入“尘封的殿堂”。

  5. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  6. Plastics wastes as secondary fuel in a cement plant; Residuos plasticos como combustible secundario en una cementera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Irasarri, L.; Arnaiz, S.; Cacho, I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of secondary fuel derived from plastics wastes from municipal source has been tested in an industrial cement plant. The recovered materials have been conditioned in order to fulfill the texture, composition and energetic requirements of the cement kiln. The performed long-term trials have shown the stability of the industrial facility during the operation with this alternative fuels. Several controls carried out over gaseous emissions confirmed the absence of differences in the emitted pollutant levels when compared with normal operation. The quality of the obtained clinker, checked using the established standard measurements, was found identical to the one in a clinker prepared using conventional fuels. The LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) tool was applied to evaluate a series of environmental impacts and proved that the energetic valorization alternative is more favourable then the disposal practice. Finally, a positive economical balance reinforced the option of energy recovery previously supported by favourable technical and environmental considerations. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Callaghan Innovation, 69 Gracefield Road, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Gordon, L.E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ko, S.-C. [Holcim Technology Ltd, Hagenholzstrasse 85, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  8. Environmental Assessment of Different Cement Manufacturing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its high environmental impact and energy intensive production, the cement industry needs to adopt more energy efficient technologies to reduce its demand for fossil fuels and impact on the environment. Bearing in mind that cement is the most widely used material for housing and modern infrastructure, the aim of this paper is to analyse the Emergy and Ecological Footprint of different cement manufacturing processes for a particular cement plant. There are several mitigation measures that can be incorporated in the cement manufacturing process to reduce the demand for fossil fuels and consequently reduce the CO2 emissions. The mitigation measures considered in this paper were the use of alternative fuels and a more energy efficient kiln process. In order to estimate the sustainability effect of the aforementioned measures, Emergy and Ecological Footprint were calculated for four different scenarios. The results show that Emergy, due to the high input mass of raw material needed for clinker production, stays at about the same level. However, for the Ecological Footprint, the results show that by combining the use of alternative fuels together with a more energy efficient kiln process, the environmental impact of the cement manufacturing process can be lowered. The research paper presents an analysis of the sustainability of cement production , a major contributor to carbon emissions, with respect to using alternative fuels and a more efficient kiln. It show

  9. Carbonate Looping for De-Carbonization of Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Andersen, Maria Friberg; Lin, Weigang

    2011-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the largest emitter of CO2 other than power generation plants, which includes the emissions from combustion of fuel and also from calcination of limestone for clinker production. In order to reduce CO2 emissions from the cement industry an effective an economically...... feasible technology is to be developed. The carbonate looping process is a promising technology, which is particularly suitable for the cement industry as limestone could be used for capture and release of CO2. Integration of carbonate looping process into cement pyroprocess has two advantages: 1...... integrated into cement pyro-process. The energy required for regeneration in the calciner increases with increase in average conversion of calcined limestone and energy that can be extracted from carbonator decreases with increasing average conversion. Further the influence of type of limestone...

  10. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  11. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low­Energy, Carbon-Dioxide­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC

  12. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  13. Cement dust exposure-related emphysema in a construction worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Karkhanis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker.

  14. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  15. An Economic Analysis of Technical Spillover Effect of Logistics Industry%物流产业技术外溢的经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙喜梅; 余博; 韩彪

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, according to the classical economic theories, we improved on the Solow growth model, isolated the influence of the logistics industry on economic growth, especially the technical spillover effect of the industry, introduced a technical progress coefficient which was positively related to the investment in the logistics industry and through which we could calculate the contribution of the logistics industry to the economic growth. At the end, we carried out an empirical study on the logistics industry of Shenzhen.%从古典经济学的相关理论出发,对索洛增长模型加以改进,分离出物流产业对经济增长的影响,尤其是物流产业产生的技术外溢,引用了一个与其投资成正比的技术进步系数,进而得出物流产业对经济增长的贡献,并以深圳市的物流产业为例做了实证分析。在一定程度上量化了物流产业对经济增长的贡献,以便为物流产业的项目投资者和决策者提供一定的参考。

  16. Reuse of a residue from petrochemical industry with portland cement Reutilización de un residuo de la industria petroquímica como adición al cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of using waste from the petrochemical industry,as partial replacement of Portland cement is studied, evaluating the presenceof contaminants in the waste and the encapsulation, once it is confined on the cement. This has been done, in order to find a use to this residue without cause damage to the environment. This residue, called spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC, is mainly formed by a type Y zeolite, which is dispersing in an inorganic oxides matrix. The toxicity characteristic leaching proceeding was applied, in mortars adding with 20% of FCC as Portland cement replacement. The results showed that the residue does not represent a problem from the point of view of the leaching of elements, such as As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and La, which were below to the permissible limits. Additionally, the pozzolanic activity of FCC was evaluated according to ASTM C311, where the efficiency of the residue as pozzolanic addition is demonstrated. With the results the importance of reusing a residue of the petrochemical industry is emphasized, that decreases the amount of cement to be used and improves the mechanical resistance of the materials containing it.En el presente artículo se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar un residuo de la industria petroquímica, como sustitución parcial del cemento Portland, evaluando la presencia de elementos contaminantes en el residuo y su encapsulación, una vez se haya confinado con el cemento. Lo anterior, con el fin de determinar si su uso como material de construcción, puede o no causar un efecto negativo al medio ambiente. El residuo, denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, es un material que está compuesto por una zeolita tipo Y, dispersa en una matriz de óxidos inorgánicos. Se aplicó la técnica de TCLP (del inglés Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, en morteros adicionados con un 20%, de FCC con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. Los resultados

  17. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  18. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  19. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-04-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

  20. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 138 / Wednesday...-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement...

  1. 混凝土与水泥制品行业上半年继续领跑建材工业%The First Half of 2011 for Concrete and Cement Products Industry: Go on Leading the Building Materials Industry Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈冰

    2011-01-01

    今年以来,全社会固定资产投资依然保持较快增长,意味着混凝土与水泥制品行业生产与经济增长的外在动力依然强劲.上半年,混凝土与水泥制品行业经济运行延续了上年平稳较快发展的态势,行业主要产品和经济效益实现平稳较快增长,继续领跑建材工业.The fixed assets investment growth remained fast in the first half of 2011,meaning the driving force of concrete and cement products production and economic growth still strong.The performance of the concrete and cement products industry maintained the momentum of the steady and rapid development in the first half of the year;the output of main products grew steadily as well as the profit making.It continued to lead the growth of the building materials industry.

  2. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Substitutionen af fossilt med alternativt brændsel i cement produktionen er steget betydeligt i den sidste dekade. Af disse nye alternative brændsler, udgør de faste brændsler p.t. den største andel, hvor kød- og benmel, plastic og dæk i særdeleshed har været de alternative brændsler der har bidraget med mest alternativ brændsels energi til den tyske cement industri. De nye alternative brændsler er typisk karakteriseret ved et højt indhold af flygtige bestanddele og adskiller sig typisk fra t...

  3. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product

  4. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1979-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-03-01

    Experiments using the sulfate fusion technique have continued. High degrees of alkali removal have been achieved using CaSO/sub 4/ admixtures with added CaCl/sub 2/ and Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ or Cl/sup -/ in the mixtures did not affect the phase separation significantly. There was considerable evidence for preferential migration of K/sup +/ into the sulfate phase, relative to Na/sup +/. A new technique, the powder drop method, was used to attempt to more closely simulate the alkali removal reactions which would occur in a reactor. Rapid removal of K/sup +/ from most minerals was shown to occur with a sulfate melt initially containing 20% Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 80% CaSO/sub 4/. However, in most cases, the Na/sup +/ content of the slag layer actually increased.

  5. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

  7. The Effective Use of Scientific and Technical Information in Industrial and Non-Profit Settings: A Study of Managerial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Albert; And Others

    A study conducted in a non profit research and development organization and the technical development department of a profit corporation was designed to develop and implement interventions that would modify the information-communication behaviors of the technical professionals in these organizations, and to measure and analyze the effects of the…

  8. Cementing challenge in low fracture gradient zones in the San Jorge Basin Comodoro Rivadavia - Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, Mercedes [Pan American Energy (Argentina); Quevedo, Manuel; Lopez, Rodrigo [Halliburton Argentina SA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    It is a challenge to achieve higher columns of cement to isolate low fracture gradient zones where the pore pressure has decreased. In addition, it is necessary to maintain the integrity of wells by isolating freshwater zones. This prevents fluid migration to surface and maintains the integrity of casing-cement and cement-formation bonds to prevent future corrosion. Cementing to the surface in a single-stage operation is the preferred method because it eliminates the risk of leakage from a stage tool and the possibility of insufficient linear and radial coverage by a top job. Primary cementing is a practical business investment because this can reduce the need for remedial cementing operations during the life of the well. After a technical-economic evaluation of the cement slurries, the use of lighter density cement preserving API properties is recommended to isolate the productive formations containing oil and gas. (author)

  9. The Discussion of Capacity “Pseudo-surplus” in Steel and Cement Industry of China%现阶段我国钢铁、水泥行业产能“伪过剩”刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兴和

    2014-01-01

    目前,各界普遍认为当前我国钢铁、水泥行业存在严重的产能过剩。笔者认为,这种观点值得商榷。这是因为:以产能利用率为指标评价产能过剩状况,其科学性需要商讨;当前我国钢铁、水泥行业的产能过剩具有阶段性、结构性、区域性和相对性等几个特征;基于我国现存的巨大潜在需求转化为现实需求将有效释放过剩产能的判断,得出我国现阶段的产能过剩是伪过剩。在此基础上,立足发挥宏观调控和市场机制双重作用,从控制新增、消化现存、淘汰落后等几方面提出化解过剩产能的政策建议。%At present, it is generally believed that there is serious overcapacity in China’ s steel and cement industry. In my opinion, this point of view is debatable for the following reasons:first, assessing the situation of overcapacity by the rate of capacity utilization is questionable;second, the current overcapacity of steel and cement industry has periodic, structural, regional and relative features;based on the judgment that China’ s tremendous existing potential demand can be transformed into real demand and therefore effectively release the overcapacity, I can draw the conclusion that the current overcapacity is an illusion. From this analysis, by giving full play to the role of macro-regulation and market mechanism, this article offers some policy recommendations to resolve the problem of overcapacity, including controlling expansion of production capacity, digesting existing capacity and eliminating backward capacity, etc.

  10. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…

  11. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…

  12. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  15. An assessment of gas-side fouling in cement plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The cement industry is the most energy-intensive industry in the United States in terms of energy cost as a percentage of the total product cost. An assessment of gas-side fouling in cement plants with special emphasis on heat recovery applications is provided. In the present context, fouling is defined as the buildup of scale on a heat-transfer surface which retards the transfer of heat and includes the related problems of erosion and corrosion. Exhaust gases in the cement industry which are suitable for heat recovery range in temperature from about 100 to 1300 K, are generally dusty, may be highly abrasive, and are often heavily laden with alkalies, sulfates, and chlorides. Particulates in the exhaust streams range in size from molecular to about 100 micrometers in diameter and come from both the raw feed as well as the ash in the coal which is the primary fuel used in the cement industry. The major types of heat-transfer equipment used in the cement industry include preheaters, gas-to-air heat exchangers, waste heat boilers, and clinker coolers. At the present time, the trend in this country is toward suspension preheater systems, in which the raw feed is heated by direct contact with the hot kiln exit gases, and away from waste heat boilers as the principal method of heat recovery. The most important gas-side fouling mechanisms in the cement industry are those due to particulate, chemical reaction, and corrosion fouling.

  16. Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, January 1-March 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basuino, D.J.; Doyle, P.T.; May, S.C.

    1977-03-31

    The following are discussed: each of the three candidate industries (preserved fruits and vegetables, sugar and confectionary products, and chemicals) and how they were chosen; other industries that might use geothermal brine in their evaporation/crystallization operations; contacts made with people in these industries, and with manufacturers of evaporators and crystallizers; modifications made in the evaporator heat and material balance computer program; and work being done on well/pipeline economics and the information available for this analysis. (MHR)

  17. Research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglyi, Artem; Illiash, Sergii; Tymoshchuk, Oleksandr

    2017-09-01

    The tendency to increasing traffic volume on public roads and to increased axle loads of vehicles makes the road scientists to develop scientifically justified methods for preserving the existing and developing the new transport network of Ukraine. One of the options for solving such issues is the construction of roads with rigid (cement concrete) pavement. However, any solution must be justified considering technical and economic components. This paper presents the results of the research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction.

  18. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  19. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310 ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is ...

