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Sample records for cellular level body

  1. Integrating Cellular Metabolism into a Multiscale Whole-Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Markus; Schaller, Stephan; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf; Lippert, Jörg; Kuepfer, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development. PMID:23133351

  2. Human Homolog of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI) is a marker of cellular proliferation associated with nuclear bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmehdawi, Fatima; Wheway, Gabrielle; Szymanska, Katarzyna [Division of Clinical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Level 8, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Adams, Matthew [BioScreening Technology Group, Biomedical Health Research Center, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); High, Alec S. [Department of Histopathology, Bexley Wing, St. James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Johnson, Colin A., E-mail: c.johnson@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Clinical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Level 8, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Robinson, Philip A. [Division of Clinical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Level 8, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-01

    HHARI (also known as ARIH1) is an ubiquitin-protein ligase and is the cognate of the E2, UbcH7 (UBE2L3). To establish a functional role for HHARI in cellular proliferation processes, we performed a reverse genetics screen that identified n=86/522 (16.5%) ubiquitin conjugation components that have a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation, which included HHARI as a strong hit. We then produced and validated a panel of specific antibodies that establish HHARI as both a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in all cell types studied. HHARI was expressed at higher levels in nuclei, and co-localized with nuclear bodies including Cajal bodies (p80 coilin, NOPP140), PML and SC35 bodies. We confirmed reduced cellular proliferation after ARIH1 knockdown with individual siRNA duplexes, in addition to significantly increased levels of apoptosis, an increased proportion of cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle, and significant reductions in total cellular RNA levels. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, there are higher levels of HHARI expression associated with increased levels of proliferation, compared to healthy control tissues. We demonstrate that HHARI is associated with cellular proliferation, which may be mediated through its interaction with UbcH7 and modification of proteins in nuclear bodies. -- Highlights: ► We produce and validate new antibody reagents for the ubiquitin-protein ligase HHARI. ► HHARI colocalizes with nuclear bodies including Cajal, PML and SC35 bodies. ► We establish new functions in cell proliferation regulation for HHARI. ► Increased HHARI expression associates with squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation.

  3. Cellular metabolic rates from primary dermal fibroblast cells isolated from birds of different body masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    The rate of metabolism is the speed at which organisms use energy, an integration of energy transformations within the body; it governs biological processes that influence rates of growth and reproduction. Progress at understanding functional linkages between whole organism metabolic rate and underlying mechanisms that influence its magnitude has been slow despite the central role this issue plays in evolutionary and physiological ecology. Previous studies that have attempted to relate how cellular processes translate into whole-organism physiology have done so over a range of body masses of subjects. However, the data still remains controversial when observing metabolic rates at the cellular level. To bridge the gap between these ideas, we examined cellular metabolic rate of primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from 49 species of birds representing a 32,000-fold range in body masses to test the hypothesis that metabolic rate of cultured cells scales with body size. We used a Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular flux analyzer to measure cellular respiration in fibroblasts. Additionally, we measured fibroblast size and mitochondrial content. We found no significant correlation between cellular metabolic rate, cell size, or mitochondrial content and body mass. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between cellular basal metabolic rate and proton leak in these cells. We conclude that metabolic rate of cells isolated in culture does not scale with body mass, but cellular metabolic rate is correlated to growth rate in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  5. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition

  6. Determining the sub-cellular localization of proteins within Caenorhabditis elegans body wall muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Barbara; Rogalski, Teresa; Viveiros, Ryan; Warner, Adam; Plastino, Lorena; Lorch, Adam; Granger, Laure; Segalat, Laurent; Moerman, Donald G

    2011-01-01

    Determining the sub-cellular localization of a protein within a cell is often an essential step towards understanding its function. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the relatively large size of the body wall muscle cells and the exquisite organization of their sarcomeres offer an opportunity to identify the precise position of proteins within cell substructures. Our goal in this study is to generate a comprehensive "localizome" for C. elegans body wall muscle by GFP-tagging proteins expressed in muscle and determining their location within the cell. For this project, we focused on proteins that we know are expressed in muscle and are orthologs or at least homologs of human proteins. To date we have analyzed the expression of about 227 GFP-tagged proteins that show localized expression in the body wall muscle of this nematode (e.g. dense bodies, M-lines, myofilaments, mitochondria, cell membrane, nucleus or nucleolus). For most proteins analyzed in this study no prior data on sub-cellular localization was available. In addition to discrete sub-cellular localization we observe overlapping patterns of localization including the presence of a protein in the dense body and the nucleus, or the dense body and the M-lines. In total we discern more than 14 sub-cellular localization patterns within nematode body wall muscle. The localization of this large set of proteins within a muscle cell will serve as an invaluable resource in our investigation of muscle sarcomere assembly and function.

  7. From whole-body sections down to cellular level, multiscale imaging of phospholipids by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurand, Pierre; Cornett, Dale S; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2011-02-01

    Significant progress in instrumentation and sample preparation approaches have recently expanded the potential of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry to the analysis of phospholipids and other endogenous metabolites naturally occurring in tissue specimens. Here we explore some of the requirements necessary for the successful analysis and imaging of phospholipids from thin tissue sections of various dimensions by MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We address methodology issues relative to the imaging of whole-body sections such as those cut from model laboratory animals, sections of intermediate dimensions typically prepared from individual organs, as well as the requirements for imaging areas of interests from these sections at a cellular scale spatial resolution. We also review existing limitations of MALDI imaging MS technology relative to compound identification. Finally, we conclude with a perspective on important issues relative to data exploitation and management that need to be solved to maximize biological understanding of the tissue specimen investigated.

  8. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  9. Cellular-based sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.

    treaties with greater transparency. Among the various communication technologies used for real-time transmission of sea-level data are the wired telephone connection, VHF/UHF transceivers, satellite transmit terminals and cellular connectivity. Wired... telephone connections are severely susceptible to loss of connectivity during natural disasters such as storm surges, primarily because of telephone line breakage. Communication via VHF/UHF transceivers is limited by line-of-sight distance between...

  10. Salinity and temperature variations reflecting on cellular PCNA, IGF-I and II expressions, body growth and muscle cellularity of a freshwater fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Y S; Melo, R M C; Campos-Junior, P H A; Santos, J C E; Luz, R K; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the influence of salinity and temperature on body growth and on muscle cellularity of Lophiosilurus alexaxdri vitelinic larvae. Slightly salted environments negatively influenced body growth of freshwater fish larvae and we observed that those conditions notably act as an environmental influencer on muscle growth and on local expression of hypertrophia and hypeplasia markers (IGFs and PCNA). Furthermore, we could see that salinity tolerance for NaCl 4gl(-)(1) diminishes with increasing temperature, evidenced by variation in body and muscle growth, and by irregular morphology of the lateral skeletal muscle of larvae. We saw that an increase of both PCNA and autocrine IGF-II are correlated to an increase in fibre numbers and fibre diameter as the temperature increases and salinity diminishes. On the other hand, autocrine IGF-I follows the opposite way to the other biological parameters assessed, increasing as salinity increases and temperature diminishes, showing that this protein did not participate in muscle cellularity, but participating in molecular/cellular repair. Therefore, slightly salted environments may provide adverse conditions that cause some obstacles to somatic growth of this species, suggesting some osmotic expenditure with a salinity increment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative studies in the cellular immunostimulation by whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.; Schwarze, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the cellular immune response by total body irradiation was investigated. The transplant survival (skin grafts) was determined as immune parameter. Donors were colony bred Wistar rats and recipients were colony bred Sprague Dawley rats. The investigations were carried out with irradiated rats and with rats irradiated after thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy as well as with animals without irradiation. A single total-body irradiation (1 and 2 Gy) was administered. The skin graft survival in irradiated rats was significant shorter (radiogenic immunostimulation) than in unirradiated rats; there were no significant differences between the operated (thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy) and not operated animals. Including precedent examinations this radiogenic immunostimulation is caused by relativly selective inactivation of T-suppressor cells. (orig.) [de

  12. Use of the cellular model of body composition to describe changes in body water compartments after total fasting, very low calorie diet and low calorie diet in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Faber, P; Gibney, E R; Lobley, G E; Elia, M; Stubbs, R J; Johnstone, A M

    2010-05-01

    The cellular model of body composition divides the body in body cell mass (BCM), extracellular solids and extracellular fluids. This model has been infrequently applied for the evaluation of weight loss (WL) programmes. (1) To assess changes in body compartments in obese men undergoing fasting, very low calorie diet (VLCD) and low calorie diet (LCD); (2) to evaluate two cellular models for the determination of changes in BCM, fat mass (FM) and body fluids. Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast (F) for 6 days, a VLCD (2.5 MJ per day) for 3 weeks or an LCD (5.2 MJ per day) for 6 weeks. Body composition was measured at baseline and after small ( approximately 5%) and moderate ( approximately 10%) WL. FM was measured using a four-compartment model. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were, respectively, measured by deuterium and sodium bromide dilution and intracellular water (ICW) calculated by difference. Two cellular models were used to measure BCM, FM and body fluids distribution. After about 5%WL changes in TBW were F=-3.2+/-1.2 kg (Pfasting (+1.5+/-3.1 kg, n.s.), decreased during the VLCD (-2.0+/-1.5 kg, Pfasting (-4.7+/-3.9 kg, Pfasting group and it was directly associated with changes in ICW. After a 6-day period of fasting we observed more ICW losses and less fat mobilization compared with VLCD and LCD. The cellular model of body composition is suitable for the characterization of changes in body fluids distribution during WL.

  13. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  14. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  15. Level Set Structure of an Integrable Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichiro Takagi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a group theoretical setting a sort of discrete dynamical system is constructed and applied to a combinatorial dynamical system defined on the set of certain Bethe ansatz related objects known as the rigged configurations. This system is then used to study a one-dimensional periodic cellular automaton related to discrete Toda lattice. It is shown for the first time that the level set of this cellular automaton is decomposed into connected components and every such component is a torus.

  16. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  17. Dual-Level Game-Based Energy Efficiency and Fairness for Green Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, cellular networks have revolutionized the way of next generation communication networks. However, due to the global climate change, reducing the energy consumption of cellular infrastructures is an important and urgent problem. In this study, we propose a novel two-level cooperative game framework for improving the energy efficiency and fairness in cellular networks. For the energy efficiency, base stations (BSs constantly monitor the current traffic load and cooperate with each other to maximize the energy saving. For the energy fairness, renewable energy can be shared dynamically while ensuring the fairness among BSs. To achieve an excellent cellular network performance, the concepts of the Raiffa Bargaining Solution and Jain’s fairness are extended and practically applied to our dual-level cooperative game model. Through system level simulations, the proposed scheme is evaluated and compared with other existing schemes. The simulation results show that our two-level game approach outperforms the existing schemes in providing a better fair-efficient system performance.

  18. Whole Body Hyperthermia in Mice Confers Delayed Radioprotection at Cellular and Tissue Levels: Inducible Heat Shock Proteins as Endogenous Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malytina, Y. V.; Sements, T. N.; Semina, O. V.; Mosin, A. F.; Kabakov, A.

    2004-01-01

    It was previously shown on heat shock protein (Hsp)-over expressing cell lines that the increased intracellular content of Hsp 70 or Hsp27 is associated with the elevated radioresistance. However, it was so far unknown whether the in vivo Fsp induction by stressful preconditioning can confer radioprotection at the tissue and cellular levels. In the present study, we examined how the in vivo up-regulation of the Hsp expression in response to mild whole body hyperthermia (42 degrees C, 10 min) in mice changes susceptibility of their bone marrow stem cells and thymocytes to subsequent gamma-irradiation. to assess the expectable contribution of stress-inducible Hsp we used injections with Quercetin, a flavonoid inhibiting the stress-responsive Hsp induction. The results demonstrate that the bone marrow stem cells and thymocytes from heat-preconditioned mice were more radioresistant than those from the non-preconditioned animals. the radioprotection was well manifested if mice or their isolated thymocytes were irradiated 18-25 h after the in vivo hyperthermia. This delayed radioprotection resulting from the heat preconditioning was suppressed in Quercetin-injected mice. The revealed correlation between the intracellular Hsp accumulation and the acquired Quercetin-sensitive radioprotection suggests a beneficial role of Hsps as of endogenous radioprotectors. Our finding discovers new ways for artificial modulation of effects of irradiation on target cells via manipulating the Hsp expression. (Author) 17 refs

  19. Cerebriform intradermal nevus presenting as cutis verticis gyrata with multiple cellular blue nevus over the body: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutis verticis gyrata is a rare skin condition characterized by swelling of scalp resembling the surface of the brain. Various conditions, like cerebriform intradermal nevus (CIN, may give rise to this clinical entity. Moreover, its association with cellular blue nevus is extremely rare and has not been reported so far. Here, we report a 28-year-old male with a huge cerebriform swelling covering the occipital lobe along with multiple nodules all over the body. Histology of the scalp swelling showed solitary or clusters of nevus cells in the dermis and from the body lesions showed features of cellular blue nevus. The diagnosis of CIN with cellular blue nevus was confirmed

  20. Upon Infection the Cellular WD Repeat-containing Protein 5 (WDR5) Localizes to Cytoplasmic Inclusion Bodies and Enhances Measles Virus Replication.

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    Ma, Dzwokai; George, Cyril X; Nomburg, Jason; Pfaller, Christian K; Cattaneo, Roberto; Samuel, Charles E

    2017-12-13

    Replication of negative-strand RNA viruses occurs in association with discrete cytoplasmic foci called inclusion bodies. Whereas inclusion bodies represent a prominent subcellular structure induced by viral infection, our knowledge of the cellular protein components involved in inclusion body formation and function is limited. Using measles virus-infected HeLa cells, we found that the WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a subunit of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases, was selectively recruited to virus-induced inclusion bodies. Furthermore, WDR5 was found in complexes containing viral proteins associated with RNA replication. WDR5 was not detected with mitochondria, stress granules, or other known secretory or endocytic compartments of infected cells. WDR5 deficiency decreased both viral protein production and infectious virus yields. Interferon production was modestly increased in WDR5 deficient cells. Thus, our study identifies WDR5 as a novel viral inclusion body-associated cellular protein and suggests a role for WDR5 in promoting viral replication. IMPORTANCE Measles virus is a human pathogen that remains a global concern with more than 100,000 measles-related deaths annually despite the availability of an effective vaccine. As measles continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality, understanding the virus-host interactions at the molecular level that affect virus replication efficiency is important for development and optimization of treatment procedures. Measles virus is an RNA virus that encodes six genes and replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells in discrete cytoplasmic replication bodies, though little is known of the biochemical nature of these structures. Here we show that the cellular protein WDR5 is enriched in the cytoplasmic viral replication factories and enhances virus growth. WDR5-containing protein complex includes viral proteins responsible for viral RNA replication. Thus, we have identified WDR5 as a host factor that

  1. Amyloid-linked cellular toxicity triggered by bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Montalban, Nuria; Villaverde, Antonio; Aris, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques is the characteristic feature of some pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. The mechanisms by which the aggregation processes result in cell damage are under intense investigation but recent data indicate that prefibrillar aggregates are the most proximate mediators of toxicity rather than mature fibrils. Since it has been shown that prefibrillar forms of the nondisease-related misfolded proteins are highly toxic to cultured mammalian cells we have studied the cytoxicity associated to bacterial inclusion bodies that have been recently described as protein deposits presenting amyloid-like structures. We have proved that bacterial inclusion bodies composed by a misfolding-prone β-galactosidase fusion protein are clearly toxic for mammalian cells but the β-galactosidase wild type enzyme forming more structured thermal aggregates does not impair cell viability, despite it also binds and enter into the cells. These results are in the line that the most cytotoxic aggregates are early prefibrilar assemblies but discard the hypothesis that the membrane destabilization is Key event to subsequent disruption of cellular processes, such as ion balance, oxidative state and the eventually cell death

  2. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  3. Referent 3D tumor model at cellular level in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaic, R.; Ilic, R.D.; Petrovic, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Conventional internal dosimetry has a lot of limitations because of tumor dose nonuniformity. The best approach for absorbed dose at cellular level for different tumors in radionuclide therapy calculation is Monte Carlo method. The purpose of this study is to introduce referent tumor 3D model at cellular level for Monte Carlo simulation study in radionuclide therapy. Material and Methods The moment when tumor is detectable and when same therapy can start is time period in which referent 3D tumor model at cellular level was defined. In accordance with tumor growth rate at that moment he was a sphere with same radius (10 000 μm). In that tumor there are cells or cluster of cells, which are randomly distributed spheres. Distribution of cells/cluster of cells can be calculated from histology data but it was assumed that this distribution is normal with the same mean value and standard deviation (100±50 mm). Second parameter, which was selected to define referent tumor, is volume density of cells (30%). In this referent tumor there are no necroses. Stroma is defined as space between spheres with same concentration of materials as in spheres. Results: Referent tumor defined on this way have about 2,2 10 5 cells or cluster of cells random distributed. Using this referent 3D tumor model and for same concentration of radionuclides (1:100) and energy of beta emitters (1000 keV) which are homogeneously distributed in labeled cells absorbed dose for all cells was calculated. Simulations are done using FOTELP Monte Carlo code, which is modified for this purposes. Results of absorbed dose in cells are given in numerical values (1D distribution) and as the images (2D or 3D distributions). Conclusion Geometrical module for Monte Carlo simulation study can be standardized by introducing referent 3D tumor model at cellular level. This referent 3D tumor model gives most realistic presentation of different tumors at the moment of their detectability. Referent 3D tumor model at

  4. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  5. Differential cellular responses by oncogenic levels of c-Myc expression in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Cheng, Xiangdong; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Kung, Sam K P; Lee, Clement M; Chiu, Sung Kay

    2018-06-01

    c-Myc is a highly pleiotropic transcription factor known to control cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cellular transformation. Normally, ectopic expression of c-Myc is associated with promoting cell proliferation or triggering cell death via activating p53. However, it is not clear how the levels of c-Myc lead to different cellular responses. Here, we generated a series of stable RPE cell clones expressing c-Myc at different levels, and found that consistent low level of c-Myc induced cellular senescence by activating AP4 in post-confluent RPE cells, while the cells underwent cell death at high level of c-Myc. In addition, high level of c-Myc could override the effect of AP4 on cellular senescence. Further knockdown of AP4 abrogated senescence-like phenotype in cells expressing low level of c-Myc, and accelerated cell death in cells with medium level of c-Myc, indicating that AP4 was required for cellular senescence induced by low level of c-Myc.

  6. MO-DE-206-02: Cellular Metabolism of FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, S. [University of California-Davis (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In this symposium jointly sponsored by the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM, luminary speakers on imaging metabolism will discuss three impactful topics. The first presentation on Cellular Metabolism of FDG will be given by Guillem Pratx (Stanford). This presentation will detail new work on looking at how the most common molecular imaging agent, fluoro-deoxy-glucose is metabolized at a cellular level. This will be followed by a talk on an improved approach to whole-body PET imaging by Simon Cherry (UC Davis). Simon’s work on a new whole-body PET imaging system promises to have dramatic improvement in our ability to detect and characterize cancer using PET. Finally, Jim Bankson (MD Anderson) will discuss extremely sophisticated approaches to quantifying hyperpolarized-13-C pyruvate metabolism using MR imaging. This technology promises to compliment the exquisite sensitivity of PET with an ability to measure not just uptake, but tumor metabolism. Learning Objectives: Understand the metabolism of FDG at a cellular level. Appreciate the engineering related to a novel new high-sensitivity whole-body PET imaging system. Understand the process of hyperpolarization, how pyruvate relates to metabolism and how advanced modeling can be used to better quantify this data. G. Pratx, Funding: 5R01CA186275, 1R21CA193001, and Damon Runyon Cancer Foundation. S. Cherry, National Institutes of Health; University of California, Davis; Siemens Medical SolutionsJ. Bankson, GE Healthcare; NCI P30-CA016672; CPRIT PR140021-P5.

  7. MO-DE-206-01: Cellular Metabolism of FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratx, G. [Stanford University (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In this symposium jointly sponsored by the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM, luminary speakers on imaging metabolism will discuss three impactful topics. The first presentation on Cellular Metabolism of FDG will be given by Guillem Pratx (Stanford). This presentation will detail new work on looking at how the most common molecular imaging agent, fluoro-deoxy-glucose is metabolized at a cellular level. This will be followed by a talk on an improved approach to whole-body PET imaging by Simon Cherry (UC Davis). Simon’s work on a new whole-body PET imaging system promises to have dramatic improvement in our ability to detect and characterize cancer using PET. Finally, Jim Bankson (MD Anderson) will discuss extremely sophisticated approaches to quantifying hyperpolarized-13-C pyruvate metabolism using MR imaging. This technology promises to compliment the exquisite sensitivity of PET with an ability to measure not just uptake, but tumor metabolism. Learning Objectives: Understand the metabolism of FDG at a cellular level. Appreciate the engineering related to a novel new high-sensitivity whole-body PET imaging system. Understand the process of hyperpolarization, how pyruvate relates to metabolism and how advanced modeling can be used to better quantify this data. G. Pratx, Funding: 5R01CA186275, 1R21CA193001, and Damon Runyon Cancer Foundation. S. Cherry, National Institutes of Health; University of California, Davis; Siemens Medical SolutionsJ. Bankson, GE Healthcare; NCI P30-CA016672; CPRIT PR140021-P5.

  8. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  9. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  10. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  11. Correlation of drinking water nutritional element levels with body composition of women aged 55-70 years living in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing interest in cellular targets of nutritional minerals and biochemical mechanisms has attracted the attentions of researchers towards their role in formation of obesity. However, there is no study investigating the effects of nutritional element levels of drinking water on body composition of the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of nutritional element levels in drinking water on body composition of women aged 55-70. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 participants in total, and was divided into three groups as overweight, obese and control women aged between 55-70. The bioelectric impedance device was used for measurements of body composition of the participants. Iron (Fe, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and selenium (Se levels of drinking water were measured via plasma mass spectrometry coupled inductively. Results: It was found that Se mineral content in drinking water correlated with the body mass index of the individuals living in Batman, Turkey. Moreover, it was found that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Se levels of drinking water significantly correlated with the abdominal adiposity of women of 55-70. Conclusion: It may be suggested that the obesity risk may be higher in women who are between 55-70 and consume drinking water with high levels of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and especially Se.

  12. Biomechanics of cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2005-03-01

    Materials with a cellular structure are widespread in nature and include wood, cork, plant parenchyma and trabecular bone. Natural cellular materials are often mechanically efficient: the honeycomb-like microstructure of wood, for instance, gives it an exceptionally high performance index for resisting bending and buckling. Here we review the mechanics of a wide range of natural cellular materials and examine their role in lightweight natural sandwich structures (e.g. iris leaves) and natural tubular structures (e.g. plant stems or animal quills). We also describe two examples of engineered biomaterials with a cellular structure, designed to replace or regenerate tissue in the body.

  13. Processed fruit juice ready to drink: screening acute toxicity at the cellular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Leal da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute toxicity at the cellular level of processed juice ready for consumption Orange and Grape flavors, produced by five companies with significant influence on the food market of South American countries, especially in Brazil. This evaluation was performed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, directly with marketed liquid preparations. Based on the results, it was found that fruit juices, of all companies considered, promoted significant antiproliferative effect to root meristems at the exposure time of 24 hours and resulted in at both exposure times, statistically significant number of mitotic spindle changes and chromosomal breaks. Therefore, under the study conditions, all juice samples analyzed were cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic to root meristem cells. These results indicate that such beverages have relevant potential to cause cellular disorders and, thus, need to be evaluated more fully in more complex test systems, as those in rodents, and then establish specific toxicity at the cellular level of these juices and ensure the well-being of those who consume them.

  14. High performance cellular level agent-based simulation with FLAME for the GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Paul; Walker, Dawn; Coakley, Simon; Romano, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Driven by the availability of experimental data and ability to simulate a biological scale which is of immediate interest, the cellular scale is fast emerging as an ideal candidate for middle-out modelling. As with 'bottom-up' simulation approaches, cellular level simulations demand a high degree of computational power, which in large-scale simulations can only be achieved through parallel computing. The flexible large-scale agent modelling environment (FLAME) is a template driven framework for agent-based modelling (ABM) on parallel architectures ideally suited to the simulation of cellular systems. It is available for both high performance computing clusters (www.flame.ac.uk) and GPU hardware (www.flamegpu.com) and uses a formal specification technique that acts as a universal modelling format. This not only creates an abstraction from the underlying hardware architectures, but avoids the steep learning curve associated with programming them. In benchmarking tests and simulations of advanced cellular systems, FLAME GPU has reported massive improvement in performance over more traditional ABM frameworks. This allows the time spent in the development and testing stages of modelling to be drastically reduced and creates the possibility of real-time visualisation for simple visual face-validation.

  15. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  16. In Vivo Bystander Effect: Cranial X-Irradiation Leads to Elevated DNA Damage, Altered Cellular Proliferation and Apoptosis, and Increased p53 Levels in Shielded Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturbash, Igor; Loree, Jonathan; Kutanzi, Kristy; Koganow, Clayton; Pogribny, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is well accepted that irradiated cells may 'forward' genome instability to nonirradiated neighboring cells, giving rise to the 'bystander effect' phenomenon. Although bystander effects were well studied by using cell cultures, data for somatic bystander effects in vivo are relatively scarce. Methods and Materials: We set out to analyze the existence and molecular nature of bystander effects in a radiation target-organ spleen by using a mouse model. The animal's head was exposed to X-rays while the remainder of the body was completely protected by a medical-grade shield. Using immunohistochemistry, we addressed levels of DNA damage, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and p53 protein in the spleen of control animals and completely exposed and head-exposed/body bystander animals. Results: We found that localized head radiation exposure led to the induction of bystander effects in the lead-shielded distant spleen tissue. Namely, cranial irradiation led to increased levels of DNA damage and p53 expression and also altered levels of cellular proliferation and apoptosis in bystander spleen tissue. The observed bystander changes were not caused by radiation scattering and were observed in two different mouse strains; C57BL/6 and BALB/c. Conclusion: Our study proves that bystander effects occur in the distant somatic organs on localized exposures. Additional studies are required to characterize the nature of an enigmatic bystander signal and analyze the long-term persistence of these effects and possible contribution of radiation-induced bystander effects to secondary radiation carcinogenesis

  17. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light (LLLT) for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms that operate at the cellular and tissue levels during LLLT. Mitochondria are thought to be the main site for the initial effects of light and specifically cytochrome c oxidase that has absorption peaks in the red and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the action spectra of LLLT effects. The discovery that cells employ nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the mitochondria by neuronal nitric oxide synthase, to regulate respiration by competitive binding to the oxygen binding of cytochrome c oxidase, now suggests how LLLT can affect cell metabolism. If LLLT photodissociates inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, this would explain increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction and prevention of apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, increase of blood flow and induction of transcription factors. In

  18. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  19. Within-host spatiotemporal dynamics of plant virus infection at the cellular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tromas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A multicellular organism is not a monolayer of cells in a flask; it is a complex, spatially structured environment, offering both challenges and opportunities for viruses to thrive. Whereas virus infection dynamics at the host and within-cell levels have been documented, the intermediate between-cell level remains poorly understood. Here, we used flow cytometry to measure the infection status of thousands of individual cells in virus-infected plants. This approach allowed us to determine accurately the number of cells infected by two virus variants in the same host, over space and time as the virus colonizes the host. We found a low overall frequency of cellular infection (<0.3, and few cells were coinfected by both virus variants (<0.1. We then estimated the cellular contagion rate (R, the number of secondary infections per infected cell per day. R ranged from 2.43 to values not significantly different from zero, and generally decreased over time. Estimates of the cellular multiplicity of infection (MOI, the number of virions infecting a cell, were low (<1.5. Variance of virus-genotype frequencies increased strongly from leaf to cell levels, in agreement with a low MOI. Finally, there were leaf-dependent differences in the ease with which a leaf could be colonized, and the number of virions effectively colonizing a leaf. The modeling of infection patterns suggests that the aggregation of virus-infected cells plays a key role in limiting spread; matching the observation that cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses can result in patches of infection. Our results show that virus expansion at the between-cell level is restricted, probably due to the host environment and virus infection itself.

  20. The Effects Radiation on Cellular Components of the Immune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    The immune system describes the body's ability to defend itself against various foreign intruders named as antigens by calling on an immune mechanism. Antigens penetration into body activate the body's immune system that may be humoral response, cellular response, or both. The immune response is primarily mediated by two cell types, lymphocyte and macrophage. This paper will discuss the cellular component of immune system and the radiation effects on various cells involved in system. Moreover, the effects of radiation on humoral and cellular responses and the relation among immunity, cancer and radiotherapy are also described. (author)

  1. Cellular and Chemical Neuroscience of Mammalian Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Subimal

    2010-01-01

    Extraordinary strides have been made toward understanding the complexities and regulatory mechanisms of sleep over the past two decades, thanks to the help of rapidly evolving technologies. At its most basic level, mammalian sleep is a restorative process of the brain and body. Beyond its primary restorative purpose, sleep is essential for a number of vital functions. Our primary research interest is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep and it...

  2. Real-time reporting and internet-accessible cellular based coastal sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; Dabholkar, N.; Parab, A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Tengali, S.

    as on the receiving- side. This adds to the hardware cost as well as software overheads on the receiving- side to check the data integrity for transmission errors. The main benefit of cellular connectivity with GPRS technology is that it utilizes radio resources only...-level data communication systems for the benefit the coastal communities and the local administrators (Joseph and Prabhudesai, 2005). Further, real-time sea-level data would form an important input to storm-surge predictive models and warning systems. Given...

  3. Upregulation of cellular glutathione levels in human ABCB5- and murine Abcb5-transfected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shingo; Hongama, Keita; Hanaya, Kengo; Yoshida, Ryota; Kawanobe, Takaaki; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2015-12-15

    Previously, we have demonstrated that human ABCB5 is a full-sized ATP-binding cassette transporter that shares strong homology with ABCB1/P-glycoprotein. ABCB5-transfected cells showed resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines. Herein, we further screened ABCB5 substrates, and explored the mechanism of resistance. Sensitivity of the cells to test compounds was evaluated using cell growth inhibition assay. Cellular levels of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), glutathione and amino acids were measured using HPLC and an enzyme-based assay. Cellular and vesicular transport of glutathione was evaluated by a radiolabeled substrate. Expression levels of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes were assessed by RT-PCR. Human ABCB5-transfected 293/B5-11 cells and murine Abcb5-transfected 293/mb5-8 cells showed 6.5- and 14-fold higher resistance to BSO than the mock-transfected 293/mock cells, respectively. BSO is an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), which is a key enzyme of glutathione synthesis. 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells also showed resistance to methionine sulfoximine, another GCL inhibitor. A cellular uptake experiment revealed that BSO accumulation in 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells was similar to that in 293/mock cells, suggesting that BSO is not an ABCB5 substrate. The cellular glutathione content in 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells was significantly higher than that in 293/mock cells. Evaluation of the BSO effect on the cellular glutathione content showed that compared with 293/mock cells the BSO concentration required for a 50 % reduction in glutathione content in 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells was approximately 2- to 3-fold higher. This result suggests that the BSO resistance of the ABCB5- and Abcb5-transfected cells can be attributed to the reduced effect of BSO on the transfectants. Cellular and vesicular transport assays showed that the transport of radiolabeled glutathione in 293/B5-11 cells was similar to that in 293/mock cells. The mRNA expression of genes

  4. Whole-body and Whole-Organ Clearing and Imaging Techniques with Single-Cell Resolution: Toward Organism-Level Systems Biology in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2016-01-21

    Organism-level systems biology aims to identify, analyze, control and design cellular circuits in organisms. Many experimental and computational approaches have been developed over the years to allow us to conduct these studies. Some of the most powerful methods are based on using optical imaging in combination with fluorescent labeling, and for those one of the long-standing stumbling blocks has been tissue opacity. Recently, the solutions to this problem have started to emerge based on whole-body and whole-organ clearing techniques that employ innovative tissue-clearing chemistry. Here, we review these advancements and discuss how combining new clearing techniques with high-performing fluorescent proteins or small molecule tags, rapid volume imaging and efficient image informatics is resulting in comprehensive and quantitative organ-wide, single-cell resolution experimental data. These technologies are starting to yield information on connectivity and dynamics in cellular circuits at unprecedented resolution, and bring us closer to system-level understanding of physiology and diseases of complex mammalian systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Top-down cellular pyramids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A Y; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-10-01

    A cellular pyramid is an exponentially tapering stack of arrays of processors (cells), where each cell is connected to its neighbors (siblings) on its own level, to a parent on the level above, and to its children on the level below. It is shown that in some situations, if information flows top-down only, from fathers to sons, then a cellular pyramid may be no faster than a one-level cellular array; but it may be possible to use simpler cells in the pyramid case. 23 references.

  6. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative studies in the cellular immunostimulation by whole body irradiation. Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die zellulaere Immunstimulation durch Ganzkoerperbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.; Schwarze, G. (Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg (Luxembourg) Medizinische Universitaetsklinik I, Homburg/Saar (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    The effect of the cellular immune response by total body irradiation was investigated. The transplant survival (skin grafts) was determined as immune parameter. Donors were colony bred Wistar rats and recipients were colony bred Sprague Dawley rats. The investigations were carried out with irradiated rats and with rats irradiated after thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy as well as with animals without irradiation. A single total-body irradiation (1 and 2 Gy) was administered. The skin graft survival in irradiated rats was significant shorter (radiogenic immunostimulation) than in unirradiated rats; there were no significant differences between the operated (thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy) and not operated animals. Including precedent examinations this radiogenic immunostimulation is caused by relativly selective inactivation of T-suppressor cells. (orig.).

  8. Cellular Basis for Learning Impairment in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    GABA Receptors 6 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS A) Major goals of the project. 1) Use molecular tools to study the cellular basis for neurogenesis deficits in...throughout training. This schedule reduced and sustained the subjects’ body weight at 80% of the ad libitum levels . Behavioral experimentation was...containing 120 mM CsCl. In artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) containing CNQX to block excitatory synaptic transmission, GABA -mediate chloride currents in

  9. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level

    OpenAIRE

    CADIOU , Hervé; AOUDE , Imad; Tazir , Bassim; Molinas , Adrien; Forbes Fenech , Claire; Meunier , Nicolas; Grosmaitre , Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of...

  10. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C.

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  11. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@jcbose.ac.in

    2015-02-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  12. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid; Efecto de los campos electromagneticos a 2,45 GHz sobre los niveles de proteinas de estres celular HSP-90 y 70 en el toroides de rata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.

    2011-07-01

    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  13. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-01-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA2) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box. PMID:27733924

  14. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadari, Bhoopal Rao; Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-09-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA 2 ) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA 2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA 2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA 2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box.

  15. Mapping organism expression levels at cellular resolution in developing Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, David W.; Keranen, Soile; Biggin, Mark D.; Sudar, Damir

    2002-05-01

    The development of an animal embryo is orchestrated by a network of genetically determined, temporal and spatial gene expression patterns that determine the animals final form. To understand such networks, we are developing novel quantitative optical imaging techniques to map gene expression levels at cellular and sub-cellular resolution within pregastrula Drosophila. Embryos at different stages of development are labeled for total DNA and specific gene products using different fluorophors and imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy. Innovative steps have been made which allow the DNA-image to be automatically segmented to produce a morphological mask of the individual nuclear boundaries. For each stage of development an average morphology is chosen to which images from different embryo are compared. The morphological mask is then used to quantify gene-product on a per nuclei basis. What results is an atlas of the relative amount of the specific gene product expressed within the nucleus of every cell in the embryo at the various stages of development. We are creating a quantitative database of transcription factor and target gene expression patterns in wild-type and factor mutant embryos with single cell resolution. Our goal is to uncover the rules determining how patterns of gene expression are generated.

  16. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In today’s world, three great classes of non-infectious diseases – the metabolic syndromes (such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis), the cancers, and the neurodegenerative disorders – have risen to the fore. These diseases, all associated with increasing age of an individual, have proven to be remarkably complex and difficult to treat. This is because, in large measure, when the cellular signaling pathways responsible for maintaining homeostasis and health of the body become dysregulated, they generate equally stable disease states. As a result the body may respond positively to a drug, but only for a while and then revert back to the disease state. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease summarizes our current understanding of these regulatory networks in the healthy and diseased states, showing which molecular components might be prime targets for drug interventions. This is accomplished by presenting models that explain in mechanistic, molecular detail how a particular part of the cellular sign...

  17. Simulating bi-directional pedestrian flow in a cellular automaton model considering the body-turning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.

  18. Cellular zinc fluxes and the regulation of apoptosis/gene-directed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Tran, A Q; Ho, L H; Chai, F; Zalewski, P D

    2000-05-01

    The maintenance of discrete subcellular pools of zinc (Zn) is critical for the functional and structural integrity of cells. Among the important biological processes influenced by Zn is apoptosis, a process that is important in cellular homeostasis (an important cellular homeostatic process). It has also been identified as a major mechanism contributing to cell death in response to toxins and in disease, offering hope that novel therapies that target apoptotic pathways may be developed. Because Zn levels in the body can be increased in a relatively nontoxic manner, it may be possible to prevent or ameliorate degenerative disorders that are associated with high rates of apoptotic cell death. This review begins with brief introductions that address, first, the cellular biology of Zn, especially the critical labile Zn pools, and, second, the phenomenon of apoptosis. We then review the evidence relating Zn to apoptosis and address three major hypotheses: (1) that a specific pool or pools of intracellular labile Zn regulates apoptosis; (2) that systemic changes in Zn levels in the body, due to dietary factors, altered physiological states or disease, can influence cell susceptibility to apoptosis, and (3) that this altered susceptibility to apoptosis contributes to pathophysiological changes in the body. Other key issues are the identity of the molecular targets of Zn in the apoptotic cascade, the types of cells and tissues most susceptible to Zn-regulated apoptosis, the role of Zn as a coordinate regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and the apparent release of tightly bound intracellular pools of Zn during the later stages of apoptosis. This review concludes with a section highlighting areas of priority for future studies.