  20. Effect of Heavy Metal Present in Cement Dust on Soil and Plants of Nokha (Bikaner)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.(Mrs).Suruchi Gupta; Sarika Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In Nokha(Bikaner) cement industries emittes cement dust in nearby farmers fields. In these industries cement dust emitted contains traces of hexavalent chromium and lead well above permissible limit in area under investigation. However, cadmium and nickel were found below limits prescribed. To analyse heavy metals viz, Cr+6, lead, Cadmium and nickel one hundred and twenty samples were collected from four directions on surface and 20 cm depth, and analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotomete...

  1. The Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia Serving Business and Industry in Ohio. Digest of Study: Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    This publication reports the development of the vocational-technical resource consortia in Ohio and identifies the operational procedures associated with successful programs. Five exemplary consortia were studied in some depth; however, data were obtained from all of the 23 consortia in the state. The research indicates that the consortium is an…

  2. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  3. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  5. Contribution to the study of specific energy consumption in grinding materials of the cement industry according to the essay by F. C. Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Arus, Fernando

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableDesde un principio la industria del cemento conoció la necesidad de un método con el que se pudiera determinar. En primer lugar, la molturabilidad de los materiales empleados (materias primas, crudos, clínkeres, correctores del cemento, etc., mediante un ensayo normalizado que permitiera una independización del sistema de molienda empleado, lográndose así una verdadera estandarización del ensayo, del que se obtendría una medida cuantitativa de la respuesta del material al esfuerzo de la molienda. Y en segundo lugar, a partir de la molturabilidad, el poder determinar en función de la granulometría de la alimentación y del producto terminado el consumo energético previsto en una instalación industrial.

  6. Utilization of waste heat from rotary kiln for burning clinker in the cement plant

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cement subsector next to the glass industry is counted among one of the most energy-intensive industries, which absorbs approx. 12-15% of the total energy consumed by the industry. In the paper various methods of energy consumption reduction of in the cement industry are discussed. Cement production carries a very large emissions of greenhouse gases, where CO2 emissions on a global scale with the industry than approx. 5%. Great opportunity in CO2 emissions reduction in addition to the recover...

  7. 北京市物流业关键技术构成分析%Analysis of Key Technical Constitution of Logistics Industry of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君平; 沈吉仁

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies the key technical constitution of the logistics industry of Beijing from the aspects of equipment and management.First it carries out field investigations on logistics enterprises oriented toward different industry sectors, then, statistically processing the collected data, on the basis of which, it provides suggestions for the future development of the logistics industry of Beijing after reviewing the analysis result and the actual situation of the industry.%从物流设备与物流管理这两个方面,展开对北京市物流关键技术构成的研究.首先对北京市各行业的物流企业进行实地调研;在此基础上,通过对调研数据的计算处理,对北京市物流业关键技术的构成进行了分析;最后,结合实际情况和分析结果,给出对北京市物流业未来发展的建议.

  8. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  9. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  10. Destruction of meat and bone meals in cement plants; Destruction des farines animales dans les cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-10-01

    Following the crisis of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease ('mad cow' disease), the French cement industrialists have been requested by the government since 1996 to eliminate the forbidden meat and bone meals in cement kilns where they are used as fuel substitutes. This article presents the advantages of the cement industry file in the destruction of such wastes, the validation and the safety aspects of this process. Meat and bone meal represents a high-grade fuel that lowers the environmental impact of cement production and does not affect the quality of cement. (J.S.)

  11. Factors affecting bond cement across casing leak zones in oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Mohamed; Edbeib, Said [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Casing leaks have been a major concern to the oil industry because of their effect on lowering the production rate in many oil and gas wells. The leaks are the result of deterioration of the casing in the well, which is caused by severe corrosion due to the contact of the casing with high salinity foreign fluid. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing the mechanical properties of the hardened cement opposite the casing leak zones. This study is conducted by laboratory measurements of the compressive strength of the hardened cement when the cement slurry was mixed with different percentages of formation water and different concentrations of different cement additives. The results of this study indicate that the compressive strength readings obtained from the cement bond log and the cement evaluation tool against the casing leak zones are lower than those readings recorded in adjacent formations. The low cement compressive strength values observed across casing leak zones are due to the contamination of the cement with saline water present in these formations which, in turn, effects the hardening properties of the cement. The experimental results indicated that the salinity of the formation water when mixed with the cement slurry in the presence of cement additives, decreased the compressive strength of the bond cement and also decreased the thickening time of the cement slurry. It is concluded that casing leaks found in many wells observed in oil fields in Libya were due to the mixing of the cement with high salinity formation water present in the lost circulation zones. The high water salinity in these zones effects the setting time of the cement slurry which, therefore, decreased the hardening properties of the bond cement and caused cracks and channels in the hardened cement across lost circulation zones. (author)

  12. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The actors of the building industry have access to a range of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and are constantly presented with new software and new communications platforms. Through case studies, and inspired by sociotechnical approaches to the study of emerging technologies......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role...

  13. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    , this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references......The actors of the building industry have access to a range of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and are constantly presented with new software and new communications platforms. Through case studies, and inspired by sociotechnical approaches to the study of emerging technologies...... to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role...

  14. Cement and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Gene; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    To produce lunar cement, high-temperature processing will be required. It may be possible to make calcium-rich silicate and aluminate for cement by solar heating of lunar pyroxene and feldspar, or chemical treatment may be required to enrich the calcium and aluminum in lunar soil. The effects of magnesium and ferrous iron present in the starting materials and products would need to be evaluated. So would the problems of grinding to produce cement, mixing, forming in vacuo and low gravity, and minimizing water loss.

  15. An exponential smoothing method application to restoring lost data on electric power technical record-keeping in industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.S. Bederak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies in detail a problem of restoring single data of electric power technical record-keeping systems by means of exponential smoothing. A hypothesis of efficient finding the optimal value of smoothing constant α in the range of 0 < α < 2 is tested. Variation ranges for the mean absolute percentage error of the forecast are specified versus values of the time series variation coefficient for specific electricity consumption processes with different data spread.

  16. Maximizing the Sustainability of Cement Utilization in Building Projects through the Use of Greener Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bediako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Greener technologies and sustainable developments are currently among the main tools used by many industries in shaping the world for a better future. The construction industry that is known to have numerous negative impact on sustainability is now wide awake on sustainable measures which can aid in reducing its negative impact. In this work, green cement was produced from pyroprocessed clay (PC at 800°C and mixed together with Portland cement. This paper presents both laboratory tests and some field applications of green cement application. Laboratory tests performed included setting times, compressive strength, and shrinkage. Field applications of the green cement are shown. Results from the work showed that well-proportioned greener cement gained strengths between 11% and 30% more than Portland cement at standard curing period of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. However, in real statistical terms, there was no difference between Portland cement and green cement strength performance. Shrinkage from both total and autogenous tests also showed insignificant differences between the two cements. The study recommends the use of green cements with pozzolanic origin than only Portland cement as a way to maximize sustainability in building projects.

  17. Energy optimization and reduction of carbon footprint in cement manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallestey, Eduardo; Crosley, Gabriela; Wilson, Andrew; Maier, Urs; Hoppler, Rolf; Boerrnert, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Cement producers are large consumers of thermal and electrical energy, which are only available at steadily increasing costs. Efforts to reduce demands by using higher efficiency equipment and substituting -fuels and raw materials to lower production costs have been addressed in recent years. Under the Kyoto Protocol industrialised countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions. Cement producers as some of the largest emitters of CO2 have been especially challenged to find new and innovative ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarise some ABB technologies developed to assist the cement industry to meet these goals.

  18. Utilization of waste tires as alternative fuel in cement plant

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry is regulated by legislation in which various measures are specified for prevention and reduction of air pollution as well as protection of human health, due to atmospheric emissions, which occur during cement production. Legislation also holds emission limit values for co-incineration of wastes i.e. alternative fuels. Waste tires as an alternative fuel can be co-incinerated i.e. co-processed in cement plants, where the high calorific value of the rubber is used to substitute f...

  19. An Educational Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Workforce: Opportunities to Redefine Secondary Career and Technical Education to Meet Food Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleon, Larry; Freedman, Debra; Seetharaman, Koushik; Sharma, Priya

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of a needs assessment concerning current training needs and performance targets for non-degreed employees in the food industry. Focus groups were used to gather data from 5 food-processing companies: a fresh vegetable company, a canned vegetable company, 2 snack food companies, and a meat company. Focus group…

  20. Enhancing an Integrative Course in Industrial Engineering and Management via Realistic Socio-technical Problems and Serious Game Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, Nicolae; Pelletier, Christine; Velthuizen, Vincent; Umeda, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses specific educational issues encountered during the Systems Engineering Design course at the Industrial Engineering and Management master program at the University of Groningen. It explains first the concept of an integrative course, an innovation that was applied first in this m

  1. An Educational Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Workforce: Opportunities to Redefine Secondary Career and Technical Education to Meet Food Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleon, Larry; Freedman, Debra; Seetharaman, Koushik; Sharma, Priya

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of a needs assessment concerning current training needs and performance targets for non-degreed employees in the food industry. Focus groups were used to gather data from 5 food-processing companies: a fresh vegetable company, a canned vegetable company, 2 snack food companies, and a meat company. Focus group…

  2. The effect of fly ash and coconut fibre ash as cement replacement materials on cement paste strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, R.; Kurniawan, R. W.; Yasin, A. K.; Fatoni, H. AT; Lutfi, F. M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Concrete is the backbone material in the construction field. The main concept of the concrete material is composed of a binder and filler. Cement, concrete main binder highlighted by environmentalists as one of the industry are not environmentally friendly because of the burning of cement raw materials in the kiln requires energy up to a temperature of 1450° C and the output air waste CO2. On the other hand, the compound content of cement that can be utilized in innovation is Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH), this compound will react with pozzolan material and produces additional strength and durability of concrete, Calcium Silicate Hydrates (CSH). The objective of this research is to explore coconut fibers ash and fly ash. This material was used as cement replacement materials on cement paste. Experimental method was used in this study. SNI-03-1974-1990 is standard used to clarify the compressive strength of cement paste at the age of 7 days. The result of this study that the optimum composition of coconut fiber ash and fly ash to substitute 30% of cement with 25% and 5% for coconut fibers ash and fly ash with similar strength if to be compared normal cement paste.

  3. Effect of duration of exposure to cement dust on respiratory function of non-smoking cement mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Al Masri, Abeer A; Al Rouq, Fawzia; Azeem, Muhammad Abdul

    2013-01-16

    This study aimed to determine the effect of long term exposure to cement dust on lung function in non-smoking cement mill workers. This is a cross-sectional study of respiratory functions. Spirometry was performed in 100 apparently healthy volunteers; 50 non-smoking cement mill workers and 50 non-smoking un-exposed subjects. Based on the duration of exposure, cement mill workers were divided into three groups, less than 5, 5-10 and greater than 10 years. All subjects were individually matched for age, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV(1)), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation in cement mill workers who had been working in the cement industry for more than 10 years compared to their matched un-exposed group. Lung functions in cement mill workers were significantly impaired and results show a long term duration response effect of years of exposure to cement dust on lung functions.

  4. Design of Digital Control System for Cement Raw Material Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; LI Hongsheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of cement raw material prepared digital control system by PROFIBUS. It uses the digital technology to implement the digital control system for raw material prepared of the cement factory. This system improves the communication between the industrial system and locale instrument devices. It applies digital communication to replace the 4-20 mA or 24VDC signal between locale lever device and controller.

  5. Type 2 diabetes in Mexican workers exponed to a potential source of dioxins in the cement industry determined by a job exposure matrix Diabetes tipo 2 en trabajadores Mexicanos expuestos a una fuente potencial de dioxinas en la industria del cemento determinado a través de una matriz de exposición ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Haro-García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify association between type 2 diabetes (DM2 with occupational exposure to potential dioxins source in Mexican cement industry workers. Materials and Methods: 56 medical files of cement industry workers with diagnosis of DM2 were included; 56 medical files of workers from the same industry without DM2 were the controls. The daily dose of exposure (DDE to the potential dioxins source per work years was estimated by a job exposure matrix and categorized as low, moderate, and high. Logistic regression model that correlated high exposure to potential source of dioxins (cement clinker confinement per work years and presence of DM2 was adjusted by work seniority, patient age at which DM2 diagnosis was established and DM2 familiar background. Results: the OR for the presence of DM2 in workers with moderate and high exposure to potential source of dioxins in the cement industry was 3.25 (1.10-9.57, p= 0.03, adjusted by work seniority, worker age at which DM2 diagnosis was established, and DM2 familiar background. Conclusions: In according with the data explored in the medical files of cement industry workers, there is an association between high exposure to the industrial confinement of the cement clinker as a potential source of dioxins and presence of DM2 in a modest dose-response gradient.Propósito: Identificar asociación entre diabetes tipo 2 (DM2 en trabajadores Mexicanos con la exposición ocupacional a una fuente potencial de dioxinas de la industria cementera. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 56 expedientes clínicos de trabajadores de la industria cementera con diagnóstico de DM2; los controles lo constituyeron 56 expedientes clínicos de trabajadores de la misma industria pero sin DM2. La dosis diaria de exposición (DDE a la fuente potencial de dioxinas por años trabajados se estimó a través de una matriz de exposición ocupacional y fue categorizada como baja, moderada y alta. El modelo de regresión logística que

  6. Environmental CRIteria for CEMent based products, ECRICEM. Phase I. Ordinary Portland Cements. Phase II. Blended Cements. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van Zomeren, A. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmetal Research, Petten (Netherlands); Stenger, R. [Holcim Group Support Ltd, Holderbank (Switzerland); Schneider, M.; Spanka, G. [VDZ, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stoltenberg-Hansson, A. [NORCEM, HeidelbergCement Group, Brevik (Norway); Dath, P. [Holcim Belgium, Obourg (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    The protection of the immediate environment of structural works is one of the essential requirements of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD). According to the CPD, construction products can only be put on the market, if the structural works built with them fulfil the relevant requirements for hygiene, and the protection of health and the environment. These essential requirements in the respective standards are specified at the national level by the individual member states. Cement and cementitious materials are considered to fulfil the fundamental requirements of the European Construction Products Directive and the corresponding national regulations. Therefore a technical regulation like the cement standard EN 197 in general does not cover separate requirements for determining compliance of cementitious materials with criteria on hygiene, health and environmental protection. Further regulations are laid down in cases where it appears necessary for constructive applications requiring a particular protection of water, soil and air.

  7. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume III. Technical issues and design guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report provide appropriate guidance for addressing the major technical issues associated with the design and installation of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) system. Nomographs are presented for developing preliminary sizing and costing, and issues associated with specific components and the overall design of the electrical and mechanical system are discussed. SAND82-7157/2 presents a review of current PV-T technology and operating systems and a study of potential PV-T applications. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  8. Clean Development Mechanism: Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaighum Abbass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 a major Green House Gas (GHG in the atmosphere, is believed to be largely responsible for global climate change through industrial emissions. The level of CO2 concentration has exponentially increased from about 280 ppm at the start of the industrial revolution to about 380 ppm to date. Although Kyoto protocol has bound industrialized nations to reduce green house gas emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels around year 2008-2012, but violation continues. The cement industry is one of the major emitter of green house gases, particularly CO2 due to its energy intensive production process. It is estimated that approximately 1 tone of CO2 is released during the manufacturing of each tone of Portland cement. Most of CO2 emissions originate from burning fossil fuels and de-carbonization of limestone in a cement plant. During past several decades, the use of by-product materials in concrete, either as components of blended cements or as admixtures, has increased significantly. In this study, another alternate Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM, Laterite has been used with the objectives: to evaluate the performance of cement containing different percentages of laterite (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 %; to identify the optimum replacement percentage; and to investigate the effects of different concentrations of laterite on various properties of cement. For that purpose, laterite was tested: before blending (for elemental and mineralogical composition by using XRF, SEM and XRD: after blending (Elemental analysis using XRF, fineness test by using Blaine’s air permeability test and for particle size % on 45, 90 and 200 µ sieve, respectively; and after hydration (for mineralogical analysis using SEM. Furthermore, physical tests of manufactured cement, i.e., water consistency, setting time, Le-Chatlier-expansion and compressive strength were also evaluated and compared with limestone and fly-ash cement blends. The results show that with the

  9. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  10. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  11. Application of Carbonate Looping to Cement Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    of sorbents in carbonate looping processes. The results show that the CO2 carrying capacity of limestone is much lower at realistic conditions than at mild conditions, which are often used in laboratory experiments. BET and SEM analyses show that the surface area of calcined limestone decreases significantly...

  12. Elaborating the History of Our Cementing Societies: An in-Use Stock Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi; Shen, Lei; Løvik, Amund N; Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang

    2017-09-12

    Modern cities and societies are built fundamentally based on cement and concrete. The global cement production has risen sharply in the past decades due largely to urbanization and construction. Here we deployed a top-down dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) model to quantify the historical development of cement in-use stocks in residential, nonresidential, and civil engineering sectors of all world countries. We found that global cement production spreads unevenly among 184 countries, with China dominating the global production and consumption after the 1990s. Nearly all countries have shown an increasing trend of per capita cement in-use stock in the past century. The present per capita cement in-use stocks vary from 10 to 40 tonnes in major industrialized and transiting countries and are below 10 tonnes in developing countries. Evolutionary modes identified from historical patterns suggest that per capita in-use cement stock growth generally complies with an S-shape curve and relates closely to affluence and urbanization of a country, but more in-depth and bottom-up investigations are needed to better understand socioeconomic drivers behind stock growth. These identified in-use stock patterns can help us better estimate future demand of cement, explore strategies for emissions reduction in the cement industry, and inform CO2 uptake potentials of cement based products and infrastructure in service.

  13. Kinetics of strength gain of biocidal cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion becomes the determinative durability factor of buildings and constructions. Damages of construction materials caused by bacteria, filamentous fungi, actinomycetes constitute a serious danger to the constructions of a building or a structure and to the health of people. Biodeteriorations are typical both in old and new constructions. A great quantity of destruction factors of industrial and residential buildings under the influence of microorganisms was established in practice. Providing products and constructions based on concretes fungicidal and bactericidal properties is an important direction of modern construction material science. The most efficient way to solve this task is creation of biocidal cements. The article presents the results of experimental studies of kinetic dependences of strength gain by biocidal cements by physico-mechanical and physico-chemical analysis methods. The identical velocity character of initial hydration of the developed compositions of biocidal cements is set, as well as a more calm behavior of hardening processes at later terms. It has been established that the compositions of biocidal cements modified by sodium sulfate and sodium fluoride possess the greatest strength.

  14. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  15. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  16. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  17. An unusual case of extensive self-inflicted cement burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, F; Mariano, F; Maina, G; Bianco, C; Nuzzo, J; Stella, M

    2013-03-31

    Cement is a fine powder used to bind sand and stones into a matrix of concrete, making up the world's most frequently used building material in the construction industry. First described by Ramazzini in his book "De Morbis Artificia Diatriba" in 1700, the effect of cement on the skin was presumed to be due to contact dermatitis. The first cement burns case was published by Rowe and Williams in 1963. Cement handling has been found to be responsible for many cases of occupational burns (generally full-thickness) usually affecting a limited TBSA, rarely greater than 5%, with localization especially in the lower limbs. We describe an unusual case of a self-inflicted cement burn involving 75% TBSA. A 28-yr-old building worker attempted suicide by jumping into a cement mixer in a truck. Upon arrival at our burn centre, clinical examination revealed extensive burn (75% TBSA - 40% full-thickness) involving face, back, abdomen, upper limbs and circumferentially lower limbs, sparing the hands and feet. The patient was sedated, mechanically ventilated, and subjected to escharotomy of the lower limbs in the emergency room. The following day, the deep burns in the lower limbs were excised down to the fascia and covered with meshed allografts. Owing to probable intestinal and skin absorption of cement, metal toxicity was suspected and dialysis and forced diuresis were therefore initiated on day 3. The patient's clinical conditions gradually worsened and he died on day 13 from the multi-organ failure syndrome.

  18. An analysis of the technical and economic performance of a parabolic trough concentrator for solar industrial process heat application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    Design parameters and economic projections of importance to the commercial realization of mass-produced parabolic trough solar concentrators as industrial heat suppliers are presented. Numerical formulas are defined for obtaining a figure of merit for the thermal efficiency of a concentrator, taking into account the reflectivity, the mirror-receiver intercept factor, the end loss factor, tracking and misalignment errors, the absorptivity-transmissivity product at normal incidence of the receiver tube and its glass envelope, and durability. An economic analysis which includes all costs, tax write-offs, comparisons with conventional fuels, inflation rate, time of borrowing, maintenance, profits, and conversion efficiencies is developed. It was determined that the trough systems will become competitive in the U.S. when installed costs are $15.79/sq ft over a 10-yr investment period

  19. ALINET: a model for assessing energy conservation opportunities in the food processing industry. Final technical report, September 1977-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levis, A H; Ducot, E R; Levis, I S; Webster, T F

    1979-12-01

    ALINET is a network model designed for the analysis of energy use in the food processing and distribution sector and for the evaluation of the potential effectiveness of energy conserving technologies. The conceptual framework of the model, as well as the design and implementation of the computer software are described. The wheat system at the national, state, and facility-specific level is used to illustrate the model's operation and use. A pilot project, carried out in cooperation with industry, is described in which energy use in (a) hard wheat milling, and (b) durum milling and pasta manufacture is analyzed. Finally, the introduction of an alternative technology for pasta drying is assessed in terms of energy conservation and cost. Recommendation for further applications and institutionalization of the model are made.

  20. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  1. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  2. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  3. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  4. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  5. Some aspects of coal utilization in cement ovens as compared with fuel oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucchi, R.; Botti, R.

    1981-01-01

    The technical problems specific to the use of coal in the cement industry of Italy, compared with the use of fuel oil or gas, are reviewed. Considers the heat and energy aspects of the problem - losses due to combustion gas, primary air and the coal's moisture content. Looks at the role of the minor constituents in coal, on the manufacturing process: the roles of S, K/SUB/2O, Na/SUB/2O and some chlorides; and discusses the incidence of heterogeneity of the various coals. Discusses atmospheric pollution (by sulphur dioxides, nitrogen and thallium compounds). In conclusion, it appears that whilst the use of coal leads to a slight increase in primary energy consumption (30 to 60 kcal/kg of clinker) the presence of minor constituents has little effect on the manufacturing process, except in the case of chlorides. (45 refs) (In French)

  6. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 29 / Tuesday... RIN 2060-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland...

  7. Environmental Assessment of Different Cement Manufacturing Processes Based on Emergy and Ecological Footprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its high environmental impact and energy intensive production, the cement industry needs to adopt more energy efficient technologies to reduce its demand for fossil fuels and impact on the environment. Bearing in mind that cement is the most widely used material for housin...

  8. Environmental Assessment of Different Cement Manufacturing Processes Based on Emergy and Ecological Footprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its high environmental impact and energy intensive production, the cement industry needs to adopt more energy efficient technologies to reduce its demand for fossil fuels and impact on the environment. Bearing in mind that cement is the most widely used material for housin...

  9. The Effective Use of Scientific and Technical Information in Industrial and Non-Profit Settings: Explorations through Experimental Interventions in On-Going R & D Activities. Progress Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Albert

    This is a second report of a study of the use of scientific and technical information in industrial and nonprofit settings. It focuses on mapping the information-communication behavior of the engineering division of the Southwest Research Institute. Data include questionnaires, library records, travel records, telephone records, and contractual…

  10. PUBLIC SCHOOL LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA--COMMUNITY COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CENTERS. CHAPTER 115A, GENERAL STATUTES OF NORTH CAROLINA, INCLUDING AMENDMENTS ADOPTED BY THE 1965 AND 1967 GENERAL ASSEMBLIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina General Assembly, Raleigh.