  19. The relationships between body mass index and television viewing, internet use and cellular phone use: the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsiao, Ray C; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and television viewing, Internet use and cellular phone use and the moderators for these relationships in adolescents. The relationship between BMI and the time spent on three kinds of sedentary activities and the moderators for these relationships were analyzed among 9,278 Taiwanese adolescents. The different relationships between BMI and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities were analyzed. High television viewing and high Internet use were associated with increased BMI in adolescents. Exercising had a moderating effect on the relationship between BMI and television viewing. Several Internet and cellular phone-related activities were associated with increased BMI. The results support the relationships between adolescent BMI and television viewing and Internet use. The moderating effect of exercise and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities should be considered when developing intervention strategies for overweight adolescents. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  1. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  2. Three-body interactions and the Landau levels using Nikiforov ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, the eigenvalues for the three-body interactions on the line and the Landau levels in the presence of topological defects have been regenerated by the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. Two exhaustive lists of such exactly solvable potentials are given. Keywords. Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method; three-body ...

  3. The effect of cellular carotenoid levels in micrococcus luteus on resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, a biological system was developed to link the cellular carotenoid levels to Gamma radiation resistance in bacteria for the frst time. thus, in a non-photosynrhetic bacterium, in Micrococcus Luteus an inverse relationship was found between the increase in diphenylamine (DPA) concentration (5.25 μg/ml culture) and the polar cellular carotenoid pigments (C-45 and C-50 carotenoids and their glucosides). It was also found that irradiation of cells with different carotenoid concentrations with doses of γ-radiation in the range of (0.2500 gray) under oxic, air and hypoxic conditions showed that carotenoid pigments offer no significant protection as they usually do in case of visible light. (author).15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  5. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  6. Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yee Tak Derek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.

  7. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  10. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-05-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated.

  11. Mutant LRRK2 Toxicity in Neurons Depends on LRRK2 Levels and Synuclein But Not Kinase Activity or Inclusion Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, Gaia; Nakamura, Ken; Cookson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    By combining experimental neuron models and mathematical tools, we developed a “systems” approach to deconvolve cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration underlying the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Neurons ectopically expressing mutant LRRK2 formed inclusion bodies (IBs), retracted neurites, accumulated synuclein, and died prematurely, recapitulating key features of PD. Degeneration was predicted from the levels of diffuse mutant LRRK2 that each neuron contained, but IB formation was neither necessary nor sufficient for death. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of its kinase activity destabilized LRRK2 and lowered its levels enough to account for the moderate reduction in LRRK2 toxicity that ensued. By contrast, targeting synuclein, including neurons made from PD patient-derived induced pluripotent cells, dramatically reduced LRRK2-dependent neurodegeneration and LRRK2 levels. These findings suggest that LRRK2 levels are more important than kinase activity per se in predicting toxicity and implicate synuclein as a major mediator of LRRK2-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:24403142

  12. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  13. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  14. Cellular response of human neuroblastoma cells to α-synuclein fibrils, the main constituent of Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Laura; Chafey, Philippe; Le Gall, Morgane; Clary, Guilhem; Melki, Ronald; Redeker, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) fibrils are the main constituent of Lewy bodies and a neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The propagation of α-Syn assemblies from cell to cell suggests that they are involved in PD progression. We previously showed that α-Syn fibrils are toxic because of their ability to bind and permeabilize cell membranes. Here, we document the cellular response in terms of proteome changes of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to exogenous α-Syn fibrils. We compare the proteomes of cells of neuronal origin exposed or not either to oligomeric or fibrillar α-Syn using two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. Only α-Syn fibrils induce significant changes in the proteome of SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to proteins associated to apoptosis and toxicity, or proteins previously linked to neurodegenerative diseases, we report an overexpression of proteins involved in intracellular vesicle trafficking. We also report a remarkable increase in fibrillar α-Syn heterogeneity, mainly due to C-terminal truncations. Our results show that cells of neuronal origin adapt their proteome to exogenous α-Syn fibrils and actively modify those assemblies. Cells of neuronal origin adapt their proteome to exogenous toxic α-Syn fibrils and actively modify those assemblies. Our results bring insights into the cellular response and clearance events the cells implement to face the propagation of α-Syn assemblies associated to pathology.

  15. CBFA1 and topoisomerase I mRNA levels decline during cellular aging of human trabecular osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette; Kveiborg, M.; Kassem, M.

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the reasons for age-related impairment of the function of bone forming osteoblasts, we have examined the steady-state mRNA levels of the transcription factor CBFA1 and topoisomerase I during cellular aging of normal human trabecular osteoblasts, by the use of semiquantitati...

  16. Level shifter for low power applications with body bias technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In present work three new designs of level shifter in 0.35µm technology using body ... level shifters, namely conventional type-I, conventional type-II and contention mitigated have been improved by varying the ..... single-chip mobile processor.

  17. Cellular and molecular dynamics in the foreign body reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, Daniel T.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    Intracorporally implanted materials, such as medical devices, will provoke the body to initiate an inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory reaction to implanted materials is known as the foreign body reaction (FBR) and is characterized by 3 distinct phases: onset, progression, and resolution. The

  18. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Redzal Abu; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age.

  19. WE-DE-202-02: Are Track Structure Simulations Truly Needed for Radiobiology at the Cellular and Tissue Levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  20. WE-DE-202-02: Are Track Structure Simulations Truly Needed for Radiobiology at the Cellular and Tissue Levels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R. [University of Washington (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  1. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  2. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  3. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 controls cellular proliferation through regulation of p27Kip1 protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, Nicole; Ruetz, Stephan; Natt, Francois; Hall, Jonathan; Weiler, Jan; Mestan, Juergen; Ducarre, Monique; Grossenbacher, Rita; Hauser, Patrick; Kempf, Dominique; Hofmann, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 was shown to be required for the activation of key cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby triggering the onset of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Although the SCF Skp2 ubiquitin ligase has been reported to mediate p27 Kip1 degradation, the nature of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in this process has not yet been determined at the cellular level. Here, we show that antisense oligonucleotides targeting the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 downregulate its expression, inhibit the degradation of p27 Kip1 , and prevent cellular proliferation. Elevation of p27 Kip1 protein level is found to be the sole requirement for the inhibition of cellular proliferation induced upon downregulation of Cdc34. Indeed, reducing the expression of p27 Kip1 with a specific antisense oligonucleotide is sufficient to reverse the anti-proliferative phenotype elicited by the Cdc34 antisense. Furthermore, downregulation of Cdc34 is found to specifically increase the abundance of the SCF Skp2 ubiquitin ligase substrate p27 Kip1 , but has no concomitant effect on the level of IkBα and β-catenin, which are known substrates of a closely related SCF ligase

  4. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, A J; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, C E; Chami, G

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5-37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body attempts initially to maintain euthermia, incurring an oxygen debt. This would

  5. Extraction protocol and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for determining micelle-entrapped paclitaxel at the cellular and subcellular levels: Application to a cellular uptake and distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Lian, Bin; Du, Wenwen; Xu, Guobing; Ji, Jiafu

    2018-01-01

    Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelles (PTX-PM) are commonly used as tumor-targeted nanocarriers and display outstanding antitumor features in clinic, but its accumulation and distribution in vitro are lack of investigation. It is probably due to the complex micellar system and its low concentration at the cellular or subcellular levels. In this study, we developed an improved extraction method, which was a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), to extract the total PTX from micelles in the cell lysate and subcellular compartments. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized to detect the low concentration of PTX at cellular and subcellular levels simultaneously, using docetaxel as internal standard (IS). The method was proved to release PTX totally from micelles (≥95.93%) with a consistent and reproducible extraction recovery (≥75.04%). Good linearity was obtained at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20ng/mL. The relative error (RE%) for accuracy varied from 0.68 to 7.56%, and the intra- and inter-precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%) was less than 8.64% and 13.14%, respectively. This method was fully validated and successfully applied to the cellular uptake and distribution study of PTX-loaded PLGA-PEG micelles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (free soft tissue mass [FFSTM], fat mass, and bone mineral content) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, upper-body strength (bench press and bench pull), and lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump with 20 kg). A 1-way analysis of variance assessed differences between the playing levels in these measures, whereas relationships between anthropometry and performance were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The elite senior and sub-elite senior players were older and heavier than the elite junior players (p ≤ 0.05). Both elite playing groups had greater total FFSTM than both the sub-elite and junior elite players; however, there were only appendicular FFSTM differences between the junior elite and elite senior players (p squat performance measures (r = 0.33-0.55). Australian Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players.

  7. A radiation measurement study on cellular phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Khairol Nizam Mohamed; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari; Ahmad Fadzli Ahmad Sanusi

    2007-01-01

    This paper will explain the radiation level produced by various selected cellular phone from various models and brands available in the market. The result obtained from this study will also recommend whether a cellular phone is safe for public usage or it might cause any effect on public health. Finally, a database of radiation measurement level produced by selected various cellular phone will also be developed and exhibited in this paper. (Author)

  8. Parameters and characteristics governing cellular internalization and trans-barrier trafficking of nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Karmani Murugan, Yahya E Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Divya Bijukumar, Lisa C du Toit, Viness Pillay Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Cellular internalization and trans-barrier transport of nanoparticles can be manipulated on the basis of the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of nanoparticles. Research has shown that these factors significantly influence the uptake of nanoparticles. Dictating these characteristics allows for the control of the rate and extent of cellular uptake, as well as delivering the drug-loaded nanosystem intra-cellularly, which is imperative for drugs that require a specific cellular level to exert their effects. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles should be optimal for the nanosystem to bypass the natural restricting phenomena of the body and act therapeutically at the targeted site. The factors at the focal point of emerging smart nanomedicines include nanoparticle size, surface charge, shape, hydrophobicity, surface chemistry, and even protein and ligand conjugates. Hence, this review discusses the mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles and ideal nanoparticle characteristics that allow them to evade the biological barriers in order to achieve optimal cellular uptake in different organ systems. Identifying these parameters assists with the progression of nanomedicine as an outstanding vector of pharmaceuticals. Keywords: nanoparticles, transport mechanisms, cellular uptake, size, shape, charge

  9. Selected materials of the international workshop on radiation risk and its origin at molecular and cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    2003-11-01

    The workshop ''International Workshop on Radiation Risk and its Origin at Molecular and Cellular Level'' was held at The Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the 6th and 7th of February 2003. The Laboratory of Radiation Risk Analysis of JAERI organized it. This international workshop attracted scientists from several different scientific areas, including radiation physics, radiation biology, molecular biology, crystallography of biomolecules, modeling and bio-informatics. Several foreign and domestic keynote speakers addresses the very fundamental areas of radiation risk and tried to establish a link between the fundamental studies at the molecular and cellular level and radiation damages at the organism. The symposium consisted of 13 oral lectures, 10 poster presentations and panel discussion. The 108 participants attended the workshop. This publication comprises of proceedings of oral and poster presentations where available. For the rest of contributions the abstracts or/and selections of presentation materials are shown instead. The 5 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  11. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  12. Human more complex than mouse at cellular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Vinogradov

    Full Text Available The family of transcription factors with the C2H2 zinc finger domain is expanding in the evolution of vertebrates, reaching its highest numbers in the mammals. The question arises: whether an increased amount of these transcription factors is related to embryogenesis, nervous system, pathology or more of them are expressed in individual cells? Among mammals, the primates have a more complex anatomical structure than the rodents (e.g., brain. In this work, I show that a greater number of C2H2-ZF genes are expressed in the human cells than in the mouse cells. The effect is especially pronounced for C2H2-ZF genes accompanied with the KRAB domain. The relative difference between the numbers of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes in the human and mouse cellular transcriptomes even exceeds their difference in the genomes (i.e. a greater subset of existing in the genome genes is expressed in the human cellular transcriptomes compared to the mouse transcriptomes. The evolutionary turnover of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes acts in the direction of the revealed phenomenon, i.e. gene duplication and loss enhances the difference in the relative number of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes between human and mouse cellular transcriptomes. A higher amount of these genes is expressed in the brain and embryonic cells (compared with other tissues, whereas a lower amount--in the cancer cells. It is specifically the C2H2-ZF transcription factors whose repertoire is poorer in the cancer and richer in the brain (other transcription factors taken together do not show this trend. These facts suggest that increase of anatomical complexity is accompanied by a more complex intracellular regulation involving these transcription factors. Malignization is associated with simplification of this regulation. These results agree with the known fact that human cells are more resistant to oncogenic transformation than mouse cells. The list of C2H2-ZF genes whose suppression might be involved in malignization is provided.

  13. Pricing Patterns of Cellular Phones and Phonecalls: A Segment-Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak C. Jain; Eitan Muller; Naufel J. Vilcassim

    1999-01-01

    One expectation of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the early stages of the cellular communications industry was that the presence of two licensees in each market would ensure competition, and thereby result in declining prices over time for both cellular phones (handsets) and phonecalls. However, industry observers have noted recently that although the price of handsets has declined over time, the price of the phonecalls has not. We investigate this interesting pricing iss...

  14. Three-body interactions and the Landau levels using Nikiforov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, the eigenvalues for the three-body interactions on the line and the Landau levels in the presence of topological defects have been regenerated by the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. Two exhaustive lists of such exactly solvable potentials are given.

  15. Body mass index and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Navarrete Mejía

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the association between the body mass index (BMI and serum lipid levels in adult people. Material and Methods: Observational, transversal and retrospective study. Non experimental investigation design. The population was conformed for people treated in private health centers in Metropolitan Lima. The evaluations of the BMI and the laboratorial tests to know the seric concentration of lipids were taken between October 2014 and October 2015. It was determined the association between the BMI and the seric lipid levels using the Chi2 test. People with comorbidity that could modify the seric levels of lipids were excluded. Results: 39.7% of people studied were male and 60.3% were female. The average age was 34.2 years old. 40.7% (1227/3016 of population were obese and overweight. The results show a higher level of obesity or overweight in male people over female (54.6% and 33% respectively. 19.7% (594/3016 of the tested people presented high triglycerides seric levels. 27.9% (841/3016 presented high cholesterol levels and 38.8% (1146/3016 presented low cHDL levels. The cLDL levels and cVLDL levels were similar in both groups (male and female. Conclusions: The investigation determined the significant statistical association between the BMI and triglycerides (p < 0.05, cholesterol (p < 0.05 and cHDL (p < 0.05.

  16. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  17. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  18. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.F.; Hassan, M.; Nazar, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  19. The Role of Nuclear Bodies in Gene Expression and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Marie; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of nuclear bodies in regulating gene expression. The compartmentalization of cellular processes, such as ribosome biogenesis, RNA processing, cellular response to stress, transcription, modification and assembly of spliceosomal snRNPs, histone gene synthesis and nuclear RNA retention, has significant implications for gene regulation. These functional nuclear domains include the nucleolus, nuclear speckle, nuclear stress body, transcription factory, Cajal body, Gemini of Cajal body, histone locus body and paraspeckle. We herein review the roles of nuclear bodies in regulating gene expression and their relation to human health and disease. PMID:24040563

  20. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  1. BmNHR96 participate BV entry of BmN-SWU1 cells via affecting the cellular cholesterol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tai-Hang; Wang, Wei; Pan, Cai-Xia; Du, Guo-Yu; Wu, Yun-Fei; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2017-01-22

    B.mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which produces BV and ODV two virion phenotypes in its life cycle, caused the amount of economic loss in sericulture. But the mechanism of its infection was still unclear. In this study we characterized B.mori nuclear hormone receptor 96 (BmNHR96) as a NHR96 family member, which was localized in the nucleus. We also found BmNHR96 over-expression could enhance the entry of BV as well as cellular cholesterol level. Furthermore, we validated that BmNHR96 increased membrane fusion mediated by GP64, which could probably promote BV-infection. In summary, our study suggested that BmNHR96 plays an important role in BV infection and this function probably actualized by affecting cellular cholesterol level, and our results provided insights to the mechanisms of BV-infection of B.mori. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multimodal imaging of the human knee down to the cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, G.; Götz, C.; Müller-Gerbl, M.; Zanette, I.; Zdora, M.-C.; Khimchenko, A.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    Computed tomography reaches the best spatial resolution for the three-dimensional visualization of human tissues among the available nondestructive clinical imaging techniques. Nowadays, sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. Regarding investigations on true micrometer level, lab-based micro-CT (μCT) has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is firstly the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT and secondly a multimodal imaging using absorption and phase contrast modes in order to investigate hard (bone) and soft (cartilage) tissues on the cellular level. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using the lab-system nanotom® m. First, the entire knee was measured with a pixel length of 65 μm. The highest resolution with a pixel length of 3 μm could be achieved after extracting cylindrically shaped plugs from the femoral bones. For the visualization of the cartilage, grating-based phase contrast μCT (I13-2, Diamond Light Source) was performed. With an effective voxel size of 2.3 μm it was possible to visualize individual chondrocytes within the cartilage.

  3. Cellular biomarker responses of bagrid catfish, Chrysichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the pollution status of Agboyi creek, a water body associated with various anthropogenic activities was carried out in order to determine responses induced in Catfishes, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus inhabiting it. Cellular biomarkers of stress including the antioxidative stress enzyme, catalase (CAT), lipid ...

  4. Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2011-01-01

    NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. co...

  5. Cellular oncogene expression following exposure of mice to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the effects of total body exposure of BCF1 mice to γ-rays (300 cGy) in modulating expression of cellular oncogenes in both gut and liver tissues. We selected specific cellular oncogenes (c-fos, c-myc, c-src, and c-H-ras), based on their normal expression in liver and gut tissues from untreated mice. As early as 5 min. following whole body exposure of BCF1 mice to γ-rays we detected induction of mRNA specific for c-src and c-H-ras in both liver and gut tissues. c-fos RNA was slightly decreased in accumulation in gut but was unaffected in liver tissue from irradiated mice relative to untreated controls. c-myc mRNA accumulation was unaffected in all tissues examined. These experiments document that modulation of cellular oncogene expression can occur as an early event in tissues following irradiation and suggest that this modulation may play a role in radiation-induced carcinogenesis

  6. Expressions of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and relative cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for regulation of the immune system. Their cellular factors are TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and. IL-10. Th1 cells induce cellular response reaction and inflammatory reaction, but Th2 cell promote immunity of body fluids and resist parasitic infections; these two types of cells maintain balance in the immune system [20]. HIV infection.

  7. Cellular and chemical neuroscience of mammalian sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal

    2010-05-01

    Extraordinary strides have been made toward understanding the complexities and regulatory mechanisms of sleep over the past two decades thanks to the help of rapidly evolving technologies. At its most basic level, mammalian sleep is a restorative process of the brain and body. Beyond its primary restorative purpose, sleep is essential for a number of vital functions. Our primary research interest is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep and its cognitive functions. Here I will reflect on our own research contributions to 50 years of extraordinary advances in the neurobiology of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. I conclude this review by suggesting some potential future directions to further our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of weight off-loading level over body-weight supported locomotion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; Lim, Peter A C; McGregor, A H

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of robotic systems to facilitate overground walking rehabilitation, it is important to understand the effect of robotic-aided body-weight supported loading on lower limb muscle activity, if we are to optimize neuromotor recovery. To achieve this objective, we have collected and studied electromyography (EMG) data from key muscles in the lower extremity from healthy subjects walking over a wide range of body-weight off-loading levels as provided by a bespoke gait robot. By examining the impact of body-weight off-loading, it was found that muscle activation patterns were sensitive to the level of off-loading. In addition, a large off-loading might introduce disturbance of muscle activation pattern, led to a wider range of motion in terms of dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. Therefore, any future overground training machine should be enhanced to exclude unnecessary effect of body off-loading in securing the sustaining upright posture and providing assist-as-needed BWS over gait rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Dynamic PET scanning and compartmental model analysis to determine cellular level radiotracer distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.T.; Hubner, K.F.; Goodman, M.M.; Stubbs, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to measure tissue radiotracer concentration in vivo. Radiochemical distribution can be determined with compartmental model analysis. A two compartment model describes the kinetics of N-13 ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) in the myocardium. The model consists of a vascular space, Q 1 and a space for 13 NH 3 bound within the tissue, Q 2 . Differential equations for the model can be written: X(t) = AX(t) + BU( t), Y(t)= CX(t)+ DU(t) (1) where X(t) is a column vector [Q 1 (t); Q 2 (t)], U(t) is the arterial input activity measured from the left ventricular blood pool, and Y(t) is the measured tissue activity using PET. Matrices A, B, C, and D are dependent on physiological parameters describing the kinetics of 13 NH 3 in the myocardium. Estimated parameter matrices in Equation 1 have been validated in dog experiments by measuring myocardial perfusion with dynamic PET scanning and intravenous injection of 13 NH 3 . Tracer concentrations for each compartment can be calculated by direct integration of Equation 1. If the cellular level distribution of each compartment is known, the concentration of tracer within the intracellular and extracellular space can be determined. Applications of this type of modeling include parameter estimation for measurement of physiological processes, organ level dosimetry, and determination of cellular radiotracer distribution

  10. [Effect of anticancer treatment on leptin level, fat body mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Rybak, Maryna; Muszyńska-Rosłan, Katarzyna; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Solarz, Elzbieta; Wołczynski, Sławomir; Protas, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    Leptin plays an important role in the metabolism of adipose tissue. Considering that malignancy and its treatment cans affect normal development in childhood. We analysed the correlations between serum leptin levels and body composition after anticancer treatment. We studied 33 survivors (24 boys and 9 girls) who before our study, have been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=23) and Hodgkin disease (n=10) after 7.15+/-3.5 years. Sixteen patients with ALL received cranial irradiation (12Gy). We measured body mass index (BM1) fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared these results to the results obtained from reference values (SD score). Leptin levels were measured with the RIA method. 1. Mean leptin levels were higher in girls after puberty (10.93 ng/mL+/-8.9) than in boys (3.73 ng/mL+/-3. 7). In boys no differences were found in leptin levels between T2-4 and T5 stages. In girls the leptin values increased after puberty. Leptin SD score levels were higher in boys during (1.55 +/-1.0) and after puberty (1.46+/-0.75) and in girls - after puberty (1.19 +/-1.51). We did not find any influence of cranial irradiation (12Gy) or various methotrexate doses (5 g/m(2) vs. 19/m(2)) leptin values. 2. No difference in BMI SD score was found within the whole study group. 3. FM did not change ill boys during and after puberty, although FM SD score were higher during puberty (2.98 +/-4.8). In girls FM and FM SD score were higher after puberty. In boys and girls LBM augmented with pubertal development but LBM SD score in boys were lower after puberty (-1.67 +/-1.7) in comparison to puberty (0.2 +/-1.7). No differences were found between LBM SD score in girls during and after puberty. 4. We found a correlation between leptin levels and BMI (r=0.59 p=0.001) and FM (r=0.77 p=0.0001). 5. Relation of FM to LBM in boys remained unchanged, however in girls it increased within pubertal development. l. Anticancer

  11. CAROTID BODY CHEMO-REFLEX: A DRIVER OF AUTONOMIC ABNORMALITIES IN SLEEP APNEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2016-01-01

    Carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen levels, and the resulting chemo-reflex is a potent regulator of the sympathetic tone, blood pressure, and breathing. Sleep apnea is a disease of the respiratory system affecting several million adult humans. Apneas occur during sleep often due to obstruction of the upper airway (obstructive sleep apnea, OSA) or due to defective respiratory rhythm generation by the central nervous system (central sleep apnea). Patients with sleep apnea exhibit several co-morbidities; most notable among them being the heightened sympathetic nerve activity, and hypertension. Emerging evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from periodic apnea stimulates the carotid body and the ensuing chemo-reflex mediates the increased sympathetic tone and hypertension in sleep apnea patients. Rodent models of IH, simulating the O2 saturation profiles encountered during sleep apnea have provided important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the heightened carotid body chemo-reflex. This article describes how IH affects the carotid body function, and discusses the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemo-reflex. PMID:27474260

  12. Profiling cellular bioenergetics, glutathione levels, and caspase activities in stomach biopsies of patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfazari, Ali S; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Al-Dhaheri, Wafa; Taha, Mazen S; Chebli, Ahmad A; Fontagnier, Eva M; Koutoubi, Zaher; Kochiyi, Jose; Karam, Sherif M; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To measure biochemical parameters in stomach biopsies and test their suitability as diagnostic biomarkers for gastritis and precancerous lesions. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from the stomachs of two groups of patients (n = 40) undergoing fiber-optic endoscopy due to upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In the first group (n = 17), only the corpus region was examined. Biopsies were processed for microscopic examination and measurement of mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration), cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutathione (GSH), and caspase activity. In the second group of patients (n = 23), both corpus and antral regions were studied. Some biopsies were processed for microscopic examination, while the others were used for measurements of cellular respiration and GSH level. RESULTS: Microscopic examinations of gastric corpus biopsies from 17 patients revealed normal mucosae in 8 patients, superficial gastritis in 7 patients, and chronic atrophic gastritis in 1 patient. In patients with normal histology, the rate (mean ± SD) of cellular respiration was 0.17 ± 0.02 μmol/L O2 min-1 mg-1, ATP content was 487 ± 493 pmol/mg, and GSH was 469 ± 98 pmol/mg. Caspase activity was detected in 3 out of 8 specimens. The values of ATP and caspase activity were highly variable. The presence of superficial gastritis had insignificant effects on the measured biomarkers. In the patient with atrophic gastritis, cellular respiration was high and ATP was relatively low, suggesting uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. In the second cohort of patients, the examined biopsies showed either normal or superficial gastritis. The rate of cellular respiration (O2. μmol/L min-1 mg-1) was slightly higher in the corpus than the antrum (0.18 ± 0.05 vs 0.15 ± 0.04, P = 0.019). The value of GSH was about the same in both tissues (310 ± 135 vs 322 ± 155, P = 0.692). CONCLUSION: The corpus mucosa was metabolically more active than the antrum tissue. The data in this

  13. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown. PMID:26340633

  14. [Does self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction levels in female adolescents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R(2)=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R(2)=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA

  16. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  17. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and cadmium on cellular and population-level endpoints of the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Abdul Meseh, D.; Alasawi, H.; Qiang, M.; Nascimento, F. [Dept of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    A major challenge in evaluating the risks of radiation to organisms is that radioactive substances often co-occur with other contaminants in the environment. The combined effects of multiple contaminants is poorly understood, particularly where radiation is involved, but mixture toxicity can give rise to synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects. The challenge of understanding mixture toxicity in a radiation context is the focus of one of the work packages of the STAR EU Network of Excellence in Radioecology, of which this study is a part. This paper presents results from an experiment where the green micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was exposed to both acute external gamma irradiation and the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) (over 72 hours); the experiment had a fully factorial design with 4 gamma doses and 4 Cd concentrations. The endpoints measured were chosen to reflect subcellular, cellular and population-level effects: antioxidant enzyme expression; membrane damage; protein, vitamin and pigment content of the cells; individual cell biomass and growth; population growth (biomass per ml and cells per ml). Preliminary results suggest effects of both Cd and gamma on some of the cellular and subcellular endpoints such as thiamine (vitamin B1) and chlorophyll concentrations in the cells, and individual cell biomass. In some cases interactive effects of the combined Cd and gamma treatments were seen, and these appeared to be dose level dependent. This lack of a consistent pattern of interactive mixture toxicity effects across the endpoints measured means that such effects would be very hard to predict in a risk assessment context. The lack of measurable effects at the population level was probably due to the short experimental duration (72 hours). Other experiments in our research group on the same micro-alga species that have looked at longer term effects (weeks) have shown that effects may not manifest themselves until at least a week after an acute gamma

  18. Body measurements and testosteron level of male Timor deer (Rusa timorensis at various hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Samsudewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe body (neck, chest and scrotum circumferences and testosterone level of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer reared under captivity after establisment of the dominance hierarchy. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41 kg body weight and in same antler stages were used in this research. The bucks was grouped into three stall each containing four bucks. ELISA kit and tape measurements were used for plasma Testosterone assay and body measurement, respectively. Data was collected before and 43 days after establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was used. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed no significantly different for body circumferences (neck, chest, scrotum and testosterone level of male Timor deer before establishment of dominance hierarchy. Chest and scrotum circumferences of male Timor deer after establihment of dominance hierarchy showed no significantly different. Significantly difference shown on parameter neck circumference (P<0.05; χ2 = 8.74 and testosteron level (P<0.05; χ2 = 7.87 after establishment of dominance hierarchy. In conclusion, dominance hierarchy affected the testosterone level and body measurement.

  19. Body size satisfaction and physical activity levels among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Lee, Chong-Do; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Macera, Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Body size satisfaction may be an important factor associated with physical activity. We analyzed data from the 2002 National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey (NPAWLS), a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey of US adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of body size satisfaction on being regularly active. Participants were aged > or =18 years with complete data on weight, race/ethnicity, physical activity level, and body size satisfaction (n = 10,021). More than half of men (55.8%) and women (53.3%) who reported being very satisfied with the body size were regularly active. After adjustment for covariates, participants who reported being somewhat or not satisfied with their body size had a 13 and 44% lower odds of being regularly active, respectively, compared with those very satisfied with their body size. When stratified by race/ethnicity, this association remained in whites (P for trend physical activity than those less satisfied. Further research is needed to explore predictors of physical activity to reduce health disparities.

  20. Metal levels in southern leopard frogs from the Savannah River Site: location and body compartment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Snodgrass, J

    2001-06-01

    Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles from several wetlands at the Savannah River Site and test the null hypotheses that (1) there are no differences in metal levels in different body compartments of the tadpoles, including the digestive tract; (2) there are no differences in heavy metal levels among different wetlands; and (3) there are no differences in the ratio of metals in the tail/body and in the digestive tract/body as a function of metal or developmental stage as indicated by body weight. Variations in heavy metal levels were explained by wetland and body compartment for all metals and by tadpole weight for selenium and manganese. In all cases, levels of metals were higher in the digestive tract than in the body or tail of tadpoles. Metal levels were highest in a wetland that had been remediated and lowest in a wetland that was never a pasture or remediated (i.e., was truly undisturbed). Although tadpoles are sometimes eaten by fish and other aquatic predators, leopard frogs usually avoid laying their eggs in ponds with such predators. However, avian predators will eat them. These data suggest that tadpoles can be used as bioindicators of differences in metal levels among wetlands and as indicators of potential exposure for higher-trophic-level organisms, but that to assess effects on the tadpoles themselves, digestive tracts should be removed before analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Coupling biomechanics to a cellular level model: an approach to patient-specific image driven multi-scale and multi-physics tumor simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christian P; Kolokotroni, Eleni; Stamatakos, Georgios S; Büchler, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Modeling of tumor growth has been performed according to various approaches addressing different biocomplexity levels and spatiotemporal scales. Mathematical treatments range from partial differential equation based diffusion models to rule-based cellular level simulators, aiming at both improving our quantitative understanding of the underlying biological processes and, in the mid- and long term, constructing reliable multi-scale predictive platforms to support patient-individualized treatment planning and optimization. The aim of this paper is to establish a multi-scale and multi-physics approach to tumor modeling taking into account both the cellular and the macroscopic mechanical level. Therefore, an already developed biomodel of clinical tumor growth and response to treatment is self-consistently coupled with a biomechanical model. Results are presented for the free growth case of the imageable component of an initially point-like glioblastoma multiforme tumor. The composite model leads to significant tumor shape corrections that are achieved through the utilization of environmental pressure information and the application of biomechanical principles. Using the ratio of smallest to largest moment of inertia of the tumor material to quantify the effect of our coupled approach, we have found a tumor shape correction of 20% by coupling biomechanics to the cellular simulator as compared to a cellular simulation without preferred growth directions. We conclude that the integration of the two models provides additional morphological insight into realistic tumor growth behavior. Therefore, it might be used for the development of an advanced oncosimulator focusing on tumor types for which morphology plays an important role in surgical and/or radio-therapeutic treatment planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation in vitro and in vivo of cytotoxicity but not cellular levels of doxorubicin by the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine is dependent on the level of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, R.; Schmidt, H.; Grabowski, D.; Melia, M.; Ratliff, N.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) in modulating the cellular levels and cytotoxicity in vitro and antitumour effects in vivo of doxorubicin (DOX), was evaluated in progressively DOX-resistant (5- to 40-fold) sublines of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma. In parental-sensitive B16-BL6 cells treated for 3 h, the IC50 of DOX was 0.1 microgram ml-1, and a less than 2-fold enhancement in DOX cell kill in the presence of a noncytotoxic concentration of 5 microM TFP was observed. However, in the DOX-resistant sublines, the IC50 was 0.7 to 5.0 micrograms ml-1 DOX in the absence of 5 microM TFP and 0.3 to 0.7 microgram ml-1 DOX in the presence of 5 microM TFP. The 2- to 7.5-fold decrease in the IC50 of DOX in the presence of 5 microM TFP, was dependent on the level of DOX-resistance in the various sublines. Compared to parental-sensitive cells, a 2-fold decrease in DOX-accumulation was evident only in the 40-fold DOX-resistant subline. Further, maximal enhancement (50%) of cellular DOX accumulation in the presence of 5 microM TFP was observed only in the 40-fold resistant cells treated with 5.0 micrograms ml-1 DOX. Retention of DOX in the 40-fold resistant subline was only 20% lower than similarly treated sensitive cells, and the inclusion of TFP increased DOX retention less than 10-15%. Antitumour studies in mice with experimental pulmonary metastases revealed that although DOX and DOX plus TFP had similar antitumour activity with the parental sensitive B16-BL6 cells, the combination of DOX plus TFP was significantly more effective than DOX alone with the DOX-resistant sublines. No overt toxicity was observed in normal mice treated with doses of TFP, DOX or DOX plus TFP used for in vivo chemotherapy studies. Results from this study suggest that gross cellular DOX levels do not appear to correlate with the magnitude of resistance, and the effects of TFP in modulating DOX resistance is possibly due to mechanisms other than mere alterations in cellular drug

  3. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  4. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  5. Cellular adverse actions of dibromoacetonitrile, a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal levels in rat thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takumi; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Erdenedalai, Erdenebat; Enhetomuru, Anu; Imai, Shoji; Oyama, Yasuo

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal concentrations on rat thymocytes, by using a cytometric technique with appropriate fluorescent dyes. By using this method, the possibility that DBAN induces cellular actions related to oxidative stress was assessed. DBAN reduced the content of cellular nonprotein thiols under Zn 2+ -free conditions. It elevated the intracellular level of Zn 2+ , being independent from external Zn 2+ . DBAN increased cell vulnerability to the cytotoxic action of hydrogen peroxide. These actions of DBAN were likely related to oxidative stress. DBAN is formed by the reaction of bromides and chlorinated oxidants during water disinfection. Hydrolysis of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, an antimicrobial used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for production of shale gas and oil, produces DBAN. Therefore, the concern regarding the levels of DBAN in industrial water systems is necessary to avoid the environmental risk to humans and wild mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  7. Body fat and blood pressure: comparison of blood pressure measurements in Chinese children with different body fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bin; Song, Yi; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-14

    Children in China are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with hypertension. To compare the effect of body fat on blood pressure (BP) with that of the normal physical growth, we compared BP levels in Chinese children with different body fat levels. In the present population-based study, 13 972 children in the highest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group were individually matched to 13 972 children in the lowest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group by height and weight. Similarly, 5103 children in the highest-waist-circumference-quartile group were matched to the same number of children in the lowest-waist-circumference-quartile group. The high- and low-fat groups had similar height and weight but the high-fat group had significantly higher skinfold and waist circumference measurements. The differences in systolic BP (SBP) between the high- and low-skinfold-thickness groups were small: 0·01 (95 % CI -0·41, 0·44) mmHg in boys and 0·20 (95 % CI -0·15, 0·54) mmHg in girls. The differences in diastolic BP (DBP) were also small (0·39 and 0·38 mmHg for boys and girls, respectively) but were statistically significant. The differences in both SBP and DBP between the high- and low-waist-circumference groups were small but not statistically significant. For a given body size as measured by height and weight, relative body fat had little impact on BP levels in these children. Fat mass and lean mass may have a similar quantitative impact on BP in healthy-weight children.

  8. Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Roth, Doris; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator. However, the total cellular pools of thiols and disulfides and their relative abundance have never been...... determined. In this study, we have assembled a global picture of the cellular thiol-disulfide status in cultured mammalian cells. We have quantified the absolute levels of protein thiols, protein disulfides, and glutathionylated protein (PSSG) in all cellular protein, including membrane proteins. These data...... cell types. However, when cells are exposed to a sublethal dose of the thiol-specific oxidant diamide, PSSG levels increase to >15% of all protein cysteine. Glutathione is typically characterized as the "cellular redox buffer"; nevertheless, our data show that protein thiols represent a larger active...

  9. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  10. Bioinspired Cellular Structures: Additive Manufacturing and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfl, J.; Pettermann, H. E.; Liska, R.

    Biological materials (e.g., wood, trabecular bone, marine skeletons) rely heavily on the use of cellular architecture, which provides several advantages. (1) The resulting structures can bear the variety of "real life" load spectra using a minimum of a given bulk material, featuring engineering lightweight design principles. (2) The inside of the structures is accessible to body fluids which deliver the required nutrients. (3) Furthermore, cellular architectures can grow organically by adding or removing individual struts or by changing the shape of the constituting elements. All these facts make the use of cellular architectures a reasonable choice for nature. Using additive manufacturing technologies (AMT), it is now possible to fabricate such structures for applications in engineering and biomedicine. In this chapter, we present methods that allow the 3D computational analysis of the mechanical properties of cellular structures with open porosity. Various different cellular architectures including disorder are studied. In order to quantify the influence of architecture, the apparent density is always kept constant. Furthermore, it is shown that how new advanced photopolymers can be used to tailor the mechanical and functional properties of the fabricated structures.

  11. Phg1/TM9 proteins control intracellular killing of bacteria by determining cellular levels of the Kil1 sulfotransferase in Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Le Coadic

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum has largely been used to study phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacteria. Previous studies have shown that Phg1A, Kil1 and Kil2 proteins are necessary for efficient intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. Here we show that in phg1a KO cells, cellular levels of lysosomal glycosidases and lysozyme are decreased, and lysosomal pH is increased. Surprisingly, overexpression of Kil1 restores efficient killing in phg1a KO cells without correcting these lysosomal anomalies. Conversely, kil1 KO cells are defective for killing, but their enzymatic content and lysosomal pH are indistinguishable from WT cells. The killing defect of phg1a KO cells can be accounted for by the observation that in these cells the stability and the cellular amount of Kil1 are markedly reduced. Since Kil1 is the only sulfotransferase characterized in Dictyostelium, an (unidentified sulfated factor, defective in both phg1a and kil1 KO cells, may play a key role in intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. In addition, Phg1B plays a redundant role with Phg1A in controlling cellular amounts of Kil1 and intracellular killing. Finally, cellular levels of Kil1 are unaffected in kil2 KO cells, and Kil1 overexpression does not correct the killing defect of kil2 KO cells, suggesting that Kil2 plays a distinct role in intracellular killing.

  12. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  13. THE LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE OF THE BODY WHOLE IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISPRAXIC AND DIAGNOSTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACEV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim is to processed the level of experience of body whole in children with praxic and Gnostics disharmony. The authors were observed 46 children with dispraxis and disgnosis, age from 8-12 years, from different sex and with average intellectual capabilities. They have been treated at our institute in the period of 1998-2000. The tests for neuro-psychological esteem have been used.Children with dispraxis showed failure on the tests of Body scheme (92.3% and on the tests of gesticulate imitation too. Especially they failure in the phase of constructor of the body figure.Children with disgnosis showed better results at the tests of Body scheme (70%. They did all praxical activities normally, but they showed problems in recognition of some body parts.The mental cognition was not developed properly, dominantly in children with dispraxy (for figurative symbolism. In children with disgnosy assymbolism on the level of lingual structures is dominated. The author's conclusion is that Body scheme experience is the base of all psychic functions. Because the body scheme is not properly build, it is fragile of the attacks from the environment, and different clinical manifestations could be showed.

  14. Toxicity of selenite in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Comparison between effects at the population and sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlon, Helene; Fortin, Claude; Floriani, Magali; Adam, Christelle; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Boudou, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of selenium in aquatic ecosystems is mainly linked to its uptake and biotransformation by micro-organisms, and its subsequent transfer upwards into the food chain. Thus, organisms at low trophic level, such as algae, play a crucial role. The aim of our study was to investigate the biological effects of selenite on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, both at the sub-cellular level (effect on ultrastructure) and at the population level (effect on growth). The cells were grown under batch culture conditions in well-defined media and exposed to waterborne selenite at concentrations up to 500 μM; i.e. up to lethal conditions. Based on the relationship between Se concentration and cell density achieved after a 96 h exposure period, an EC 50 of 80 μM with a 95% confidence interval ranging between 64 and 98 μM was derived. No adaptation mechanisms were observed: the same toxicity was quantified for algae pre-contaminated with Se. The inhibition of growth was linked to impairments observed at the sub-cellular level. The intensity of the ultrastructural damages caused by selenite exposure depended on the level and duration of exposure. Observations by TEM suggested chloroplasts as the first target of selenite cytotoxicity, with effects on the stroma, thylakoids and pyrenoids. At higher concentrations, we could observe an increase in the number and volume of starch grains. For cells collected at 96 h, electron-dense granules were observed. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that these granules contained selenium and were also rich in calcium and phosphorus. This study confirms that the direct toxicity of selenite on the phytoplankton biomass is not likely to take place at concentrations found in the environment. At higher concentrations, the link between effects at the sub-cellular and population levels, the over-accumulation of starch, and the formation of dense granules containing selenium are reported for the first time in the literature for a

  15. Localization, kinetics and metabolism of labelled monoclonal antibodies on a cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinstraesser, A.; Kuhlmann, L.; Zimmer, M.; Schwarz, A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the mechanisms, the localization, kinetics and metabolism of preparations labelled with 131 J and 111 In were examined on a cellular level. Micro-autoradiography for histological assessment of the storage tissue in the organs was complemented by cytological examination methods for assessing the extent of internalisation of the antibodies, and the metabolism of the antibodies in the cytosol fraction could be followed up by chromatography. One of the major results is that even with the complete antibody, accumulation in the liver cells proceeds very rapidly and protein degradation is practically completed within twenty-four hours. In the tumor, however, internalisation plays a minor part (about 80 p.c. of the antibodies remain bound to the membrane). Rapid accumulation of the antibodies by the tubulus epithelium of the kidney causes the intensive image of the renal scintiscan. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males, is more common than previously anticipated and potentially provides both direct and indirect fitness benefits to females. The level of polyandry (defined by the lifetime number of male mates of a female is an important determinant of the occurrence and intensity of sexual selection acting on male phenotypes. While the forces of sexual selection acting on phenotypic male traits such as body size are relatively well understood, sexual selection acting on phenotypic plasticity of these traits is unexplored. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing the link between polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size in two sympatric plant-inhabiting predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. These two species are similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size (both lower in P. persimilis. We hypothesized that deviations from standard body size, i.e. the size achieved under favorable conditions, incur higher costs for males in the less polyandrous P. persimilis. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two experiments on (i the effects of male body size on spermatophore transfer in singly mating females and (ii the effects of mate sequence (switching the order of standard-sized and small males on mating behavior and paternity success in doubly mating females. In P. persimilis but not N. californicus, small males transferred fewer but larger spermatophores to the females; in both species, females re-mated more likely with standard-sized following small than small following standard-sized males; in P. persimilis, first standard-sized males sired a higher proportion of offspring produced after re-mating by the female than first small males, whereas in N. californicus the paternity success of small and standard

  17. Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Walzer, Andreas; Murata, Yasumasa; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males, is more common than previously anticipated and potentially provides both direct and indirect fitness benefits to females. The level of polyandry (defined by the lifetime number of male mates of a female) is an important determinant of the occurrence and intensity of sexual selection acting on male phenotypes. While the forces of sexual selection acting on phenotypic male traits such as body size are relatively well understood, sexual selection acting on phenotypic plasticity of these traits is unexplored. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing the link between polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size in two sympatric plant-inhabiting predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. These two species are similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size (both lower in P. persimilis). We hypothesized that deviations from standard body size, i.e. the size achieved under favorable conditions, incur higher costs for males in the less polyandrous P. persimilis. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two experiments on (i) the effects of male body size on spermatophore transfer in singly mating females and (ii) the effects of mate sequence (switching the order of standard-sized and small males) on mating behavior and paternity success in doubly mating females. In P. persimilis but not N. californicus, small males transferred fewer but larger spermatophores to the females; in both species, females re-mated more likely with standard-sized following small than small following standard-sized males; in P. persimilis, first standard-sized males sired a higher proportion of offspring produced after re-mating by the female than first small males, whereas in N. californicus the paternity success of small and standard-sized males was

  18. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2014-04-02

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  19. Physical condition of female students with different level of body mass deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the features of morphofunctional and motor characteristics of female students with body mass deficiency and with normal body mass. Material : it was examined 17-21-year-old female students (n=1937. All students were in the main medical group according to the health condition and attended classes on discipline Physical culture. It was carried out the anthropometrical and physiometric examination of female students. Results : It was determined the low integrated criterion of physical fitness of female students with body mass deficiency. It was defined the dependence between the decrease in level of physical fitness and decrease in body mass of female students. It was determined reliable differences between the morphofunctional parameters and results of motor tests of female students with different body mass. Conclusions : The obtained data allow to correct educational process on physical training of students using integrative pedagogical methods and methods of training.

  20. Mind and body: how the health of the body impacts on neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault eRenoir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been established in traditional forms of medicine and in anecdotal knowledge that the health of the body and the mind are inextricably linked. Strong and continually developing evidence now suggests a link between disorders which involve Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA dysregulation and the risk of developing psychiatric disease. For instance, adverse or excessive responses to stressful experiences are built into the diagnostic criteria for several psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders. Interestingly, peripheral disorders such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are also associated with HPA changes. Furthermore, many of other systemic disorders associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disease involve a significant inflammatory component. In fact, inflammatory and endocrine pathways seem to interact in both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS to potentiate states of psychiatric dysfunction. This review synthesizes clinical and animal data looking at interactions between peripheral and central factors, gaining an understanding at the molecular and cellular level of how processes in the entire body can impact on mental state and psychiatric health.

  1. Cellular Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Is an Important Dengue Virus Restriction Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, Federico; Damonte, Elsa B.; Garc?a, Cybele C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral defense is based on cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and, thus, active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are discrete nuclear foci that contain several cellular proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral responses against a number of viruses. Accumulating reports have shown the importance of PML as a DNA virus restriction factor and how these pathogens evade this antiviral activity....

  2. Does fasting during Ramadan alter body composition, blood constituents and physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, J

    2002-01-01

    To study the effect of Ramadan fast (RF) on body composition, plasma constituents, hematology, and cardiorespiratory responses to constant submaximal exercise. Sixteen sedentary healthy Kuwaiti adult males were included in the study. The subjects were tested under thermo-neutral conditions during a spring-like month of Ramadan and 2 months thereafter. They were tested during the week before RF (Pre1); the last 3 days of RF (End1); the week before a non-Ramadan month (Pre2), and the last 3 days of the non-Ramadan month (End2). The following measurements were made: body composition, cellular and biochemical constituents of blood, heart rate, ventilatory responses and blood pressure. No significant changes were observed in body composition, cellular and biochemical constituents of blood. The heart rate and ventilatory responses to the moderately intense bouts of submaximal aerobic exercise ( approximately 70% of VO(2max)) were significantly reduced (p Ramadan fasting had no adverse effect on the subjects when performing aerobic exercise at submaximal level. The mild changes in cardiorespiratory responses could be due to dehydration, abstention from consumption of substances with negative inotropy and circadian rhythms. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Exosome levels in human body fluids: A tumor marker by themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Francesco; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Campanella, Claudia; Bavisotto, Celeste Caruso; Marcilla, Antonio; Properzi, Francesca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts, the finding of reliable tumor biomarkers remains challenging and unresolved. In recent years a novel diagnostic biomedical tool with high potential has been identified in extracellular nanovesicles or exosomes. They are released by the majority of the cells and contain detailed molecular information on the cell of origin including tumor hallmarks. Exosomes can be isolated from easy accessible body fluids, and most importantly, they can provide several biomarkers, with different levels of specificity. Recent clinical evidence shows that the levels of exosomes released into body fluids may themselves represent a predictive/diagnostic of tumors, discriminating cancer patients from healthy subjects. The aim of this review is to highlight these latest challenging findings to provide novel and groundbreaking ideas for successful tumor early diagnosis and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health aspects of cellular mobile telephones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, H.

    1996-01-01

    Cellular mobile telephones are one of the main topics among health aspects of electromagnetic fields. In many countries, the number of people opposing communication towers is on the rise. Lawsuits against telecommunication and power line companies have been filed. All this makes people doubt the safety of electromagnetic fields. With respect to cellular phones, there are two scenarios: * Exposure of the operators of hand-held terminals (HHT). * Exposure of the general public from base stations (BS). In the first case, the transmit antenna of the HHT is very close to the human body. For normal operation, the distance will roughly be 2 - 3 cm. The transmitter power of the HHT is comparatively low, but there is a considerable fraction of the radiated electromagnetic energy penetrating the tissue. Considering the second case, BS transmitter powers are by a factor of 100-1000 higher, but the distance between antenna and the human body is by a factor of 1000-100,000 greater, as far as areas of unrestricted public access are concerned. As the power density of an electromagnetic wave decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance, exposure of the public is always significantly (by many orders of magnitude) lower than exposure of operators of HHTs. Some well-known interaction mechanisms of microwave radiation with the human body have been very well-established today. In some other areas, there is still a need for further research. This paper summarizes present knowledge on human safety with mobile telephone systems. (author)

  5. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kirjavainen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC, a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea.

  6. Preface for the book: Antennas And Propagation for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    The book address the following subjects: Body Centric Wireless Communications possibilities, Electromagnetic properties of the body, On-body Communication Channels at high and low frequency bands, Body Centric UWB Communications, Wearable Antennas for cellular and WLAN communications, Body...

  7. The Body in New Age from the Perspective of the Subtle Body: The Example of the Source Breathwork Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Koppel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the perception of the body among Source Breathwork practitioners. Source Process and Breathwork can be classified as a New Age healing practice that aims to heal the person as a whole. There is also a specific emphasis on healing birth trauma, which is understood as healing the fundamental experience of an individual’s life. The body in New Age can be described with the notion of the ‘subtle body’, a non-dualistic approach to the body that blurs the boundaries between ‘matter’ and ‘spirit’. Subtle bodies, the ‘places’ where healing occurs, are considered energetic, invisible and nebulous. The concept of the subtle body as a scholarly tool is applied in the analysis of fieldwork data collected between 2011 and 2013 in Estonia. In a Source community, the body is considered to be energetic and to include chakras. Members of the community claim that the functioning of the body and well-being in life bear upon negative and positive thoughts or decisions that are held in the subconscious and embedded at a cellular level in the body. Moreover, the breathwork practitioners believe that an individual already makes fundamental decisions about life in the womb or during birth. Since the perception of the body and birth are closely interrelated in the Source community, the meaning of birth is viewed from the perspective of the subtle body

  8. The Body in New Age from the Perspective of the Subtle Body: The Example of the Source Breathwork Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Koppel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the perception of the body among Source Breathwork practitioners. Source Process and Breathwork can be classified as a New Age healing practice that aims to heal the person as a whole. There is also a specific emphasis on healing birth trauma, which is understood as healing the fundamental experience of an individual’s life. The body in New Age can be described with the notion of the ‘subtle body’, a non-dualistic approach to the body that blurs the boundaries between ‘matter’ and ‘spirit’. Subtle bodies, the ‘places’ where healing occurs, are considered energetic, invisible and nebulous. The concept of the subtle body as a scholarly tool is applied in the analysis of fieldwork data collected between 2011 and 2013 in Estonia. In a Source community, the body is considered to be energetic and to include chakras. Members of the community claim that the functioning of the body and well-being in life bear upon negative and positive thoughts or decisions that are held in the subconscious and embedded at a cellular level in the body. Moreover, the breathwork practitioners believe that an individual already makes fundamental decisions about life in the womb or during birth. Since the perception of the body and birth are closely interrelated in the Source community, the meaning of birth is viewed from the perspective of the subtle body.

  9. Cellular retinoic acid bioavailability in various pathologies and its therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, is a critical signaling molecule in various cell types. We found that RA depletion caused by expression of the RA-metabolizing enzyme CYP26A1 promotes carcinogenesis, implicating CYP26A1 as a candidate oncogene. Several studies of CYP26s have suggested that the biological effect of RA on target cells is primarily determined by "cellular RA bioavailability", which is defined as the RA level in an individual cell, rather than by the serum concentration of RA. Consistently, stellate cells store approximately 80% of vitamin A in the body, and the state of cellular RA bioavailability regulates their function. Based on the similarities between stellate cells and astrocytes, we demonstrated that retinal astrocytes regulate tight junction-based endothelial integrity in a paracrine manner. Since diabetic retinopathy is characterized by increased vascular permeability in its early pathogenesis, RA normalized retinal astrocytes that are compromised in diabetes, resulting in suppression of vascular leakiness. RA also attenuated the loss of the epithelial barrier in murine experimental colitis. The concept of "cellular RA bioavailability" in various diseases will be directed at understanding various pathologies caused by RA insufficiency, implying the potential feasibility of a therapeutic strategy targeting the stellate cell system. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Cellular potts models multiscale extensions and biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scianna, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A flexible, cell-level, and lattice-based technique, the cellular Potts model accurately describes the phenomenological mechanisms involved in many biological processes. Cellular Potts Models: Multiscale Extensions and Biological Applications gives an interdisciplinary, accessible treatment of these models, from the original methodologies to the latest developments. The book first explains the biophysical bases, main merits, and limitations of the cellular Potts model. It then proposes several innovative extensions, focusing on ways to integrate and interface the basic cellular Potts model at the mesoscopic scale with approaches that accurately model microscopic dynamics. These extensions are designed to create a nested and hybrid environment, where the evolution of a biological system is realistically driven by the constant interplay and flux of information between the different levels of description. Through several biological examples, the authors demonstrate a qualitative and quantitative agreement with t...

  11. Taming the sphinx: Mechanisms of cellular sphingolipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D K; Fröhlich, F; Farese, R V; Walther, T C

    2016-08-01

    Sphingolipids are important structural membrane components of eukaryotic cells, and potent signaling molecules. As such, their levels must be maintained to optimize cellular functions in different cellular membranes. Here, we review the current knowledge of homeostatic sphingolipid regulation. We describe recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have provided insights into how cells sense changes in sphingolipid levels in the plasma membrane and acutely regulate sphingolipid biosynthesis by altering signaling pathways. We also discuss how cellular trafficking has emerged as an important determinant of sphingolipid homeostasis. Finally, we highlight areas where work is still needed to elucidate the mechanisms of sphingolipid regulation and the physiological functions of such regulatory networks, especially in mammalian cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  13. Telomerase activity and cellular aging might be positively modified by a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv Basant; Yadav, Rashmi; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Tolahunase, Madhuri; Dada, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies showed that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing levels of oxidative stress and cellular aging in obese men. The objective of this case report was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing the levels of biochemical markers of cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation at baseline (day 0), at the end of active intervention (day 10), and follow-up at day 90. Single case report from a prospective ongoing study with pre-post design assessing the level of various markers of cellular aging. Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting meditation and yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for management of chronic diseases. A 31-year-old man with class I obesity (body-mass index, 29.5 kg/m(2)) who presented to the medicine outpatient department at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, with a history of fatigue, difficulty losing weight, and lack of motivation. He noted a marked decrease in his energy level, particularly in the afternoon. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. From baseline (day 0) to day 90, the activity of telomerase and levels of β-endorphins, plasma cortisol, and interleukin-6 increased, and a sustained reduction in oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine levels. Adopting yoga/meditation-based lifestyle modification causes reversal of markers of aging, mainly oxidative stress, telomerase activity, and oxidative DNA damage. This may not only delay aging and prolong a youthful healthy life but also delay or prevent onset of several lifestyle-related diseases, of which oxidative stress and inflammation are the chief cause. This report suggests this simple lifestyle intervention may be therapeutic for oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  14. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some cellular polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Various samples of cellular polymers were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The cellular polymer samples included polyimide, polymethacrylimide, polybismaleimide, polyurethane, polyisocyanurate, polyethylene, polychloroprene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polysiloxane, and polyphosphazene. The cellular polymers exhibited varying levels of toxicity under these test conditions. Among the rigid cellular polymers, times to death were shortest with the imide type foams and longest with polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene. Among the flexible cellular polymers, times to death were shortest with polyimide and polyester, and longest with polychloroprene and polysiloxane. Increased char yield was not necessarily associated with reduced toxicity.

  15. Complex formation and vectorization of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide with an amphipathic leucine- and lysine-rich peptide: study at molecular and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhalfa-Heniche, Fatima-Zohra; Hernández, Belén; Gaillard, Stéphane; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Huynh-Dinh, Tam; Lecouvey, Marc; Seksek, Olivier; Ghomi, Mahmoud

    2004-04-15

    Optical spectroscopic techniques such as CD, Raman scattering, and fluorescence imaging allowed us to analyze the complex formation and vectorization of a single-stranded 20-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide with a 15-mer amphipathic peptide at molecular and cellular levels. Different solvent mixtures (methanol and water) and molecular ratios of peptide/oligodeoxynucleotide complexes were tested in order to overcome the problems related to solubility. Optimal conditions for both spectroscopic and cellular experiments were obtained with the molecular ratio peptide/oligodeoxynucleotide equal to 21:4, corresponding to a 7:5 ratio for their respective +/- charge ratio. At the molecular level, CD and Raman spectra were consistent with a alpha-helix conformation of the peptide in water or in a methanol-water mixture. The presence of methanol increased considerably the solubility of the peptide without altering its alpha-helix conformation, as evidenced by CD and Raman spectroscopies. UV absorption melting profile of the oligodeoxynucleotide gave rise to a flat melting profile, corresponding to its random structure in solution. Raman spectra of oligodeoxynucleotide/peptide complexes could only be studied in methanol/water mixture solutions. Drastic changes observed in Raman spectra have undoubtedly shown: (a) the perturbation occurred in the peptide secondary structure, and (b) possible interaction between the lysine residues of the peptide and the oligodeoxynucleotide. At the cellular level, the complex was prepared in a mixture of 10% methanol and 90% cell medium. Cellular uptake in optimal conditions for the oligodeoxynucleotide delivery with low cytotoxicity was controlled by fluorescence imaging allowing to specifically locate the compacted oligonucleotide labeled with fluorescein at its 5'-terminus with the peptide into human glioma cells after 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Drug Abuse on Olfactory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heinbockel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are the active ingredient of marijuana (cannabis which is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the USA. In addition to being known and used as recreational drugs, cannabinoids are produced endogenously by neurons in the brain (endocannabinoids and serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system and the rest of the body. Cannabinoids have been implicated in bodily processes both in health and disease. Recent pharmacological and physiological experiments have described novel aspects of classic brain signaling mechanisms or revealed unknown mechanisms of cellular communication involving the endocannabinoid system. While several forms of signaling have been described for endocannabinoids, the most distinguishing feature of endocannabinoids is their ability to act as retrograde messengers in neural circuits. Neurons in the main olfactory bulb express high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms and function of this novel brain signaling system in regulating neural activity at synapses in olfactory circuits. Results from basic research have the potential to provide the groundwork for translating the neurobiology of drug abuse to the realm of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of addiction, specifically marijuana substance use disorder.

  17. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy demands of the brain are high: they account for at least 20% of the body\\'s energy consumption. Evolutionary studies indicate that the emergence of higher cognitive functions in humans is associated with an increased glucose utilization and expression of energy metabolism genes. Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET, which are widely used in human neuroscience studies, detect signals that monitor energy delivery and use in register with neuronal activity. Recent technological advances in metabolic studies with cellular resolution have afforded decisive insights into the understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of the coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism and pointat a key role of neuron-astrocyte metabolic interactions. This article reviews some of the most salient features emerging from recent studies and aims at providing an integration of brain energy metabolism across resolution scales. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Is Glutathione the Major Cellular Target of Cisplatin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasherman, Yonit; Stürup, Stefan; gibson, dan

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug whose efficacy is limited because tumors develop resistance to the drug. Resistant cells often have elevated levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), believed to be the major cellular target of cisplatin that inactivates the drug by binding to it irreversibly, forming...

  19. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  20. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Jimenez

    Full Text Available In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR, proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR], using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  1. Ebola virus infection inversely correlates with the overall expression levels of promyelocytic leukaemia (PML protein in cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szekely Laszlo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola virus causes severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. The mechanism of escape from cellular anti-viral mechanisms is not yet fully understood. The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML associated nuclear body is part of the interferon inducible cellular defense system. Several RNA viruses have been found to interfere with the anti-viral function of the PML body. The possible interaction between Ebola virus and the PML bodies has not yet been explored. Results We found that two cell lines, Vero E6 and MCF7, support virus production at high and low levels respectively. The expression of viral proteins was visualized and quantified using high resolution immunofluorescence microscopy. Ebola encoded NP and VP35 accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies whereas VP40 was mainly membrane associated but it was also present diffusely in the cytoplasm as well as in the euchromatic areas of the nucleus. The anti-VP40 antibody also allowed the detection of extracellular virions. Interferon-alpha treatment decreased the production of all three viral proteins and delayed the development of cytopathic effects in both cell lines. Virus infection and interferon-alpha treatment induced high levels of PML protein expression in MCF7 but much less in Vero E6 cells. No disruption of PML bodies, a common phenomenon induced by a variety of different viruses, was observed. Conclusion We have established a simple fixation and immunofluorescence staining procedure that allows specific co-detection and precise sub-cellular localization of the PML nuclear bodies and the Ebola virus encoded proteins NP, VP35 and VP40 in formaldehyde treated cells. Interferon-alpha treatment delays virus production in vitro. Intact PML bodies may play an anti-viral role in Ebola infected cells.

  2. Detection of interferon alpha protein reveals differential levels and cellular sources in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Decalf, Jérémie; Bondet, Vincent; Hunt, David; Rice, Gillian I; Werneke, Scott; McGlasson, Sarah L; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Barnerias, Christine; Bellon, Nathalia; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Briggs, Tracy A; Desguerre, Isabelle; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Hully, Marie; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Melki, Isabelle; Meyts, Isabelle; Musset, Lucile; Pelzer, Nadine; Quartier, Pierre; Terwindt, Gisela M; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wiseman, Stewart; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Rose, Yoann; Neven, Bénédicte; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Albert, Matthew L; Rozenberg, Flore; Crow, Yanick J; Duffy, Darragh

    2017-05-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential mediators of antiviral responses. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus, and dermatomyositis, as well as monogenic type I interferonopathies. Despite a fundamental role in health and disease, the direct quantification of type I IFNs has been challenging. Using single-molecule array (Simoa) digital ELISA technology, we recorded attomolar concentrations of IFNα in healthy donors, viral infection, and complex and monogenic interferonopathies. IFNα protein correlated well with functional activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. High circulating IFNα levels were associated with increased clinical severity in SLE patients, and a study of the cellular source of IFNα protein indicated disease-specific mechanisms. Measurement of IFNα attomolar concentrations by digital ELISA will enhance our understanding of IFN biology and potentially improve the diagnosis and stratification of pathologies associated with IFN dysregulation. © 2017 Rodero et al.

  3. A cryptosystem based on elementary cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Lian, Shiguo; Ismail, I. A.; Amin, M.; Diab, H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on elementary cellular automata, a new image encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a special kind of periodic boundary cellular automata with unity attractors is used. From the viewpoint of security, the number of cellular automata attractor states are changed with respect to the encrypted image, and different key streams are used to encrypt different plain images. The cellular neural network with chaotic properties is used as the generator of a pseudo-random key stream. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have both confirmed that the proposed algorithm possesses high security level and good performances against differential and statistical attacks. The comparison with other existing schemes is given, which shows the superiority of the proposal scheme.

  4. Expression of cellular prion protein in the frontal and occipital lobe in Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, and in normal brain: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Payam; Pontikis, Charlie C; Hudson, Lance; Cairns, Nigel J; Lantos, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) is a glycoprotein expressed at low to moderate levels within the nervous system. Recent studies suggest that PrP(c) may possess neuroprotective functions and that its expression is upregulated in certain neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated whether PrP(c) expression is altered in the frontal and occipital cortex in two well-characterized neurodegenerative disorders--Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD)--compared with that in normal human brain using immunohistochemistry and computerized image analysis. The distribution of PrP(c) was further tested for correlation with glial reactivity. We found that PrP(c) was localized mainly in the gray matter (predominantly in neurons) and expressed at higher levels within the occipital cortex in the normal human brain. Image analysis revealed no significant variability in PrP(c) expression between DLBD and control cases. However, blood vessels within the white matter of DLBD cases showed immunoreactivity to PrP(c). By contrast, this protein was differentially expressed in the frontal and occipital cortex of AD cases; it was markedly overexpressed in the former and significantly reduced in the latter. Epitope specificity of antibodies appeared important when detecting PrP(c). The distribution of PrP(c) did not correlate with glial immunoreactivity. In conclusion, this study supports the proposal that regional changes in expression of PrP(c) may occur in certain neurodegenerative disorders such as AD, but not in other disorders such as DLBD.

  5. Natural agents: cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, Farrukh

    2011-04-15

    The skin is the largest organ of the body that produces a flexible and self-repairing barrier and protects the body from most common potentially harmful physical, environmental, and biological insults. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the major environmental insults to the skin and causes multi-tiered cellular and molecular events eventually leading to skin cancer. The past decade has seen a surge in the incidence of skin cancer due to changes in life style patterns that have led to a significant increase in the amount of UV radiation that people receive. Reducing excessive exposure to UV radiation is desirable; nevertheless this approach is not easy to implement. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies to reduce the adverse biological effects of UV radiation on the skin. A wide variety of natural agents have been reported to possess substantial skin photoprotective effects. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have elucidated that natural agents act by several cellular and molecular mechanisms to delay or prevent skin cancer. In this review article, we have summarized and discussed some of the selected natural agents for skin photoprotection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  7. Integration of genome-scale metabolic networks into whole-body PBPK models shows phenotype-specific cases of drug-induced metabolic perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Henrik; Thiel, Christoph; Baier, Vanessa; Blank, Lars M; Kuepfer, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Drug-induced perturbations of the endogenous metabolic network are a potential root cause of cellular toxicity. A mechanistic understanding of such unwanted side effects during drug therapy is therefore vital for patient safety. The comprehensive assessment of such drug-induced injuries requires the simultaneous consideration of both drug exposure at the whole-body and resulting biochemical responses at the cellular level. We here present a computational multi-scale workflow that combines whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and organ-specific genome-scale metabolic network (GSMN) models through shared reactions of the xenobiotic metabolism. The applicability of the proposed workflow is illustrated for isoniazid, a first-line antibacterial agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which is known to cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We combined GSMN models of a human liver with N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT2)-phenotype-specific PBPK models of isoniazid. The combined PBPK-GSMN models quantitatively describe isoniazid pharmacokinetics, as well as intracellular responses, and changes in the exometabolome in a human liver following isoniazid administration. Notably, intracellular and extracellular responses identified with the PBPK-GSMN models are in line with experimental and clinical findings. Moreover, the drug-induced metabolic perturbations are distributed and attenuated in the metabolic network in a phenotype-dependent manner. Our simulation results show that a simultaneous consideration of both drug pharmacokinetics at the whole-body and metabolism at the cellular level is mandatory to explain drug-induced injuries at the patient level. The proposed workflow extends our mechanistic understanding of the biochemistry underlying adverse events and may be used to prevent drug-induced injuries in the future.

  8. Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve

    2006-09-18

    Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.

  9. The AAA+ ATPase p97, a cellular multitool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stach, Lasse; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-08-17

    The AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase p97 is essential to a wide range of cellular functions, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, membrane fusion, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) activation and chromatin-associated processes, which are regulated by ubiquitination. p97 acts downstream from ubiquitin signaling events and utilizes the energy from ATP hydrolysis to extract its substrate proteins from cellular structures or multiprotein complexes. A multitude of p97 cofactors have evolved which are essential to p97 function. Ubiquitin-interacting domains and p97-binding domains combine to form bi-functional cofactors, whose complexes with p97 enable the enzyme to interact with a wide range of ubiquitinated substrates. A set of mutations in p97 have been shown to cause the multisystem proteinopathy inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia. In addition, p97 inhibition has been identified as a promising approach to provoke proteotoxic stress in tumors. In this review, we will describe the cellular processes governed by p97, how the cofactors interact with both p97 and its ubiquitinated substrates, p97 enzymology and the current status in developing p97 inhibitors for cancer therapy. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Measurement of cellular copper levels in Bacillus megaterium during exponential growth and sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W B; Kolodziej, B J

    1976-01-01

    Both atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis have been utilized to determine cellular Cu levels in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213. Both methods were selected for their sensitivity to detection of nanogram quantities of Cu. Data from both methods demonstrated identical patterms of Cu uptake during exponenetial growth and sporulation. Late exponential phase cells contained less Cu than postexponential t2 cells while t5 cells contained amounts equivalent to exponential cells. The t11 phase-bright forespore containing cells had a higher Cu content than those of earlier time periods, and the free spores had the highest Cu content. Analysis of the culture medium by AAS corroborated these data by showing concomitant Cu uptake during exponential growth and into t2 postexponential phase of sporulation. From t2 to t4, Cu egressed from the cells followed by a secondary uptake during the maturation of phase-dark forespores into phase-bright forespores (t6--t9).

  11. New results on order and spacing of levels for two- and three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Martin, A.; Richard, J.M.; Taxil, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose sufficient conditions on the potential binding a two-body system to compare; the energy of a state with angular momentum iota+1 to the average of the energies of the neighbouring states with angular momentum iota, the spacings of the successive iota = O excitations. Applications to quarkonium physics are given. The authors also find a condition giving the sign of the parameter Δ controlling the pattern of levels obtained by perturbing the lowest positive parity excitation of a three-body system bound by harmonic oscillator two body forces

  12. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement. (paper)

  13. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  14. On the safety assessment of human exposure in the proximity of cellular communications base-station antennas at 900, 1800 and 2170 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez-Burdalo, M; MartIn, A; Anguiano, M; Villar, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the procedures for safety assessment in the close proximity of cellular communications base-station antennas at three different frequencies (900, 1800 and 2170 MHz) are analysed. For each operating frequency, we have obtained and compared the distances to the antenna from the exposure places where electromagnetic fields are below reference levels and the distances where the specific absorption rate (SAR) values in an exposed person are below the basic restrictions, according to the European safety guidelines. A high-resolution human body model has been located, in front of each base-station antenna as a worst case, at different distances, to compute whole body averaged SAR and maximum 10 g averaged SAR inside the exposed body. The finite-difference time-domain method has been used for both electromagnetic fields and SAR calculations. This paper shows that, for antenna-body distances in the near zone of the antenna, the fact that averaged field values be below the reference levels could, at certain frequencies, not guarantee guidelines compliance based on basic restrictions

  15. On the safety assessment of human exposure in the proximity of cellular communications base-station antennas at 900, 1800 and 2170 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Anguiano, M; Villar, R

    2005-09-07

    In this work, the procedures for safety assessment in the close proximity of cellular communications base-station antennas at three different frequencies (900, 1800 and 2170 MHz) are analysed. For each operating frequency, we have obtained and compared the distances to the antenna from the exposure places where electromagnetic fields are below reference levels and the distances where the specific absorption rate (SAR) values in an exposed person are below the basic restrictions, according to the European safety guidelines. A high-resolution human body model has been located, in front of each base-station antenna as a worst case, at different distances, to compute whole body averaged SAR and maximum 10 g averaged SAR inside the exposed body. The finite-difference time-domain method has been used for both electromagnetic fields and SAR calculations. This paper shows that, for antenna-body distances in the near zone of the antenna, the fact that averaged field values be below the reference levels could, at certain frequencies, not guarantee guidelines compliance based on basic restrictions.

  16. Cellular Metabolic Rate Is Influenced by Life-History Traits in Tropical and Temperate Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a “slow pace of life,” lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal’s life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species. PMID:24498080

  17. Are there differences in body dimensions among children from matings at different exogamic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, E; Soro, M R; Cau, E; Floris, G

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there are differences in body dimensions among children from matings of different levels of exogamy. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 285 children, 136 males and 149 females, 6 to 10 years old, attending elementary schools in Tortoli, a town in east-central Sardinia. The children were divided into four groups according to the level of exogamy. One of them included the children of parents born in the same Sardinian village is highly endogamous. For each sex, the Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no significant differences among the four groups of children for the 35 anthropometric variables considered, with the exception of head circumference in the male sample. In particular, there were no significant differences among the four groups of children for some anthropometric variables that are considered to be indirect indicators of nutritional status: sum of skinfolds, waist/hip ratio, body mass index, total upper arm area, upper arm muscle area, upper arm fat area. We conclude that Sardinian children from marriages of different levels of exogamy do not differ in body dimensions if they have similar nutritional conditions.

  18. Simulation of aerosol flow interaction with a solid body on molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelyushkin, Ivan A.; Stasenko, Albert L.

    2018-05-01

    Physico-mathematical models and numerical algorithm of two-phase flow interaction with a solid body are developed. Results of droplet motion and its impingement upon a rough surface in real gas boundary layer simulation on the molecular level obtained via molecular dynamics technique are presented.

  19. Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, body composition and antioxidants of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant parameters of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis, 1050 clamworms were fed diets with seven lipid levels (2.37%, 4.35%, 6.29%, 8.41%, 10.31%, 12.29% and 14.33%, named L2.37, L4.35, L6.29, L8.41, L10.31, L12.29 and L14.33, respectively for 10 weeks. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 50 clamworms. The results showed that the growth performance and protein efficiency ratio were significantly affected by the lipid levels. Clamworms fed L8.41 diet exhibited higher growth performance than others and the maximum specific growth rate can be possibly obtained when the diets were supplemented with 7.54% lipid level. The dietary lipid levels had significant influences on the whole body crude protein, crude lipid, moisture contents and ash profile of P. aibuhitensis. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were also enhanced with increasing dietary lipid levels in whole body analyses. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA and lipid peroxidation (LPO in clamworms increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid levels. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and total autioxidative capacity (T-AOC tended to strengthen with dietary lipid levels increasing from 2.37% to 10.31% (except the GPX with 12.29% dietary lipid levels, and weaken with dietary lipid levels increasing from 10.31% to 14.33%. These results demonstrated that a proper dietary lipid level of 7.54%–10.31% could maintain solid growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile P. aibuhitensis.