    CHAPTER 115A OF THE GENERAL STATUTES OF NORTH CAROLINA PROVIDES FOR THE STATE'S COMMUNITY COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CENTERS. IT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES--(1) GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE ADMINISTRATION, (2) LOCAL ADMINISTRATION, (3) FINANCIAL SUPPORT, (4) BUDGETING, ACCOUNTING, AND FISCAL MANAGEMENT, (5)…

  11. Osteotransductive bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  12. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  13. Training and technical innovative support are the main ingredients to new planning and ecological practice in the building industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, S. Omodeo [Architectura and Natura, Milano (Italy)

    1998-09-01

    In recent years we have witnessed significant progress in the debate over architecture`s responsibility toward the environment, as well as in the clarification of the various problems relative to it. This evolution seems logical in the light of a principle which, though now self-evident, was not so clear in the early years of the debate - that is, the principle which holds that designing and building are acts that comport an implicit responsibility to not create structures or mechanisms which turn against life and human exigency, such that architecture has come to be understood as an intrinsically ecological discipline. However, outside the contexts of academic debate and architecture of the highest caliber, we must have the courage to recognise the grim fact that most architecture as it is practised today - that which truly changes the face of the world - reflects a rather different, and retrograde reality. The discipline of architecture, therefore, still has a good deal of progress to make. Architects must recognise the new dimensions their role is assuming, not only with regard to industrial design and production, but more specifically with regard to architecture proper, such that the recovery of a correct conception of building processes reenters among the primary tasks of the architect. Two distinct yet inextricably intertwined premises are necessary for achieving this end: on the one hand, an effort must be made to reeducate and update the entire building sector, including the tradespeople; on the other, we must defined shared scientific criteria for evaluating the crucial, controversial and ever more urgent issue of the ecological quality of materials. (Author)

  14. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  15. Technical Service Needs and Countermeasures of Small and Medium Enterprises in Electromechanical Industry Analysis%浅析机电行业中小型企业技术服务需求及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芬; 汤锐

    2015-01-01

    By questionnaire and interview survey, Assess the status of technical service needs of some Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in electromechanical industry, combine with our technical service center to provide SMES with the project and technical service capabilities, focus on resolving SMEs patent applications, mechanical and electrical joint project design and other technical services needs.%文章通过问卷与访谈调研,评估机电行业中部分中小企业的技术服务需求现状,并结合学院工程中心为企业提供技术服务的项目与能力,重点解决中小企业关心的专利申请、机电项目联合设计等技术服务需求。

  16. Steam explosion and new production processes for pulping industry: technical and economical feasibility; Steam explosion e nuovi processi di produzione cartaria: fattibilita` tecnico-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Bramanti, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-05-01

    Pulping and paper industry traditionally uses wood as the main raw material for its production processes. Thus, the global increasing of paper and pulp yield has causes so a depletion work of natural wood resources that the environment balances are weakened. About conversion technologies, the most important developments are carried out by the Companies from Sweden, Finland, Norway and Canada, where industrial management has chosen production processes anti pollution (soda-sulphate) in the place of those more dangerous (bi-sulphate). The international research and development activities are focused, at the same time, on new conversion processes and renewable resources in the last time shows to meet three different needs: 1. anti pollution laws; 2. public opinion for the environment policy; 3. market competitors. The present work offers a technical and economical assessment of industrial application of steam-explosion process and non-wood biomass (C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}). Then, the authors propose the introduction of the steam-explosion technology in pulping industry in order to obtain technical and economical advantages. [Italiano] Il comparto industriale cartario impiega per tradizione secolare il legno come principale materia prima all`interno dei cicli tecnologici di produzione. Cio` ha determinato un incremento produttivo di paste e di carta a cui si e` accompagnata una crescente opera di deforestazione ed una serie di conseguenti squilibri ecologici. A fronte di tali interventi di distruzione `programmata`, dal punto di vista delle tecnologie di trasformazione, va rilevato che i processi produttivi hanno subito una reale evoluzione nei Paesi maggiormente sensibili ai problemi ambientali come Svezia, Finlandia, Norvegia e Canada, ove gli imprenditori del setttore hanno abbandonato i processi a maggior impatto ambientale, come quelli al bisolfito, per adottarne alcuni meno inquinanti, come quello alla soda-solfato. Negli ultimi anni gli sforzi della ricerca

  17. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, D.; Janssen, D.; Mann, K.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect

  18. Effect of Heavy Metal Present in Cement Dust on Soil and Plants of Nokha (Bikaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.(Mrs.Suruchi Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nokha(Bikaner cement industries emittes cement dust in nearby farmers fields. In these industries cement dust emitted contains traces of hexavalent chromium and lead well above permissible limit in area under investigation. However, cadmium and nickel were found below limits prescribed. To analyse heavy metals viz, Cr+6, lead, Cadmium and nickel one hundred and twenty samples were collected from four directions on surface and 20 cm depth, and analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From the above study it is clear that in case of Sarvottam cement works only lead content was higher in all directions and depths than other two plants. At tiger and Nokha cement works contamination of lead was more over limited in the first 1 km except in east direction. Mobility of lead was relatively more on top soil than 20cm depth. Hexavalent chromium content in south western direction was more for Nokha cement. Whereas, it was more in east direction in case of tiger cement. This indicated influence of prevailing direction of wind on distribution of heavy metals present in cement dust.Heavy metal toxicity results in reduction in plant height, burning of leaf margins and tip, slow leaf growth and over all wilting of Prosopis cineraria, Pearlmillet and clusterbean plants, when this metal deposits in Human body results in genetic disorders. Electrostatic precipitator can be installed to reduce the cement dust emission.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Partial Replacement of Cement by Various Percentage of Phosphogypsum And Flyash In Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita R Saikhede

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 15 million tons of fly ash (FA and 3 million tons of phospho-gypsum (PG are produced every year. The utilization of these industrial by-product materials is important in terms of environmental and economical issues are concerned. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the technical possibilities of incorporating FA and PG in production of concrete .In this study Combination of FA and PG is use as a mineral admixture with, phosphogypsum 0%., 5%,10%, 15% and fly ash is constant as 20% , Last proportion was taken PG- 5% and FA- 25%. . The compressive, tensile and flexural strength are studied by casting and testing specimens for 7, 14 and 28 days. It is shown that a part of ordinary Portland cement can be replaced with PG and FA to develop a good and hardened concrete to achieve economy; above 10% replacement of phosphogypsum and 20% replacement of F in concrete lead to drastic reduction not only in the compressive strength but also in Flexural and split tensile strength of concrete.

  20. 全组分废弃混凝土再生水泥熟料烧成及水化性能研究%Study of sintering process and hydration of recycled cement clinker produced from all components of waste concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾红梅; 常钧; 卢洪正; 燕芳; 韩立东

    2013-01-01

    With regards to the existing technical problems for the cementitious reusage of waste concrete in our country which lead to the low efficiency of various component separation in waste concrete ,high production cost and large energy consumption ,a new technology roadmap is raised using all components of waste concrete as part raw materials and burning clinker for producing recycled cement . The burnability of recycled cement raw mixtures , the mineral components of recycled cement clinker and the strength and microstructure of hydrated recycled cement are all investigated .The experimental results show that the technology of recycled cement produced from all components of waste concrete is feasible and the burnability of raw mixtures is good .However ,the strength of hydrated recycled cement mortar is lower than the technical requirements of Portland cement clinker strength ,due to the difference of experimental conditions between the laboratory and plant ;sintered recycled cement clinker admixed with the seed crystals of Portland cement clinker ,its mineral compositions and hydration products are basically the same as the industrial cement clinker .In addition ,the microstructure of C-S-H gel in the hydration products is also similar .%  针对我国废弃混凝土胶凝化再生利用技术存在的组分分离导致材料利用率低、生产成本和能耗高等问题,提出利用以石灰岩为粗骨料的全组分废弃混凝土作为生料原料,煅烧熟料、制备再生水泥的新思路。研究了再生水泥的生料易烧性以及熟料的矿物组成、水化强度和水化产物的微观形貌。结果表明:全组分废弃混凝土再生水泥技术是可行的;再生水泥生料易烧性较好,熟料胶砂强度低于硅酸盐水泥熟料技术要求,试验条件是影响强度的主要因素;引入熟料晶种煅烧的再生水泥熟料,其主要矿物成分和水化产物的组成与参比工业熟料基本相同

  1. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  2. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  3. Study on the Compressive Performance of a New Type Cemented-Filling Material Based on Industrial Waste Slag and Tailings%新型工业废渣-尾矿基胶结充填材料的抗压性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明录; 刘允秋

    2016-01-01

    为缓解高炉渣、尾矿等工业废渣的大量堆存对环境的危害,降低矿山开采胶结充填成本,探讨以尾矿和高炉渣、石膏、赤泥等工业废渣为主要原材料,以固体水玻璃为激活剂,制备新型工业废渣-尾矿基胶结充填材料的试验。得出最佳配方为:浆料浓度70%、灰砂比1∶3.89,高炉渣78.70%、石灰11.11%、石膏2.78%、固体水玻璃7.41%,并对高炉矿渣在胶结充填中的胶凝机理进行了研究,对尾矿资源再利用及工业生产具有重要的指导意义。%In order to alleviate the harm of the stockpiling of blast furnace slag to environment and reduce the cost mining cemented filling,the tailings,blast furnace slag,gypsum,red mud and other indus-trial waste slag are taken as the main raw materials,the solid sodium silicate is taken as the activator to conduct the experiment of producting the new cemented-filling material.The experimental results show that the optimal formular of the new cemented-filling material including slurry concentration (70%),ce-ment sand ratio (1∶3.89),blast furnance slag (78.70%),lime (11.11%),gypsum (2.78%)and sol-id sodium silicate (7.41%),besides that,the gelation mechanism of blast furnace slag in the new cemen-ted-filling material is also analyzed in detail,the above analysis results have some the important instruction significance to the resources reutilization and industrial production.

  4. Effect of cement sand ratio on industrial waste residue dry-mixed mortar properties%灰砂比对工业废渣干混砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀伟; 杨林; 秦贤顺

    2015-01-01

    研究了高掺量磷渣粉、粉煤灰干混砂浆的灰砂比对砂浆性能的影响及激发剂对砂浆的作用机理。结果表明,在砂浆稠度基本不变的前提下,随着灰砂比减小,砂浆和易性变差,凝结时间延长,抗压强度降低,拉伸黏结强度逐渐减小,28 d干缩逐渐增大,但在灰砂比为1:1~1:6的范围内其性能均能满足GB/T 25181—2010《预拌砂浆》中对应等级标准要求,调整灰砂比可以配制出M5.0~M30不同强度等级的普通干混砂浆。%Study on the mechanism of effect of high content of phosphorus slag powder,fly ash dry mixed mortar cement sand ratio on the properties of mortar and activator on the mortar. The results show that,on the premise of mortar consistency basically unchanged, with the cement sand ratio decreases,mortar workability variation,extended the setting time,compressive strength decreases,the tensile bond strength decreases,28 d shrinking gradually increased,but in the cement sand ratio is in the range of 1:1~1:6 and its performance can meet the GB/T 25181—2010 ready mixed mortar in the corresponding grade standards,adjust the cement sand ratio can be prepared M5.0~M30 of different strength grade of ordinary dry mixed mortar.

  5. DECHEMA annual meetings `96. Summaries. Vol. 2. Plenary papers, technical meeting on safety technology, technical meeting on computer applications in the chemical industry, technical meeting on membranes in process technology, technical meeting on dispersions, technical meeting on reaction technology, information day on sonochemistry; DECHEMA-Jahrestagungen `96. Kurzfassungen. Bd. 2. Plenarvortraege - Fachtreffen Sicherheitstechnik - Fachtreffen Computeranwendung in der Chemischen Industrie - Fachtreffen Membranen in der Prozesstechnik - Fachtreffen Dispersionen - Fachtreffen Reaktionstechnik - Informationstag Sonochemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G. [ed.

    1996-08-01

    This volume comprises the programme of the annual meeting and the summaries of the lectures given. The following subjects were discussed: Safety technology, computer applications in the chemical industry, membranes in process technology, dispersions, reaction technology, sonochemistry. (SR) [Deutsch] Dieser Band enthaelt das Programm der Jahrestagung und die Kurzfassungen der Vortraege. Folgende Gebiete werden behandelt: Sicherheitstechnik, Computeranwendungen in der Chemischen Industrie, Membranen in der Prozesstechnik, Dispersionen, Reaktionstechnik, Sonochemie. (SR)

  6. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5±1 min. The compressive strength after 24h of incubation was approximately 8.45±1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10±1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16±4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics.

  7. Influence of CG With High Content of Metallic Particles as a Cement Admixture on Cement Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Hui-wen; LIN Zong-shou; ZHAO Qian; HUANG Yun

    2003-01-01

    Copper gangue (CG), containing a large amount of water with grain sizes of 0.037 to 0.10mm,is an inactive industrial waste generated from copper refineries. When it is dried and used as a cement admixture, the influence of the presence of finely dispersed metallic particles in CG on the microstructure and compressive strength of cement paste has been studied.The results show that the higher the replacement of CG is,the lower the compressive strength of cement mortar is.However,the long-term strength of the specimens with 10% CG,especially after being cured for 3 months,approached to that of the plain mortar.Its mechanism was studied by an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPXMA).The results indicate that a small quantity of Fe(OH)3·nH2O slowly formed from Fe2O3 in the presence of Ca(OH)2, free CaO and MgO of the clinker also slowly hydrated and formed Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 respectively,so the hardened cement paste became more compact.

  8. By-product materials in cement clinker manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadayev, A. [ICS and E, Aurora, CO (United States); Kodess, B. [VNIIMS Gosstandart of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    The use of Cl- and SO{sub 3}-containing by-products from chemical industries for manufacturing Portland cement clinker using a wet process was examined. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the by-products and raw materials were determined. Homogeneous raw mixes containing different concentrations of by-products (5--30%) were prepared and the influence of the by-products on all steps of burning the mixes in a kiln to form a cement clinker was investigated. It was shown that introducing Cl- and SO{sub 3}-containing by-products to the raw mixes significantly changes all the cement clinker producing stages and changes the chemical and mineralogical compositions at all intermediate stages and in the finished products, forming new minerals containing Cl and SO{sub 3} [CaO{sub x} (SiO{sub 2}){sub y} CaCl{sub 2}] or [CaO{sub x} (SiO{sub 2}){sub y} CaSO{sub 4}] and increasing the amount of well-known intermediate minerals. The presence of the chlorides and sulfates in the cement clinker burning processes removes alkali from the raw mixes, turning them to volatile forms, accelerating the raw mineral decomposition processes and accelerating the formation processes of cement minerals (C{sub 2}S, C{sub 12}A{sub 7}, C{sub 4}AF) and formation of chloride and sulfate cycles in the kiln, forming clinker liquids and decreasing the formation and growth of the main cement minerals (C{sub 3}A, C{sub 3}S). The cement clinker contains some quantity of minerals with Cl or SO{sub 3}. Their presence in the final product decreases cement quality by reducing the amount of active CaO (C) and reducing the active CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio.