  20. Cellular glutathione prevents cytolethality of monomethylarsonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Teruaki; Kojima, Chikara; Ochiai, Masayuki; Ohta, Takami; Sakurai, Masumi H.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Fujiwara, Kitao

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic arsenicals are clearly toxicants and carcinogens in humans. In mammals, including humans, inorganic arsenic often undergoes methylation, forming compounds such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMAs V ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs V ). However, much less information is available on the in vitro toxic potential or mechanisms of these methylated arsenicals, especially MMAs V . We studied the molecular mechanisms of in vitro cytolethality of MMAs V using a rat liver epithelial cell line (TRL 1215). MMAs V was not cytotoxic in TRL 1215 cells even at concentrations exceeding 10 mM, but it became weakly cytotoxic and induced both necrotic and apoptotic cell death when cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted with the glutathione synthase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), or the glutathione reductase inhibitor, carmustine. Similar results were observed in the other mammalian cells, such as human skin TIG-112 cells, chimpanzee skin CRT-1609 cells, and mouse metallothionein (MT) positive and MT negative embryonic cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA), an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase (GST) that catalyses GSH-substrate conjugation, also enhanced the cytolethality of MMAs V , but aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of β-lyase that catalyses the final breakdown of GSH-substrate conjugates, had no effect. Both the cellular GSH levels and the cellular GST activity were increased by the exposure to MMAs V in TRL 1215 cells. On the other hand, the addition of exogenous extracellular GSH enhanced the cytolethality of MMAs V , although cellular GSH levels actually prevented the cytolethality of combined MMAs V and exogenous GSH. These findings indicate that human arsenic metabolite MMAs V is not a highly toxic compound in mammalian cells, and the level of cellular GSH is critical to its eventual toxic effects

  1. Evaluation Of Low Level Laser Therapy On Body Constitution And Leptin Hormone By Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric fat distribution with excessive fat accumulation in particular areas often affects a person's self-image, self esteem, and overall quality of life. Purpose of the study: to investigate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on body constitution and leptin hormone by radioimmunoassay. Methods: Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30- 40 years. They were divided into two groups of equal number. Procedures: -Group A (Overweight group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 25- 29.9-Group B (Obese group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 30.both groups received LLLT, for 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. BMI, WC, HC, WHR, serum Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride level were measured before and after finishing the study. Results: There was significant improvement in anthropometric measurements( on both abdomen and thigh fats) of both groups treated with low level laser therapy, decrease in serum leptin level in over weight group and increase in triglyceride serum level in both groups within normal level Conclusion: low level laser therapy is effective as a noninvasive and safe method of body contouring .

  2. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Oxygen Uptake Among Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students (N = 116 with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data, self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19. At 14 years of age, the minutes of moderate and/or vigorous PA was 66.7 min·day−1, but was less than half, at only 24.4 min·day−1, at 19 years of age. The self-reported activity data show a decrease in girls’ general activity level over time, while boys’ activity level during school breaks decreased strongly during the period: at age 14, 61% of the boys were classified as active, while at age 19, only 11% were physically active. Furthermore, body mass index increased during the period for both genders, while oxygen uptake decreased. Since both BMI and maximal oxygen uptake are important risk factors for future CVD, these findings point toward the importance of maintaining a high activity level during childhood and adolescence, in order to keep fit later in life.

  3. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  4. Influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; McClelen, C. E.; Wang, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    We launched imbibed seeds of Zea mays into outer space aboard the space shuttle Columbia to determine the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps. The influence of microgravity varied with different stages of cellular differentiation. Overall, microgravity tended to 1) increase relative volumes of hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, 2) decrease the relative volumes of plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, and the vacuome, and 3) exert no influence on the relative volume of nuclei in cells comprising the root cap. The reduced allocation of dictyosomal volume in peripheral cells of flight-grown seedlings correlated positively with their secretion of significantly less mucilage than peripheral cells of Earth-grown seedlings. These results indicate that 1) microgravity alters the patterns of cellular differentiation and structures of all cell types comprising the root cap, and 2) the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays is organelle specific.

  5. Catecholamine levels in sheep hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenals following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the control system of the reproduction cycle (hypothalamus, hypophysis) and in the adrenal glands of sheep after whole-body irradiation with 60 Co at a total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The output of the radiation source was 0.039 Gy/h. The catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline) and L-DOPA were determined after separation from the tissues by the method of spectral fluorometry. After whole-body exposure to gamma radiation, noradrenaline dropped in the hypothalamus in comparison with the control group, most significantly in the rostral (by 74.2%) and caudal (by 40%) parts. A similar drop was also observed in dopamine, the concentrations of which decreased in the rostral hypothalamus by 60%. Adrenaline showed a drop in the hypothalamus, most significant in the caudal region (by 62%). Consequently, the level of the precursor of the synthesis of catecholamines and L-DOPA changed and showed in the studied regions of the hypothalamus significantly lower levels than in the control group. As regards the hypophysis, after irradiation no significant changes in the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline were recorded, however, dopamine and L-DOPA dropped significantly (P<0.01). The exposure to gamma radiation also causes a decrease in the concentrations of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the adrenal glands of sheep, most significantly in noradrenaline (by 61%). It was thus found that whole-body irradiation of sheep with a dose of 6.7 Gy results in a significant decrease in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands, which is probably in relation to the failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and to the total organism injury

  6. Skeletal muscle O-GlcNAc transferase is important for muscle energy homeostasis and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao; Munk, Alexander; Nielsen, Thomas S; Daughtry, Morgan R; Larsson, Louise; Li, Shize; Høyer, Kasper F; Geisler, Hannah W; Sulek, Karolina; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Fisher, Taylor; Andersen, Marianne M; Shen, Zhengxing; Hansen, Ulrik K; England, Eric M; Cheng, Zhiyong; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Yang, Xiaoyong; Hulver, Matthew W; Helm, Richard F; Treebak, Jonas T; Gerrard, David E

    2018-05-01

    Given that cellular O-GlcNAcylation levels are thought to be real-time measures of cellular nutrient status and dysregulated O-GlcNAc signaling is associated with insulin resistance, we evaluated the role of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that mediates O-GlcNAcylation, in skeletal muscle. We assessed O-GlcNAcylation levels in skeletal muscle from obese, type 2 diabetic people, and we characterized muscle-specific OGT knockout (mKO) mice in metabolic cages and measured energy expenditure and substrate utilization pattern using indirect calorimetry. Whole body insulin sensitivity was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique and tissue-specific glucose uptake was subsequently evaluated. Tissues were used for histology, qPCR, Western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. We found elevated levels of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in obese, type 2 diabetic people compared with well-matched obese and lean controls. Muscle-specific OGT knockout mice were lean, and whole body energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity were increased in these mice, consistent with enhanced glucose uptake and elevated glycolytic enzyme activities in skeletal muscle. Moreover, enhanced glucose uptake was also observed in white adipose tissue that was browner than that of WT mice. Interestingly, mKO mice had elevated mRNA levels of Il15 in skeletal muscle and increased circulating IL-15 levels. We found that OGT in muscle mediates transcriptional repression of Il15 by O-GlcNAcylating Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). Elevated muscle O-GlcNAc levels paralleled insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Moreover, OGT-mediated signaling is necessary for proper skeletal muscle metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis, and our data highlight O-GlcNAcylation as a potential target for ameliorating metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular phone use while driving at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoda, Jonathon M; Eby, David W; St Louis, Renée M; Kostyniuk, Lidia P

    2008-03-01

    Use of a cellular phone has been shown to negatively affect one's attention to the driving task, leading to an increase in crash risk. At any given daylight hour, about 6% of US drivers are actively talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, previous surveys have focused only on cell phone use during the day. Driving at night has been shown to be a riskier activity than driving during the day. The purpose of the current study was to assess the rate of hand-held cellular phone use while driving at night, using specialized night vision equipment. In 2006, two statewide direct observation survey waves of nighttime cellular phone use were conducted in Indiana utilizing specialized night vision equipment. Combined results of driver hand-held cellular phone use from both waves are presented in this manuscript. The rates of nighttime cell phone use were similar to results found in previous daytime studies. The overall rate of nighttime hand-held cellular phone use was 5.8 +/- 0.6%. Cellular phone use was highest for females and for younger drivers. In fact, the highest rate observed during the study (of 11.9%) was for 16-to 29-year-old females. The high level of cellular phone use found within the young age group, coupled with the increased crash risk associated with cellular phone use, nighttime driving, and for young drivers in general, suggests that this issue may become an important transportation-related concern.

  8. QUALITY LEVEL-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL BODY CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF GOALKEEPERS IN TEAM HANDBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šibila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the quality level-related differences between two groups of team handball goalkeepers in selected morphological body characteristics and motor abilities. A group of 36 senior goalkeepers who were members of first and second Slovenian handball league clubs (age: 22,6 ± 5,4 yr, height: 185,8 ± 4,7 cm, body weight: 88,7 ± 9,1 kg, training experience: 11,8 ± 4,8 yr participated in the present study. The goalkeepers were divided in two groups, according to their competition level. The sample of variables consisted of age and competition experience data, four morphological body characteristics and of six motor ability tests. In order to determine differences between two groups of goalkeepers in selected morphologic and motor variables a one–way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA was employed. Findings of the present study indicate existing of quality level-related differences between two groups of team handball goalkeepers in selected morphological body characteristics and motor abilities. Further individualization and careful planning of training process of the goalkeepers is essential if we want to improve for goalkeepers’ important motor abilities and morphological body characteristics.

  9. Reduction in salivary α-amylase levels following a mind-body intervention in cancer survivors--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of this exploratory study was to assess whether salivary α-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels would be positively modulated by sleep-focused mind-body interventions in female and male cancer survivors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 57 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance received either a Sleep Hygiene Education (SHE; n=18) control, or one of two experimental mind-body interventions, namely, Mind-Body Bridging (MBB; n=19) or Mindfulness Meditation (MM; n=20). Interventions were three sessions each conducted once per week for three consecutive weeks. Saliva cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline and 1 week after the last session. Participants also completed a sleep scale at the same time points when saliva was collected for biomarker measurement. Our study revealed that at post-intervention assessment, mean sAA levels upon awakening ("Waking" sample) declined in MBB compared with that of SHE. Mean Waking cortisol levels did not differ among treatment groups but declined slightly in SHE. Self-reported sleep improved across the three interventions at Post-assessment, with largest improvements in the MBB intervention. In this exploratory study, sleep focused mind-body intervention (MBB) attenuated Waking sAA levels, suggesting positive influences of a mind-body intervention on sympathetic activity in cancer survivors with sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of income on tertiary students acquisition of cellular products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A.P Drotsky

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine whether there are any differences between high and low-income group students in their selection of a cellular phone brand or network operator. Design/Methodology/Approach: Four hypotheses are set to determine if there are any significant differences between the two income groups in current decision-making. It is established that there exist no significant difference between high and low-income students in their selection of cellular phones and network operators. The levels of agreement or disagreement on various statements do, however, give an indication of the importance that students place on aspects that they view as important when acquiring a cellular phone or network operator. Findings: In the article, it is established that no significant differences exist between the two income groups. The levels of agreement or disagreement indicate the importance that subscription method, social value, service quality and branding has on student decision-making. Implications: The article provides a better understanding of the influence that income plays in student's decision-making in acquiring cellular products and services. Possible future research in student cellular usage can be guided through the information obtained in this article. Originality/Value: The article provides information to cellular network operators, service providers and cellular phone manufactures regarding the influence of income on students' acquisition of cellular products and services. Information from the article can assist in the establishment of marketing plans for the student market by these role players.

  11. Increased cellular levels of spermidine or spermine are required for optimal DNA synthesis in lymphocytes activated by concanavalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingame, R H; Jorstad, C M; Morris, D R

    1975-01-01

    There are large increases in cellular levels of the polyamines spermidine and spermine in lymphocytes induced to transform by concanavalin A. The anti-leukemic agent methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) blocks synthesis of these polyamines by inhibiting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Previous results showed that when cells are activated in the presence of MGBG the synthesis and processing of RNA, as well as protein synthesis, proceed as in the absence of the drug. In contrast, the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA and the rate of entry of the cells into mitosis are inhibited by 60% in the presence of MGBG. Several experiments suggest that MGBG inhibits cell proliferation by directly blocking polyamine synthesis and not by an unrelated pharmacological effect: (1) the inhibitory action of MGBG is reversed by exogenously added spermidine or spermine; (2) inhibition of DNA synthesis by MGBG shows the same dose-response curve as does inhibition of spermidine and spermine synthesis; and (3) if MGBG is added to cells which have been allowed to accumulate their maximum complement of polyamines, there is no inhibition of thymidine incorporation. MGBG-treated and control cultures initiate DNA synthesis at the same time and show the same percentage of labeled cells by autoradiography. Therefore, it appears that in the absence of increased cellular levels of polyamines, lymphocytes progress normally from G0 through G1 and into S-phase. Furthermore, these experiments suggest that the increased levels of spermidine and spermine generally seen in rapidly proliferating eukaryotic systems are necessary for enhanced rates of DNA replication. PMID:1060087

  12. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  13. Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Scott; Patterson, Geoff; Muir, Lindsey A; Lindsly, Stephen; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wicha, Max S; Bloch, Anthony; Brockett, Roger; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-11-07

    The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Reprint of "EXOSOME LEVELS IN HUMAN BODY FLUIDS: A TUMOR MARKER BY THEMSELVES?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Francesco; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Campanella, Claudia; Bavisotto, Celeste Caruso; Marcilla, Antonio; Properzi, Francesca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-02-15

    Despite considerable research efforts, the finding of reliable tumor biomarkers remains challenging and unresolved. In recent years a novel diagnostic biomedical tool with high potential has been identified in extracellular nanovesicles or exosomes. They are released by the majority of the cells and contain detailed molecular information on the cell of origin including tumor hallmarks. Exosomes can be isolated from easy accessible body fluids, and most importantly, they can at once provide with several biomarkers, with different levels of specificity. Recent clinical evidence shows that the levels of exosomes released into body fluids may by themselves represent a predictive/diagnostic of tumors, discriminating cancer patients from healthy subjects. The aim of this review is to highlight these latest challenging findings to provide novel and groundbreaking ideas for successful tumor early diagnosis and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sub-cellular distribution and translocation of TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos A; Arias, Luis A; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Cellular electrical activity is the result of a highly complex processes that involve the activation of ion channel proteins. Ion channels make pores on cell membranes that rapidly transit between conductive and non-conductive states, allowing different ions to flow down their electrochemical gradients across cell membranes. In the case of neuronal cells, ion channel activity orchestrates action potentials traveling through axons, enabling electrical communication between cells in distant parts of the body. Somatic sensation -our ability to feel touch, temperature and noxious stimuli- require ion channels able to sense and respond to our peripheral environment. Sensory integration involves the summing of various environmental cues and their conversion into electrical signals. Members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels have emerged as important mediators of both cellular sensing and sensory integration. The regulation of the spatial and temporal distribution of membrane receptors is recognized as an important mechanism for controlling the magnitude of the cellular response and the time scale on which cellular signaling occurs. Several studies have shown that this mechanism is also used by TRP channels to modulate cellular response and ultimately fulfill their physiological function as sensors. However, the inner-working of this mode of control for TRP channels remains poorly understood. The question of whether TRPs intrinsically regulate their own vesicular trafficking or weather the dynamic regulation of TRP channel residence on the cell surface is caused by extrinsic changes in the rates of vesicle insertion or retrieval remain open. This review will examine the evidence that sub-cellular redistribution of TRP channels plays an important role in regulating their activity and explore the mechanisms that control the trafficking of vesicles containing TRP channels.

  16. Image of а head of law-enforcement body on micro level (empirical experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Perednya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines image of the head of law-enforcement body. Subjects and objects of image are described. Inhomogenuity of image is cleared up. Method of examination is shortly micro level described. It is talking about image, which is formed in mind of members of team of law-enforcement body, who are subordinated to object of image. State-of-the-art is illustrated, according to received data. Hypothesis about negative image of the head in mind of subordinates is disproved. It is shown contradiction of images in collective mind and social mind.

  17. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  18. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    obtained by these techniques are compared between experiments in which differences in growth rates, strains, or stress treatments occur, the normalization procedure may have a significant impact on the results. In this report we present a solution to the normalization problem in RNA slot blotting...... the relative level of rRNA per cell, and slot blotting to rRNA probes, which estimates the level of rRNA per extracted total RNA, the amount of RNA per cell was calculated in a series of heat shock experiments with the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It was found that the level of rRNA per cell...... decreased to 30% in the course of the heat shock. This lowered ribosome level led to a decrease in the total RNA content, resulting in a gradually increasing overestimation of the mRNA levels throughout the experiment. Using renormalized cellular mRNA levels, the HrcA-mediated regulation of the genes...

  19. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  20. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Irundika H K; Chapple, Ian L C; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. -) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. -) production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  1. Acute Whole Body Vibration Decreases the Glucose Levels in Elderly Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Florentino Pessoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (TIIDM is characterized by high levels of blood glucose followed by excessive insulin release so that the target cells become less sensitive, developing insulin resistance and maintaining hyperglycemic levels. Physical activity is the strongest element to prevent and to manage the TIIDM, and the majority of patients do not remain in regularly active levels, because the premature fatigue in these patients decreases the adherence to the training. Contrastingly, the whole body vibration (WBV training may improve the glucose metabolism in diabetic patients, reducing the peripheral blood sugar, decreasing the physical discomfort and perceived exertion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of an acute WBV session as therapy to promote fasting decreases in insulin levels in peripheral blood in TIIDM when compared to healthy elderly. For this, fifteen healthy elderly women and fourteen diabetic elderly women, all sedentary, were allocated in diabetic or control groups, and we made an acute whole body session composed of 10 bouts lasting 2 minutes each one, separated by a 30-second rest period. The WBV was executed in a triaxial platform MY3 Power Plate® at 35 hertz and has been chosen a peak-to-peak displacement of 4 millimeters. After the protocol, both groups decreased the glycemic levels and increased lactate production in relation to the basal levels and when compared diabetic and control, where the most important results have been shown in diabetic women. This study revealed that WBV training in TIIDM has had significant beneficial effects on the control of glucose levels, still in an acute session. So that, the complete training probably will show better results about glycemic control and this finding could be especially important when prescribing exercise for elderly who are unable or unwilling to use traditional loads or who show poor exercise compliance.

  2. The similia principle: results obtained in a cellular model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegant, Fred; Van Wijk, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program focused on the beneficial effect of low dose stress conditions that were applied according to the similia principle to cells previously disturbed by more severe stress conditions. In first instance, we discuss criteria for research on the similia principle at the cellular level. Then, the homologous ('isopathic') approach is reviewed, in which the initial (high dose) stress used to disturb cellular physiology and the subsequent (low dose) stress are identical. Beneficial effects of low dose stress are described in terms of increased cellular survival capacity and at the molecular level as an increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps). Both phenomena reflect a stimulation of the endogenous cellular self-recovery capacity. Low dose stress conditions applied in a homologous approach stimulate the synthesis of hsps and enhance survival in comparison with stressed cells that were incubated in the absence of low dose stress conditions. Thirdly, the specificity of the low dose stress condition is described where the initial (high dose) stress is different in nature from the subsequently applied (low dose) stress; the heterologous or 'heteropathic' approach. The results support the similia principle at the cellular level and add to understanding of how low dose stress conditions influence the regulatory processes underlying self-recovery. In addition, the phenomenon of 'symptom aggravation' which is also observed at the cellular level, is discussed in the context of self-recovery. Finally, the difference in efficiency between the homologous and the heterologous approach is discussed; a perspective is indicated for further research; and the relationship between studies on the similia principle and the recently introduced concept of 'postconditioning hormesis' is emphasized. Copyright 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.

  4. Effect of dietary lipid levels on body compositions, digestive ability and antioxidant parameters of common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhui; Fan, Ze; Chen, Chunxiu; Li, Jinghui; Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Yang; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary lipid level on body composition, and digestive ability of common carp with initial average weight (36.12 ± 1.18)g. Five experimental diets with increasing lipid levels of 2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 7.6%, 9.4% were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 9 weeks. The results showed that lipid content of whole body and muscle increased in parallel with the increase of dietary lipid levels. Protein content of muscle decreased with the increase of dietary lipid levels, and the lowest muscle protein content was observed in fish fed 9.4% lipid diet. Lipaseactivity was significantly affected by dietary lipid levels in hepatopancreas andintestine (P fish fed at 5.8% lipid level group was significantly higher than others inhepatopancreas (P 0.05). The results suggested that the most excellentdigestive ability and antioxidant parameters were obtained at 7.6% lipid level group.

  5. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level in pediatric body CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Liang, Yun; Ai, Huisi; Eckert, George J; Cohen, Mervyn D; Wanner, Matthew R; Jennings, S Gregory

    2014-02-01

    The objective of our study was to attempt to optimize the level of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) in pediatric body CT. One hundred consecutive chest or abdominal CT examinations were selected. For each examination, six series were obtained: one filtered back projection (FBP) and five HIR series (iDose(4)) levels 2-6. Two pediatric radiologists, blinded to noise measurements, independently chose the optimal HIR level and then rated series quality. We measured CT number (mean in Hounsfield units) and noise (SD in Hounsfield units) changes by placing regions of interest in the liver, muscles, subcutaneous fat, and aorta. A mixed-model analysis-of-variance test was used to analyze correlation of noise reduction with the optimal HIR level compared with baseline FBP noise. One hundred CT examinations were performed of 88 patients (52 females and 36 males) with a mean age of 8.5 years (range, 19 days-18 years); 12 patients had both chest and abdominal CT studies. Radiologists agreed to within one level of HIR in 92 of 100 studies. The mean quality rating was significantly higher for HIR than FBP (3.6 vs 3.3, respectively; p optimal HIR level was used (p optimal for most studies. The optimal HIR level was less effective in reducing liver noise in children with lower baseline noise.

  6. Theoretical aspects of cellular decision-making and information-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic biological processes have extraordinary complexity and variety at the sub-cellular, intra-cellular, and multi-cellular levels. In dealing with such complex phenomena, conceptual and theoretical frameworks are crucial, which enable us to understand seemingly different intra- and inter-cellular phenomena from unified viewpoints. Decision-making is one such concept that has attracted much attention recently. Since a number of cellular behavior can be regarded as processes to make specific actions in response to external stimuli, decision-making can cover and has been used to explain a broad range of different cellular phenomena [Balázsi et al. (Cell 144(6):910, 2011), Zeng et al. (Cell 141(4):682, 2010)]. Decision-making is also closely related to cellular information-processing because appropriate decisions cannot be made without exploiting the information that the external stimuli contain. Efficiency of information transduction and processing by intra-cellular networks determines the amount of information obtained, which in turn limits the efficiency of subsequent decision-making. Furthermore, information-processing itself can serve as another concept that is crucial for understanding of other biological processes than decision-making. In this work, we review recent theoretical developments on cellular decision-making and information-processing by focusing on the relation between these two concepts.

  7. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  8. Nanoparticle Surface Functionality Dictates Cellular and Systemic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saei, Amir Ata; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Lohse, Samuel E.

    2017-01-01

    can greatly enhance subsequent therapeutic effects of NPs while diminishing their adverse side effects. In this review, we will focus on the effect of surface functionality on the cellular uptake and the transport of NPs by various subcellular processes.......Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have opened new frontiers in therapeutics and diagnostics in recent years. The surface functionality of these nanoparticles often predominates their interactions with various biological components of human body, and proper selection or control of surface functionality...

  9. Analysis of body composition of the abdomen at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebral body by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Tetsujiro

    1988-01-01

    Body composition of the area at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebral section was studied on X-ray CT images in 62 normal volunteers (32 men and 30 women ), whose ages ranged from 20 and 79 years. The total cross-sectional area was smallest in persons in their twenties, irrespecstive of sex, and began to increase after the age of 30. The abdominal cavity and muscles had the highest cross-sectional ratio (34%) to the total body, followed by subcutaneous fat in men. In women, the subcutaneous fat and abdominal cavity had a ratio of 34% to the total body. According to age groups, men in their twenties and thirties had the highest ratio of the muscle to the total body, followed by that of abdominal cavity and subcutaneous fat. In the group older than 40, the ratio of organs to the total body was as follows: the abdominal cavity>muscle>subcutaneous fat. Since the age of 70, each ratio of the muscle or subcutaneous fat to the total body was the same. Women between their twenties and fifties had the highest ratio of subcutaneous fat to the total body. Since the age of 60, the ratio of the abdominal cavity became highest. The subcutaneous fat and abdominal cavity tended to increase with aging; and the muscles tended to decrease. The real area of the vertebra increased slightly, but the vertebral foramen tended to decrease with aging. In men, mean areas of the muscles were as follows: abdominis lateralis>erector spinae>psoas major>quadratus lumborum and transversospinalis>rectus abdominis muscle. The same tendency was observed for women, except for the quadratus lumborum and rectus abdominis muscle. According to Rohrer index, the real areas of all components except the vertebral foramen tended to increase in the order of types A, C, and D in men. In women, the real area of the subcutaneous fat increased as well in the order of types A, C, and D. (Namekawa, K)

  10. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalai Malinouski; You Zhou; Vsevolod V Belousov; Dolph L Hatfield; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular ...

  11. Predicting cellular growth from gene expression signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo M Airoldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazoans is a major factor in the development of cancer. In this paper, we develop statistical methodology to identify quantitative aspects of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cellular proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that the expression levels of a small set of genes can be exploited to predict the instantaneous growth rate of any cellular culture with high accuracy. The predictions obtained in this fashion are robust to changing biological conditions, experimental methods, and technological platforms. The proposed model is also effective in predicting growth rates for the related yeast Saccharomyces bayanus and the highly diverged yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, suggesting that the underlying regulatory signature is conserved across a wide range of unicellular evolution. We investigate the biological significance of the gene expression signature that the predictions are based upon from multiple perspectives: by perturbing the regulatory network through the Ras/PKA pathway, observing strong upregulation of growth rate even in the absence of appropriate nutrients, and discovering putative transcription factor binding sites, observing enrichment in growth-correlated genes. More broadly, the proposed methodology enables biological insights about growth at an instantaneous time scale, inaccessible by direct experimental methods. Data and tools enabling others to apply our methods are available at http://function.princeton.edu/growthrate.

  12. Identification of high school students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams to solve restricted and structured response items in force matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmaniar, Andinisa; Rusnayati, Heni; Sutiadi, Asep

    2017-05-01

    While solving physics problem particularly in force matter, it is needed to have the ability of constructing free body diagrams which can help students to analyse every force which acts on an object, the length of its vector and the naming of its force. Mix method was used to explain the result without any special treatment to participants. The participants were high school students in first grade totals 35 students. The purpose of this study is to identify students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams in solving restricted and structured response items. Considering of two types of test, every student would be classified into four levels ability of constructing free body diagrams which is every level has different characteristic and some students were interviewed while solving test in order to know how students solve the problem. The result showed students' ability of constructing free body diagrams on restricted response items about 34.86% included in no evidence of level, 24.11% inadequate level, 29.14% needs improvement level and 4.0% adequate level. On structured response items is about 16.59% included no evidence of level, 23.99% inadequate level, 36% needs improvement level, and 13.71% adequate level. Researcher found that students who constructed free body diagrams first and constructed free body diagrams correctly were more successful in solving restricted and structured response items.

  13. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  14. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  15. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Human and Porcine Neurons and Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Jeremy J.; Hansen, Brian; Portnoy, Sharon; Lee, Choong-Heon; King, Michael A.; Fey, Michael; Vincent, Franck; Stanisz, Greg J; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Blackband, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    With its unparalleled ability to safely generate high-contrast images of soft tissues, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has remained at the forefront of diagnostic clinical medicine. Unfortunately due to resolution limitations, clinical scans are most useful for detecting macroscopic structural changes associated with a small number of pathologies. Moreover, due to a longstanding inability to directly observe magnetic resonance (MR) signal behavior at the cellular level, such information is poorly characterized and generally must be inferred. With the advent of the MR microscope in 1986 came the ability to measure MR signal properties of theretofore unobservable tissue structures. Recently, further improvements in hardware technology have made possible the ability to visualize mammalian cellular structure. In the current study, we expand upon previous work by imaging the neuronal cell bodies and processes of human and porcine α-motor neurons. Complimentary imaging studies are conducted in pig tissue in order to demonstrate qualitative similarities to human samples. Also, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated inside porcine α-motor neuron cell bodies and portions of their largest processes (mean = 1.7±0.5 μm2/ms based on 53 pixels) as well as in areas containing a mixture of extracellular space, microvasculature, and neuropil (0.59±0.37 μm2/ms based on 33 pixels). Three-dimensional reconstruction of MR images containing α-motor neurons shows the spatial arrangement of neuronal projections between adjacent cells. Such advancements in imaging portend the ability to construct accurate models of MR signal behavior based on direct observation and measurement of the components which comprise functional tissues. These tools would not only be useful for improving our interpretation of macroscopic MRI performed in the clinic, but they could potentially be used to develop new methods of differential diagnosis to aid in the early detection of a

  16. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  17. In vivo modulation of foreign body response on polyurethane by surface entrapment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandwekar, Anand P; Patil, Deepak P; Hardikar, Anand A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Doble, Mukesh

    2010-11-01

    Implanted polymeric materials, such as medical devices, provoke the body to initiate an inflammatory reaction, known as the foreign body response (FBR), which causes several complications. In this study, polyurethane (Tecoflex®, PU) surface modified with the nonionic surfactant Tween80® (PU/T80) and the cell adhesive PLL-RGD peptide (PU/PLL-RGD) by a previously described entrapment technique were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of Wistar rats for 30 days. Implants were retrieved and examined for tissue reactivity and cellular adherence by various microscopic and analytical techniques. Surface-induced inflammatory response was assessed by real-time PCR based quantification of proinflammatory cytokine transcripts, namely, TNF-α and IL-1β, normalized to housekeeping gene GAPDH. Cellular adherence and their distribution profile were assessed by microscopic examination of H&E stained implant sections. It was observed that PU/PLL-RGD followed by the bare PU surface exhibited severe inflammatory and fibrotic response with an average mean thickness of 19 and 12 μm, respectively, in 30 days. In contrast, PU/T80 surface showed only a cellular monolayer of 2-3 μm in thickness, with a mild inflammatory response and no fibrotic encapsulation. The PU/PLL-RGD peptide-modified substrate promoted an enhanced rate of macrophage cell fusion to form foreign body giant cell (FBGCs), whereas FBGCs were rarely observed on Tween80®-modified substrate. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were upregulated on PU/PLL-RGD surface followed by bare PU, whereas the cytokine expressions were significantly suppressed on PU/T80 surface. Thus, our study highlights modulation of foreign body response on polyurethane surfaces through surface entrapment technique in the form of differential responses observed on PLL-RGD and Tween80® modified surfaces with the former effective in triggering tissue cell adhesion thereby fibrous encapsulation, while the later

  18. The alterations of serum FGF-21 levels, metabolic and body composition in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Murat; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Demir, Leyla; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Yildiz, Yasar; Gumus, Zehra; Kara, Mete; Salman, Tarik; Varol, Umut; Taskaynatan, Halil; Oflazoglu, Utku; Bayoglu, Vedat; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay

    2017-01-01

    In early breast cancer patients, the effects of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors) on plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), lipid levels and body composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between FGF-21 and body composition as well as the effects of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors on plasma lipid levels, FGF-21, and body composition. A total of 72 patients were treated with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors due to their menopausal status after adjuvant radiotherapy. Each patient was followed-up over a period of 1 year. Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile, glucose and FGF-21 levels were evaluated. We recorded the type of hormonal therapy, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid profile, and FGF-21 levels both at the beginning and after 12 months. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum FGF-21 levels after 12 months of adjuvant endocrine therapy (46 ± 19.21 pg/ml vs. 30.99 ± 13.81 pg/ml, pbody water (pbody composition, glucose, lipid profile and FGF-21 were similar in tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor groups. A positive correlation was found between basal weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and serum FGF-21 levels; however, the correlation was maintained only for the fat-free mass at the 12th month. As part of the present study, we suggest that both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors can reduce FGF-21 levels independently of body compositions, and these drugs can provide antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic and cardio-protective effects. We also recommend that serum FGF-21 level can be utilized as a tumor biomarker in early-stage breast cancer and for monitoring purposes. FGF-21 levels may help physicians estimate prognosis, too. Further studies with larger populations may shed light on the role of FGF-21 in breast cancer.

  19. Reduced labor and condensed schedules with cellular concrete solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavis, D. [CEMATRIX Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of cellular concrete materials in oil sands tank base foundation systems, shallow buried utility insulation systems, roadways, slabs, and buried modules. The concrete is formed from Portland cement, water, specialized pre-formed foaming agents, and air mixed in controlled proportions. Fly ash and polypropylene or glass fibers can also be used as additions. Cellular concrete can often be used to speed up construction and minimize labour requirements. Cellular concrete can be cast-in-place, and has soil-stabilizing and self-compacting features. The concrete can be produced and placed on-site at rates exceeding 120 cubic meters per hour. Cellular concrete can be pumped into place over long distances through flexible hoses. A case study comparing the cellular concrete to traditional plastic foam insulation was used to demonstrate the equivalency and adequacy of insulation, structural properties and installation costs. The study showed that although the cellular concrete had a high installation cost, greater compressive strength was gained. The concrete was self-levelling and did not require compaction or vibration. The use of the cellular concrete resulted in an accelerated construction schedule. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...... level of the village boys during secondary school....

  1. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology to breed vultures for Parsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyderabad – Parsis worried about the growing pile of bodies in their 'Towers of Silence' can take heart. The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. (CCMB) has decided to take up, on an express basis, the job of breeding vultures, which can later be transported to various parts of the country. Though the problem of ...

  2. Agent-Based Modeling of Mitochondria Links Sub-Cellular Dynamics to Cellular Homeostasis and Heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy. While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1 mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2 restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3 maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4 our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions

  3. A COMPARISON OF HOW STUDENT'S BODY IS MOBILIZED IN TWO GRADE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Riva, María de Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, basic schooling is composed of three levels: infant (or preschool education, primary (or elementary education and secondary (or middle school education, each taught at a different educational establishment. Students egressing from elementary school are (in average between 12 to 13 years-old, an age of profound changes to which the following can be added: a different educational establishment, different class mates/peers, higher organizational specialization and class work strategies which, in turn, result in a higher number of teachers. Secondary schools have harder institutional structures and higher disciplinary control, so that students seek new ways of negotiation. This article elaborates on those experiences, on how control over appearance, place and body movements influences students through spokesmen and norms, and how body control effectively 'becomes part' of daily class work. I use an ethnographic approach enriched by the categories of Actor-Network Theory (ANT, which allows visualization of the passage of students from one level to another as a network of paths and routes in tension transcending space scales and measured time. It is assumed that students will also build its action context.This paper is written in Spanish.

  4. Coordination of Cellular Dynamics Contributes to Tooth Epithelium Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ritsuko; Kihira, Miho; Nakatsu, Yousuke; Nomoto, Yohei; Ogawa, Miho; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis. Cellular motility was higher in the regions with higher growth rates, while the mitotic orientation was significantly biased along the direction of tissue elongation in the epithelium. Further, these spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics and tissue-level deformation were highly correlated with that of the activity of cofilin, which is an actin depolymerization factor, suggesting that the coordination of cellular dynamics via actin remodeling plays an important role in tooth epithelial morphogenesis. Our system enhances the understanding of how cellular behaviors are coordinated during ectodermal organogenesis, which cannot be observed from histological analyses. PMID:27588418

  5. A Compact Synchronous Cellular Model of Nonlinear Calcium Dynamics: Simulation and FPGA Synthesis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hamid; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that calcium is a widespread intracellular ion that controls a wide range of temporal dynamics in the mammalian body. The simulation and validation of such studies using experimental data would benefit from a fast large scale simulation and modelling tool. This paper presents a compact and fully reconfigurable cellular calcium model capable of mimicking Hopf bifurcation phenomenon and various nonlinear responses of the biological calcium dynamics. The proposed cellular model is synthesized on a digital platform for a single unit and a network model. Hardware synthesis, physical implementation on FPGA, and theoretical analysis confirm that the proposed cellular model can mimic the biological calcium behaviors with considerably low hardware overhead. The approach has the potential to speed up large-scale simulations of slow intracellular dynamics by sharing more cellular units in real-time. To this end, various networks constructed by pipelining 10 k to 40 k cellular calcium units are compared with an equivalent simulation run on a standard PC workstation. Results show that the cellular hardware model is, on average, 83 times faster than the CPU version.

  6. A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency noise stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone] and five complex noises composed of the pure tones. For the complex noise stimuli, the sound pressure level of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL. Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of noise stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration level (VAL of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen, the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-level low-frequency noise. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-level low-frequency noise were different from those in the trunk of the body.

  7. Serum apelin levels and body composition changes in breast cancer patients treated with an aromatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Tarik; Demir, Leyla; Varol, Umut; Akyol, Murat; Oflazoglu, Utku; Yildiz, Yasar; Taskaynatan, Halil; Cengiz, Hakan; Guvendi, Guven; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Tarhan, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue plays a role in carcinogenesis with the adipokines it generates. Apelin is an anti-obesigenic adipokine, and assumes roles in both vascularization and tumor cell proliferation. The present study aimed to investigate changes in apelin levels, in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Forty early-stage postmenopausal BC patients treated with AIs with no history of chemotherapy administration were included in the study. At the beginning, we measured serum apelin levels in postmenopausal BC patients who were receiving AIs and healthy women of similar age and normal body mass index (BMI) (control group). We evaluated changes in the body composition, serum lipid profile and serum apelin levels at the beginning and the 12th month through anthropometric measurements and bioelectric impedance analysis. Forty subjects with postmenopausal BC had a median age of 57 years (range 44-82)). BC patients exhibited significantly higher apelin levels and body mass index (BMI) scores compared to the control group (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, respectively). The 12th month's measurements indicated reduced apelin levels in 24 patients (60%) and increased apelin levels in 16 patients (40%) compared to the initial figures. With respect to the parameters, the patients with reduced apelin levels had significantly different waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat mass scores compared to those with higher apelin levels (p=0.008, p=0.047, respectively). This study showed that postmenopausal BC patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores. This finding suggests that apelin promoted carcinogenesis particularly in obese individuals. The massive and metabolic changes observed in the fat tissues of the postmenopausal BC patients receiving AIs will especially affect the BC-associated outcome.

  8. Defining the action spectrum of potential PGC-1α activators on a mitochondrial and cellular level in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Annette; Noe, Natalie; Tischner, Christin; Kladt, Nikolay; Lellek, Veronika; Schauß, Astrid; Wenz, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a therapeutic benefit of pharmaceutical PGC-1α activation in cellular and murine model of disorders linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. While in some cases, this effect seems to be clearly associated with boosting of mitochondrial function, additional alterations as well as tissue- and cell-type-specific effects might play an important role. We initiated a comprehensive analysis of the effects of potential PGC-1α-activating drugs and pharmaceutically targeted the PPAR (bezafibrate, rosiglitazone), AMPK (AICAR, metformin) and Sirt1 (resveratrol) pathways in HeLa cells, neuronal cells and PGC-1α-deficient MEFs to get insight into cell type specificity and PGC-1α dependence of their working action. We used bezafibrate as a model drug to assess the effect on a tissue-specific level in a murine model. Not all analyzed drugs activate the PGC pathway or alter mitochondrial protein levels. However, they all affect supramolecular assembly of OXPHOS complexes and OXPHOS protein stability. In addition, a clear drug- and cell-type-specific influence on several cellular stress pathways as well as on post-translational modifications could be demonstrated, which might be relevant to fully understand the action of the analyzed drugs in the disease state. Importantly, the effect on the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and stress response program upon drug treatment is PGC-1α dependent in MEFs demonstrating not only the pleiotropic effects of this molecule but points also to the working mechanism of the analyzed drugs. The definition of the action spectrum of the different drugs forms the basis for a defect-specific compensation strategy and a future personalized therapeutic approach.

  9. Ethical Decision Making, Therapeutic Boundaries, and Communicating Using Online Technology and Cellular Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonan, Jesay; Bardick, Angela D.; Willment, Jo-Anne H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones and social networking sites pose new challenges to the maintenance of therapeutic boundaries. One such difficulty is the possible development of dual relationships between clients and counselling professionals as a result of communicating by these means. Most regulatory bodies advise professional counsellors and psychologists…

  10. Associations of Anthropometric, Behavioral, and Social Factors on Level of Body Esteem in Peripubertal Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Qin, Bo; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A; Devine, Katie A; Stapleton, Jerod L; Ferrante, Jeanne M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2017-01-01

    Lower body esteem may decrease self-esteem and lead to adverse health effects in children. This study explored the role of anthropometric, behavioral, and social factors on body esteem in peripubertal girls. We evaluated associations of body esteem (measured by the Revised Body Esteem Scale) with body mass index (BMI), mother's BMI, puberty, physical activity, role models for appearance, and screen time among girls (ages 9 and 10) participating in the Jersey Girl Study (n = 120). Linear models were used to evaluate differences in body esteem scores. Overweight/obese girls had a significantly lower mean body esteem score compared with underweight/healthy weight girls {14.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.53-15.27) vs. 17.17 (95% CI: 16.87-17.43)}. Girls who were physically active for at least 7 hours per week had a significantly higher body esteem score than those who were less active, after adjusting for BMI (17.00 [95% CI: 16.62-17.32] vs. 16.39 [95% CI: 15.82-16.86]). Girls whose mothers were overweight/obese, who had entered puberty, and who cited girls at school or females in the media as role models had lower body esteem scores, but differences disappeared after adjusting for girl's BMI. A trend of higher body esteem scores was found for girls whose mothers were role models. Lower BMI and higher levels of physical activity are independently associated with higher body esteem score. Having classmates or girls/women in the media as role models may detrimentally affect girls' body esteem, but having mothers as role models may have a positive effect.

  11. Skeletal muscle O-GlcNAc transferase is important for muscle energy homeostasis and whole-body insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Given that cellular O-GlcNAcylation levels are thought to be real-time measures of cellular nutrient status and dysregulated O-GlcNAc signaling is associated with insulin resistance, we evaluated the role of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT, the enzyme that mediates O-GlcNAcylation, in skeletal muscle. Methods: We assessed O-GlcNAcylation levels in skeletal muscle from obese, type 2 diabetic people, and we characterized muscle-specific OGT knockout (mKO mice in metabolic cages and measured energy expenditure and substrate utilization pattern using indirect calorimetry. Whole body insulin sensitivity was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique and tissue-specific glucose uptake was subsequently evaluated. Tissues were used for histology, qPCR, Western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. Results: We found elevated levels of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in obese, type 2 diabetic people compared with well-matched obese and lean controls. Muscle-specific OGT knockout mice were lean, and whole body energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity were increased in these mice, consistent with enhanced glucose uptake and elevated glycolytic enzyme activities in skeletal muscle. Moreover, enhanced glucose uptake was also observed in white adipose tissue that was browner than that of WT mice. Interestingly, mKO mice had elevated mRNA levels of Il15 in skeletal muscle and increased circulating IL-15 levels. We found that OGT in muscle mediates transcriptional repression of Il15 by O-GlcNAcylating Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2. Conclusions: Elevated muscle O-GlcNAc levels paralleled insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Moreover, OGT-mediated signaling is necessary for proper skeletal muscle metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis, and our data highlight O-GlcNAcylation as a potential target for ameliorating metabolic disorders. Keywords: O-GlcNAc signaling, Type 2 diabetes, N

  12. Contaminant transport modelling in tidal influenced water body for low level liquid waste discharge out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Naidu, Velamala Simhadri

    2018-01-01

    Low level liquid waste is generated from nuclear reactor operation and reprocessing of spent fuel. This waste is discharged into the water body after removing bulk of its radioactivity. Dispersion of contaminant mainly depends on location of outfall and hydrodynamics of water body. For radiological impact assessment, in most of the analytical formulations, source term is taken as continuous release. However, this may not be always true as the water level is influenced by tidal movement and the selected outfall may come under intertidal zone in due course of the tidal cycle. To understand these phenomena, a case study has been carried out to evaluate hydrodynamic characteristics and dilution potential of outfall located in inter-tidal zone using numerical modelling

  13. Effects of tritiated water ingestion on mice: II. Damage at cellular vis-a-vis subcellular level monitored up to four generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.N.; Sharan, R.N.; Pozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Damage at cellular level is measured using colony forming units in spleen (CFU-S) technique while that at subcellular level by DNA unwinding technique. The damage is monitored up to four generations in Swiss albino mice. The results show drastically reduced colony forming ability in mice bone marrow cells (BMC). On plotting survival fractions (percent of control) for BMC against generations of mice, the plateau is found around 50% survival. The role of DNA in colony forming ability of BMC is tested. The results indicate that, at least, initial impairment of colony ability is not DNA dependent but related to some other factor(s)

  14. A coarse-grained model for the simulations of biomolecular interactions in cellular environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of bio-molecules constitute the key steps of cellular functions. However, in vivo binding properties differ significantly from their in vitro measurements due to the heterogeneity of cellular environments. Here we introduce a coarse-grained model based on rigid-body representation to study how factors such as cellular crowding and membrane confinement affect molecular binding. The macroscopic parameters such as the equilibrium constant and the kinetic rate constant are calibrated by adjusting the microscopic coefficients used in the numerical simulations. By changing these model parameters that are experimentally approachable, we are able to study the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of molecular binding, as well as the effects caused by specific cellular environments. We investigate the volumetric effects of crowded intracellular space on bio-molecular diffusion and diffusion-limited reactions. Furthermore, the binding constants of membrane proteins are currently difficult to measure. We provide quantitative estimations about how the binding of membrane proteins deviates from soluble proteins under different degrees of membrane confinements. The simulation results provide biological insights to the functions of membrane receptors on cell surfaces. Overall, our studies establish a connection between the details of molecular interactions and the heterogeneity of cellular environments

  15. Platinum nanozymes recover cellular ROS homeostasis in an oxidative stress-mediated disease model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglianetti, Mauro; de Luca, Elisa; Pedone, Deborah; Marotta, Roberto; Catelani, Tiziano; Sartori, Barbara; Amenitsch, Heinz; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes, with similar or even superior performance than natural enzymes, along with higher adaptability to the changes in environmental conditions. We then exploited their potent activity as radical scavenging materials in a cellular model of an oxidative stress-related disorder, namely human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) disease, which is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Noteworthily, we found that Pt nanozymes can efficiently reduce ROS levels, completely restoring the cellular physiological homeostasis.In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide

  16. A study of the biological effects of rare earth elements at cellular level using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhihui; Wang Xi; Zhang Sunxi; An Lizhi; Zhang Jingxia; Yao Huiying

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects and the effecting mechanisms of rare earth elements La, Gd and Ce on cultured rat cells. Methods: The biological effects of La 3+ on cultured rat cells and the subcellular distribution of La and Gd and Ce, and the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and total cellular calcium were measured by isotopic tracing, Proton Induced X Ray Emission Analysis (PIXE) and the techniques of biochemistry and cellular biology. Results: La 3+ at the concentration of 10- 10( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L significantly increased quantity of incorporation of 3 H-TdR into DNA, total cellular protein and the activity of succinic dehydrogenase of mitochondria. The cell cycle analysis showed that the proportions of cells in S phase were accordingly increased acted by La 3+ at above range of concentration. But these values were significantly decreased when concentration of La 3+ raised to 10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L. It was further discovered that La, Gd and Ce distributed mostly in the nuclei, and then in membranes. Gd and Ce also promoted the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and increased the total calcium content in cells. Conclusions: 1) La 3+ at a wide concentration range of 10 -10 ( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L promotes proliferation of cultured rat cells, but at even higher concentration (10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L) shows cellular toxicity, and there is a striking dose-effect relationship. 2) La, Gd and Ce can enter the cells and mainly distribute in the nuclei. 3) Gd and Ce can promote the inflow of extracellular Ca 2+ into the cells and increase total cellular calcium

  17. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  18. A randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of strength training on clinical and muscle cellular outcomes in patients with prostate cancer during androgen deprivation therapy: rationale and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsen, Lene; Nilsen, Tormod S; Raastad, Truls; Courneya, Kerry S; Skovlund, Eva; Fosså, Sophie D

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate that strength training has beneficial effects on clinical health outcomes in prostate cancer patients during androgen deprivation therapy. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to scientifically determine the effectiveness of strength training on the muscle cell level. Furthermore, close examination of the feasibility of a high-load strength training program is warranted. The Physical Exercise and Prostate Cancer (PEPC) trial is designed to determine the effectiveness of strength training on clinical and muscle cellular outcomes in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients after high-dose radiotherapy and during ongoing androgen deprivation therapy. Patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for 9-36 months combined with external high-dose radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer are randomized to an exercise intervention group that receives a 16 week high-load strength training program or a control group that is encouraged to maintain their habitual activity level. In both arms, androgen deprivation therapy is continued until the end of the intervention period. Clinical outcomes are body composition (lean body mass, bone mineral density and fat mass) measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, serological outcomes, physical functioning (muscle strength and cardio-respiratory fitness) assessed with physical tests and psycho-social functioning (mental health, fatigue and health-related quality of life) assessed by questionnaires. Muscle cellular outcomes are a) muscle fiber size b) regulators of muscle fiber size (number of myonuclei per muscle fiber, number of satellite cells per muscle fiber, number of satellite cells and myonuclei positive for androgen receptors and proteins involved in muscle protein degradation and muscle hypertrophy) and c) regulators of muscle fiber function such as proteins involved in cellular stress and mitochondrial function. Muscle cellular outcomes are measured on muscle cross sections and

  19. Simulating physics with cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichniac, G Y

    1984-01-01

    Cellular automata are dynamical systems where space, time, and variables are discrete. They are shown on two-dimensional examples to be capable of non-numerical simulations of physics. They are useful for faithful parallel processing of lattice models. At another level, they exhibit behaviours and illustrate concepts that are unmistakably physical, such as non-ergodicity and order parameters, frustration, relaxation to chaos through period doublings, a conspicuous arrow of time in reversible microscopic dynamics, causality and light-cone, and non-separability. In general, they constitute exactly computable models for complex phenomena and large-scale correlations that result from very simple short-range interactions. The author studies their space, time, and intrinsic symmetries and the corresponding conservation laws, with an emphasis on the conservation of information obeyed by reversible cellular automata. 60 references.

  20. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Mangino (Massimo); K. Kapur (Karen); T. Johnson (Toby); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N. Pirastu (Nicola); G. Pistis (Giorgio); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); T. Haller (Toomas); P. Salo (Perttu); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Li (Man); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Ruggiero; G. Malerba (Giovanni); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); Nolte, I.M. (Ilja M.); L. Portas (Laura); Phipps-Green, A. (Amanda); Boteva, L. (Lora); P. Navarro (Pau); A. Johansson (Åsa); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Peden (John); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D. Murgia (Daniela); Wild, S.H. (Sarah H.); A. Tenesa (Albert); A. Tin (Adrienne); E. Mihailov (Evelin); A. Grotevendt (Anne); G.K. Gislason; J. Coresh (Josef); P. d' Adamo (Pio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); Campbell, S. (Susan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Fisher, K. (Krista); M. Viigimaa (Margus); Metter, J.E. (Jeffrey E.); C. Masciullo (Corrado); Trabetti, E. (Elisabetta); Bombieri, C. (Cristina); R. Sorice; A. Döring (Angela); G. Reischl (Gunilla); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G. Davies (Gail); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); Dalbeth, N. (Nicola); Stamp, L. (Lisa); Smit, J.H. (Johannes H.); M. Kirin (Mirna); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Budde (Klemens); S.M. Farrington (Susan); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); A. Jula (Antti); V. Salomaa (Veikko); C. Sala (Cinzia); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); M. Burnier (Michel); Mägi, R. (Reedik); N. Klopp (Norman); S. Kloiber (Stefan); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Ripatti (Samuli); Cabras, S. (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Nutile; P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Hastie (Nick); H. Campbell (H.); I. Rudan (Igor); Cabrera, C. (Claudia); Haley, C. (Chris); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Merriman, T.R. (Tony R.); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Ciullo; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Gasparini (Paolo); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Perola (Markus); M. Bochud (Murielle); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Caulfield (Mark); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Völzke (Henry); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); V. Vitart (Veronique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in

  1. Investigation levels of radioisotopes in the body and in urine consequences of the recent recommendations on the annual limits of intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamai, Y.; Tirkel, M.; Schlesinger, T.

    1980-01-01

    The recently presented recommendations of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning annual limits of intake (ALI) for workers differ in many cases from the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) previously recommended. The new recommendations directly influence the derived health physics parameters, such as the acceptable body burden and concentration of radioisotopes in the urine. The investigation level at any time after intake was defined as the concentration of activity in the urine arising from an intake of 1/20 of an ALI. An analogous definition is used for the total body investigation level. A computer code was written which calculates the investigation levels in the body and urine. Results are given for some commonly used radioisotopes, as a function of time after ingestion. From these investigation levels it is possible to calculate the levels in urine and the body arising from an intake that corresponds to a particular committed dose. (H.K.)

  2. Endocytic vesicle rupture is a conserved mechanism of cellular invasion by amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, William P; Bousset, Luc; Green, Zachary C; Chu, Yaping; Skarpathiotis, Stratos; Chaney, Michael J; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Melki, Ronald; Campbell, Edward M

    2017-10-01

    Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis. We observe that the ability to induce vesicle rupture is a common feature of α-synuclein (α-syn) assemblies, as assemblies derived from WT or familial disease-associated mutant α-syn all exhibited the ability to induce vesicle rupture. Similarly, different conformational strains of WT α-syn assemblies, but not monomeric or oligomeric forms, efficiently induced vesicle rupture following endocytosis. The ability to induce vesicle rupture was not specific to α-syn, as amyloid assemblies of tau and huntingtin Exon1 with pathologic polyglutamine repeats also exhibited the ability to induce vesicle rupture. We also observe that vesicles ruptured by α-syn are positive for the autophagic marker LC3 and can accumulate and fuse into large, intracellular structures resembling Lewy bodies in vitro. Finally, we show that the same markers of vesicle rupture surround Lewy bodies in brain sections from PD patients. These data underscore the importance of this conserved endocytic vesicle rupture event as a damaging mechanism of cellular invasion by amyloid assemblies of multiple neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, and suggest that proteinaceous inclusions such as Lewy bodies form as a consequence of continued fusion of autophagic vesicles in cells unable to degrade ruptured vesicles and their amyloid contents.

  3. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  4. Differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by sex, age group and level of education. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: About 36,000 men and women who participated in the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the

  5. Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, Jennifer E.; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltn; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M.; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tonu; Peden, John F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K.; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Doering, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H.; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Maegi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H.; Merriman, Tony R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wilson, James F.; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W. H. Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Voelzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Koettgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non

  6. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  7. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  8. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  9. Thermo-fluid behaviour of periodic cellular metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Tian Jian; Wen, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Thermo-Fluid Behaviour of Periodic Cellular Metals introduces the study of coupled thermo-fluid behaviour of cellular metals with periodic structure in response to thermal loads, which is an interdisciplinary research area that requires a concurrent-engineering approach.  The book, for the first time, systematically adopts experimental, numerical, and analytical approaches, presents the fluid flow and heat transfer in periodic cellular metals under forced convection conditions, aiming to establish structure-property relationships for tailoring material structures to achieve properties and performance levels that are customized for defined multifunctional applications. The book, as a textbook and reference book, is intended for both academic and industrial people, including graduate students, researchers and engineers. Dr. Tian Jian Lu is a professor at the School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China. Dr. Feng Xu is a professor at the Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering o...

  10. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J B; Mitchell, I J [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Baral, M; Bradstreet, J [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Geis, E; Ingram, J; Hensley, A; Zappia, I; Gehn, E; Mitchell, K [Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92116-2599 (United States); Newmark, S [Center for Integrative Pediatric Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85711 (United States); Rubin, R A [Department of Mathematics, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90601-4413 (United States); Bradstreet, J [International Child Development Resource Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); El-Dahrn, J M [Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  11. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  12. Frequent cellular phone use modifies hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a cellular phone call after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronikolou, Styliani A; Chamakou, Aikaterini; Mantzou, Aimilia; Chrousos, George; KanakaGantenbein, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the main "gate-keeper" of the organism's response to every somatic or mental stress. This prospective study aims to investigate the HPA-axis response to a cellular phone call exposure after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents and to assess the possible predictive role of baseline endocrine markers to this response. Two groups of healthy school-age children aged 11-14 (12.5±1.5) years were included in the study, the one comprising those who are occasional users of a cellular phone (Group A) while the second those who do regularly use one (Group B). Blood samples were obtained from all participants at 8.00 am after a 12-hour overnight fasting for thyroid hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels determination. The participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) (5 minoral task followed by 5 min arithmetic task). Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at baseline, 10' and 20' min after the TSST-C and 10' and 20' after a 5 minute cellular phone call. Significant changes in the salivary cortisol levels were noted between 10' and 20' mins after the cellular phone call with different responses between the two groups. Baseline thyroid hormone levels seem to predict the cortisol response to mental stress mainly in group A, while HOMA had no impact on salivary cortisol response at any phase of the test, in either group. HPA axis response to cellular phone after mental stress in children and adolescents follow a different pattern in frequent users than in occasional users that seems to be influenced by the baseline thyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of sibutramine (meridia) on body composition, peptide YY3-36 and serotonin levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Iu Iu; Ametov, A S

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of gradual weight loss and the positive effect of sibutramine on metabolic parameters and the levels of serotonin and neuropeptide YY3-36 levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO). The study included 36 patients (24 women and 12 men; mean age 37.56 +/- 0.9 years) with a verified diagnosis of ECO. The height, body weight, waist and hip circumference (WC and HC), and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Adipose tissue content was estimated by a bioimpedance method using an adipose mass analyzer. Serum peptide YY3-36 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and blood serotonin concentrations were estimated by high performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical method. 12-week sibutramine therapy caused a significant reduction in body weight, WC, HC, and BMI (p < 0.05) in all the patients. At the same time they were found to have a considerable body composition change (total body and visceral fat was decreased, total body water increased, and systemic metabolism was lowered). The mean peptide YY3-36 level was significantly decreased. Sibutramine did not affect the serum content of total serotonin in the sera of patients. Sibutramine used in the combined therapy in patients with ECO contributes to an effective and steady-state weight loss. Sibutramine treatment causes a reduction in total neuropeptide YY3-36, systemic metabolism, and adipose tissue at the expense of the visceral depot.

  14. Evaluation of cellular influences caused by calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Fujita, Katsuhide; Nakamura, Ayako; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-05

    The cellular effects of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) nanoparticles were evaluated. Three kinds of CaCO₃ nanoparticles were employed in our examinations. One of the types of CaCO₃ nanoparticles was highly soluble. And solubility of another type of CaCO₃ nanoparticle was lower. A stable CaCO₃ nanoparticle medium dispersion was prepared and applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Then, mitochondrial activity, cell membrane damage, colony formation ability, DNA injury, induction of oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated. Although the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles on mitochondrial activity and cell membrane damage were small, "soluble" CaCO₃ nanoparticles exerted some cellular influences. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles also induced a cell morphological change. Colony formation was inhibited by CaCO₃ nanoparticle exposure. In particular, soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles completely inhibited colony formation. The influence on intracellular the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was small. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles caused an increase in C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, CaCO₃ exposure increased intracellular the Ca²⁺ level and activated calpain. These results suggest that cellular the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles are mainly caused by intracellular calcium release and subsequently disrupt the effect of calcium signaling. In conclusion, there is possibility that soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles induce cellular influences such as a cell morphological change. Cellular influence of CaCO₃ nanoparticles is caused by intracellular calcium release. If inhaled CaCO₃ nanoparticles have the potential to influence cellular events. However, the effect might be not severe because calcium is omnipresent element in cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GW-Bodies and P-Bodies Constitute Two Separate Pools of Sequestered Non-Translating RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajal H Patel

    Full Text Available Non-translating RNAs that have undergone active translational repression are culled from the cytoplasm into P-bodies for decapping-dependent decay or for sequestration. Organisms that use microRNA-mediated RNA silencing have an additional pathway to remove RNAs from active translation. Consequently, proteins that govern microRNA-mediated silencing, such as GW182/Gw and AGO1, are often associated with the P-bodies of higher eukaryotic organisms. Due to the presence of Gw, these structures have been referred to as GW-bodies. However, several reports have indicated that GW-bodies have different dynamics to P-bodies. Here, we use live imaging to examine GW-body and P-body dynamics in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo. While P-bodies are present throughout early embryonic development, cytoplasmic GW-bodies only form in significant numbers at the midblastula transition. Unlike P-bodies, which are predominantly cytoplasmic, GW-bodies are present in both nuclei and the cytoplasm. RNA decapping factors such as DCP1, Me31B, and Hpat are not associated with GW-bodies, indicating that P-bodies and GW-bodies are distinct structures. Furthermore, known Gw interactors such as AGO1 and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, which have been shown to be important for Gw function, are also not present in GW-bodies. Use of translational inhibitors puromycin and cycloheximide, which respectively increase or decrease cellular pools of non-translating RNAs, alter GW-body size, underscoring that GW-bodies are composed of non-translating RNAs. Taken together, these data indicate that active translational silencing most likely does not occur in GW-bodies. Instead GW-bodies most likely function as repositories for translationally silenced RNAs. Finally, inhibition of zygotic gene transcription is unable to block the formation of either P-bodies or GW-bodies in the early embryo, suggesting that these structures are composed of maternal RNAs.

  16. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular Response to Ionizing Radiation: A MicroRNA Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Mohammad; Asghari, S. Mohsen; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Moslemi, Dariush; Parsian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a crucial role in diverse cellular pathways. Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the most important treatment protocols for patients that suffer from cancer and affects directly or indirectly cellular integration. Recently it has been discovered that microRNA-mediated gene regulation interferes with radio-related pathways in ionizing radiation. Here, we review the recent discoveries about miRNAs in cellular response to IR. Thoroughly understanding the mechanism of miRNAs in radiation response, it will be possible to design new strategies for improving radiotherapy efficiency and ultimately cancer treatment. PMID:24551775

  18. Cellular MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  19. Cellular islet autoimmunity associates with clinical outcome of islet cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkert A L Huurman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes (T1D, but only a minority of recipients remains insulin-independent in the following years. We tested the hypothesis that allograft rejection and recurrent autoimmunity contribute to this progressive loss of islet allograft function.Twenty-one T1D patients received cultured islet cell grafts prepared from multiple donors and transplanted under anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction and tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF maintenance immunosuppression. Immunity against auto- and alloantigens was measured before and during one year after transplantation. Cellular auto- and alloreactivity was assessed by lymphocyte stimulation tests against autoantigens and cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor assays, respectively. Humoral reactivity was measured by auto- and alloantibodies. Clinical outcome parameters--including time until insulin independence, insulin independence at one year, and C-peptide levels over one year--remained blinded until their correlation with immunological parameters. All patients showed significant improvement of metabolic control and 13 out of 21 became insulin-independent. Multivariate analyses showed that presence of cellular autoimmunity before and after transplantation is associated with delayed insulin-independence (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively and lower circulating C-peptide levels during the first year after transplantation (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively. Seven out of eight patients without pre-existent T-cell autoreactivity became insulin-independent, versus none of the four patients reactive to both islet autoantigens GAD and IA-2 before transplantation. Autoantibody levels and cellular alloreactivity had no significant association with outcome.In this cohort study, cellular islet-specific autoimmunity associates with clinical outcome of islet cell transplantation under ATG-tacrolimus-MMF immunosuppression. Tailored immunotherapy targeting cellular

  20. Fuzzy cellular automata models in immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-nonself character of antigens is considered to be fuzzy. The Chowdhury et al. cellular automata model is generalized accordingly. New steady states are found. The first corresponds to a below-normal help and suppression and is proposed to be related to autoimmune diseases. The second corresponds to a below-normal B-cell level

  1. Are There Differences in Body Dimensions Among Children from Matings at Different Exogamic Levels?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, E.; R. Soro, M.; Cau, E.; Floris, G.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there are differences in body dimensions among children from matings of different levels of exogamy. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 285 children, 136 males and 149 females, 6 to 10 years old, attending elementary schools in Tortolì, a town in east-central Sardinia. The children were divided into four groups according to the level of exogamy. One of them included the children of parents born in the same Sardinian village is hi...

  2. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  3. Viral and cellular subnuclear structures in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Blair L

    2015-02-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected cells, a dramatic remodelling of the nuclear architecture is linked to the creation, utilization and manipulation of subnuclear structures. This review outlines the involvement of several viral and cellular subnuclear structures in areas of HCMV replication and virus-host interaction that include viral transcription, viral DNA synthesis and the production of DNA-filled viral capsids. The structures discussed include those that promote or impede HCMV replication (such as viral replication compartments and promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear bodies, respectively) and those whose role in the infected cell is unclear (for example, nucleoli and nuclear speckles). Viral and cellular proteins associated with subnuclear structures are also discussed. The data reviewed here highlight advances in our understanding of HCMV biology and emphasize the complexity of HCMV replication and virus-host interactions in the nucleus. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  5. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Emilie; Abou-Hamdan, Mhamad; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Nieoullon, André; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra

    2010-04-23

    The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH) production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Reggi Max

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. Results We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. Conclusions These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Next-generation mammalian genetics toward organism-level systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Ukai, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2017-01-01

    Organism-level systems biology in mammals aims to identify, analyze, control, and design molecular and cellular networks executing various biological functions in mammals. In particular, system-level identification and analysis of molecular and cellular networks can be accelerated by next-generation mammalian genetics. Mammalian genetics without crossing, where all production and phenotyping studies of genome-edited animals are completed within a single generation drastically reduce the time, space, and effort of conducting the systems research. Next-generation mammalian genetics is based on recent technological advancements in genome editing and developmental engineering. The process begins with introduction of double-strand breaks into genomic DNA by using site-specific endonucleases, which results in highly efficient genome editing in mammalian zygotes or embryonic stem cells. By using nuclease-mediated genome editing in zygotes, or ~100% embryonic stem cell-derived mouse technology, whole-body knock-out and knock-in mice can be produced within a single generation. These emerging technologies allow us to produce multiple knock-out or knock-in strains in high-throughput manner. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and related technologies as well as current challenges and future opportunities for next-generation mammalian genetics in organism-level systems biology.

  8. Cellular vs. organ approaches to dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I.; Sastry, K.S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The cellular distribution of tissue-incorporated radionuclides has generally been neglected in the dosimetry of internal emitters. Traditional dosimetry assumes homogeneous distribution of radionuclides in organs of interest, while presuming that the ranges of particulate radiations are large relative to typical cell diameters. The macroscopic distribution of dose thus calculated has generally served as a sufficient approximation for the energy deposited within radiosensitive sites. However, with the increasing utilization of intracellular agents, such as thallium-201, it has become necessary to examine the microscopic distribution of energy at the cellular level. This is particularly important in the instance of radionuclides that decay by electron capture or by internal conversion with the release of Auger and Coster-Kronig electrons. In many instances, these electrons are released as a dense shower of low-energy particles with ranges of subcellular dimensions. The high electron density in the immediate vicinity of the decaying atom produces a focal deposition of energy that far exceeds the average dose taken over several cell diameters. These studies point out the increasing need to take into account the microscopic distribution of dose on the cellular level as radionuclides distributed in cells become more commonplace, especially if the decay involves electron capture or internal conversion. As radiotracers are developed for the measurement of intracellular functions these factors should be given greater consideration. 16 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  9. Combined phase and X-Ray fluorescence imaging at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosior, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    This work presents some recent developments in the field of hard X-ray imaging applied to biomedical research. As the discipline is evolving quickly, new questions appear and the list of needs becomes bigger. Some of them are dealt with in this manuscript. It has been shown that the ID22NI beamline of the ESRF can serve as a proper experimental setup to investigate diverse aspects of cellular research. Together with its high spatial resolution, high flux and high energy range the experimental setup provides bigger field of view, is less sensitive to radiation damages (while taking phase contrast images) and suits well chemical analysis with emphasis on endogenous metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) but also with a possibility for exogenous one's like these found in nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag) study. Two synchrotron-based imaging techniques, fluorescence and phase contrast imaging were used in this research project. They were correlated with each other on a number of biological cases, from bacteria E.coli to various cells (HEK 293, PC12, MRC5VA, red blood cells). The explorations made in the chapter 5 allowed preparation of more established and detailed analysis, described in the next chapter where both techniques, X-ray fluorescence and phase contrast imaging, were exploited in order to access absolute metal projected mass fraction in a whole cell. The final image presents for the first time true quantitative information at the sub-cellular level, not biased by the cell thickness. Thus for the first time a fluorescence map serves as a complete quantitative image of a cell without any risk of misinterpretation. Once both maps are divided by each other pixel by pixel (fluorescence map divided by the phase map) they present a complete and final result of the metal (Zn in this work) projected mass fraction in ppm of dry weight. For the purpose of this calculation the analysis was extended to calibration (non-biological) samples. Polystyrene spheres of a known diameter and known

  10. Adaptation of the deoxyglucose method for use at cellular level: histological processing of the central nervous system for high resolution radio-autography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Rosiers, M.H.; Descarries, Laurent

    1978-01-01

    Vascular perfusion of all products required for primary fixation, postfixation, dehydration and embedding of nervous tissue in Epon permits radio-autographic detection of radioactivity accumulated in the central nervous system after intravenous injection of [ 3 H]deoxyglucose. This histological technique should allow application of the deoxyglucose method at cellular if not subcellular level, since a high proportion of the tracer appears to be retained in situ in specimens adequately preserved for light and electron microscope radio-autography [fr

  11. HPV integration hijacks and multimerizes a cellular enhancer to generate a viral-cellular super-enhancer that drives high viral oncogene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Catherine J.; Dooley, Katharine E.; Fu, Haiqing; Gillison, Maura L.; Akagi, Keiko; Symer, David E.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2018-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes into cellular chromatin is common in HPV-associated cancers. Integration is random, and each site is unique depending on how and where the virus integrates. We recently showed that tandemly integrated HPV16 could result in the formation of a super-enhancer-like element that drives transcription of the viral oncogenes. Here, we characterize the chromatin landscape and genomic architecture of this integration locus to elucidate the mechanisms that promoted de novo super-enhancer formation. Using next-generation sequencing and molecular combing/fiber-FISH, we show that ~26 copies of HPV16 are integrated into an intergenic region of chromosome 2p23.2, interspersed with 25 kb of amplified, flanking cellular DNA. This interspersed, co-amplified viral-host pattern is frequent in HPV-associated cancers and here we designate it as Type III integration. An abundant viral-cellular fusion transcript encoding the viral E6/E7 oncogenes is expressed from the integration locus and the chromatin encompassing both the viral enhancer and a region in the adjacent amplified cellular sequences is strongly enriched in the super-enhancer markers H3K27ac and Brd4. Notably, the peak in the amplified cellular sequence corresponds to an epithelial-cell-type specific enhancer. Thus, HPV16 integration generated a super-enhancer-like element composed of tandem interspersed copies of the viral upstream regulatory region and a cellular enhancer, to drive high levels of oncogene expression. PMID:29364907

  12. 47 CFR 22.970 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. 22.970 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.970 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. (a) Definition...

  13. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Duck Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40% and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.

  14. The inverse problem of brain energetics: ketone bodies as alternative substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvetti, D; Occhipinti, R [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Mathematics, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Somersalo, E [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics, P. O. Box 1100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)], E-mail: daniela.calvetti@case.edu, E-mail: rossana.occhipinti@case.edu, E-mail: erkki.somersalo@tkk.fi

    2008-07-15

    Little is known about brain energy metabolism under ketosis, although there is evidence that ketone bodies have a neuroprotective role in several neurological disorders. We investigate the inverse problem of estimating reaction fluxes and transport rates in the different cellular compartments of the brain, when the data amounts to a few measured arterial venous concentration differences. By using a recently developed methodology to perform Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis and a new five compartment model of the astrocyte-glutamatergic neuron cellular complex, we are able to identify the preferred biochemical pathways during shortage of glucose and in the presence of ketone bodies in the arterial blood. The analysis is performed in a minimally biased way, therefore revealing the potential of this methodology for hypothesis testing.

  15. The inverse problem of brain energetics: ketone bodies as alternative substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvetti, D; Occhipinti, R; Somersalo, E

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about brain energy metabolism under ketosis, although there is evidence that ketone bodies have a neuroprotective role in several neurological disorders. We investigate the inverse problem of estimating reaction fluxes and transport rates in the different cellular compartments of the brain, when the data amounts to a few measured arterial venous concentration differences. By using a recently developed methodology to perform Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis and a new five compartment model of the astrocyte-glutamatergic neuron cellular complex, we are able to identify the preferred biochemical pathways during shortage of glucose and in the presence of ketone bodies in the arterial blood. The analysis is performed in a minimally biased way, therefore revealing the potential of this methodology for hypothesis testing

  16. The inverse problem of brain energetics: ketone bodies as alternative substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvetti, D.; Occhipinti, R.; Somersalo, E.

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about brain energy metabolism under ketosis, although there is evidence that ketone bodies have a neuroprotective role in several neurological disorders. We investigate the inverse problem of estimating reaction fluxes and transport rates in the different cellular compartments of the brain, when the data amounts to a few measured arterial venous concentration differences. By using a recently developed methodology to perform Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis and a new five compartment model of the astrocyte-glutamatergic neuron cellular complex, we are able to identify the preferred biochemical pathways during shortage of glucose and in the presence of ketone bodies in the arterial blood. The analysis is performed in a minimally biased way, therefore revealing the potential of this methodology for hypothesis testing.

  17. ASSOCIATIONS OF ADIPONECTIN, LEPTIN LEVELS, AND THE CHANGE OF BODY COMPOSITION IN PATIENTS ON PERITONEAL DIALYSIS: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Tian, Xue; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Qu, Zhen; Dong, Jie

    2018-04-19

    Although the association between adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, and body composition has been noted, whether they could predict the change of fat mass and lean body mass is unknown. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) through a prospective cohort study. Body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) including fat mass and lean body mass were examined at baseline and then at year 3. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured. Demographic data, comorbidity, biochemical data, inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA-IR]) were also examined. At baseline, serum adiponectin levels were significantly inversely correlated with weight, lean body mass index (LBMI), fat mass index (FMI), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in 213 prevalent patients. At year 3, FMI, LBMI, FM, and the percentage of FM (FM%) increased while the percentage of LBM (LBM%) significantly decreased despite unchanged weight and LBM among the remaining 112 patients. After adjustment for demographic data, comorbidities, hs-CRP, HOMA-IR, and daily energy intake (DEI), serum adiponectin at baseline was not associated with increases in LBMI, FMI, and FM, but independently associated with an increase in FM% and a decrease in LBM%. The predictive effect of high-serum adiponectin level on mortality disappeared after adjusting for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Serum leptin was not associated with any changes in body composition during the follow-up, nor with the mortality in this cohort. A high adiponectin level could predict an increase in FM% and a decrease in LBM% during a 3-year follow-up in PD patients. Serum adiponectin could not independently predict mortality in PD patients.

  18. Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shengke; Xie, Ruohan; Wang, Haixin; Hu, Yan; Hou, Dandi; Liao, Xingcheng; Brown, Patrick H.; Yang, Hongxia; Lin, Xianyong; Labavitch, John M.; Lu, Lingli

    2017-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.

  19. The cellular basis of skin injury after cytotoxic insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that although the major target in terms of radiation damage is undoubtedly the epidermis, the skin is a complex tissue made up of many inter-dependent components each of which may constitute an important secondary target. Damage to each component has been considered at the cellular level. The precise inter-relationships and interdependencies remain somewhat obscure. Even within one site, the epidermis, a comprehensive cellular explanation of the various post-irradiation changes is difficult. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  20. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  1. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  2. National survey of human body radioactivity measured by a mobile whole-body counter and installed whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.; Fenwick, J.D.; McKenzie, A.L.