  9. Advances in Glass Ionomer Cements

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Dt. Tuğba; TİRALİ, Yard. Doç. Dr. Resmiye Ebru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there have been a number of innovations and developments with respect to glass ionomer cements and their applications in clinical dentistry. This article considers some of the recent outstanding studies regarding the field of glass ionomer cement applications, adhesion and setting mechanisms, types, advantage and disadvantages among themselves and also to enhance the physical and antibacterial properties under the title of 'Advances in Glass Ionomer Cements'. As their biologic...

  10. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement.

  11. [Haemotoxicity of dental luting cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A; Welker, D

    1989-06-01

    A glass ionomer luting cement (AquaCem) shows a relatively low haemolytic activity in comparison with two zinc phosphate cements. Especially the initial irritation by this cement is smaller. Although it is possible that AquaCem particularly, in unfavourable cases, may damage the pulpa dentin system; this is due to the slowly decrease of the haemolytic activity with increasing of the probes. We found that Adhesor showed in dependence of the batches a varying quality.

  12. An Empirical Study of Regional Disparity of China' s Industrial Technical Efficiency%中国工业技术效率区域差异实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 石奇; 刘玉飞

    2012-01-01

    从技术效率假说出发,借助随机前沿生产函数模型,选取2003-2009年中国工业面板数据,分析研究了外资、市场化进程和劳动者素质对中国工业技术效率及区域差异的影响。研究表明,东中西部工业技术效率存在明显差异,这也加剧了中国工业区域发展失衡现象。其中,区域间的市场化程度发展不均衡,劳动者素质存在差异,这是中国三大地区工业技术效率差异的主要影响因素,这也符合了技术效率假说;而外资并没有真正地促进中国工业技术效率提高,这与理论预期有所不同。最后,提出政策建议:继续坚持加快市场化进程改革;注重提高劳动者素质;改变当前利用外资模式,引导和规范外资区域分布。%Starting from the hypothesis of technical efficiency, this article analyzes the impacts of FDI, marketization and workers' quality on regional disparity of China' s industrial technical efficiency with the SFA model and China' s industrial panel data from 2003 to 2009. The results show that there exists great disparity of industrial technical efficiency in the eastern, central and western regions, which has aggravated regional imbalance in industrial development in China. The regional imbalance in marketization and workers' quality is the main reason for regional disparity of industrial technical efficiency in China, which corresponds with the hypothesis of technical efficiency. Besides, FDI doesn' t really promote China' s industrial technical efficiency, which doesn' t correspond with the hypothesis. Finally, the article offers some suggestions about speeding up the reform of marketization, improving workers' quality, changing the way of FDI utilization and regulating regional distribution of FDI.

  13. Random ionic mobility on blended cements exposed to aggressive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.garcia@uam.es [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio, Virginia [Departamento de Geografia, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vegas, Inigo [Labein-Tecnalia, 48160 Derio, Vizcaya (Spain); Frias, Moises [Instituto Eduardo Torroja, CSIC, c/ Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    It is known that the partial replacement of cement by pozzolanic admixtures generally leads to modifications in the diffusion rates of harmful ions. Recent research has centred on obtaining new pozzolanic materials from industrial waste and industrial by-products and on the way that such products can influence the performance of blended cements. This paper reports the behaviour of cements blended with calcined paper sludge (CPS) admixtures under exposure to two different field conditions: sea water and cyclic changes in temperature and humidity. Cement mortars were prepared with 0% and 10% paper sludge calcined at 700 deg. C. The penetration of ions within the microstructure of cement matrices was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (SEM/EDX) analytical techniques. The results show that ionic mobility varies substantially according to the type of exposure and the presence of the calcined paper sludge. The incorporation of 10% CPS is shown to assist the retention and diffusion of the ions.

  14. Technology Research on Municipal Domestic Waste Disposal Using Cement Kiln%利用水泥窑处置城市生活垃圾的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈必鸣; 卢欢亮; 陈伟锋

    2011-01-01

    基于国内外利用水泥窑协同处置城市固体废物的工程实践,分析了生活垃圾作为替代燃料在水泥工业应用的影响因素,并进行利用水泥窑处置城市生活垃圾的技术可行性分析.%The influencing factors of using domestic waste as alternative fuel for cement industry were analyzed by means of introducing engineering practices of municipal solid waste co-disposal by applying cement kiln in domestic and overseas, and its technical feasibility analysis was carried out.

  15. Influence of ferrite phase in alite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, Tristana Yvonne Francoise

    Since the energy crisis in 1970's, research on low energy cements with low CO2- emissions has been increasing. Numerous solutions have been investigated, and the goal of this original research is to create a viable hybrid cement with the components of both Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSAC), by forming a material that contains both alite and calcium sulfoaluminate clinker phases. Furthermore, this research focuses on keeping the cost of this material reasonable by reducing aluminum requirements through its substitution with iron. The aim of this work would produce a cement that can use large amounts of red mud, which is a plentiful waste material, in place of bauxite known as an expensive raw material. Modified Bogue equations were established and tested to formulate this novel cement with different amounts of ferrite, from 5% to 45% by weight. This was followed by the production of cement from reagent chemicals, and from industrial by-products as feedstocks (fly ash, red mud and slag). Hydration processes, as well as the mechanical properties, of these clinker compositions were studied, along with the addition of gypsum and the impact of a ferric iron complexing additive triisopropanolamine (TIPA). To summarize this research, the influence of the addition of 5-45% by weight of ferrite phase, was examined with the goal of introducing as much red mud as possible in the process without negatively attenuate the cement properties. Based on this PhD dissertation, the production of high-iron alite-calcium sulfoaluminateferrite cements was proven possible from the two sources of raw materials. The hydration processes and the mechanical properties seemed negatively affected by the addition of ferrite, as this phase was not hydrated entirely, even after 6 months of curing. The usage of TIPA counteracted this decline in strength by improving the ferrite hydration and increasing the optimum amount of gypsum required in each composition

  16. Cement plant gaseous pollutant emission reduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Emilio Hoyos Barreto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of SOX, NOX and CO2 formation is presented, these being the main pollutants emitted in the cement industry gas stream Several technologies for reducing NOX, SOX and CO2 emissions in long wet kilns are introduced: primary measures preventing contaminant formation and secondary/tube end emission reduction measures. Strategies for preventing CO2 (green-house effect gas formation are also addressed, such as fuel and raw material substitution and CO2 capture technologies which are still being developed.

  17. Study the air pollution due to Dorud Cement Plant (in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cement industry is one of the most important industries in the country. Dorud Cement Plant is one of the largest and oldest Iran's cement factories, which is working in the center of the city of Dorud. In this study, aimed to investigate air pollution resulting from Dorud cement plant, the parameters of CO, CO2, O2, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, dry dust particles, particles weight and environmental particulates of PM10 and PM2.5 were measured with conventional methods of measuring emissions from industrial chimneys and by using automatic measuring equipment, and the rates of emissions from the chimneys of the plant were calculated during a working year. These measurements were made over three months, from February 20, 2015 to May 21, 2015, at 3 stations of Link1-k1, Link2-k1 and Link3-k1, which are the chimneys of the three-lines of the plant. It was found in this study that the chimney No. 3 enters the maximum contaminant into the environment. The results also showed that based on the standards defined for the cement industry, Dorud cement plant meets the relative optimal conditions in terms of comparing performance with the standards, and the emissions from the factory are less than the enacted standards for this industry. Also, the preventive measures and equipment for reducing emissions established in this industrial unit have a relative utility. In this study, the factors including type of raw materials used, old production lines and old factory equipment, type of producing cement and proximity to the city were determined as main reasons for the emissions produced by this industry. Also, some management solutions such as the use of environment designing inside the manufacturing process of the plant and outside the plant, using flame-reducing, construction of a new phase and relocating the plant were suggested to reduce emissions from Dorud cement plants.

  18. Technical and biological evaluation of Galician carp young-of-the-year in the conditions of industrial rearing in the ponds of Subcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2017-03-01

    value increased to 3.0 ± 0.2. The head index at the beginning of the growing season was 4.4 ± 0.7, at the end of the growing season it decreased to 3.3 ± 0.1. The body depth index index ranged from 2.5 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.03. The body girth index was 1.1 ± 0.1. The caudal peduncle ranged from 1.9 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.2, while the coefficient of variation was 15% to 18%. According to the obtained results, the technical parameters of Galician carp young-of-the-year were higher than normative values. Originality. For the first time we evaluated the basic technical and biological parameters of Galician carp young-of-the-year. The assessment of exterior parameters of the study object during the growing season was provided. The evaluation of Galician carp young-of-the-year in the conditions of commercial rearing in Subcarpathiaт ponds was performed. Practical value. Industrial cultivation Galician carp young-of-the-year will provide an opportunity to produce high-quality material for further production of age-2 fish as well as will allow increasing fish productivity parameters in pond fish farms in the Subcarpathiaт region.

  19. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers. Studies on mortality, cancer morbidity, and radiographical changes in lung parenchyma and pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs.

  20. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, phase 3. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October, 1993--31 December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-01-31

    The primary objective of the present Phase 3 effort is to perform the final testing at a 20 MMBtu/hr commercial scale of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort will be on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimum environmental control of emissions inside the combustor. In connection with the latter, the goal is to achieve 0.4 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2} emissions, 0.2 lb/MMBtu of NO{sub x} emissions, and 0.02 lb particulates/MMBtu. Meeting the particulate goal will require the use of a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator to augment the nominal slag retention in the combustor. The NO{sub x} emission goal will require a modest improvement over maximum reduction achieved to date in the combustor to a level of 0.26 lb/MMBtu. To reach the SO{sub 2} emissions goal may require a combination of sorbent injection inside the combustor and sorbent injection inside the boiler, especially in high (>3.5%) sulfur coals. Prior to the initiation of the project, SO{sub 2} levels as low as 0.6 lb/MMBtu, equal to 81% reduction in 2% sulfur coals, were measured with boiler injection of calcium hydrate. The final objective is to define suitable commercial power or steam generating systems to which the use of the air cooled combustor offers significant technical and economic benefits. In implementing this objective both simple steam generation and combined gas turbine-steam generation systems will be considered.

  1. 荷兰能源政策和技术特色%Energy Policy and Technical Strength of Energy Industry of Netherlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全博

    2013-01-01

    Based on the document of the Dutch government’s Energy Report 2011, the paper studies the energy policy of the Netherlands. The core of the policy is that:on one hand, the green energy is needed for transition to a low-carbon economy while on the other hand, coal and natural gas should be kept for use to ensure its economic growth;Netherlands should not only maintain its advantages in the natural gas industry, but also actively develop new renewable energy technologies;and by taking use of the market mechanism, the country will keep its energy hub status in Northwest Europe. The latter part of the paper summarizes Dutch technical strength in natural gas, wind energy, solar energy and smart grid, to tell the rationale of the Dutch energy policy.%  分析荷兰《2011年能源报告》,可看出该国能源政策的要点是既要朝着低碳经济过渡,也要为保经济增长而适度使用燃煤和天然气;在巩固其在天然气领域产业优势的同时,积极开发新能源技术;通过市场竞争机制,保持荷兰在西北欧能源枢纽地位。通过以天然气、风能、太阳能和智能电网为例,凸现荷兰在这几个领域里的独到之处,借以说明该国能源政策的产业技术背景。

  2. Phosphate based oil well cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  3. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  4. Development Status and Technical Requirements of Non-grains Biomass Energy Industry in Guangxi%广西非粮生物质能源产业发展现状及近期技术需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄纪民; 李海洪; 王何健; 黎贞崇

    2012-01-01

    The development status and R&D status of non-grains biomass energy industry in Guangxi at present in the aspects of fuel ethanol and biogas and pellet fuel were introduced, the main technical problems in non-grains biomass energy industry were analyzed, and the technical re-quirements in recent period were put forward.%介绍了广西非粮生物质燃料乙醇、生物沼气、颗粒燃料方面的产业发展现状与研发现状,分析了广西非粮生物质能源产业存在的主要技术问题,提出近期该产业的技术需求。

  5. Addressing Industrial Overcapacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to exert tougher restrictions on excess capacity and redundant construction Enterprises looking to invest in the steel, cement or plate glass sectors will find it difficult to establish operations. The government is saying "no" to any expansion into these industries.