    1989-05-01

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 2339 volunteers throughout the U.K. A mobile whole-body monitor visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and data were also contributed by Medical Physics Departments possessing installed counters. Levels of body radiocaesium ranged from below detection level to 4149 Bq. Radiocaesium levels were normalised by dividing by the content of natural body potassium-40. In all cases, the dose rate to the body from radiocaesium was less than that from potassium-40. Radiocaesium levels were 2-3 times higher in N.W. England, Scotland and N. Wales than the rest of the country, but this factor is much less than the variation in deposition of Chernobyl radiocaesium. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the nationwide distribution of foodstuffs. At all sites where volunteers were monitored, the ratio of caesium-137/caesium-134 was consistent with a radiocaesium intake attributable primarily to fallout from the Chernobyl fire. (author)

  3. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  4. Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2011-01-01

    NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. coli mutant YJE001, which had a deletion of the nadC gene responsible for NAD+ de novo biosynthesis, and we showed NTT4 conferred on the mutant strain better growth in the presence of exogenous NAD+. We then constructed the NAD+-auxotrophic mutant YJE003 by disrupting the essential gene nadE, which is responsible for the last step of NAD+ biosynthesis in cells harboring the ntt4 gene. The minimal NAD+ level was determined in M9 medium in proliferating YJE003 cells that were preloaded with NAD+, while the maximal NAD(H) level was determined by exposing the cells to high concentrations of exogenous NAD(H). Compared with supplementation of NADH, cells grew faster and had a higher intracellular NAD(H) level when NAD+ was fed. The intracellular NAD(H) level increased with the increase of exogenous NAD+ concentration, until it reached a plateau. Thus, a minimal NAD(H) level of 0.039 mM and a maximum of 8.49 mM were determined, which were 0.044× and 9.6× those of wild-type cells, respectively. Finally, the potential application of this strategy in biotechnology is briefly discussed. PMID:21742902

  5. Disruption of Hox9,10,11 function results in cellular level lineage infidelity in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Keri A; Adam, Mike; Mahoney, Robert; Potter, S Steven

    2018-04-20

    Hox genes are important regulators of development. The 39 mammalian Hox genes have considerable functional overlap, greatly confounding their study. In this report, we generated mice with multiple combinations of paralogous and flanking Abd-B Hox gene mutations to investigate functional redundancies in kidney development. The resulting mice developed a number of kidney abnormalities, including hypoplasia, agenesis, and severe cysts, with distinct Hox functions observed in early metanephric kidney formation and nephron progenitor maintenance. Most surprising, however, was that extensive removal of Hox shared function in these kidneys resulted in cellular level lineage infidelity. Strikingly, mutant nephron tubules consisted of intermixed cells with proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and collecting duct identities, with some single cells expressing markers associated with more than one nephron segment. These results indicate that Hox genes are required for proper lineage selection/maintenance and full repression of genes involved in cell fate restriction in the developing kidney.

  6. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets...

  7. Changes in plasma (hydrocortisone) levels after whole-body irradiation with ultraviolet rays of defined wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    One hour after whole-body irradiation with a radiation source having its maximum of emission in the UVB range, at a radiation dose of 0.44 J/cm 2 , a significant fall in the mean values of the blood plasma hydrocortisone level (p [de

  8. The association of body size in early to mid-life with adult urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among night shift health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Cody A; Massa, Jennifer; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Brown, Susan B; Pierre-Paul, Jeffrey; Devore, Elizabeth E; Hankinson, Susan E; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2015-05-06

    Adult body mass index (BMI) has been associated with urinary melatonin levels in humans; however, whether earlier-life body size is associated with melatonin, particularly among night shift workers, remains unknown. We evaluated associations of birth weight, body shape (or somatotype) at ages 5 and 10, BMI at age 18 and adulthood, weight change since age 18, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and height with creatinine-adjusted morning urinary melatonin (6-sulfatoxymelatonin, aMT6s) levels among 1,343 healthy women (aged 32-53 at urine collection, 1996-1999) in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II cohort. Using multivariable linear regression, we computed least-square mean aMT6s levels across categories of body size, and evaluated whether these associations were modified by night shift work. Adult BMI was inversely associated with aMT6s levels (mean aMT6s levels = 34 vs. 50 ng/mg creatinine, comparing adult BMI ≥ 30 vs. accounting for adult BMI. Night shifts worked prior to urine collection, whether recent or cumulatively over time, did not modify the association between adult BMI and aMT6s levels (e.g., P interaction = 0.72 for night shifts worked within two weeks of urine collection). Our results suggest that adult BMI, but not earlier measures of body size, is associated with urinary aMT6s levels in adulthood. These observations did not vary by night shift work status, and suggest that adult BMI may be an important mechanism by which melatonin levels are altered and subsequently influence chronic disease risk.

  9. Serum Levels of sRAGE Are Associated with Body Measurements, but Not Glycemic Parameters in Patients with Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Metin; Ali, Asuman; Eroglu, Derya Ustun; Büyükuysal, Sema Oral; Cander, Soner; Ocak, Nihal

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to assess serum levels of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and to examine their association with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients with prediabetes and obese controls. The two study groups were composed of 42 patients with prediabetes and diabetic neuropathy and 42 age-, gender-, body weight (BW)-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese adults as the control group. Prediabetes was diagnosed by the following criteria issued by the American Diabetes Association: impaired fasting glucose [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 100-125 mg/dL], impaired glucose tolerance (2 hr plasma glucose level of 140-199 mg/dL after a 75 grams oral glucose challenge), or a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level of 5.7%-6.4%. There were no differences between the groups in terms of age, gender distribution, BW, or BMI. Despite these similarities, patients with prediabetes had higher FPG, HbA1c, and 2-hr postchallenge glucose levels, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and larger waist and hip circumferences compared with the obese controls. Lipid measurements, complete blood counts, kidney and liver function tests, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sRAGE levels were similar between the two groups. We found significant negative correlations between sRAGE levels and BW, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratios, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. There were no significant correlations with other parameters, including demographic, metabolic, and blood pressure measurements. In contrast to glycemic parameters, serum levels of sRAGE were negatively correlated with body measurements indicative of obesity in the prediabetic state. In addition, the negative correlation with LDL cholesterol levels suggests that sRAGE has a more robust association with metabolic syndrome than with prediabetes.

  10. Analysis of cellular and extracellular DNA in fingerprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    It has been previously shown that DNA can be recovered from latent fingerprints left on various surfaces [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. However, the source of the DNA, extracellular versus cellular origin, is difficult to determine. If the DNA is cellular, it is believed to belong to skin cells while extracellular DNA is believed to originate from body fluids such as sweat [D. J. Daly et. al, Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 6, 41-46 (2012); V. V. Vlassov et. al, BioEssays 29, 654-667 (2007)]. The origin of the DNA in fingerprints has implications for processing and interpretation of forensic evidence. The determination of the origin of DNA in fingerprints is further complicated by the fact that the DNA in fingerprints tends to be at a very low quantity [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. This study examined fingerprints from five volunteers left on sterilized glass slides and plastic pens. Three fingerprints were left on each glass slide (thumb, index, and middle fingers) while the pens were held as if one was writing with them. The DNA was collected from the objects using the wet swabbing technique (TE buffer). Following collection, the cellular and extracellular components of each sample were separated using centrifugation and an acoustofluidics system. Centrifugation is still the primary separation technique utilized in forensics laboratories, while acoustic focusing uses sound waves to focus large particles (cells) into low pressure nodes, separating them from the rest of the sample matrix. After separation, all samples were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The overall trend is that there is more DNA in the extracellular fractions than cellular fractions for both centrifugation and acoustofluidic processing. Additionally, more DNA was generally collected from the pen samples than the samples left on glass slides.

  11. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  12. The thorny path linking cellular senescence to organismalaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Christopher K.; Mian, Saira; Campisi, Judith

    2005-08-09

    Half a century is fast approaching since Hayflick and colleagues formally described the limited ability of normal human cells to proliferate in culture (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961). This finding--that normal somatic cells, in contrast to cancer cells, cannot divide indefinitely--challenged the prevailing idea that cells from mortal multicellular organisms were intrinsically ''immortal'' (Carrell, 1912). It also spawned two hypotheses, essential elements of which persist today. The first held that the restricted proliferation of normal cells, now termed cellular senescence, suppresses cancer (Hayflick, 1965; Sager, 1991; Campisi, 2001). The second hypothesis, as explained in the article by Lorenzini et al., suggested that the limited proliferation of cells in culture recapitulated aspects of organismal aging (Hayflick, 1965; Martin, 1993). How well have these hypotheses weathered the ensuing decades? Before answering this question, we first consider current insights into the causes and consequences of cellular senescence. Like Lorenzini et al., we limit our discussion to mammals. We also focus on fibroblasts, the cell type studied by Lorenzini et al., but consider other types as well. We suggest that replicative capacity in culture is not a straightforward assessment, and that it correlates poorly with both longevity and body mass. We speculate this is due to the malleable and variable nature of replicative capacity, which renders it an indirect metric of qualitative and quantitative differences among cells to undergo senescence, a response that directly alters cellular phenotype and might indirectly alter tissue structure and function.

  13. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  14. A novel image encryption algorithm using chaos and reversible cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Luan, Dapeng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on reversible cellular automata (RCA) combining chaos. In this algorithm, an intertwining logistic map with complex behavior and periodic boundary reversible cellular automata are used. We split each pixel of image into units of 4 bits, then adopt pseudorandom key stream generated by the intertwining logistic map to permute these units in confusion stage. And in diffusion stage, two-dimensional reversible cellular automata which are discrete dynamical systems are applied to iterate many rounds to achieve diffusion on bit-level, in which we only consider the higher 4 bits in a pixel because the higher 4 bits carry almost the information of an image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm achieves a high security level and processes good performance against common attacks like differential attack and statistical attack. This algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric systems.

  15. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  16. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  17. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  18. Targeting Mitochondria to Counteract Age-Related Cellular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina T. Madreiter-Sokolowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial function is strongly linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape, which undergo various alterations during aging. Since mitochondria play such a critical role in an organism’s process of aging, they also offer promising targets for manipulation of senescent cellular functions. Accordingly, interventions delaying the onset of age-associated disorders involve the manipulation of mitochondrial function, including caloric restriction (CR or exercise, as well as drugs, such as metformin, aspirin, and polyphenols. In this review, we discuss mitochondria’s role in and impact on cellular aging and their potential to serve as a target for therapeutic interventions against age-related cellular dysfunction.

  19. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  20. Active Cellular Mechanics and its Consequences for Animal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas B.

    A central goal of developmental biology is to understand how an organism shapes itself, a process referred to as morphogenesis. While the molecular components critical to determining the initial body plan have been well characterized, the control of the subsequent dynamics of cellular rearrangements which ultimately shape the organism are far less understood. A major roadblock to a more complete picture of morphogenesis is the inability to measure tissue-scale mechanics throughout development and thus answer fundamental questions: How is the mechanical state of the cell regulated by local protein expression and global pattering? In what way does stress feedback onto the larger developmental program? In this dissertation, we begin to approach these questions through the introduction and analysis of a multi-scale model of epithelial mechanics which explicitly connects cytoskeletal protein activity to tissue-level stress. In Chapter 2, we introduce the discrete Active Tension Network (ATN) model of cellular mechanics. ATNs are tissues that satisfy two primary assumptions: that the mechanical balance of cells is dominated by cortical tension and that myosin actively remodels the actin cytoskeleton in a stress-dependent manner. Remarkably, the interplay of these features allows for angle-preserving, i.e. 'isogonal', dilations or contractions of local cell geometry that do not generate stress. Asymptotically this model is stabilized provided there is mechanical feedback on expression of myosin within the cell; we take this to be a strong prediction to be tested. The ATN model exposes a fundamental connection between equilibrium cell geometry and its underlying force network. In Chapter 3, we relax the tension-net approximation and demonstrate that at equilibrium, epithelial tissues with non-uniform pressure have non-trivial geometric constraints that imply the network is described by a weighted `dual' triangulation. We show that the dual triangulation encodes all

  1. Transcriptome analysis of fat bodies from two brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) populations with different virulence levels in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haixin; Ji, Rui; Ye, Wenfeng; Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful in examining the interactions between the fat body and virulence

  2. Driver hand-held cellular phone use: a four-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Vivoda, Jonathon M; St Louis, Renée M

    2006-01-01

    The use of hand-held cellular (mobile) phones while driving has stirred more debate, passion, and research than perhaps any other traffic safety issue in the past several years. There is ample research showing that the use of either hand-held or hands-free cellular phones can lead to unsafe driving patterns. Whether or not these performance deficits increase the risk of crash is difficult to establish, but recent studies are beginning to suggest that cellular phone use elevates crash risk. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the rate of hand-held cellular phone use by motor-vehicle drivers on a statewide level in Michigan. This study presents the results of 13 statewide surveys of cellular phone use over a 4-year period. Hand-held cellular phone use data were collected through direct observation while vehicles were stopped at intersections and freeway exit ramps. Data were weighted to be representative of all drivers traveling during daylight hours in Michigan. The study found that driver hand-held cellular phone use has more than doubled between 2001 and 2005, from 2.7% to 5.8%. This change represents an average increase of 0.78 percentage points per year. The 5.8% use rate observed in 2005 means that at any given daylight hour, around 36,550 drivers were conversing on cellular phones while driving on Michigan roadways. The trend line fitted to these data predicts that by the year 2010, driver hand-held cellular phone use will be around 8.6%, or 55,000 drivers at any given daylight hour. These results make it clear that cellular phone use while driving will continue to be an important traffic safety issue, and highlight the importance of continued attempts to generate new ways of alleviating this potential hazard.

  3. Complex I Disorders: Causes, Mechanisms, and Development of Treatment Strategies at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Federica; Koopman, Werner J. H.; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) represents the final step in the conversion of nutrients into cellular energy. Genetic defects in the OXPHOS system have an incidence between 1:5,000 and 1:10,000 live births. Inherited isolated deficiency of the first complex (CI) of this system, a multisubunit assembly of 45 different proteins,…

  4. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  5. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  6. The effects of whole-body irradiation on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a single whole-body dose of X-rays on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats were studied. The influence of radiation-induced anorexia was monitored by using pair fed control groups. A dose of 800 rad caused a reduction in T 4 levels and 750 rad had a similar effect on T 3 ; in each case the control group showed a smaller reduction. The kinetic results indicated that, in the control groups, the early reduction in hormone concentrations was caused by decreased production, whereas, in the irradiated groups, it was caused by a change in the distribution of the hormone; however the continuing reduction in hormone levels in the irradiated rats appeared to result from decreased production. The results suggest that the thyroid system may play an active part in the early metabolic changes which follow whole-body irradiation. (author)

  7. Radiobiological considerations in the treatment of neuroblastoma by total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; O'Donoghue, J.; Gregor, A.; Livingstone, A.; Wilson, L.; West of Scotland Health Boards, Glasgow

    1986-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a radiosensitive neoplasm for which total body irradiation (TBI) is presently under clinical consideration. Collated data on the radiobiology of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro indicates moderate cellular radiosensitivity and low capacity for accumulation of sublethal damage. Mathematical studies incorporating these parameters suggest that low dose fractionated TBI is unlikely to achieve significant levels of tumour cell kill. When high dose TBI is used in conjuction with bone marrow rescue a tumour 'log cell kill' of 4-5 should be achievable. This effect would be additional to that acheived by chemotherapy. Fractionated TBI with bone marrow rescue may be curative for some patients in clinical remission who are presently destined to relapse. (Auth.)

  8. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  9. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  10. Cellular Chaperones As Therapeutic Targets in ALS to Restore Protein Homeostasis and Improve Cellular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Kalmar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are ubiquitously expressed chaperone proteins that enable cells to cope with environmental stresses that cause misfolding and denaturation of proteins. With aging this protein quality control machinery becomes less effective, reducing the ability of cells to cope with damaging environmental stresses and disease-causing mutations. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, such mutations are known to result in protein misfolding, which in turn results in the formation of intracellular aggregates cellular dysfunction and eventual neuronal death. The exact cellular pathology of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases has been elusive and thus, hindering the development of effective therapies. However, a common scheme has emerged across these “protein misfolding” disorders, in that the mechanism of disease involves one or more aspects of proteostasis; from DNA transcription, RNA translation, to protein folding, transport and degradation via proteosomal and autophagic pathways. Interestingly, members of the Hsp family are involved in each of these steps facilitating normal protein folding, regulating the rate of protein synthesis and degradation. In this short review we summarize the evidence that suggests that ALS is a disease of protein dyshomeostasis in which Hsps may play a key role. Overwhelming evidence now indicates that enabling protein homeostasis to cope with disease-causing mutations might be a successful therapeutic strategy in ALS, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Novel small molecule co-inducers of Hsps appear to be able to achieve this aim. Arimoclomol, a hydroxylamine derivative, has shown promising results in cellular and animal models of ALS, as well as other protein misfolding diseases such as Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM. Initial clinical investigations of Arimoclomol have shown promising results. Therefore, it is possible that the long series of

  11. Facilitating arrhythmia simulation: the method of quantitative cellular automata modeling and parallel running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondry Adrian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods

  12. Protein Corona Analysis of Silver Nanoparticles Links to Their Cellular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Sabine; Niedzwiecka, Alicia; Böhmert, Linda; Lichtenstein, Dajana; Selve, Sören; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Krause, Eberhard; Lampen, Alfonso

    2017-11-03

    The breadth of applications of nanoparticles and the access to food-associated consumer products containing nanosized materials lead to oral human exposure to such particles. In biological fluids nanoparticles dynamically interact with biomolecules and form a protein corona. Knowledge about the protein corona is of great interest for understanding the molecular effects of particles as well as their fate inside the human body. We used a mass spectrometry-based toxicoproteomics approach to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and to comprehensively characterize the protein corona formed around silver nanoparticles in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Results were compared with respect to the cellular function of proteins either affected by exposure to nanoparticles or present in the protein corona. A transcriptomic data set was included in the analyses in order to obtain a combined multiomics view of nanoparticle-affected cellular processes. A relationship between corona proteins and the proteomic or transcriptomic responses was revealed, showing that differentially regulated proteins or transcripts were engaged in the same cellular signaling pathways. Protein corona analyses of nanoparticles in cells might therefore help in obtaining information about the molecular consequences of nanoparticle treatment.

  13. Multiscale evaluation of cellular adhesion alteration and cytoskeleton remodeling by magnetic bead twisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, Daniel; Pelle, Gabriel; André Dias, Sofia; Bottier, Mathieu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Filoche, Marcel; Louis, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Cellular adhesion forces depend on local biological conditions meaning that adhesion characterization must be performed while preserving cellular integrity. We presently postulate that magnetic bead twisting provides an appropriate stress, i.e., basically a clamp, for assessment in living cells of both cellular adhesion and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. A global dissociation rate obeying a Bell-type model was used to determine the natural dissociation rate ([Formula: see text]) and a reference stress ([Formula: see text]). These adhesion parameters were determined in parallel to the mechanical properties for a variety of biological conditions in which either adhesion or cytoskeleton was selectively weakened or strengthened by changing successively ligand concentration, actin polymerization level (by treating with cytochalasin D), level of exerted stress (by increasing magnetic torque), and cell environment (by using rigid and soft 3D matrices). On the whole, this multiscale evaluation of the cellular and molecular responses to a controlled stress reveals an evolution which is consistent with stochastic multiple bond theories and with literature results obtained with other molecular techniques. Present results confirm the validity of the proposed bead-twisting approach for its capability to probe cellular and molecular responses in a variety of biological conditions.

  14. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  15. [Influences of ration level and initial body weight on growth and size hierarchy of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan

    2003-02-01

    72 hybrid tilapia were distributed into twelve tanks, each stocked in six fish (A, B, C, D, E, F) with different body size. The initial body weight was 62.69 +/- 1.46 g for fish A, 56.48 +/- 1.30 g for B, 50.75 +/- 1.19 g for C, 35.56 +/- 1.18 g for D, 31.05 +/- 0.88 g for E, and 27.35 +/- 0.95 g for F (mean +/- SE). The fish were reared under four ration levels (deprived of feed, fed at 1.5% body weight per day (BW.d-1), fed at 3.0% BW.d-1, or fed excess) throughout four weeks, respectively. The specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of the fish increased with increasing ration level up to 3.0% BW.d-1, and then, SGR maintained at a constant level while FE dropped with continuing increase of ration. The variance coefficient of SGR and final body weight was relatively high in the fish that fed at 1.5% BW.d-1. For fish A, SGR was not significantly different, between 1.5% BW.d-1, 3.0% BW.d-1 and fed excess, while in fish F, relatively high variations were found among different ration treatments. This experiment revealed that the growth and size hierarchy of hybrid tilapia were related to their ration level and initial body size. Under ration levels more than 3.0% BW.d-1, SGR was usually high, and size hierarchy was relatively weak.

  16. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  18. Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenbleek, Yves

    2017-09-20

    Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value.

  19. Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Ingenbleek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value.

  20. Communication Challenges in on-Body and Body-to-Body Wearable Wireless Networks—A Connectivity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer Ben Arbia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wearable wireless networks (WWNs offer innovative ways to connect humans and/or objects anywhere, anytime, within an infinite variety of applications. WWNs include three levels of communications: on-body, body-to-body and off-body communication. Successful communication in on-body and body-to-body networks is often challenging due to ultra-low power consumption, processing and storage capabilities, which have a significant impact on the achievable throughput and packet reception ratio as well as latency. Consequently, all these factors make it difficult to opt for an appropriate technology to optimize communication performance, which predominantly depends on the given application. In particular, this work emphasizes the impact of coarse-grain factors (such as dynamic and diverse mobility, radio-link and signal propagation, interference management, data dissemination schemes, and routing approaches directly affecting the communication performance in WWNs. Experiments have been performed on a real testbed to investigate the connectivity behavior on two wireless communication levels: on-body and body-to-body. It is concluded that by considering the impact of above-mentioned factors, the general perception of using specific technologies may not be correct. Indeed, for on-body communication, by using the IEEE 802.15.6 standard (which is specifically designed for on-body communication, it is observed that while operating at low transmission power under realistic conditions, the connectivity can be significantly low, thus, the transmission power has to be tuned carefully. Similarly, for body-to-body communication in an indoor environment, WiFi IEEE 802.11n also has a high threshold of end-to-end disconnections beyond two hops (approximatively 25 m. Therefore, these facts promote the use of novel technologies such as 802.11ac, NarrowBand-IoT (NB-IoT etc. as possible candidates for body-to-body communications as a part of the Internet of humans concept.

  1. Multi-cellular logistics of collective cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Yamao

    Full Text Available During development, the formation of biological networks (such as organs and neuronal networks is controlled by multicellular transportation phenomena based on cell migration. In multi-cellular systems, cellular locomotion is restricted by physical interactions with other cells in a crowded space, similar to passengers pushing others out of their way on a packed train. The motion of individual cells is intrinsically stochastic and may be viewed as a type of random walk. However, this walk takes place in a noisy environment because the cell interacts with its randomly moving neighbors. Despite this randomness and complexity, development is highly orchestrated and precisely regulated, following genetic (and even epigenetic blueprints. Although individual cell migration has long been studied, the manner in which stochasticity affects multi-cellular transportation within the precisely controlled process of development remains largely unknown. To explore the general principles underlying multicellular migration, we focus on the migration of neural crest cells, which migrate collectively and form streams. We introduce a mechanical model of multi-cellular migration. Simulations based on the model show that the migration mode depends on the relative strengths of the noise from migratory and non-migratory cells. Strong noise from migratory cells and weak noise from surrounding cells causes "collective migration," whereas strong noise from non-migratory cells causes "dispersive migration." Moreover, our theoretical analyses reveal that migratory cells attract each other over long distances, even without direct mechanical contacts. This effective interaction depends on the stochasticity of the migratory and non-migratory cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that stochastic behavior at the single-cell level works effectively and precisely to achieve collective migration in multi-cellular systems.

  2. Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity--correlation with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Hofmann, Tobias; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Elbelt, Ulf; Kobelt, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F

    2013-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity. However, the regulation of irisin under conditions of severely altered body weight such as anorexia nervosa and obesity remains to be investigated. We analyzed circulating irisin levels over a broad spectrum of body weight in 40 patients with anorexia nervosa (mean body mass index, BMI 12.6±0.7 kg/m(2)), normal weight controls (22.6±0.9 kg/m(2)) and obese patients with BMI of 30-40 (36.9±1.2 kg/m(2)), 40-50 (44.9±1.1 kg/m(2)) and >50 (70.1±2.7 kg/m(2), n=8/group). Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and different body indices, parameters of body composition and hormones involved in various homeostatic processes. Obese patients showed higher circulating irisin levels compared to normal weight and anorexic patients (plevels were positively correlated with irisin (r=0.45, pcortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone or C-reactive protein were not (p>0.05). These data indicate that circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate a physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Objectively measured physical activity levels and sedentary time in 7–9-year-old Estonian schoolchildren: independent associations with body composition parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Riso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sufficient daily physical activity (PA is necessary for physical, social and mental health benefits during growth. Most of the available data on children is based on subjective reports, while only limited data on objective PA and sedentary levels is available for primary school children. Increased PA is also an important health indicator of body composition parameters, especially body adiposity indices. The aim of the present study was to determine objectively the amount of daily PA levels at different intensities and sedentary time in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 7–9-year-old boys and girls, and to find associations between objectively measured PA levels and sedentary time with different body composition values. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight (142 boys and 136 girls primary school children aged 7.9 ± 0.7 years participated in this study. Objective PA intensity and sedentary levels were measured over 7 days by accelerometry. Indices of total fat mass (body fat %, sum of skinfolds, fat distribution (waist-to-height ratio and muscular component (fat free mass [FFM] were calculated from measured anthropometric parameters. Results There were no differences (p > 0.05 in PA intensity levels and sedentary time between boys and girls as well as between NW and OW children. About 11 % of children met the current guidelines of at least 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Sedentary time was positively and negatively associated (p < 0.05 with all body fat and FFM values, respectively. Moderate and vigorous PA along with MVPA were negatively and positively associated (p < 0.05 with all body fat and FFM indices, respectively. Conclusions The results of present study showed that about 11 % of primary school children were engaged in PA of at least 60 min of MVPA daily. While MVPA is negatively associated with fat mass indices and positively associated with FFM regardless of different

  4. Underlay of low-rate machine-type D2D links on downlink cellular links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno K.; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless cellular networks feature two emerging technological trends: direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communications and Machine-Type Communications (MTC). MTC devices (MTDs) pose new challenges to the cellular network, such as low transmission power and massive access that can lead to overload...... probability for the MTC link. The results show that SIC is an important enabler of low-power underlay D2D transmission for low-rate machine-type traffic; however, it may incur a significant rate penalty for the cellular users when trying to meet the outage requirements of the MTC link....... of the radio interface. In this paper we explore the opportunity opened by D2D links for supporting Low-rate Low-power MTDs that are connected to a nearby device, such as an on-body MTD connected to a mobile phone that acts as a relay towards the Base Station (BS). The low-rate requirement for this D2D...

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  6. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Malinouski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events.We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

  7. Interconnectivity of human cellular metabolism and disease prevalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations of metabolic reaction fluxes may cause abnormal concentrations of toxic or essential metabolites, possibly leading to metabolic diseases. The mutual binding of enzymatic proteins and ones involving common metabolites enforces distinct coupled reactions, by which local perturbations may spread through the cellular network. Such network effects at the molecular interaction level in human cellular metabolism can reappear in the patterns of disease occurrence. Here we construct the enzyme-reaction network and the metabolite-reaction network, capturing the flux coupling of metabolic reactions caused by the interacting enzymes and the shared metabolites, respectively. Diseases potentially caused by the failure of individual metabolic reactions can be identified by using the known disease–gene association, which allows us to derive the probability of an inactivated reaction causing diseases from the disease records at the population level. We find that the greater the number of proteins that catalyze a reaction, the higher the mean prevalence of its associated diseases. Moreover, the number of connected reactions and the mean size of the avalanches in the networks constructed are also shown to be positively correlated with the disease prevalence. These findings illuminate the impact of the cellular network topology on disease development, suggesting that the global organization of the molecular interaction network should be understood to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and drug discovery

  8. Interconnectivity of human cellular metabolism and disease prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Fluctuations of metabolic reaction fluxes may cause abnormal concentrations of toxic or essential metabolites, possibly leading to metabolic diseases. The mutual binding of enzymatic proteins and ones involving common metabolites enforces distinct coupled reactions, by which local perturbations may spread through the cellular network. Such network effects at the molecular interaction level in human cellular metabolism can reappear in the patterns of disease occurrence. Here we construct the enzyme-reaction network and the metabolite-reaction network, capturing the flux coupling of metabolic reactions caused by the interacting enzymes and the shared metabolites, respectively. Diseases potentially caused by the failure of individual metabolic reactions can be identified by using the known disease-gene association, which allows us to derive the probability of an inactivated reaction causing diseases from the disease records at the population level. We find that the greater the number of proteins that catalyze a reaction, the higher the mean prevalence of its associated diseases. Moreover, the number of connected reactions and the mean size of the avalanches in the networks constructed are also shown to be positively correlated with the disease prevalence. These findings illuminate the impact of the cellular network topology on disease development, suggesting that the global organization of the molecular interaction network should be understood to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and drug discovery.

  9. Giant congenital cellular blue nevus of the scalp: neonatal presentation and approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debyser M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Martine Debyser1, Sofie De Schepper2, James D'haese1, Veerle De Ketelaere3, Luc Cornette11Neonatal Intensive Care Unit AZ St Jan Bruges-Ostend AV, Bruges, Belgium; 2Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Paediatrics, St Rembert Hospital, Torhout, BelgiumAbstract: The authors report the case of a massive vaginal bleeding during labor and delivery, resulting in the birth of a newborn infant in hypovolemic shock. The origin of the bleeding was a giant congenital cellular blue nevus (CBN of the scalp. The report illustrates the crucial role of immediate and aggressive volume resuscitation, suturing of the skin dehiscence, and firm external compression. This therapy was combined with whole-body hypothermia. The neurological outcome of the patient was normal. A shiny blue mass on the scalp should alert neonatologists to the possibility of a blue nevus of the scalp, rather than a simple scalp hematoma. Final diagnosis is made by biopsy and histologic examination. Early surgical intervention is necessary to prevent malignant degeneration and metastasis. A multidisciplinary approach involving a pediatrician/neonatologist, dermatologist, and surgeon is thus needed for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-up.Keywords: neonate, cellular blue nevus, giant blue nevus, giant congenital blue nevus, hemorrhagic shock, whole-body hypothermia

  10. NQO1-dependent redox cycling of idebenone: effects on cellular redox potential and energy levels.

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    Roman H Haefeli

    Full Text Available Short-chain quinones are described as potent antioxidants and in the case of idebenone have already been under clinical investigation for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Due to their analogy to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, a long-chain quinone, they are widely regarded as a substitute for CoQ10. However, apart from their antioxidant function, this provides no clear rationale for their use in disorders with normal CoQ10 levels. Using recombinant NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO enzymes, we observed that contrary to CoQ10 short-chain quinones such as idebenone are good substrates for both NQO1 and NQO2. Furthermore, the reduction of short-chain quinones by NQOs enabled an antimycin A-sensitive transfer of electrons from cytosolic NAD(PH to the mitochondrial respiratory chain in both human hepatoma cells (HepG2 and freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes. Consistent with the substrate selectivity of NQOs, both idebenone and CoQ1, but not CoQ10, partially restored cellular ATP levels under conditions of impaired complex I function. The observed cytosolic-mitochondrial shuttling of idebenone and CoQ1 was also associated with reduced lactate production by cybrid cells from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS patients. Thus, the observed activities separate the effectiveness of short-chain quinones from the related long-chain CoQ10 and provide the rationale for the use of short-chain quinones such as idebenone for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders.

  11. Level of perception of technical terms regarding the effect of radiation on the human body by residents of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yoshida, Yasuko; Isogai, Emiko; Hayase, Takashi; Nakamura, Kozue; Saito, Mitsuo; Arizono, Koji

    2017-10-27

    This study aimed to examine the level of perception of the technical terms related to the effect of radiation on the human body among residents of the six prefectures of Miyagi, Fukushima, Tokyo, Aichi, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki in Japan. Miyagi and Fukushima were selected as devastated area by Great East Japan Earthquake. Tokyo and Aichi were selected as control. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected as the A-bombed area. A total of 1030 respondents, 172, 173, 171, 173, 171, and 170, respectively, were surveyed. Differences in the recognition level of technical terms related to the effect of radiation on the human body among residents of the six prefectures were assessed. The highest recognition levels were reported by the respondents from Fukushima (17 items). Those from Miyagi scored the second highest recognition levels (10 out of the 17 terms); the second highest recognition levels for the remaining seven terms were marked by the respondents of Tokyo. Respondents in the Tohoku region had a better recognition for the technical terminology relevant to the effect of radiation on the human body. Our findings indicate a need for continued, comprehensive risk communication pertaining to health hazards of radiation exposure in Tohoku region. Concerted efforts by central/local governments and other stakeholders are required to allay the anxiety/stress related to radiation exposure among the residents.

  12. Cellular network entropy as the energy potential in Waddington's differentiation landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Severini, Simone; Widschwendter, Martin; Enver, Tariq; Zhou, Joseph X.; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation is a key cellular process in normal tissue development that is significantly altered in cancer. Although molecular signatures characterising pluripotency and multipotency exist, there is, as yet, no single quantitative mark of a cellular sample's position in the global differentiation hierarchy. Here we adopt a systems view and consider the sample's network entropy, a measure of signaling pathway promiscuity, computable from a sample's genome-wide expression profile. We demonstrate that network entropy provides a quantitative, in-silico, readout of the average undifferentiated state of the profiled cells, recapitulating the known hierarchy of pluripotent, multipotent and differentiated cell types. Network entropy further exhibits dynamic changes in time course differentiation data, and in line with a sample's differentiation stage. In disease, network entropy predicts a higher level of cellular plasticity in cancer stem cell populations compared to ordinary cancer cells. Importantly, network entropy also allows identification of key differentiation pathways. Our results are consistent with the view that pluripotency is a statistical property defined at the cellular population level, correlating with intra-sample heterogeneity, and driven by the degree of signaling promiscuity in cells. In summary, network entropy provides a quantitative measure of a cell's undifferentiated state, defining its elevation in Waddington's landscape. PMID:24154593

  13. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the body composition of Muzaffarnagari lambs fattened to different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.H.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty eight male and 32 female Muzaffarnagari lambs were reared intensively on 4 rations containing 1.8, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.3 Mcal ME/kg of ration upto 25, 30 and 35 kg weights. Body composition of 27 lambs at 25 kg, 11 lambs at 30 kg and 14 lambs at 35 kg body weight was determined direct by slaughter and desiccation and indirect by TOH dilution techniques. The average corrected TOH space 72.30 +- 1.01 percent at 25 kg body weight and 69.61 +- 1.63 percent at 30 and 35 kg body weight (combined). Mean values by desiccation for corresponding body weights were 65.21 +- 1.04 and 65.00 +- 1.26 percent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the moisture content between the groups and sexes at different body weights. Protein content was significantly (P < 0.01) high in male lambs at all the weights. The difference in fat content due to treatments and sex was non-significant at 25 kg weight but significant (P < 0.01) at 30 and 35 kg body weights. The percentage of fat increased with the increase in the ME content of rations except in the female lambs of group 3 at 35 kg body weight which recorded least fat. (auth.)

  14. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żychowska, Małgorzata; Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Sawczyn, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE) on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 2.6 years; weight 68.6 ± 7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6 ± 6.7 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.04 m) performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs) before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp.) lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat), relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg), mean power (444 to 464 W), and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg). No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (-2 ∧ 0.57 p = 0.0019) and upper (-2 ∧ 0.5 p = 0.03) WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  15. Effect of Olive Pulpe Levels in The Diet of Buffalo Calves on Physiological Body Functions and Productive Traits Under Heat Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the changes that occur in growth and some physiological traits in buffalo calves as a result of using olive pulp levels (20 or 40%) under different conditions in Egypt. The study was carried out on 30 male growing buffalo calves aged 14-16 months with average body weight 309 kg and including two experiments; the 1st was carried out under mild climate in winter season on 15 calves while the 2nd was conducted during heat stress conditions of summer season on another 15 calves. In each of the two periods, animals were divided into three equal groups (5 buffalo calves in each). The first group was considered as control to olive pulp levels of 0% . The second and third groups receive olive pulp with 20 and 40% of the ingredient ration, respectively. The results showed that heat stress conditions of hot period induced significant decreases in the levels of final live body weight (FLBW), daily body weight gain (DBWG), total body weight gain (TBWG), total protein, albumin, total lipids, total cholesterol, Ca, inorganic P and thyroid hormones level (T4 and T3). On the other hand, significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GOT and GPT as compared with animals under mild conditions was recorded. Olive pulp levels in the diet affected significantly the total body gain, daily body weight gain, total cholesterol and thyroid hormones (T4 or T3). The values were lower in the group received 40% olive pulp than in the two groups received 0 and 20.0 % olive pulp. In addition, animals received 40% olive pulp showed significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GPT, total lipids and Ca. It could be concluded that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant depression in daily body weight gain and changed most blood components and thyroid hormones which related to physiological functions in buffalo calves. Concerning added olive pulp to the ration of buffalo calves, it could be concluded that daily body gain of buffalo calves

  16. Poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins responds to cellular perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, F.H.A.; Sharan, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    From the results presented above it is quite obvious that poly-ADP-ribosylation reaction is a sensitive parameter to monitor cellular responses to a wide variety of perturbations. Having developed a monolayer assay system using 32 P-NAD + as a marker, it has become possible to measure levels of cellular ADP-ribosylation more precisely. It has been demonstrated that the trigger of poly-ADP-ribosylation reaction may involve different cellular components for different perturbations. In this, membrane has been found to be important. The study has been particularly informative in the realm of DNA damage and repair following qualitatively different radiation assaults. As poly-ADP-ribosylation in eukaryotic cells primarily affects chromosomal proteins, notably histones, the reaction is strongly triggered in response to single and double strand breaks in DNA. Therefore, level of cellular poly-ADP-ribosylation can potentially be used as a biosensor of radiation induced strand breaks and can be specially useful in clinical monitoring of progress of radiotherapy. The assay of poly-ADP-ribosylation, however, requires use of radiolabelled tracer, e.g. 32 P-NAD + . Due to this, study of poly-ADP-ribosylation can not be extended to monitor effects of incorporated radionuclides. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to make the assay more sensitive and quick, a Western blot immunoassay has been developed. The preliminary indications are that the immunoassay of poly-ADP-ribosylation will fulfil the requirements to use poly-ADP-ribosylation as a sensitive, convenient and clinically applicable biosensor of cell response not only to radiations but also to different perturbations. (orig.)