  6. Research on Technical Barriers'Influence to International Industrial Transfer and Innovation Efficiency%技术壁垒对国际产业转移及创新效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶权; 黄汉民

    2015-01-01

    Technical barrier is an important non-tariff measure in current international trade ,this paper analyzes the techni-cal barriers'effects to international industrial transfer and innovation efficiency .It establishes the corresponding quantita-tive models and adopts the method of OLS regression ,and it uses empirical method to analyze the technical barriers and other trade measures'specific impact to the international industrial transfer .Then it introduces the super efficiency innova-tion value and calculates the effect of technical barriers on China's regional innovation efficiency .Finally it summarizes and puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations so that it helps our country undertake international industrial transfer and improve the efficiency of technology innovation on the basis of rational utilization of technical barriers .%技术壁垒是当前国际贸易领域重要的非关税贸易措施.分析了技术壁垒对国际产业转移和创新效率的影响 ,并建立相应数量模型 ,采用OLS回归方法实证分析了技术壁垒等贸易措施对国际产业转移的具体影响 ,并引入创新超效率值(SE -DEA )测算技术壁垒对我国各区域创新效率的影响程度 ,最后总结并提出政策建议 ,试图为我国在合理利用技术壁垒基础上承接国际产业转移和提高技术创新效率提供借鉴.

  7. Manipulating cement-steel interface by means of electric field: Experiment and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Gawel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Good shear bonding and hydraulic bonding between cement and steel play a crucial role in well integrity of oil and gas wells. In this experimental study, we investigate the effect that constant electric field may have on the bonding at cement-steel interfaces. Constant voltage (18 V was applied between two stainless-steel electrodes immersed into a cement slurry. It was found that bonding was significantly improved at the positive electrode, while it was significantly worse at the negative electrode. The effect was due to the negatively-charged cement particles being attracted to the positive electrode. The effect may potentially be used for manipulation and control of casing-cement and reinforcement-concrete bonding strengths in oil & gas and construction industries, respectively. Side-effects that might reduce the applicability of this technology, are gas production at both electrodes (and especially at the negative one and significant corrosion at the positive electrode due to electrochemical reactions at metal surfaces. Poor bonding at the negative electrode may potentially be used for cleaning of cement equipment, such as cement pumps, pipes, tanks, and mixers used on the rigs to perform well cementing jobs in oil & gas industry.

  8. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  9. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO{sub 2} carbonation of standard portland cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.; Taylor, C.M.V.

    1997-08-01

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented.

  10. Polymer-Cement Composites with Self-Healing Ability for Geothermal and Fossil Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, M. Ian; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Rod, Kenton A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Um, Wooyong; Chun, Jaehun; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Linn, Diana; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Huerta, Nicolas John; Kutchko, Barbara G.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-05-18

    Sealing of wellbores in geothermal and tight oil/gas reservoirs by filling the annulus with cement is a well-established practice. Failure of the cement as a result of physical and/or chemical stress is a common problem with serious environmental and financial consequences. Numerous alternative cement blends have been proposed for the oil and gas industry. Most of these possess poor mechanical properties, or are not designed to work in high temperature environments. This work reports on a novel polymer-cement composite with remarkable self-healing ability that maintains the required properties of typical wellbore cements and may be stable at most geothermal temperatures. We combine for the first time experimental analysis of physical and chemical properties with density functional theory simulations to evaluate cement performance. The thermal stability and mechanical strength are attributed to the formation of a number of chemical interactions between the polymer and cement matrix including covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Self-healing was demonstrated by sealing fractures with 0.3–0.5 mm apertures, 2 orders of magnitude larger than typical wellbore fractures. This polymer-cement composite represents a major advance in wellbore cementing that could improve the environmental safety and economics of enhanced geothermal energy and tight oil/gas production.

  11. Corrosion of steel bars in cracked concrete made with ordinary portland, slag and fly ash cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, T.U.; Yamaji, T.; Hamada, H. [Port and Harbor Research Inst., Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Japan); Aoyama, T. [PS Corp. (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the marine durability of ordinary portland cement, slag and fly ash cement was examined using 15 year old plain and reinforced concrete cylindrical specimens. The performance of these cements was then examined for pre-cracked reinforced concrete prism samples. The process of manufacturing cement emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the global atmosphere. Replacing a portion of the cement with by-products from the steel industry and thermal power plants (which are both huge emitters of carbon dioxide) can lower carbon dioxide emissions and also solve the disposal issue of slag and fly ash while increasing the long-term durability of concrete structures. In this study, concrete cylindrical specimens were made of ordinary portland cement, slag and fly ash cements. The specimens were 100 x 100 x 600 mm prisms of different types of cement. Water-to-cement ratios were 0.45 and 0.55. Both tap water and seawater were used as mixing water. The samples were exposed in tidal pools for 15 years to evaluate the compressive strength of the concrete, corrosion of the steel bars, and chloride-ion concentrations in the concrete. It was shown that, with the exception of fly ash cements, the compressive strength of most cements increased after 15 years of exposure compared to its 28 day strength. Type C slag cement demonstrated the best performance against chloride-ion at the surface of concrete made with slag and fly ash. Voids in the steel-concrete interface make it possible for corrosion pits to develop. The use of seawater as mixing water results in earlier strength development at 28 days and does not cause to the strength of the concrete to regress after 15-years of exposure, but it causes more corrosion of steel bars at a lower cover depth. Corrosion of steel bars is not an issue at deeper cover depths. 15 refs., 19 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  13. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE; TAN; NAFISUL; ISLAM; MILAN; MITRASINOVIC

    2015-01-01

    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  14. Utilization of waste heat from rotary kiln for burning clinker in the cement plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztekler Karol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement subsector next to the glass industry is counted among one of the most energy-intensive industries, which absorbs approx. 12-15% of the total energy consumed by the industry. In the paper various methods of energy consumption reduction of in the cement industry are discussed. Cement production carries a very large emissions of greenhouse gases, where CO2 emissions on a global scale with the industry than approx. 5%. Great opportunity in CO2 emissions reduction in addition to the recovery of waste heat is also alternative fuels co-firing in cement kilns [1], [2]. In the cement sector interest in fitting-usable waste energy is growing in order to achieve high rates of savings and hence the financial benefits, as well as the environment ones [3]. In the process of cement production is lost irretrievably lot of energy and reduction of these losses on a global scale gives a visible saving of consumed fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of waste heat use in Rudniki Cement Plant near to Czestochowa. After analyzing of all waste heat sources will be analyzed the heat emitted by radiation from the surface of the rotary kiln at the relevant facility. On the basis of thermal-flow calculations the most favorable radiative heat exchanger will be designed. The calculations based on available measurements provided by the cement plant, a thermal power of the heat exchanger, the heat exchange surface, the geometry of the heat exchanger, and other important parameters will be established. In addition the preliminary calculations of hydraulic losses and set directions for further work will be carried out. Direct benefits observed with the introduction of the broader heat recovery technology, is a significant increase in energy efficiency of the industrial process, which is reflected in the reduction of energy consumption and costs. Indirectly it leads to a reduction of pollution and energy consumption.

  15. Energy End-Use : Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, R.; Gong, Y; Gielen, D.J.; Januzzi, G.; Marechal, F.; McKane, A.T.; Rosen, M.A.; Es, D. van; Worrell, E.

    2012-01-01

    The industrial sector accounts for about 30% of the global final energy use and accounts for about 115 EJ of final energy use in 2005. 1Cement, iron and steel, chemicals, pulp and paper and aluminum are key energy intensive materials that account for more than half the global industrial use. There i

  16. The polymer cement of sulfur as an alternative for the recycling of phosphogypsum. Corrosion testing of cements enriched with phosphogypsum; El cemento polimerico de azufre como alternative para el reciclado de fosfoyesos. Pruebas de corrosion de cementos enriquecidos con fosfoyesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Lopez, F. A.; Navarro, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sanz, B.; Ballesteros, O.; Higueras, E.; Roman, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of the use of cement for the recycling of materials is seen today as sustainable solution of the fertilizer industry for production of matches (NORM). In this paper presents some results of corrosion tests performed on these cements modified using buffer solutions of different pH. The analytical determinations in these matrices are new challenges. (Author)

  17. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  18. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  19. The interaction of pH, pore solution composition and solid phase composition of carbonated blast furnace slag cement paste activated with aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempl, J.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) is a waste product of industrial steel production and a common additive in the cement industry in Northern European countries. However, cementitious materials made from slag-rich cement, particularly CEM III /B, are very susceptible to carbonation. Recent investigations have

  20. 技术性清洁生产在保温材料制造业的实践%Case study of technical cleaner production in insulation materials industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐鑫; 于宏兵

    2013-01-01

    现阶段,在工业企业推行清洁生产的过程中十分有必要重视技术性清洁生产.技术性清洁生产对工业生产过程中污染物的减产甚至彻底消除某种污染物具有直接面快速的效果.此外,技术性清洁生产以改进企业主体生产工艺及装备技术水平和实现废弃物回收利用为主要切入点,具有提高产品质量、降低能耗、提高利润及全面优化生产过程等多方面的综合效益,这对工艺设备未达到较先进水平的企业尤为重要.分析了技术性清洁生产在现阶段工业企业推行清洁生产过程中的重要作用,并以某保温材料制造企业为例,介绍了该企业进行清洁生产技术改造的具体实施方案和取得的效益.%At present,it is necessary to pay attention to technical cleaner production for carrying out cleaner pro duction in industrial enterprise.A direct and rapid effect for reducing or even eliminating pollutants production during industrial production process could be achieved by technical cleaner production.In addition,regarding the improvement of main production technology,the promotion of equipment and technical level,and the recycling of waste as the cutting point,technical cleaner production achieved better comprehensive benefits in raising product quality,saving energy sources,optimizing production process and improving economic benefit.This is a particularly important point for industrial enterprises whose technology and equipment did not reach advanced level.Based on the analysis of the important role of technical cleaner production for the industrial enterprises,an enterprise for manufacturing insulation materials was induced as example for analyzing the detailed implementation programs and the benefits obtained by implementing technical cleaner production.

  1. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Misra; Renu Mathur

    2007-06-01

    The scope of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement in concrete works has been evaluated. MOC cement concrete compositions of varying strengths having good placing and finishing characteristics were prepared and investigated for their compressive and flexural strengths, -values, abrasion resistance etc. The durability of MOC concrete compositions against extreme environmental conditions viz. heating–cooling, freezing–thawing, wetting–drying and penetration and deposition of salts etc were investigated. The results reveal that MOC concrete has high compressive strength associated with high flexural strength and the ratio of compressive to flexural strength varies between 6 and 8. The elastic moduli of the compositions studied are found to be 23–85 GPa and the abrasion losses between 0.11 and 0.20%. While alternate heating–cooling cycles have no adverse effect on MOC concrete, it can be made durable against freezing–thawing and the excessive exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution of the same concentration.

  2. Cemented total hip arthroplasty with Boneloc bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, D C; Hoard, D B; Porretta, C A

    2001-01-01

    Boneloc cement (WK-345, Biomet Inc, Warsaw, Ind) attempted to improve cement characteristics by reducing exotherm during polymerization, lowering residual monomer and solubility, raising molecular weight, and lowering airborne monomer and aromatic amines. To study the efficacy of this cement, a selected group of 20 patients were prospectively enrolled and followed up after hip arthroplasty. All components were cemented. During the enrollment period, approximately 70 other hip arthroplasties were performed. Clinical evaluation was based on the Harris hip score. Radiographic evaluation was based on assessment of position of the components, subsidence, and/or presence of radiolucencies. Patients had follow-up for an average of 42 months (11 to 58 months); 1 was lost to follow-up. Of these, 7 (35%) had failure at last follow-up. Despite its initial promise, Boneloc cement had an unacceptably high failure rate over a relatively short follow-up period and is not recommended for use. Despite the longevity and odor toxicity problems with conventional bone cement, new cement technologies must be approached with caution.

  3. Composite Control of Precalciner Exit Temperature in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 诸静

    2003-01-01

    A composite control strategy for the precalciner exit temperature in cement kiln is introduced based on a mathematical model. In this model, the raw meal flow, coal powder flow and wind flow are taken as three input variables, the clinker fow and exit teperature of cement kiln are output variables, and other influencing factors are considered as disturbance. A composite control system is synthesied by integrating self-learning PID, fuzzy and feedforward function into a combined controller, and the arithmetics for the self-learning PID controller, fuzzy controller and feedforward controller are elaborated respectively. The control strategy has been realized by software in real practice at cement factory. Application results show that the composite control technology is superior to the general PID control in control effect, and is suitable to the industrial process control with slow parameter variation, nonlinearity and uncertainty.