  17. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Qi

    Full Text Available Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP. Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs and Repair Protein (RP generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  18. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinpeng; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR) by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP). Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS) instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and Repair Protein (RP) generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs) synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  19. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Cellular Structures, Induced Instability, and Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resat, Marianne S.; Arthurs, Benjamin J.; Estes, Brian J.; Morgan, william F.

    2006-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, the United States can expect 1,368,030 new cases of cancer in 2004 [1]. Among the many carcinogens Americans are exposed to, ionizing radiation will contribute to this statistic. Humans live in a radiation environment. Ionizing radiation is in the air we breathe, the earth we live on, and the food we eat. Man-made radiation adds to this naturally occurring radiation level thereby increasing the chance for human exposure. For many decades the scientific community, governmental regulatory bodies, and concerned citizens have struggled to estimate health risks associated with radiation exposures, particularly at low doses. While cancer induction is the primary concern and the most important somatic effect of exposure to ionizing radiation, potential health risks do not involve neoplastic diseases exclusively but also include somatic mutations that might contribute to birth defects and ocular maladies, and heritable mutations that might impact on disease risks in future generations. Consequently it is important we understand the effect of ionizing radiation on cellular structures and the subsequent long-term health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation

  20. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  1. Longitudinal changes in the physical activity of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their influence on body composition and leptin serum levels after recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Kostrzewa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN are often observed to have high levels of physical activity, which do not necessarily diminish after a successful therapy. Previous studies have shown that body fat tissue recovery in these patients is associated with a disproportional restoration of the adipocyte hormone, leptin. Therefore, we wondered whether the individual variation in physical activity in AN patients prior to treatment may be related to body fat percentage and plasma leptin level outcome. METHOD: Body fat percentage, leptin serum, and physical activity levels (accelerometer were measured in adolescents with an (n=37, age 13 to 17.5 years at initial assessment, at the end of study participation (median 12 months, and at one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Accelerometer data were used to split the patients in two groups: those with low (n=26 and those with high levels of physical activity (HLPA, n=11. These groups did not differ in terms of age, IQ, presence of menses, BMI and season of admission. The HLPA group was characterized by a longer total duration of illness. Physical activity levels during therapy decreased for the group with initially HLPA and increased for the group with low levels of physical activity (to comparable levels. Physical activity remained stable after one year. The increase in body fat percentage and leptin levels were dependent on the recovery status; however, recovered patients with initially HLPA had significantly higher fat mass during the follow-up. DISCUSSION: HLPA, an important modulator of AN progression in adolescents, can be successfully diminished by therapeutic intervention. Among recovered patients, those with initially HLPA had higher fat mass levels than those with low levels of physical activity. This finding suggests that HLPA are an important modulator of the body composition recovery mechanism.

  2. β-Amyloid pathogenesis: Chemical properties versus cellular levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic Aβ variants cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease, literature reports on Aβ properties are heterogeneous, obscuring molecular mechanisms, as illustrated by recent failures of Aβ-level targeting trials. Thus, we combined available data on Aβ levels and ratios, aggregation propensi...

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 levels are increased and partially related to body fat distribution in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Cynthia Melissa; de Almeida, Juliana Severo; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; Aguiar, Luiza Barreto S; Siciliano, Priscila O; Carvalho, Denise P; Godoy-Matos, Amelio F

    2017-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP4) is an enzyme responsible for glucagon-like peptide-1 inactivation and plays an important role in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate DPP4 levels in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) and correlate it with body fat distribution. Fourteen patients with FPLD2 were selected to participate in this study and matched to a healthy control group (n = 8). All participants had anthropometrical data registered. Body adiposity index (BAI) was used to evaluate fat distribution in this population. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Biochemical exams, including DPP4 levels, were performed in all individuals. Despite the same body mass index, lipodystrophic patients had a significant lower hip (median 92.0 vs 94.5; p = 0.028), HDL cholesterol (42.6 ± 10.4 vs 66.1 ± 16.0; p correlation was found between DPP4 levels and percentage of total body fat (r = 0.86; p = 0.0025) and android fat (r = 0.78; p = 0.014). Patients with FPLD2 exhibit an increase in DDP4 levels in comparison to a healthy control group. The increase in the levels of this enzyme does not seem to be related to the diagnosis of diabetes and might be associated with an increase in central fat (estimated using BAI and measured using DXA). These results might be used to reinforce the concept that DDP4 is an adipokine related to central fat distribution.

  4. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    1997-07-01

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons

  5. Cellular Particle Dynamics simulation of biomechanical relaxation processes of multi-cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Matthew; Kosztin, Ioan

    2013-03-01

    Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) is a theoretical-computational-experimental framework for describing and predicting the time evolution of biomechanical relaxation processes of multi-cellular systems, such as fusion, sorting and compression. In CPD, cells are modeled as an ensemble of cellular particles (CPs) that interact via short range contact interactions, characterized by an attractive (adhesive interaction) and a repulsive (excluded volume interaction) component. The time evolution of the spatial conformation of the multicellular system is determined by following the trajectories of all CPs through numerical integration of their equations of motion. Here we present CPD simulation results for the fusion of both spherical and cylindrical multi-cellular aggregates. First, we calibrate the relevant CPD model parameters for a given cell type by comparing the CPD simulation results for the fusion of two spherical aggregates to the corresponding experimental results. Next, CPD simulations are used to predict the time evolution of the fusion of cylindrical aggregates. The latter is relevant for the formation of tubular multi-cellular structures (i.e., primitive blood vessels) created by the novel bioprinting technology. Work supported by NSF [PHY-0957914]. Computer time provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of fat bodies from two brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens populations with different virulence levels in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population and Mudgo (M population. In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Fat Bodies from Two Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Populations with Different Virulence Levels in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful

  8. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid B

    2017-01-01

    The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30-50% (4-6 mM versus 7-9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  9. Cellular schwannoma arising from the gastric wall misdiagnosed as a gastric stromal tumor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyao; Chen, Ping; Zong, Liang; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Cellular schwannomas have been previously described at almost every anatomic location of the human body, but reports in the gastric wall are rare. The current study presents a rare case of cellular schwannoma originating from the gastric wall. Computed tomography revealed a 5.6×5.3×4.0-cm 3 solid mass located in the posterior wall of the stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, the tissue was composed of spindle-shaped and fascicularly-arranged cells, but mitotic figures were rare. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor was negative for cluster of differentiation (CD)117, CD34, smooth muscle actin and desmin, but positive for S-100 and Ki67. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence and metastasis during follow-up. Gastric cellular schwannomas may be diagnosed by clinical characteristics, histological observations and immunohistochemical markers.

  10. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  11. A medaka model of cancer allowing direct observation of transplanted tumor cells in vivo at a cellular-level resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Maruyama, Kouichi; Takenaka, Hikaru; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2009-08-18

    The recent success with small fish as an animal model of cancer with the aid of fluorescence technique has attracted cancer modelers' attention because it would be possible to directly visualize tumor cells in vivo in real time. Here, we report a medaka model capable of allowing the observation of various cell behaviors of transplanted tumor cells, such as cell proliferation and metastasis, which were visualized easily in vivo. We established medaka melanoma (MM) cells stably expressing GFP and transplanted them into nonirradiated and irradiated medaka. The tumor cells were grown at the injection sites in medaka, and the spatiotemporal changes were visualized under a fluorescence stereoscopic microscope at a cellular-level resolution, and even at a single-cell level. Tumor dormancy and metastasis were also observed. Interestingly, in irradiated medaka, accelerated tumor growth and metastasis of the transplanted tumor cells were directly visualized. Our medaka model provides an opportunity to visualize in vivo tumor cells "as seen in a culture dish" and would be useful for in vivo tumor cell biology.

  12. Influence of dietary amino acid level on chemical body composition and performance of growing-finishing boars of two sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Caroline; Berk, Andreas; Müller, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    There is only little information available concerning the chemical body composition of growing-finishing boars. For that reason, a total of 26 entire male pigs (boars) of two different Piétrain sire lines were fed with different levels of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) and the influence of this treatment on performance and chemical body composition was evaluated. In addition, an initial group of eight boars (n = 4 per sire line) was slaughtered at approximately 21 kg live weight (LW). The other 26 boars were fed three different diets containing 11.5, 13.2 and 14.9 g lysine/kg during the grower period and 9.0, 10.4, 11.7 g lysine/kg during the finisher period, respectively. Other EAA were added in relation to lysine (Lys: Met + Cys: Thr: Trp: Val = 1: 0.60: 0.65: 0.18: 0.75). At a LW of approximately 122 kg these 26 boars (six groups with three to seven animals each) were also slaughtered. The effects of EAA level and sire line on fattening and slaughter performance was recorded, and body and weight gain composition were analysed. There were no significant effects of EAA level on performance or on chemical body composition. Boars sired with Piétrain line 1 demonstrated increased lean meat content and protein body content (p < 0.05) as compared to Piétrain line 2-sired boars.

  13. Membrane and inclusion body targeting of lyssavirus matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollin, Reiko; Granzow, Harald; Köllner, Bernd; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Finke, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Lyssavirus matrix proteins (M) support virus budding and have accessory functions that may contribute to host cell manipulation and adaptation to specific hosts. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) and European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) M proteins differ in targeting and accumulation at cellular membranes. In contrast to RABV M, EBLV-1 M expressed from authentic EBLV-1 or chimeric RABV accumulated at the Golgi apparatus. Chimeric M proteins revealed that Golgi association depends on the integrity of the entire EBLV-1 M protein. Since RABV and EBLV-1 M differ in the use of cellular membranes for particle formation, differential membrane targeting and transport of M might determine the site of virus production. Moreover, both RABV and EBLV-1 M were for the first time detected within the nucleus and in Negri body-like inclusions bodies. Whereas nuclear M may imply hitherto unknown functions of lyssavirus M in host cell manipulation, the presence of M in inclusion bodies may correlate with regulatory functions of M in virus RNA synthesis. The data strongly support a model in which targeting of lyssavirus M proteins to distinctintracellular sites is a key determinant of diverse features in lyssavirus replication, host adaptation and pathogenesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. IGF-1 levels across the spectrum of normal to elevated in acromegaly: relationship to insulin sensitivity, markers of cardiovascular risk and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Tirissa J; Jin, Zhezhen; Shen, Wei; Reyes-Vidal, Carlos M; Fernandez, Jean Carlos; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Kostadinov, Jane; Post, Kalmon D; Freda, Pamela U

    2015-12-01

    Activity of acromegaly is gauged by levels of GH and IGF-1 and epidemiological studies demonstrate that their normalization reduces acromegaly's excess mortality rate. However, few data are available linking IGF-1 levels to features of the disease that may relate to cardiovascular (CV) risk. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serum IGF-1 levels relative to the upper normal limit relate to insulin sensitivity, serum CV risk markers and body composition in acromegaly. In this prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at a pituitary tumor referral center we studied 138 adult acromegaly patients, newly diagnosed and previously treated surgically, with fasting and post-oral glucose levels of endocrine and CV risk markers and body composition assessed by DXA. Active acromegaly is associated with lower insulin sensitivity, body fat and CRP levels than acromegaly in remission. %ULN IGF-1 strongly predicts insulin sensitivity, better than GH and this persists after adjustment for body fat and lean tissue mass. %ULN IGF-1 also relates inversely to CRP levels and fat mass, positively to lean tissue and skeletal muscle estimated (SM(E)) by DXA, but not to blood pressure, lipids, BMI or waist circumference. Gender interacts with the IGF-1-lean tissue mass relationship. Active acromegaly presents a unique combination of features associated with CV risk, reduced insulin sensitivity yet lower body fat and lower levels of some serum CV risk markers, a pattern that is reversed in remission. %ULN IGF-1 levels strongly predict these features. Given the known increased CV risk of active acromegaly, these findings suggest that of these factors insulin resistance is most strongly related to disease activity and potentially to the increased CV risk of active acromegaly.

  15. A longitudinal study of whole body, tissue, and cellular physiology in a mouse model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Abdullah, Tasduq Sheikh; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hartono, Stella; McConico, Andrea; White, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan; Lanza, Ian; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gores, Gregory; Charlton, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The sequence of events that lead to inflammation and fibrosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is incompletely understood. Hence, we investigated the chronology of whole body, tissue, and cellular events that occur during the evolution of diet-induced NASH. Male C57Bl/6 mice were assigned to a fast-food (FF; high calorie, high cholesterol, high fructose) or standard-chow (SC) diet over a period of 36 wk. Liver histology, body composition, mitochondrial respiration, metabolic rate, gene expression, and hepatic lipid content were analyzed. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] increased 10-fold after 4 wk. Fibrosing NASH was fully established by 16 wk. Total hepatic lipids increased by 4 wk and remained two- to threefold increased throughout. Hepatic triglycerides declined from sixfold increase at 8 wk to threefold increase by 36 wk. In contrast, hepatic cholesterol levels steadily increased from baseline at 8 wk to twofold by 36 wk. The hepatic immune cell population altered over time with macrophages persisting beyond 16 wk. Mitochondrial oxygen flux rates of FF mice diet were uniformly lower with all the tested substrates (13-276 pmol·s -1 ·ml -1 per unit citrate synthase) than SC mice (17-394 pmol·s -1 ·ml -1 per unit citrate synthase) and was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial:nuclear gene copy number ratios after 4 wk. Metabolic rate was lower in FF mice. Mitochondrial glutathione was significantly decreased at 24 wk in FF mice. Expression of dismutases and catalase was also decreased in FF mice. The evolution of NASH in the FF diet-induced model is multiphasic, particularly in terms of hepatic lipid composition. Insulin resistance precedes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion occur after the histological features of NASH are apparent. Collectively, these observations provide a unique overview of the sequence of changes that coevolve with the histological evolution of

  16. Continuum-level modelling of cellular adhesion and matrix production in aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Liesbet; Ashbourn, Joanna M A; Clarke, Tim

    2011-05-01

    Key regulators in tissue-engineering processes such as cell culture and cellular organisation are the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. As mathematical models are increasingly applied to investigate biological phenomena in the biomedical field, it is important, for some applications, that these models incorporate an adequate description of cell adhesion. This study describes the development of a continuum model that represents a cell-in-gel culture system used in bone-tissue engineering, namely that of a cell aggregate embedded in a hydrogel. Cell adhesion is modelled through the use of non-local (integral) terms in the partial differential equations. The simulation results demonstrate that the effects of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are particularly important for the survival and growth of the cell population and the production of extracellular matrix by the cells, concurring with experimental observations in the literature.

  17. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Żychowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9±2.6 years; weight 68.6±7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6±6.7 kg; height 1.70±0.04 m performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp. lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat, relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg, mean power (444 to 464 W, and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg. No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (−2∧0.57 p=0.0019 and upper (−2∧0.5 p=0.03 WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  18. Relationships between Physical Activity Levels, Self-Identity, Body Dissatisfaction and Motivation among Spanish High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Amado, Diana; Pulido, Juan José; Sánchez-Oliva, David

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gender and the educational grade on the one hand, and physical activity levels, motivation, self-identity, body dissatisfaction, the intention to be physically active and daily sitting time on the other, in a sample of Spanish high school adolescents. The sample consisted of 2087 Spanish students from the 3rd (n = 1141) and 4th grade (n = 946), both male (n = 1046) and female (n = 1041), ranging in age from 15 to 17 years old (M = 15.42; SD = .86). Students completed questionnaires to assess their levels of physical activity, self-identity, motivation, intention to be physically active and daily sitting time. The students' perceptions of their body height and mass were also tested. With the exception of walking MET values, the results showed gender differences in the variables tested. Male participants showed higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than female participants. Furthermore, male students revealed higher levels of physical activity than female students. Finally, the research concluded with the importance of promoting intrinsic reasons for physical activity in order to encourage positive consequences in high school students.

  19. Relationships between Physical Activity Levels, Self-Identity, Body Dissatisfaction and Motivation among Spanish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Amado, Diana; Pulido, Juan José; Sánchez-Oliva, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gender and the educational grade on the one hand, and physical activity levels, motivation, self-identity, body dissatisfaction, the intention to be physically active and daily sitting time on the other, in a sample of Spanish high school adolescents. The sample consisted of 2087 Spanish students from the 3rd (n = 1141) and 4th grade (n = 946), both male (n = 1046) and female (n = 1041), ranging in age from 15 to 17 years old (M = 15.42; SD = .86). Students completed questionnaires to assess their levels of physical activity, self-identity, motivation, intention to be physically active and daily sitting time. The students’ perceptions of their body height and mass were also tested. With the exception of walking MET values, the results showed gender differences in the variables tested. Male participants showed higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than female participants. Furthermore, male students revealed higher levels of physical activity than female students. Finally, the research concluded with the importance of promoting intrinsic reasons for physical activity in order to encourage positive consequences in high school students. PMID:29134046

  20. Relationships Between Physical Activity Levels, Self-Identity, Body Dissatisfaction and Motivation Among Spanish High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Miguel Pedro Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gender and the educational grade on the one hand, and physical activity levels, motivation, self-identity, body dissatisfaction, the intention to be physically active and daily sitting time on the other, in a sample of Spanish high school adolescents. The sample consisted of 2087 Spanish students from the 3rd (n = 1141 and 4th grade (n = 946, both male (n = 1046 and female (n = 1041, ranging in age from 15 to 17 years old (M = 15.42; SD = .86. Students completed questionnaires to assess their levels of physical activity, self-identity, motivation, intention to be physically active and daily sitting time. The students’ perceptions of their body height and mass were also tested. With the exception of walking MET values, the results showed gender differences in the variables tested. Male participants showed higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than female participants. Furthermore, male students revealed higher levels of physical activity than female students. Finally, the research concluded with the importance of promoting intrinsic reasons for physical activity in order to encourage positive consequences in high school students.

  1. Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marques-Pita

    Full Text Available We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level, which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level. This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks, identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought, the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.

  2. Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Pita, Manuel; Rocha, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level), which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level). This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks), identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought), the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized) control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.

  3. Dynamic behavior of cellular materials and cellular structures: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ziyang

    Cellular solids, including cellular materials and cellular structures (CMS), have attracted people's great interests because of their low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They offer potential for lightweight structures, energy absorption, thermal management, etc. Therefore, the studies of cellular solids have become one of the hottest research fields nowadays. From energy absorption point of view, any plastically deformed structures can be divided into two types (called type I and type II), and the basic cells of the CMS may take the configurations of these two types of structures. Accordingly, separated discussions are presented in this thesis. First, a modified 1-D model is proposed and numerically solved for a typical type II structure. Good agreement is achieved with the previous experimental data, hence is used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a type II chain. Resulted from different load speeds, interesting collapse modes are observed, and the parameters which govern the cell's post-collapse behavior are identified through a comprehensive non-dimensional analysis on general cellular chains. Secondly, the MHS specimens are chosen as an example of type I foam materials because of their good uniformity of the cell geometry. An extensive experimental study was carried out, where more attention was paid to their responses to dynamic loadings. Great enhancement of the stress-strain curve was observed in dynamic cases, and the energy absorption capacity is found to be several times higher than that of the commercial metal foams. Based on the experimental study, finite elemental simulations and theoretical modeling are also conducted, achieving good agreements and demonstrating the validities of those models. It is believed that the experimental, numerical and analytical results obtained in the present study will certainly deepen the understanding of the unsolved fundamental issues on the mechanical behavior of

  4. CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY, CARDIO-RESPIRATORY FITNESS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    Niyati N Khona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the hormonal changes in postmenopausal women they are prone for many complications like increased CVD risk factors, osteoporosis, obesity, mood swings and urinary incontinence. Physical inactivity in postmenopausal women leads to higher risk of developing CVD and osteoporosis. The objective was to find out the correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in post-menopausal women Methods: 42 postmenopausal women were included. A detailed clinical evaluation with physical activity level (IPAQ-METS-mins/week, , BMD ( T-Scores, body composition (BMI, waist circumference, BIA & Skin fold calliper for fat %, cardio-respiratory fitness was measured by Balke protocol and VO2peak (ml/kg/min is estimated. Correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition were analysed using “Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient and Spearman’s rho.” Results: Spearman’s rank correlation rho for IPAQ with VO2 peak was 0.420,BMI was -0.388 and visceral fat was -0.384 indicating moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness and weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient of IPAQ with BMD was 0.147, body fat was -0.234 and waist circumference was -0.256 indicating no correlation. P value was significant for correlation of IPAQ with CRF (0.006, BMI (0.011 and Visceral fat (0.012. Conclusion: There is moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness, weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat and no correlation between IPAQ and BMD, body fat and waist circumference

  5. Cellular dosimetry in nuclear medicine imaging: training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardin, I.; Faraggi, M.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.; Bok, B.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides used in nuclear medicine imaging emit not only diagnostically useful photons, but also energy electron emissions, responsible for dose heterogeneity at the cellular level. The mean dose delivered to the cell nucleus by electron emissions of 99m Tc, 123 I, 111 In, 67 Ga, and 201 Tl, has been calculated, for the cell nucleus, a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distribution of radioactivity. This model takes into account both the self-dose which results from the radionuclide located in the target cell, and the cross-dose, which comes from the surrounding cells. The results obtained by cellular dosimetry (D cel ) have been compared with those obtained with conventional dosimetry (D conv ), by assuming the same amount of radioactivity per cell. Cellular dosimetry shows, for a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, that the main contribution to the dose to the cell nucleus, comes from the surrounding cells. On the other hand, for a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity, the self-dose is not negligible and may be the main contribution. The comparison between cellular and conventional dosimetry shows that D cel /D conv ratio ranges from 0.61 and O.89, in case of a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, depending on the radionuclide and cell dimensions. Thus, conventional dosimetry slightly overestimates the mean dose to the cell nucleus. On the other hand, D cel /D conv ranges from 1.1 to 75, in case of a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity. Conventional dosimetry may strongly underestimates the absorbed dose to the nucleus, when radioactivity is located in the nucleus. The study indicates that in nuclear medicine imaging, cellular dosimetry may lead to a better understanding of biological effects of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  6. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effects of varying dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer fingerlings (Tor tambroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Saad, Che Roos; Yusof, Yus Aniza

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?

  8. Examining changes in cellular communication in neuroendocrine cells after noble metal nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Liu, Zhen; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-07-07

    As nanoparticles enjoy increasingly widespread use in commercial applications, the potential for unintentional exposure has become much more likely during any given day. Researchers in the field of nanotoxicity are working to determine the physicochemical nanoparticle properties that lead to toxicity in an effort to establish safe design rules. This work explores the effects of noble metal nanoparticle exposure in murine chromaffin cells, focusing on examining the effects of size and surface functionality (coating) in silver and gold, respectively. Carbon-fibre microelectrode amperometry was utilized to examine the effect of exposure on exocytosis function, at the single cell level, and provided new insights into the compromised functions of cells. Silver nanoparticles of varied size, between 15 and 60 nm diameter, were exposed to cells and found to alter the release kinetics of exocytosis for those cells exposed to the smallest examined size. Effects of gold were examined after modification with two commonly used 'bio-friendly' polymers, either heparin or poly (ethylene glycol), and gold nanoparticles were found to induce altered cellular adhesion or the number of chemical messenger molecules released, respectively. These results support the body of work suggesting that noble metal nanoparticles perturb exocytosis, typically altering the number of molecules and kinetics of release, and supports a direct disruption of the vesicle matrix by the nanoparticle. Overall, it is clear that various nanoparticle physicochemical properties, including size and surface coating, do modulate changes in cellular communication via exocytosis.

  9. Statistical mechanics of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, S.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed

  10. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Zalud, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  11. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  12. [Morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkov, V N; Khudoerkov, R M; Voronkov, D N; Sobolev, V B; Kutukova, K A

    to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group). This investigation could clarify the features of morphochemical changes in both the neural network structures and the glial populations of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The number of neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopamine neurons) in the compact part of the substantia nigra (a ventral region) was smaller and the density distribution of Lewy bodies was higher in the patients with Parkinson's disease than in the control group. The accumulation of iron (II) compounds in the cellular elements and neuropile and the increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Parkinson's disease were more pronounced than those in the controls. Postmortem diagnosis in Parkinson's disease should be based on a full description of a set of neuronal and glial morphochemical and structural changes in the substantia nigra rather than on the identification of cellular markers for the neurodegenerative process.

  13. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    The feeling of “ownership” over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an “embodied” dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested. PMID:26415748

  14. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  15. The long Tramp from Cellular Pathology to Molecular Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Guski

    2017-05-01

    Derivatives: The observation of principal identity of biological meaningful elements can be agglutinated to a ‘general theory of live’ and its manifestation. All of the investigated elements posses the same regularities, which are altered, destroyed or newly built by external influences such as disease, physical and psychological forces. Not all magnification levels that display with these elements are of the same significance. Already Virchow suggested that ‘smaller elements (molecules might be responsible for changes that are visible ‘in larger elements’ (at cellular level.  The reflection on these ideas can be associated with the implementation of molecular techniques which has been developed in the 20th century and are still ongoing today. Perspectives: Thus, cellular and molecular pathology can be integrated under one umbrella. This umbrella will lead to newly man-formed structures, such as artificial DNA and gene components or functional chip implantations.

  16. Tribological behavior of Ti6Al4V cellular structures produced by Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu, F; Sampaio, M; Carvalho, O; Pinto, E; Alves, N; Gomes, J R; Silva, F S; Miranda, G

    2017-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies enable the fabrication of innovative structures with complex geometries not easily manufactured by traditional processes. Regarding metallic cellular structures with tailored/customized mechanical and wear performance aiming to biomedical applications, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a remarkable solution for their production. Focusing on prosthesis and implants, in addition to a suitable Young's modulus it is important to assess the friction response and wear resistance of these cellular structures in a natural environment. In this sense, five cellular Ti6Al4V structures with different open-cell sizes (100-500µm) were designed and produced by SLM. These structures were tribologicaly tested against alumina using a reciprocating sliding ball-on-plate tribometer. Samples were submerged in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) fluid at 37°C, in order to mimic in some extent the human body environment. The results showed that friction and wear performance of Ti6Al4V cellular structures is influenced by the structure open-cell size. The higher wear resistance was obtained for structures with 100µm designed open-cell size due to the higher apparent area of contact to support tribological loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production and properties of bronze based cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, S.; Danninger, H.

    2001-01-01

    For production of lightweight components, cellular materials offer attractive potential. Here, manufacturing of sintered bodies from bronze hollow spheres is described. The process starts with fabrication of hollow copper particles by cementation of Cu on iron particles. The still fragile Cu shells are consolidated by coating with Sn and subsequent gravity sintering. The resulting specimens exhibit a closed cell bronze structure with rather consistent morphology and cell wall thickness. The apparent density may range between 1.5 and 3.0 gcm -3 and can be controlled by variation of particle size and wall thickness. The mechanical behavior of the structures esp. during compressive loading is described and related to the microstructural parameters. (author)

  18. The Effect of 10 Weeks of Resistance Training on Serum Myostatin and Body Composition Levels in Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ebrahim Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studies are indicative of negative regulatory role of myostatin in skeletal muscle growth. In the present study, the effect of 10 weeks of resistance training was investigated on serum level of myostatin and body composition in obese adolescents. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 16 students of Mohammad Naraghi Technical and Vocational Institute of Kashan with body mass index of 30-35, were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Resistance training program included 3 sets of 8-10 reps with 50-90% 1RM for 3 days a week. Before starting the training program and 48 h after the last training session, blood samples were taken from all participants. Before and after the training, plasma level of myostatin were measured. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, dependent t-, and independent t-tests at significance level of p<0.05. Results: In this study, 10 weeks of resistance training resulted in a significant decrease in serum level of myostatin (p=0.0001, weight (p=0.015, body mass index (p=0.02, and fat percentage (p=0.0001 in the experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that resistance training-induced changes reduce myostatin level and some anthropometric parameters related to obesity and overweight, which may be effective in the prevention of muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, and can play a role as an autocrine mechanism for guiding mechanical load stimuli in response to the growth of skeletal muscle.

  19. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  20. Abscisic-acid-induced cellular apoptosis and differentiation in glioma via the retinoid acid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Yao, Yu; Ye, Hongxing; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2016-04-15

    Retinoid acid (RA) plays critical roles in regulating differentiation and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) and RA are direct derivatives of carotenoids and share structural similarities. Here we proposed that ABA may also play a role in cellular differentiation and apoptosis by sharing a similar signaling pathway with RA that may be involved in glioma pathogenesis. We reported for the first time that the ABA levels were twofold higher in low-grade gliomas compared with high-grade gliomas. In glioma tissues, there was a positive correlation between the ABA levels and the transcription of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) and a negative correlation between the ABA levels and transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). ABA treatment induced a significant increase in the expression of CRABP2 and a decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in glioblastoma cells. Remarkably, both cellular apoptosis and differentiation were increased in the glioblastoma cells after ABA treatment. ABA-induced cellular apoptosis and differentiation were significantly reduced by selectively silencing RAR-α, while RAR-α overexpression exaggerated the ABA-induced effects. These results suggest that ABA may play a role in the pathogenesis of glioma by promoting cellular apoptosis and differentiation through the RA signaling pathway. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi F. H. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls. The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  2. Observing bodies. Camera surveillance and the significance of the body.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2003-01-01

    At the most mundane level, CCTV observes bodies, and as such attaches great importance to the specific features of the human body. At the same time, however, bodies tend to disappear, as they are represented electronically by the camera monitors and, in the case of image recording, by the computer

  3. Cellular telephones measure activity and lifespace in community-dwelling adults: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Hoarty, Carrie A; Carlson, Richard H; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual's lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Stochastic fluctuations and distributed control of gene expression impact cellular memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Corre

    Full Text Available Despite the stochastic noise that characterizes all cellular processes the cells are able to maintain and transmit to their daughter cells the stable level of gene expression. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we investigated the temporal dynamics of gene expression variation using a double reporter gene model. We compared cell clones with transgenes coding for highly stable mRNA and fluorescent proteins with clones expressing destabilized mRNA-s and proteins. Both types of clones displayed strong heterogeneity of reporter gene expression levels. However, cells expressing stable gene products produced daughter cells with similar level of reporter proteins, while in cell clones with short mRNA and protein half-lives the epigenetic memory of the gene expression level was completely suppressed. Computer simulations also confirmed the role of mRNA and protein stability in the conservation of constant gene expression levels over several cell generations. These data indicate that the conservation of a stable phenotype in a cellular lineage may largely depend on the slow turnover of mRNA-s and proteins.

  5. Electromagnetic energy as a bridge between atomic and cellular levels in the genetics approach to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, Santi

    2015-01-01

    Literature on magnetic fields (MF) and gene expression, as well as on DNA damage, supports the hypothesis that electromagnetic energy may act at atomic level influencing genetic stability. According to quantum physics, MF act on the interconversion of singlet and triplet spin states, and therefore on genetic instability, activating oxidative processes connected to biological free radicals formation, particularly ROS. In the above frame, the results of in vitro and in vivo laboratory trials have been analyzed. The use of a static MF amplitude modulated by 50 Hz MF, with a time average total intensity of 5.5 mT, has been shown to influence tumor cell functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, p53 expression, inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of survival in animals, evidence that MF can be more effective than chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) in inhibiting metastatic spread and growth, having synergistic activity with chemotherapy (Cis-platin), and no observable side effects or toxicity in animals or in humans. The beneficial biological/clinical effects observed, without any adverse effects, have been confirmed by various authors and augur well for the potentiality of this new approach to treat genetically based diseases like cancer. Further studies are needed to develop a quantum physics approach to biology, allowing a stable bridge to be built between atomic and cellular levels, therefore developing quantum biology.

  6. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  7. Stability of the composites: NiAl - cellular high-melting point metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomyttsev, M.Yu.; Kozlov, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    For sintered composite materials (CM) NiAl-W and NiAl-W-Mo the structure and mechanical properties are studied. A comparative analysis of the effect of hot deformation by compression at 1000-1300 Deg C on the integrity of microsamples themselves and tungsten shells of NiAl granules in CM with a cellular structure is accomplished. Local chemical composition of a NiAl/refractory metal interface in CM with cellular structure and free of it is determined. A CM structural state effect on compression yield strength at 1000 Deg C is estimated. The treatment is proposed which permits approaching cellular structured CM oxidation resistance at 1000-1100 Deg C to the level of heat stability of unalloyed NiAl or its alloy with Hf [ru

  8. Cellular self-assembly and biomaterials-based organoid models of development and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shivem B; Singh, Ankur

    2017-04-15

    Organogenesis and morphogenesis have informed our understanding of physiology, pathophysiology, and avenues to create new curative and regenerative therapies. Thus far, this understanding has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically relevant yet accessible model that affords biological control. Recently, three-dimensional ex vivo cellular cultures created through cellular self-assembly under natural extracellular matrix cues or through biomaterial-based directed assembly have been shown to physically resemble and recapture some functionality of target organs. These "organoids" have garnered momentum for their applications in modeling human development and disease, drug screening, and future therapy design or even organ replacement. This review first discusses the self-organizing organoids as materials with emergent properties and their advantages and limitations. We subsequently describe biomaterials-based strategies used to afford more control of the organoid's microenvironment and ensuing cellular composition and organization. In this review, we also offer our perspective on how multifunctional biomaterials with precise spatial and temporal control could ultimately bridge the gap between in vitro organoid platforms and their in vivo counterparts. Several notable reviews have highlighted PSC-derived organoids and 3D aggregates, including embryoid bodies, from a development and cellular assembly perspective. The focus of this review is to highlight the materials-based approaches that cells, including PSCs and others, adopt for self-assembly and the controlled development of complex tissues, such as that of the brain, gut, and immune system. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eLee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554 in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression – including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding and degradation steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes.

  10. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed eJamsheer K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1 signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response towards energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response.

  11. In vivo cellular imaging using fluorescent proteins - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and genetic engineering of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cell biology. What was previously invisible to the cell often can be made visible with the use of fluorescent proteins. With this words, Robert M. Hoffman introduces In vivo Cellular Imaging Using Fluorescent proteins, the eighteen chapters book dedicated to the description of how fluorescence proteins have changed the way to analyze cellular processes in vivo. Modern researches aim to study new and less invasive methods able to follow the behavior of different cell types in different biological contexts: for example, how cancer cells migrate or how they respond to different therapies. Also, in vivo systems can help researchers to better understand animal embryonic development so as how fluorescence proteins may be used to monitor different processes in living organisms at the molecular and cellular level.

  12. Cellular automata analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...

  13. Russell Body Gastroenteritis: An Aberrant Manifestation of Chronic Inflammation in Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriyl Bhaijee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1998, Russell body gastritis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition characterized by abundant intramucosal polyclonal plasma cells, which contain intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules of immunoglobulins (Russell bodies that displace the nucleus, with an accompanying chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Russell bodies represent a cellular response to overstimulation of plasma cells, leading to the accumulation of abundant, nondegradable, condensed immunoglobulin in dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Russell body gastritis usually occurs in the gastric antrum, but two cases of Russell body duodenitis have been recently described. Herein, we report an unusual case of Barrett esophagus with prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and Russell bodies, which expands the current spectrum of Russell body gastritis/duodenitis. Given the various anatomic locations in which Russell body gastritis may arise, we suggest that “Russell body gastroenteritis” may be a more appropriate designation for this uncommon reactive condition.

  14. The interaction between radiation and complexes of cis-Pt(II) and Rh(II): studies at the molecular and cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibber, R.

    1985-01-01

    As a first step in gaining an understanding of the relative cellular effects of the transition metal/nitroimidazole complexes the authors have examined the effect of radiation given to cells in the presence of metal complexes not containing a nitroimidazole ligand. The compounds used in the cellular work are a series of Rh(II) carboxylates, cisplatin and JM8 (CBDCA, cis-diammine-1, 1-cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum (II)). In radiation chemical experiments, Rh(II) acetate and cisplatin were chosen to represent model systems. Results from these radiation chemical and cellular experiments then allow interpretation of the changes in biological response caused by these agents, which are discussed in terms of the mechanism(s) thought to be operative in radiosensitization. (author)

  15. Endogenous oxytocin levels are associated with the perception of emotion in dynamic body expressions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Koenig, James I; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Lower endogenous oxytocin levels have been associated with impaired social cognition in schizophrenia, particularly facial affect identification. Little is known about the relationship between oxytocin and other forms of emotion perception. In the current study, 41 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN) completed a forced-choice affective body expression classification task. Stimuli included dynamic videos of male and female actors portraying 4 discrete emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and neutral. Plasma oxytocin levels were determined via radioimmunoassay. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ were also less accurate at identifying expressions of happiness and sadness; however, there were no group differences for anger or neutral stimuli. A group×sex interaction was also present, such that female CN were more accurate than male CN, whereas male SZ were more accurate than female SZ. Higher endogenous oxytocin levels were associated with better total recognition in both SZ and CN; this association was specific to females in SZ. Findings indicate that sex plays an important role in identifying emotional expressions in body gestures in SZ, and that individual differences in endogenous oxytocin predict emotion perception accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linear reversible second-order cellular automata and their first-order matrix equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    Linear or one-dimensional reversible second-order cellular automata, exemplified by three cases named as RCA1-3, are introduced. Displays of their evolution in discrete time steps, &{\\in}Z_2;) as for RCA1-3. MCA1-3 are tractable because it has been possible to generalize to them the heavy duty methods already well-developed for ordinary first-order cellular automata like those of Wolfram's Rules 90 and 150. While the automata MCA1-3 are thought to be of genuine interest in their own right, with untapped further mathematical potential, their treatment has been applied here to expediting derivation of a large body of general and explicit results for N(t) for RCA1-3. Amongst explicit results obtained are formulas also for each of RCA1-3 for the total weight of the configurations of the first &2^M; times, M =0, 1, 2,\\ldots.

  17. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  18. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Catarina O; Barela, José A; Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Salvini, Tania F; Barela, Ana M F

    2009-12-01

    Body weight support (BWS) systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years) were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical assistance.