  4. Radionuclide and metal sorption on cement and concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Ochs, Michael; Wang, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitativ...

  5. Cement: a two thousand year old nano-colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridi, Francesca; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero

    2011-05-15

    Since Roman times, cement is one of the synthetic materials with the largest production and usage by mankind. Its properties allowed the expansion of the Roman Empire and the building of still fascinating works. In spite of the diverse use of cement and the abundant literature accumulated during a century of systematic scientific research on this material, the understanding of its properties is still far from complete. Several issues are still open, ranging from the understanding of the hydration kinetics and the influence of the modern industrial additives, to the deep comprehension of the atomic arrangement and nanostructure of disordered hydrated calcium silicate phase (C-S-H) formed by hydration. This feature article briefly summarizes recent results in the field, highlighting the necessity for a colloidal model of the cement microstructure that, combined with the layer-like structure of the colloidal units, is the most effective approach to fully describe the characteristics of this peculiar material.

  6. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  7. Feasibility study of fluxless brazing cemented carbides to steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Sievers, N.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important brazing processes is the joints between cemented carbides and steel for the tool industry such as in rotary drill hammers or saw blades. Even though this technique has already been used for several decades, defects in the joint can still occur and lead to quality loss. Mostly, the joining process is facilitated by induction heating and the use of a flux to enhance the wetting of the filler alloy on the surface of the steel and cemented carbide in an ambient atmosphere. However, although the use of flux enables successful joining, it also generates voids within the joint, which reduces the strength of the connection while the chemicals within the flux are toxic and polluting. In this feasibility study, a fluxless brazing process is used to examine the joint between cemented carbides and steel for the first time. For this, ultrasound is applied during induction heating to enable the wetting between the liquid filler metal and the surfaces of the cemented carbide and steel. The ultrasound generates cavitations within the liquid filler metal, which remove the oxides from the surface. Several filler metals such as a silver based alloy Ag449, pure Zn, and an AlSi-alloy were used to reduce the brazing temperature and to lower the thermal residual stresses within the joint. As a result, every filler metal successfully wetted both materials and led to a dense connection. The ultrasound has to be applied carefully to prevent a damage of the cemented carbide. In this regard, it was observed that single grains of the cemented carbide broke out and remained in the joint. This positive result of brazing cemented carbides to steel without a flux but using ultrasound, allows future studies to focus on the shear strength of these joints as well as the behavior of the thermally induced residual stresses.

  8. Grout cement. ; Grout cement to fill ground/grout cement to fill cracks. Chunyuyo cement. ; Jiban chunyuyo cement /hibiware chunyuyo cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okaue, H. (Nittetsu Cement Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Ground grout cement is grouted into the ground under high pressure in high water ratio (100 to 1000%) in the form of milk differing from concrete in terms of the water-cement ratio. The grouted milk is governed by characteristics of the cement the milk itself possesses, resulting in variable grouting modes, which are divided in fracture grouting, permeation grouting and boundary grouting. Their applications include cutting off of water in dams, ground reinforcement, prevention of water gushing in tunnel excavation, natural ground reinforcement, improvement of sandy soil and prevention of its collapse, and stabilization of ground for urban civil engineering works such as subway, water supply and sewerage constructions. Grout cement to fill cracks in concrete structures is so grouted into cracks that the slurry fills up contiguous cracks to a certain level and goes upward while pushing out air or water existing in the cracks. The slurry filled into the cracks solidifies and hardens while being absorbed into the concrete, and finally integrates with the concrete. The grout cement is used to rework such concrete structures as dams, tunnels, and bridge bases. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Propriedades mecânicas de compósitos cimentícios produzidos com lodo de estação de tratamento de efluentes da indústria de batata pré-fritas Mechanical properties of cement composites produced with sludge from the pre-fried potato industry's effluent treatment station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio de Resende

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O grande volume de resíduos sólidos industriais gerados pela indústria de batatas pré-fritas e o alto custo do seu manejo estimulam pesquisas em busca de soluções mais adequadas para a sua destinação final. Esse trabalho caracterizou o resíduo sólido (lodo de Estação de Tratamento de Efluentes (ETE de indústria de batatas. O lodo foi processado através de secagem, desidratação, moagem e peneiramento. Para a caracterização do lodo foram utilizadas técnicas de granulometria a laser, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV com espectrômetro de raios X dispersivo em energia (EDS, difração de raio X, análise térmica diferencial (DTA, termogravimétrica (TGA e perda ao fogo. Após a caracterização, o lodo foi utilizado para a confecção de compósitos cimentícios, em substituição parcial do cimento, em massa equivalente para substituição do mesmo volume, determinado pelas massas específicas de ambos materiais, nas porcentagens de 3, 5, 7 e 10%. Os compósitos foram ensaiados para a obtenção da resistência à compressão e do módulo de elasticidade dinâmico. A utilização do lodo de ETE como pozolana foi descartada, tendo-se como base o resultado do ensaio de perda ao fogo. Nos ensaios mecânicos realizados, nota-se que a adição de lodo, em substituição parcial ao cimento, impactou, negativamente, de forma mais relevante a resistência à compressão. Tais ensaios foram considerados satisfatórios para os compósitos com substituição do cimento por 3% e 5% de lodo.The large volume of industrial solid waste generated by the pre-fried potato industry and the high cost of its management encouraged researchers to find solutions best suited to its final destination. This study characterized the solid residue (sludge from the effluents pre-fried potatoes industry's treatment station. The sludge was processed by drying, grinding and sieving. Laser particle size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with X

  10. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  11. Optimization of fly ash as sand replacement materials (SRM) in cement composites containing coconut fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzri, N. I. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The need of utilizing industrial and agricultural wastes is very important to maintain sustainability. These wastes are often incorporated with cement composites to improve performances in term of physical and mechanical properties. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of cement composites containing coconut fiber as reinforcement and fly ash use as substitution of sand at different hardening days. Hardening periods of time (7, 14 and 28 days) were selected to study the properties of cement composites. Optimization result showed that 20 wt. % of fly ash (FA) is a suitable material for sand replacement (SRM). Meanwhile 14 days of hardening period gave highest compressive strength (70.12 MPa) from the cement composite containing 9 wt. % of coconut fiber and fly ash. This strength was comparable with the cement without coconut fiber (74.19 MPa) after 28 days of curing.

  12. Impact of Technical Barriers to China's Equipment Manufacturing Industry: Based on GTAP Model%技术壁垒对我国装备制造业影响的GTAP模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍媛; 曲德龙

    2014-01-01

    China,known as the World' s Factory,has been maintaining the largest scale of manufacturing industry for 5 consecutive years.Equipment manufacturing industry,the core of manufacturing,plays a fundamental role in the development of national economy,leading the process of transformation and upgrading of manufacturing as a whole.However,in the background of slow recovery of the world economy,it is the re-industrialization in developed countries and the protection of the corresponding corporations in developing countries that speed the spread of technical barriers worldwide.As the representative of new non-tariff barriers,technical barriers impose impacts on China's equipment manufacturing industry by their duality,invisibility and diversity.Based on Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model,this paper makes a stimulation of the impacts of technical barriers to the output and trade volume of China's equipment manufacturing industry,with 5%,10% and 20% respectively of the rising extent,and then puts forward some countermeasures for the industry to cope with the technical barriers.%作为“世界工厂”的中国,已连续5年保持世界第一制造业大国的地位.装备制造业作为制造业的核心,逐渐发挥出推动国民经济发展的基础性作用,同时引导着制造业的整体转型升级进程.但在全球经济复苏缓慢的背景下,发达国家兴起的“再工业化”浪潮和发展中国家对本国装备制造业企业的保护加速了技术壁垒在全球范围内的扩散.作为新型非关税壁垒代表的技术壁垒,凭借其双重性、隐蔽性和多样性,对我国装备制造业的发展造成影响.利用GTAP模型,分别模拟5%、10%和20%幅度下的技术壁垒提高对我国装备制造业各产业的产出、贸易量的冲中击,并依据模拟结果提出装备制造业应对技术壁垒的建议.

  13. Assessment of non-destructive testing of well casing,, cement and cement bond in high temperature wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C K; Boardman, C R

    1979-01-01

    Because of the difficulty in bringing geothermal well blowouts under control, any indication of a casing/cement problem should be expeditiously evaluated and solved. There are currently no high temperature cement bond and casing integrity logging systems for geothermal wells with maximum temperatures in excess of 500/sup 0/F. The market is currently insufficient to warrannt the private investment necessary to develop tools and cables capable of withstanding high temperatures. It is concluded that a DOE-funded development program is required to assure that diagnostic tools are available in the interim until geothermal resource development activities are of sufficient magnitude to support developmental work on high temperature casing/cement logging capabilities by industry. This program should be similar to and complement the current DOE program for development of reservoir evaluation logging capabilities for hot wells. The appendices contain annotated bibliographies on the following: high temperature logging in general, cement integrity testing, cosing integrity testing, casing and cement failures, and special and protective treatment techniques. Also included are composite listing of references in alphabetical order by senior author.

  14. Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    This research evaluates the ... The paper details results of API specification tests and the physical ... Keywords: Compressive strength, Free fluid, Portland cement, Rheology, Thickening time ..... Geothermal Well Cementing” Proceedings of.

  15. LA PLATAFORMA ILIAS COMO APOYO A LA DOCENCIA PRESENCIAL EN INGENIERÍA TÉCNICA (INDUSTRIAL LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ILIAS AS A DIDACTIC INSTRUMENT FOR SUPPORTING FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION ON TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Tejada, María del Mar

    2010-04-01

    University of Jaén. It will also be suggested how to use “ILIAS” as a didactic instrument for supporting the classroom teaching. To illustrate this, we will offer the example of how “ILIAS” is used in the subjects of Electric Physics and Mechanic Physics from the degree of Technical Industrial Engineering at the University of Jaén. Taking such subjects as a specific example, we will discuss which advantages “ILIAS” can offer the classroom teaching, which difficulties we could face when using it, and how do students assess the use of this tool. As the conclusion, we will say that Learning Management Systems can contribute new educative resources to classroom teaching in aspects such as communication, diffusion of didactic materials, and assessment of the students’ evolution. These resources, despite their limitations, enrich the learning process and are favorably valued by the students.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 15: Technical uncertainty and project complexity as correlates of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of an exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty and project complexity on information use by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists. The study utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list served as the study population. The adjusted response rate was 67 percent. The survey instrument is appendix C to this report. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and information use. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and the use of federally funded aerospace R&D. The results of this investigation are relevant to researchers investigating information-seeking behavior of aerospace engineers. They are also relevant to R&D managers and policy planners concerned with transferring the results of federally funded aerospace R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry.

  17. Assessment of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Egyptian cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M

    2004-05-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured using a shielded HPGe detector. The average values obtained for 238U, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. On the basis of the hazard index and the radium equivalent concentration, it can be shown that the natural radioactivity of cement samples is not greater than the values permitted in the established standards in other countries. A solid-state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The effective radium content and the exhalation rate are found to vary from 12.75 to 38.52 Bq kg(-1) and 61.19 to 181.39 Bq m(-2) d(-1), respectively.

  18. Hydration of blended cement pastes containing waste ceramic powder as a function of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo F.; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The production of a cement binder generates a high amount of CO2 and has high energy consumption, resulting in a very adverse impact on the environment. Therefore, use of pozzolana active materials in the concrete production leads to a decrease of the consumption of cement binder and costs, especially when some type of industrial waste is used. In this paper, the hydration of blended cement pastes containing waste ceramic powder from the Czech Republic and Portland cement produced in Argentina is studied. A cement binder is partially replaced by 8 and 40 mass% of a ceramic powder. These materials are compared with an ordinary cement paste. All mixtures are prepared with a water/cement ratio of 0.5. Thermal characterization of the hydrated blended pastes is carried out in the time period from 2 to 360 days. Simultaneous DSC/TG analysis is performed in the temperature range from 25 °C to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Using this thermal analysis, we identify the temperature, enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates gels dehydration, portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition and their changes during the curing time. Based on thermogravimetry results, we found out that the portlandite content slightly decreases with time for all blended cement pastes.

  19. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  20. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  1. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; de Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  2. Substitution of the clayey mineral component by lignite fly ash in portland cement clinker synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from four power plants in Serbia (PP "Morava" - Svilajnac, PP "Kolubara" - Veliki Grijani, PP "Kostolac" - units B1 and B2 - Kostolac and PP "Nikola Tesla" - units A and B - Obrenovac was utilized as the starting raw component for Portland cement clinker synthesis. Limestone and quartz sand from the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory were the other two starting raw components. Based on the chemical composition of the raw components and from the projected cement moduli, the amounts of raw components in the raw mixtures were calculated. Six different raw mixtures were prepared - each one consisted of limestone, sand and different fly ash. A raw mixture from the industrial production of the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory was used as the reference material. The prepared raw mixtures were sintered in a laboratory furnace at 1400°C. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the synthesized clinkers were determined. The characteristics of clinkers, based on fly ash, were compared to the characteristics of the industrial Portland cement clinker from the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory. The results of the investigation showed that fly ash from power plants in Serbia can be suitable for Portland cement clinker synthesis.

  3. Effects of Particle Size and Cement Replacement of LCD Glass Powder in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Kyum Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high quality liquid crystal display (LCD processing waste glass (LPWG generated from the manufacturing process of Korea’s LCD industries, having the world’s highest technological level and production, was finely ground into particles smaller than cement particles (higher fineness than OPC to verify their applicability and performance as a replacement for cement. For a concrete mix having a W/B ratio of 0.44, cement was replaced with LPWG glass powder (LGP at ratios of 5, 10, 15, and 20% (LGP12 and 5 and 10% (LGP5 according to the particle size to prepare test cylinder specimens, which were tested with respect to air contents, slump in fresh concrete, and compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of hardened concrete. The microstructure of the concrete specimens was analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX, and a Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP. Replacement of cement with LGP for cement could effectively decrease the quantity of cement used due to the excellent performance of LGP. It may positively contribute to the sustainable development of the cement industry as well as waste recycling and environment conservation on a national scale.

  4. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  5. Determination of Temperature Rise and Temperature Differentials of CEMII/B-V Cement for 20MPa Mass Concrete using Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Siang, GO

    2017-07-01

    Experimental test was carried out to determine the temperature rise characteristics of Portland-Fly-Ash Cement (CEM II/B-V, 42.5N) of Blaine fineness 418.6m2/kg and 444.6m2/kg respectively for 20MPa mass concrete under adiabatic condition. The estimation on adiabatic temperature rise by way of CIRIA C660 method (Construction Industry Research & Information Information) was adopted to verify and validate the hot-box test results by simulating the heat generation curve of the concrete under semi-adiabatic condition. Test result found that Portland fly-ash cement has exhibited decrease in the peak value of temperature rise and maximum temperature rise rate. The result showed that the temperature development and distribution profile, which is directly contributed from the heat of hydration of cement with time, is affected by the insulation, initial placing temperature, geometry and size of concrete mass. The mock up data showing the measured temperature differential is significantly lower than the technical specifications 20°C temperature differential requirement and the 27.7°C limiting temperature differential for granite aggregate concrete as stipulated in BS8110-2: 1985. The concrete strength test result revealed that the 28 days cubes compressive strength was above the stipulated 20MPa characteristic strength at 90 days. The test demonstrated that with proper concrete mix design, the use of Portland flyash cement, combination of chilled water and flake ice, and good insulation is effective in reducing peak temperature rise, temperature differential, and lower adiabatic temperature rise for mass concrete pours. As far as the determined adiabatic temperature rise result was concern, the established result could be inferred for in-situ thermal properties of 20MPa mass concrete application, as the result could be repeatable on account of similar type of constituent materials and concrete mix design adopted for permanent works at project site.

  6. 7th NCB international seminar on cement and building materials. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Topics covered include: mining and mine environment (including CO{sub 2} mitigation in cement concrete industries), and project engineering and management (in volume 1); productivity enhancement and process optimisation (upgrading/cost reduction, grinding/refractories, process optimisation and control, and maintenance) (in volume 2); plant environment and pollution control (including global climate change) performance of concrete, and Portland and blended cements (in volume 3); special cements and binders, total quality management and energy management (in volume 4); and supplementary papers in volume 5.

  7. An ongoing investigation on modeling the strength properties of water-entrained cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Water-entrained cement based materials by superabsorbent polymers is a concept that was introduced in the research agenda about a decade ago. However, a recent application in the production of high performance concrete revealed potential weaknesses when the proportioning of this intelligent...... material is not well performed, raising doubts among both academic and industrial society about the usability of superabsorbent polymers in cement-based materials. This work constitutes the baseline tentatively to be used on modeling the compressive strength of SF-modified water-entrained cement...

  8. 技术服务型营销--国内有机硅行业发展的关键%Technical Service Marketing:Keys on Development of Silicones Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君媛

    2013-01-01

    以国内有机硅行业所处的发展阶段为背景,分析了国内有机硅企业在客户技术服务方面的现状。介绍了技术服务产销研一体化体系的内容、作用,结合产销研一体化体系的建设,展望了国内有机硅行业技术服务型营销建设的发展方向。%Based on the stage development of silicone industry , the current situation of the Chinese enter-prises in the customer technical service industry was analyzed .The content and role of the production-sale-research cooperation are introduced .The development of silicone industry in China on how to set up the right marketing organization and technical service are prospected .

  9. Utilization of “Marble Slurry” In Cement Concrete Replacing Fine Agreegate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er: Raj.p.singh kushwah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastage of marble industry are responsible for many environmental problems because 70% wastes and only 30% recovery of main product contribute to the maximum wastes which are indestructible. Dumping sites give dirty look. Contaminate top fertile soil cover, along with rivers/water bodies affecting irrigation and drinking water resources and air as well as loss to flora and fauna. The most efficient Solution of marble slurry pollution is utilization in Bulk. The only industry which can consume marble slurry at so large level is only the construction industry. Different properties of marble slurry determined in the laboratory. Sp. gravity 2.61, Fineness modulus was found to be 0.91 and Utilization of marble slurry in Cement Concrete replacing Sand is 30% which shows equal strength as of Control i,e. 1:2:4 Cement Concrete 0% Marble slurry. Marble slurry can be easily utilized in construction industry in preparing Cement Concrete.

  10. An Empirical Analysis on Internal and External Effects of Technical Progress in Equipment Manufacturing Industry%装备制造业技术进步内外部效应的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 张宏

    2016-01-01

    In the realistic context of“Made in China by 2025”and“Industrial 4.0”,this paper,based on the analysis of the do⁃mestic and international effect mechanism of technical progress in equipment manufacturing industry,empirically verifies the internal and external effects of technical progress in China’s equipment manufacturing industry with the aid of the panel and the VAR model. The study finds that:In the internal effect,the equipment manufacturing industry’s income and energy effi⁃ciency have a two-way positive impact on technical level,profit has a one-way positive impact on technical level,and employ⁃ment and technology level show a two-way negative impact;In the external effect,the equipment manufacturing industry’s FDI quality and technical level present a two-way positive impact,international division of labor and technical level present a one-way positive impact,and trade competitiveness and technical level present a two-way negative impact. Therefore,China should increase investment and improve productivity at home,and deepen the international division of labor and actively par⁃ticipate in the construction of value chain in order to improve the technical level of equipment manufacturing industry.%文章以“中国制造2025”“、工业4.0”时代来临为现实背景,在分析装备制造业技术进步的国内及国际效应作用机理的基础上,借助面板和VAR模型从实证角度验证我国装备制造业技术进步的内外部效应。研究发现,内部效应中,装备制造业收入及能耗效率指标与技术水平呈现双向正面影响,利润与技术水平为单向正面,就业与技术水平为双向负面;外部效应中,装备制造业引进外资质量与技术水平呈现双向正面影响,国际分工程度与技术水平为单向正面,贸易竞争力与技术水平为双向负面。因此为提升装备制造业技术水平,国内应加大投入,提高

  11. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.

  12. Rent sharing to control non-cartel supply in the German cement market

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for many cartels is avoiding a destabilizing increase in non-cartel supply in response to having raised price. In the case of the German cement cartel that operated over 1991-2002, the primary source of non-cartel supply was imports from Eastern European cement manufacturers. Industry sources have claimed that the cartel sought to control imports by sharing rents with intermediaries in order to discourage them from sourcing foreign supply. Specifically, cartel members would all...

  13. The assessment of clinker and cement regenerated from completely recyclable concrete

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Mieke; Vernimmen, Lies; De Belie, Nele; De Buysser, Klaartje; Van Driessche, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    As the construction sector uses 50% of the earth’s raw material and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building products is crucial. Nowadays, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is already used as recycled aggregates in low-value concrete applications, since it is mostly inert material. On the other hand, the general trend today for the cement industries is the use of alternative raw materials for the production of cement clinker. From this and the...

  14. Recycling of red muds with the extraction of metals and special additions to cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoveev, D. V.; Diubanov, V. G.; Shutova, A. V.; Ziniaeva, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-phase reduction of iron oxides from red mud is experimentally studied. It is shown that, in addition to a metal, a slag suitable for utilization in the construction industry can be produced as a result of pyrometallurgical processing of red mud. Portland cement is shown to be produced from this slag with mineral additions and a high-aluminate expansion addition to cement.

  15. Technical Change,Skill-replacing and Industrial Policies:Based on Chinese Machinery Industry%技术变迁、技能替代与产业政策研究:以中国机械工业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞涵

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a CES function analysis framework to identify the endogenous direction of technical change during industrial development by estimating the elasticity of factor substitution in order to explore how the endogenous direction of technical change effects the arrangement of industrial policies. Meanwhile, this estimates the elasticity of factor substitution in CES production function by the supply-side system method using Chinese machinery industrial data in the period 1991—2012. The results show that the endogenous direction of technical change on Chinese machinery industry biased forward un-skilled labor and physical capital for un-skilled labor in general, meaning that Chinese machinery industrial policies should not focus on fiscal incentives to specific firms,but set up policy framework based on technical polices in macro-economic management in order to make the direction of technical change on Chinese machinery industry biased to skill-complementing.%本文提出一个CES生产函数分析框架,通过生产要素替代弹性取值区间来甄别产业技术变迁内生方向,继而分析产业技术变迁内生方向差异对产业政策安排的影响。同时利用1991-2012年相关数据,证实中国机械工业的技术变迁当前总体处于偏向低技能劳动者的技能替代阶段。这说明中国机械工业若想通过自主创新缩短与世界技术前沿的差距,产业政策安排的关键不在于对特定企业进行利润激励,而是构建以产业技术政策为核心的政策平台,使整个机械工业呈现出偏向高技能劳动者的技术变迁特征。

  16. THE PREPARATION AND COMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF ALITE-YE'ELIMITE WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Yueyang Hu; Suhua Ma; Li Weifeng; Shen Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Alite-ye'elimite clinker is a high cementing clinker that is prepared by introducing calcium sulfoaluminate, a non-silicate mineral, into cement clinker. The industrial residue was used to produce cement clinker. The relationship of the aluminate modulus (IM) and the mineral composition and mechanics of tricalcium silicate-rich sulfur aluminate cement is reported. The effects of the aluminate modulus on the phase compositions, morphology and compressive strength were investigated. The phase m...

  17. New Books for Industrial Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Shop, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The most recent book releases in the field of industrial-technical education are listed alphabetically under: automotive/power mechanics; building trades; drafting; electricity/electronics; graphic arts, industrial arts, vocational, technical and career education; industrial mathematics; machine shop/metalworking; metrics; radio/television;…

  18. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  19. Formation, release and control of dioxins in cement kilns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge

    2008-01-01

    Co-processing of hazardous wastes in cement kilns have for decades been thought to cause increased emissions of PCDD/PCDFs--a perception that has been evaluated in this study. Hundreds of PCDD/PCDF measurements conducted by the cement industry and others in the last few years, on emissions and solid materials, as well as recent test burns with hazardous wastes in developing countries do not support this perception. Newer data has been compared with older literature data and shows in particular that many emission factors have to be reconsidered. Early emission factors for cement kilns co-processing hazardous waste, which are still used in inventories, are shown to be too high compared with actual measurements. Less than 10 years ago it was believed that the cement industry was the main contributor of PCDD/PCDFs to air; data collected in this study indicates however that the industry contributes with less than 1% of total emissions to air. The Stockholm Convention on POPs presently ratified by 144 parties, classifies cement kilns co-processing hazardous waste as a source category having the potential for comparatively high formation and release of PCDD/PCDFs. This classification is based on early investigations from the 1980s and 1990s where kilns co-processing hazardous waste had higher emissions compared to those that did not burn hazardous waste. However, the testing of these kilns was often done under worst case scenario conditions known to favour PCDD/PCDF formation. More than 2000 PCDD/PCDF cement kiln measurements have been evaluated in this study, representing most production technologies and waste feeding scenarios. They generally indicate that most modern cement kilns co-processing waste today can meet an emission level of 0.1ngI-TEQ/m(3), when well managed and operated. In these cases, proper and responsible use of waste including organic hazardous waste to replace parts of the fossil fuel does not seem to increase formation of PCDD/PCDFs. Modern preheater

  20. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...