  19. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  20. NAD(H) and NADP(H) Redox Couples and Cellular Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wusheng; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2018-01-20

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )/reduced NAD + (NADH) and NADP + /reduced NADP + (NADPH) redox couples are essential for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and for modulating numerous biological events, including cellular metabolism. Deficiency or imbalance of these two redox couples has been associated with many pathological disorders. Recent Advances: Newly identified biosynthetic enzymes and newly developed genetically encoded biosensors enable us to understand better how cells maintain compartmentalized NAD(H) and NADP(H) pools. The concept of redox stress (oxidative and reductive stress) reflected by changes in NAD(H)/NADP(H) has increasingly gained attention. The emerging roles of NAD + -consuming proteins in regulating cellular redox and metabolic homeostasis are active research topics. The biosynthesis and distribution of cellular NAD(H) and NADP(H) are highly compartmentalized. It is critical to understand how cells maintain the steady levels of these redox couple pools to ensure their normal functions and simultaneously avoid inducing redox stress. In addition, it is essential to understand how NAD(H)- and NADP(H)-utilizing enzymes interact with other signaling pathways, such as those regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor, to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and energy metabolism. Additional studies are needed to investigate the inter-relationships among compartmentalized NAD(H)/NADP(H) pools and how these two dinucleotide redox couples collaboratively regulate cellular redox states and cellular metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, recent studies suggest the utility of using pharmacological interventions or nutrient-based bioactive NAD + precursors as therapeutic interventions for metabolic diseases. Thus, a better understanding of the cellular functions of NAD(H) and NADP(H) may facilitate efforts to address a host of pathological disorders effectively. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 251-272.

  1. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  2. A Cellular Automata Model of Infection Control on Medical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Langarica, Alicia; Kojouharov, Hristo; Chen-Charpentier, Benito; Tang, Liping

    2011-01-01

    S. epidermidis infections on medically implanted devices are a common problem in modern medicine due to the abundance of the bacteria. Once inside the body, S. epidermidis gather in communities called biofilms and can become extremely hard to eradicate, causing the patient serious complications. We simulate the complex S. epidermidis-Neutrophils interactions in order to determine the optimum conditions for the immune system to be able to contain the infection and avoid implant rejection. Our cellular automata model can also be used as a tool for determining the optimal amount of antibiotics for combating biofilm formation on medical implants. PMID:23543851

  3. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kh.M. Mahrose; A.I. Attia; I.E. Ismail; D.E. Abou-Kassem; M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The res...

  4. Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multi-level multi-scale optimization of cellular scanning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    . A multilevel optimization strategy is adopted using a customized genetic algorithm developed for optimizing cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting, with an objective of reducing residual stresses and deformations. The resulting thermo-mechanically optimized cellular scanning strategies......, a calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. The resulting reduction in thermal model computation time allows evolutionary algorithm-based optimization of the process...

  5. Threat-level-dependent manipulation of signaled body size: dog growls' indexical cues depend on the different levels of potential danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Anna; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-11-01

    Body size is an important feature that affects fighting ability; however, size-related parameters of agonistic vocalizations are difficult to manipulate because of anatomical constraints within the vocal production system. Rare examples of acoustic size modulation are due to specific features that enable the sender to steadily communicate exaggerated body size. However, one could argue that it would be more adaptive if senders could adjust their signaling behavior to the fighting potential of their actual opponent. So far there has been no experimental evidence for this possibility. We tested this hypothesis by exposing family dogs (Canis familiaris) to humans with potentially different fighting ability. In a within-subject experiment, 64 dogs of various breeds consecutively faced two threateningly approaching humans, either two men or two women of different stature, or a man and a woman of similar or different stature. We found that the dogs' vocal responses were affected by the gender of the threatening stranger and the dog owner's gender. Dogs with a female owner, or those dogs which came from a household where both genders were present, reacted with growls of lower values of the Pitch-Formant component (including deeper fundamental frequency and lower formant dispersion) to threatening men. Our results are the first to show that non-human animals react with dynamic alteration of acoustic parameters related to their individual indexical features (body size), depending on the level of threat in an agonistic encounter.

  6. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of 125 I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential. (author)

  7. Cellular phones and risk of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H; Jacobson, A; Gansler, T; Thun, M J

    2001-01-01

    As cellular telephones are a relatively new technology, we do not yet have long-term follow-up on their possible biological effects. However, the lack of ionizing radiation and the low energy level emitted from cell phones and absorbed by human tissues make it unlikely that these devices cause cancer. Moreover, several well-designed epidemiologic studies find no consistent association between cell phone use and brain cancer. It is impossible to prove that any product or exposure is absolutely safe, especially in the absence of very long-term follow-up. Accordingly, the following summary from the Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health offers advice to people concerned about their risk: If there is a risk from these products--and at this point we do not know that there is--it is probably very small. But if people are concerned about avoiding even potential risks, there are simple steps they can take to do so. People who must conduct extended conversations in their cars every day could switch to a type of mobile phone that places more distance between their bodies and the source of the RF, since the exposure level drops off dramatically with distance. For example, they could switch to: a mobile phone in which the antenna is located outside the vehicle, a hand-held phone with a built-in antenna connected to a different antenna mounted on the outside of the car or built into a separate package, or a headset with a remote antenna to a mobile phone carried at the waist. Again the scientific data do not demonstrate that mobile phones are harmful. But if people are concerned about the radiofrequency energy from these products, taking the simple precautions outlined above can reduce any possible risk. In addition, people who are concerned might choose digital rather than analog telephones, since the former use lower RF levels.

  8. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  9. Learning from eponyms: George F. Odland and Odland bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Odland bodies (lamellar bodies are small sub-cellular structures of size 200-300 nm that are present in the upper spinous and granular cell layers of the epidermis. These act as processing and repository areas for lipids that contribute to the epidermal permeability barrier. They also contain proteases, cathepsin D, kallikrein and other proteins including corneo-desmosins. Recent information also credits them with a role in the local innate immune response as they contain beta 2 defensins, which are anti-microbial peptides with potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and candida. Odland bodies are important for maintaining homeostasis of the epidermis and are involved in epidermal permeability barrier function, desquamation of keratinocytes, formation of the cornified envelope and in local anti-microbial immunity. This article reviews the structure and functions of these bodies with a brief biography of George F. Odland who first described these bodies in 1960 and whose name is eponymically associated with them.

  10. A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.

  11. A study of the mechanism of action of pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone at the cellular level using reticulocytes loaded with non-heme 59Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, A.R.; Ponka, P.; McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec; Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec

    1983-01-01

    Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) has recently been identified as a new iron chelating agent with a high degree of iron mobilizing activity in vitro and in vivo which makes this compound a candidate drug in the treatment of iron overload. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of action of the iron mobilizing activity of PIH at the cellular level. An in vitro system of rabbit reticulocytes with a high level of non-heme 59 Fe was used as a model of iron overload. The effects of various biochemical and physiological manoeuvers on the mobilization of 59 Fe by PIH from the cells were studied. The fate of [ 14 C]-PIH in the in vitro system was also studied. Studies were also carried out using a crude mitochondrial fraction. (orig./AJ)

  12. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcripts to proteins show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale, and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  13. Effect of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Li-Hua; Peng, Jiang-Long; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Xia; Geng, Huan-Xiong

    2005-12-07

    To explore the effects of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The levels of T lymphocyte subsets and mIL-2R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by biotin-streptavidin (BSA) technique in patients with chronic hepatitis B before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. After one course of treatment with liniment levamisole, the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) increased as compared to those before the treatment but the level of CD8(+) decreased. The total expression level of mIL-2R in PBMCs increased before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. Liniment levamisole may reinforce cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  14. Cellular and molecular repair of X-ray-induced damage: dependence on oxygen tension and nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, I.J.; Kennedy, K.A.; Stickler, R.; Ling, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Cellular and molecular repair was studied at 23 0 C using split-dose recovery and alkaline elution techniques, respectively, as a function of cellular oxygen and nutrient conditions. Hypoxic cells in full medium showed a partial reduction in the level of sublethal damage (SLD) repair relative to aerated cells; the respective repair kinetics were similar with a common repair half-time of 30 min. Similarly, hypoxic cells showed a slight reduction in strand break rejoining capacity compared to aerated cells. Under nutrient deprivation, anoxic cells displayed no SLD repair or strand break repair, while aerated cells exhibited the same level of SLD and strand break repair as for well-fed cells. In addition, nutrient deprived cells at low O 2 levels displayed normal SLD and strand break repair capability. These results indicate that both nutrient and O 2 deprivation are necessary for complete inhibition of cellular and molecular repair, and low levels of O 2 can effectively reverse this inhibition

  15. Iron-Restricted Diet Affects Brain Ferritin Levels, Dopamine Metabolism and Cellular Prion Protein in a Region-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. V. Pino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary iron restriction on brain ferritin levels, dopamine metabolism, and the expression levels of PrPC and α-synuclein. To achieve this goal, C57BL/6 mice were fed with iron restricted diet (IR or with normal diet (CTL for 1 month. IR reduced iron and ferritin levels in liver. Ferritin reduction was also observed in the hippocampus. However, in the striatum of IR group, ferritin level was increased, suggesting that under iron-deficient condition, each brain area might acquire distinct capacity to store iron. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed only in hippocampus of IR group, where ferritin level was reduced. IR also generated discrete results regarding dopamine metabolism of distinct brain regions: in striatum, the level of dopamine metabolites (DOPAC and HVA was reduced; in prefrontal cortex, only HVA was increased along with the enhanced MAO-A activity; in hippocampus, no alterations were observed. PrPC levels were increased only in the striatum of IR group, where ferritin level was also increased. PrPC is known to play roles in iron uptake. Thus, the increase of PrPC in striatum of IR group might be related to the increased ferritin level. α-synuclein was not altered in any regions. Abnormal accumulation of ferritin, increased MAO-A activity or lipid peroxidation are molecular features observed in several neurological

  16. An in vitro strategy to evaluate the phototoxicity of solar UV at the molecular and cellular level: application to photoprotection assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrot, L; Belaidi, J P; Chaubo, C; Meunier, J R; Perez, P; Agapakis-Causse, C

    1998-09-01

    Skin cancers are among the most common human cancers and have an increasing incidence. The ultraviolet radiation components of sunlight play a major role in skin tumor induction and development. Cellular DNA has been identified as a target for most of the biological effects of UV, and the induction of photodamage is considered as the initiating step of photocarcinogenesis. Thus, effective photoprotection of DNA against harmful overex-posure to solar UV is a critical issue. The efficiency of a sunscreen is usually tested with respect to its ability to prevent skin erythema, but conceivably, more data are required at the molecular and cellular level in order to ascertain protection against photocarcinogenic risk. In the present study, we define a strategy based on the use of various in vitro models and solar-simulated light to evaluate photodamage and photoprotection: -Supercoiled circular plasmid DNA for detection of structural alterations. -The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. -The single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay to determine DNA damage and DNA repair in human keratinocytes. -p53 expression as a hallmark for genotoxic stress. -Induction of pigmentation in human melanocytes. In conditions where light source, spectrum and control of radiation delivery were precisely defined, we have demonstrated that the wide spectrum UVA sunscreen Mexoryl SX protects from the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of solar UV.

  17. Cellular Automata as an Example for Advanced Beginners’ Level Coding Exercises in a MOOC on Test Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Staubitz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Programming tasks are an important part of teaching computer programming as they foster students to develop essential programming skills and techniques through practice.  The design of educational problems plays a crucial role in the extent to which the experiential knowledge is imparted to the learner both in terms of quality and quantity. Badly designed tasks have been known to put-off students from practicing programming. Hence, there is a need for carefully designed problems. Cellular Automata programming lends itself as a very suitable candidate among problems designed for programming practice. In this paper, we describe how various types of problems can be designed using concepts from Cellular Automata and discuss the features which make them good practice problems with regard to instructional pedagogy. We also present a case study on a Cellular Automata programming exercise used in a MOOC on Test Driven Development using JUnit, and discuss the automated evaluation of code submissions and the feedback about the reception of this exercise by participants in this course. Finally, we suggest two ideas to facilitate an easier approach of creating such programming exercises.

  18. Investigating the effects of ABC transporter-based acquired drug resistance mechanisms at the cellular and tissue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Krishnan, J; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we systematically investigate the effects of acquired drug resistance at the cellular and tissue scale, with a specific focus on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-based mechanisms and contrast this with other representative intracellular resistance mechanisms. This is done by developing in silico models wherein the drug resistance mechanism is overlaid on a coarse-grained description of apoptosis; these cellular models are coupled with interstitial drug transport, allowing for a transparent examination of the effect of acquired drug resistances at the tissue level. While ABC transporter-mediated resistance mechanisms counteract drug effect at the cellular level, its tissue-level effect is more complicated, revealing unexpected trends in tissue response as drug stimuli are systematically varied. Qualitatively different behaviour is observed in other drug resistance mechanisms. Overall the paper (i) provides insight into the tissue level functioning of a particular resistance mechanism, (ii) shows that this is very different from other resistance mechanisms of an apparently similar type, and (iii) demonstrates a concrete instance of how the functioning of a negative feedback based cellular adaptive mechanism can have unexpected higher scale effects.

  19. Design and evaluation of cellular power converter architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, David John

    . This cellular system implements entirely distributed control, and achieves performance levels unattainable with an equivalent single converter. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  20. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Insulin Levels in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Sachinidou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most important problems of modern societies, and is considered a modern plague which tends to evolve to a global pandemic. Premenopausal women, most of the times, manifest hormonal dysfunctions and dysfunctions in their metabolism. The consequences are weight gain, heart diseases, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine if vitamin D levels and Glycosylated hemoglobin are affected by exercise and if there is a connection between Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin. Method: The research involved 48 healthy premenopausal women who answered questionnaires which included questions about their height, weight, waist circumference, lifestyle and history of menstruation. This questionnaire, after due electronic approval, was based on a model of the German Sports and Research Centre (Karlsruhe Institut Fuer Sport und Sportwissenschaft. Women, after having completed a consent form, were also subjected to laboratory testing to determine their insulin, vitamin D levels and Glycosylated hemoglobin levels. To specify the vitamin D and insulin levels a method of direct chemiluminescence was used, and Glycosylated hemoglobin identification was specified using an automated light metering method. Statistical analysis performed using ΙΒΜ SPSS 22. Results: At the premenopausal women (41+/-7ετών (BMI24+/-4 kg/m2 a significant impact during the time of the exercises in the glycosylated hemoglobin (p = 0.038 0.05 regarding the levels of Glycosylated hemoglobin and the combination of exercise with other physical activities. Finally, a significant correlation between BMI and insulin (p=0.001<0.05 was detected. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference found in vitamin D levels relative to physical activity. Conclusion: During the research it was found that BMI influences the secretion of insulin, and insulin resistance that is a metabolism disorder, is a result of

  1. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  2. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lindsay A. [University of Oxford, Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Division of Structural Biology, Nuffield Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc, E-mail: m.baldus@uu.nl [Utrecht University, NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR.

  3. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Lindsay A.; Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR

  4. Body composition variables and leptin levels in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and amenorrhea related to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Vincenzina; Dei, Metella; Morelli, Chiara; Schettino, M Teresa; Balzi, Daniela; Nuvolone, Daniela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify diagnostic criteria that can distinguish between subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea largely related to minimal energy deficiency and those in whom failure of adaptive response to stress prevails. We studied 59 young women with secondary amenorrhea related to modest eating disorders and 58 who complained of stressful events in their history. We assessed anthropometric measurements, body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and basal endocrine profile. Subjects with disordered eating had lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) measured with both techniques, lumbar mineral density and direct and indirect measures of lean mass. Leptin and free tri-iodothyronine(FT(3)) concentrations also proved lower in the group of subjects with eating disorders, although there was no significant difference in cortisol between the two groups. Leptin levels were positively associated not only with fat mass, but also with body cell mass indexed to height and phase angle, parameters studied with BIA as expression of active lean compartment. A multivariate model confirmed the utility of integrating endocrine data with the study of body composition. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis proved to be, in clinical use, a valid diagnostic alternative to DEXA, especially considering body cell mass and phase angle. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function. (topical review)

  6. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  7. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  8. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu.

    1990-02-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author).

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  12. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  13. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deciphering the iron isotope message of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2005-04-01

    Mass-dependent variations in isotopic composition are known since decades for the light elements such as hydrogen, carbon or oxygen. Multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and double-spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) permit us now to resolve small variations in isotopic composition even for the heavier elements such as iron. Recent studies on the iron isotopic composition of human blood and dietary iron sources have shown that lighter iron isotopes are enriched along the food chain and that each individual bears a certain iron isotopic signature in blood. To make use of this finding in biomedical research, underlying mechanisms of isotope fractionation by the human body need to be understood. In this paper available iron isotope data for biological samples are discussed within the context of isotope fractionation concepts and fundamental aspects of human iron metabolism. This includes evaluation of new data for body tissues which show that blood and muscle tissue have a similar iron isotopic composition while heavier iron isotopes are concentrated in the liver. This new observation is in agreement with our earlier hypothesis of a preferential absorption of lighter iron isotopes by the human body. Possible mechanisms for inducing an iron isotope effect at the cellular and molecular level during iron uptake are presented and the potential of iron isotope effects in human blood as a long-term measure of dietary iron absorption is discussed.

  15. MEMS capacitive force sensors for cellular and flight biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yu; Nelson, Bradley J

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are playing increasingly important roles in facilitating biological studies. They are capable of providing not only qualitative but also quantitative information on the cellular, sub-cellular and organism levels, which is instrumental to understanding the fundamental elements of biological systems. MEMS force sensors with their high bandwidth and high sensitivity combined with their small size, in particular, have found a role in this domain, because of the importance of quantifying forces and their effect on the function and morphology of many biological structures. This paper describes our research in the development of MEMS capacitive force sensors that have already demonstrated their effectiveness in the areas of cell mechanics and Drosophila flight dynamics studies. (review article)

  16. 5G and Cellular Networks in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Jorguseski, Ljupco; Zhang, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    grid. In the present chapter, we present the main features of both the non-3GPP technologies, IEEE 802.11ah, SigFox and LoRa, and the main features of past, current and future 3GPP technologies, namely releases High rate), 12-14 (IoT extensions) and 15-16 (5G). Additionally, we present......Wireless cellular networks will help Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to achieve observability below the substation level, which is needed to ensure stable operation in the smart grid. Both existing and upcoming cellular technologies are considered as candidates for helping to enable the smart...... the challenges and possible solutions for ensuring end-to-end security in smart grid systems....

  17. Cellular Angiofibroma of the Nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Zülküf Burak; Yener, Haydar Murat; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Karaaltin, Ayşegül Batioğlu; Inan, Hakki Caner; Alaskarov, Elvin; Gozen, Emine Deniz

    2017-11-01

    Angiofibroma is a common tumor of the nasopharynx region but cellular type is extremely rare in head and neck. A 13-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for 6 months. According to the clinical symptoms and imaging studies juvenile angiofibroma was suspected. Following angiographic embolization total excision of the lesion by midfacial degloving approach was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of staghorn blood vessels and irregular fibrous stroma. Stellate fibroblasts with small pyknotic to large vesicular nuclei were seen in a highly cellular stroma. These findings identified cellular angiofibroma mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This article is about a very rare patient of cellular angiofibroma of nasopharynx.

  18. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 knockdown tunes cellular mechanics through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonju Lee

    Full Text Available We report cell mechanical changes in response to alteration of expression of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1, a most abundant and widely distributed plasma membrane nucleoside transporter in human cells and/or tissues. Modulation of hENT1 expression level altered the stiffness of pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and Panc 03.27 cells, which was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM and correlated to microfluidic platform. The hENT1 knockdown induced reduction of cellular stiffness in both of cells up to 70%. In addition, cellular phenotypic changes such as cell morphology, migration, and expression level of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers were observed after hENT1 knockdown. Cells with suppressed hENT1 became elongated, migrated faster, and had reduced E-cadherin and elevated N-cadherin compared to parental cells which are consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Those cellular phenotypic changes closely correlated with changes in cellular stiffness. This study suggests that hENT1 expression level affects cellular phenotype and cell elastic behavior can be a physical biomarker for quantify hENT1 expression and detect phenotypic shift. Furthermore, cell mechanics can be a critical tool in detecting disease progression and response to therapy.

  19. Immobilization of bioactive fibroblast growth factor-2 into cubic proteinous microcrystals (Bombyx mori cypovirus polyhedra) that are insoluble in a physiological cellular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hajime; Shukunami, Chisa; Furuyama, Akiko; Notsu, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yuriko; Hiraki, Yuji

    2007-06-08

    The supramolecular architecture of the extracellular matrix and the disposition of its specific accessory molecules give rise to variable heterotopic signaling cues for single cells. Here we have described the successful occlusion of human fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) into the cubic inclusion bodies (FGF-2 polyhedra) of the Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV). The polyhedra are proteinous cubic crystals of several microns in size that are insoluble in the extracellular milieu. Purified FGF-2 polyhedra were found to stimulate proliferation and phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cultured fibroblasts. Moreover, cellular responses were blocked by a synthetic inhibitor of the FGF signaling pathway, SU5402, suggesting that FGF-2 polyhedra indeed act through FGF receptors. Furthermore, FGF-2 polyhedra retained potent growth stimulatory properties even after desiccation. We have demonstrated that BmCPV polyhedra microcrystals that occlude extracellular signaling proteins are a novel and versatile tool that can be employed to analyze cellular behavior at the single cell level.

  20. 47 CFR 22.923 - Cellular system configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular system configuration. 22.923 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.923 Cellular system configuration. Mobile stations... directly or through cellular repeaters. Auxiliary test stations may communicate with base or mobile...

  1. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldine R. Amiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  2. A Comparison of Able-Bodied and Disabled College Students on Erikson's Ego Stages and Maslow's Needs Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsman, Kay Harris; Hershenson, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Compared physically disabled and able-bodied college students on Erickson's epigenetic stages of life-span development, and Maslow's motivational needs hierarchy of personality development. The groups were more similar than dissimilar in ego development and needs level. College students with disabilities may be a select population because of their…

  3. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-11-08

    Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM ( p < 0.0001, n = 287). No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content ( p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  4. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  5. Cellular recovery kinetic studies relevant to combined-modality research and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The relevance of cellular recovery kinetics to combined-modality therapy is evaluated within the framework of an idealized experimental flow chart and published adriamycin data. Within this context, limitations for both experimental design and data interpretations are discussed. The effects of adriamycin have been documented extensively at the molecular and cellular level and its interactions with x-irradiation have been studied, both in vitro and in vivo. The limited in vivo results suggest that the end results of a given protocol correlate with cellular recovery kinetics; however, definitive experiments simply have not been done. For example, no one has used single-dose drug and irradiation data to predict the outcome and then confirm or refute the prediction even in a relatively simple 2-dose drug + 2-dose drug + 2-dose x-ray protocol. Thus, at this time, the extent of the correlations between cellular recovery kinetics and clinical response for either normal or malignant tissues is not known and the possible relevance of such studies cannot be discounted

  6. Comparison of different methods to assess natural backgrond levels in groundwater bodies in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Parrone, Daniele; Ghergo, Stefano; Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Oliveira, Juana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the natural background levels (NBLs) of a substance or element is important to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in groundwater bodies. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. Rainfall composition, water-rock interactions in both vadose and saturated zone, exchanges with other water bodies and residence time also contribute to determine the groundwater natural composition. Nowadays there are different methods to assess NBLs but the main concern is that they may provide different results. In the European legislative context, the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) requests to EU Member States to derive appropriate threshold values (TV) for several potentially harmful substances, taking into account NBLs when necessary, in order to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. In the framework of a common project between Italy (CNR) and Portugal (FCT), several groundwater bodies were taken into account in different regions of Italy (Latium and Campania) and Portugal. The general objective is the definition of a sound comprehensive methodology for NBL assessment at groundwater body scale, suitable to different hydrogeological settings through comparing diverse case studies and different approaches. The Italian case studies are located in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary geological contexts, where high concentrations of substances such as As, F, Fe, Mn among others in groundwater are well known. The Portuguese case studies are located in carbonate and porous media aquifers. Several data sets were explored with the use of statistical as well as mathematical procedures in order to determine a threshold between natural and anthropogenic concentration. Today essentially two groups of methods are proposed, the first ascribed to the probability plots (PP method), the second based on the selection of the

  7. Longitudinal State-Level Effects on Change in Body Mass Index among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chia; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the effects of state-level socioeconomic status (SES), the density of fast food restaurants and walking to work on body mass index (BMI) among US adults aged 50 years and older. The study sought further to account for the interaction effects of three different hierarchical levels of…

  8. Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldberg, R.; Knudsen, C.; Rasmussen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set of fixed points of cellular automata on an infinite lattice

  9. Plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol reflect the balance between cerebral production and hepatic metabolism and are inversely related to body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretillon, L; Lütjohann, D; Ståhle, L; Widhe, T; Bindl, L; Eggertsen, G; Diczfalusy, U; Björkhem, I

    2000-05-01

    We have previously presented evidence that most of the 24S-hydroxycholesterol present in the circulation originates from the brain and that most of the elimination of this oxysterol occurs in the liver. Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels decline by a factor of about 5 during the first decades of life. The concentration of the enzyme cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase in the brain is, however, about constant from the first year of life, and reduced enzyme levels thus cannot explain the decreasing plasma levels during infancy. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that the plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol may reflect the size of the brain relative to the capacity of the liver to eliminate the substance. It is shown here that the age-dependent changes in absolute as well as cholesterol-related plasma level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol closely follow the changes in the ratio between estimated brain weight and estimated liver volume. The size of the brain is increased only about 50% whereas the size of the liver is increased by about 6-fold after the age of 1 year. Liver volume is known to be highly correlated to body surface, and in accordance with this the absolute as well as the cholesterol-related plasma level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol was found to be highly inversely correlated to body surface in 77 healthy subjects of varying ages (r(2) = 0.74). Two chondrodystrophic dwarves with normal size of the brain but with markedly reduced body area had increased levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol when related to age but normal levels when related to body surface. It is concluded that the balance between cerebral production and hepatic metabolism is a critical determinant for plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol at different ages and that endocrinological factors are less important. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility to use 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the circulation as a marker for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain.

  10. Cellular senescence and organismal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Sedivy, John M

    2008-01-01

    Cellular senescence, first observed and defined using in vitro cell culture studies, is an irreversible cell cycle arrest which can be triggered by a variety of factors. Emerging evidence suggests that cellular senescence acts as an in vivo tumor suppression mechanism by limiting aberrant proliferation. It has also been postulated that cellular senescence can occur independently of cancer and contribute to the physiological processes of normal organismal aging. Recent data have demonstrated the in vivo accumulation of senescent cells with advancing age. Some characteristics of senescent cells, such as the ability to modify their extracellular environment, could play a role in aging and age-related pathology. In this review, we examine current evidence that links cellular senescence and organismal aging.

  11. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessing, G [Atominst. der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Zeilinger, A [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)

    1991-07-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.).

  12. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)

  13. Effect of whole body X-irradiation on the NP-SH level of blood in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Soo Jhi; Woo, Won Hyung

    1972-01-01

    In hope to elucidate possible changes in blood NP-SH levels when X-irradiation is made in single or fractionate dose, a whole body X-irradiation was done to rabbits either in single dose of 900 r or in fractionated dose of 300 r per day for three days. The NP-SH was measured at 1, 3, 5, 24 and 48 post-irradiation hours, and the results were compared with the normal value of the blood NP-SH. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The normal value of blood NP-SH in the rabbit was 2.11 ± 0.40 μmol/ml. 2. In the single X-irradiation group, the blood NP-SH decreased most prominently at five hours after-irradiation, and a tendency of recovery to the normal level was observed thereafter. 3. In the fractionated group, the blood NP-SH levels were higher, than in the single irradiation group throughout the experiment, and the levels were also higher than the normal in general

  14. The study of selective accumulation of radionuclides cesium 137, strontium 90 and cerium 144 in the cellular compartments of charophyta algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Moteyunene, E.B.; Gudavichene, N.A.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The study of the accumulation of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce in separate compartments of Chara algae (cellular wall, protoplasm, vacuoles), testifies to the fact that the entrance and accumulation level of the radionuclides depend upon the selective permeability of the cellular wall and plasmalemma, which is regulated both by the ratio of the chemical analogues of the radionuclides in the medium, and by the level of cellular metabolism [fr

  15. BRD4 regulates cellular senescence in gastric cancer cells via E2F/miR-106b/p21 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xingchen; Hu, Xiangming; Chen, Jinjing; Hu, Dan; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2018-02-12

    Small molecules targeting bromodomains of BET proteins possess strong anti-tumor activities and have emerged as potential therapeutics for cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms for the anti-proliferative activity of these inhibitors are still not fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that BET inhibitor JQ1 suppressed the proliferation and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells by inducing cellular senescence. Depletion of BRD4, which was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, but not other BET proteins recapitulated JQ1-induced cellular senescence with increased cellular SA-β-Gal activity and elevated p21 levels. In addition, we showed that the levels of p21 were regulated at the post-transcriptional level by BRD4-dependent expression of miR-106b-5p, which targets the 3'-UTR of p21 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-106b-5p prevented JQ1-induced p21 expression and BRD4 inhibition-associated cellular senescence, whereas miR-106b-5p inhibitor up-regulated p21 and induced cellular senescence. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of E2F suppressed the binding of BRD4 to the promoter of miR-106b-5p and inhibited its transcription, leading to the increased p21 levels and cellular senescence in gastric cancer cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which BRD4 regulates cancer cell proliferation by modulating the cellular senescence through E2F/miR-106b-5p/p21 axis and provide new insights into using BET inhibitors as potential anticancer drugs.

  16. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  17. Morphine Produces Immunosuppressive Effects in Non-human Primates at the Proteomic and Cellular Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Ortiz, Gabriel M.; Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Chan, Eric Y.; Purdy, David E.; Murnane, Robert D.; Larsen, Kay; Palermo, Robert E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Clauss, Therese RW; Katze, Michael G.; McCune, Joseph M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-11

    Morphine has long been known to have immunosuppressive properties in vivo, but the molecular and immunologic changes induced by it are incompletely understood. As a prelude to understanding how these changes might interact with lentiviral infection in vivo, animals from two non-human primate (NHP) species [African green monkey (AGMs) and pigtailed macaque (PTs)] were provided morphine and studied using a systems biology approach. Biological specimens were obtained from multiple sources (e.g., lymph node, colon, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and peripheral blood) before and after the administration of morphine (titrated up to a maximum dose of 5 mg/kg over a period of 20 days). Cellular immune, plasma cytokine, and proteome changes were measured and morphine-induced changes in these parameters were assessed on an inter-organ, inter-individual, and inter-species basis. In both species, morphine was associated with decreased levels of (Ki-67+) T cell activation but with only minimal changes in overall T cell counts, neutrophil counts, and NK cells counts. While changes in T cell maturation were observed, these varied across the various tissue/fluid compartments studied. Proteomic analysis revealed a morphine-induced suppressive effect in the lymph node, with decreased abundance of protein mediators involved in the functional categories of energy metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of cell structure. These findings have relevance for understanding the impact of heroin addiction and the opioids used to treat addiction as well as on the interplay between opioid abuse and the response to infection with agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV).

  18. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ePiras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcript to protein show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  19. Role of androgen-mediated enhancement of erythropoiesis in the increased body iron stores of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether androgen excess contributes to the increased body iron stores of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by stimulating erythropoietic activity, by measuring serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and its ratio to ferritin levels in patients with PCOS, as surrogate markers of erythropoietic activity and of the appropriateness of cellular iron demands for the total body iron contents, respectively. Case-control study. Academic hospital. One hundred-four patients with PCOS and 100 controls without androgen excess. Blood sampling and oral glucose tolerance test. Serum sTfR and ferritin concentrations, as well as indexes of androgen excess, inflammation, obesity, and insulin and glucose metabolism. Serum ferritin levels increased in women presenting with PCOS, obesity, and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, but these disorders did not influence sTfR concentrations. The sTfR/ferritin ratio decreased with obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance, and its logarithm correlated inversely with body mass index, free T, and C-reactive protein levels and directly with the insulin sensitivity and disposition indexes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the changes in the insulin sensitivity index explained 7% of the variability of the logarithm of sTfR/ferritin ratio. Increased serum ferritin levels in patients with PCOS are associated with a reduction in insulin sensitivity but do not result from a putative enhancement of erythropoiesis by androgen excess. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 47 CFR 90.672 - Unacceptable interference to non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from 800 MHz cellular systems or part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from 800 MHz cellular systems or part 22 Cellular Radiotelephone systems, and within the... Procedures and Process-Unacceptable Interference § 90.672 Unacceptable interference to non-cellular 800 MHz...

  1. Body composition and the level of fitness in 10 to 14-year-old girls in western Hungary: the impact of the new PE curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szakály Zsolt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Over the last two decades, the body fat mass has been increasing and the level of physical fitness has been decreasing in school-aged children. Due to the health-related concerns that have arisen regarding school-aged children, the Hungarian government introduced everyday physical education in 2012. Since girls are more disposed to higher body fat and low fitness levels, the aim of our study was to characterise the physique, body composition and aerobic capacity of 10 to 14-year-old girls three years after the introduction of the new curriculum with daily PE lessons.

  2. Cellular signaling identifiability analysis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Ryan T; Pia Saccomani, Maria; Vicini, Paolo

    2010-05-21

    Two primary purposes for mathematical modeling in cell biology are (1) simulation for making predictions of experimental outcomes and (2) parameter estimation for drawing inferences from experimental data about unobserved aspects of biological systems. While the former purpose has become common in the biological sciences, the latter is less common, particularly when studying cellular and subcellular phenomena such as signaling-the focus of the current study. Data are difficult to obtain at this level. Therefore, even models of only modest complexity can contain parameters for which the available data are insufficient for estimation. In the present study, we use a set of published cellular signaling models to address issues related to global parameter identifiability. That is, we address the following question: assuming known time courses for some model variables, which parameters is it theoretically impossible to estimate, even with continuous, noise-free data? Following an introduction to this problem and its relevance, we perform a full identifiability analysis on a set of cellular signaling models using DAISY (Differential Algebra for the Identifiability of SYstems). We use our analysis to bring to light important issues related to parameter identifiability in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. We contend that this is, as of yet, an under-appreciated issue in biological modeling and, more particularly, cell biology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular Stress to Low Gamma-ray Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Vega-Carrillo, H. R.; Letechipia de Leon, C.; Guzman Enriquez, L. J.; Garcia-Talavera, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low gamma ray intensity upon Hsp 70 expression in human lymphocytes. the heat shock proteins (Hsp) family, are a group of proteins present in all living organism, therefore there are highly conserved and are related to adaptation and evolution. At cellular level these proteins acts as chaperones correcting denatured proteins. when a stress agent, such heavy metals, UV, heat, etc. is affecting a cell a response to this aggression is triggered through overexpression of Hsp. Several studies has been carried out in which the cellular effect are observed, mostly of these studies uses large doses, but very few studies are related with low doses. Blood of healthy volunteers was obtained and the lymphocytes were isolated by ficoll-histopaque gradient. Experimental lots were irradiated in a ''137Cs gamma-ray. Hsp70 expression was found since 0.5 cGy, indicating a threshold to very low doses of gamma rays. (Author) 27 refs

  4. Influence of Macromolecular Biosynthesis on Cellular Autolysis in Streptococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayare, Mitchel; Daneo-Moore, Lolita; Shockman, Gerald D.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of several different antibiotics to growing cultures of Streptococcus faecalis, ATCC 9790, was found to inhibit autolysis of cells in sodium phosphate buffer. When added to exponential-phase cultures, mitomycin C (0.4 μg/ml) or phenethyl alcohol (3 mg/ml) inhibited deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, but did not appreciably affect the rate of cellular autolysis. Addition of chloramphenicol (10 μg/ml), tetracycline (0.5 μg/ml), puromycin (25 μg/ml), or 5-azacytidine (5 μg/ml) to exponential-phase cultures inhibited protein synthesis and profoundly decreased the rate of cellular autolysis. Actinomycin D (0.075 μg/ml) and rifampin (0.01 μg/ml), both inhibitors of ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, also reduced the rate of cellular autolysis. However, the inhibitory effect of actinomycin D and rifampin on cellular autolysis was more closely correlated with their concomitant secondary inhibition of protein synthesis than with the more severe inhibition of RNA synthesis. The dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis by 5-azacytidine was quickly diluted out of a growing culture. Reversal of inhibition was accompanied by a disproportionately rapid increase in the ability of cells to autolyze. Thus, inhibition of the ability of cells to autolyze can be most closely related to inhibition of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the rapidity of the response of cellular autolysis to inhibitors of protein synthesis suggests that regulation is exerted at the level of autolytic enzyme activity and not enzyme synthesis. PMID:4116754

  5. Excessive Cellular S-nitrosothiol Impairs Endocytosis of Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1 is the key enzyme that regulates cellular levels of S-nitrosylation across kingdoms. We have previously reported that loss of GSNOR1 resulted in impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport in Arabidopsis, leading to the auxin-related morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the compromised auxin transport in gsnor1-3 mutant is still unknown. Endocytosis of plasma-membrane (PM-localized efflux PIN proteins play critical roles in auxin transport. Therefore, we investigate whether loss of GSNOR1 function has any effects on the endocytosis of PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins. It was found that the endocytosis of either the endogenous PIN2 or the transgenically expressed PIN2-GFP was compromised in the root cells of gsnor1-3 seedlings relative to Col-0. The internalization of PM-associated PIN2 or PIN2-GFP into Brefeldin A (BFA bodies was significantly reduced in gsnor1-3 upon BFA treatment in a manner independent of de novo protein synthesis. In addition, the exogenously applied GSNO not only compromised the endocytosis of PIN2-GFP but also inhibited the root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that, besides the reduced PIN2 level, one or more compromised components in the endocytosis pathway could account for the reduced endocytosis of PIN2 in gsnor1-3.

  6. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  7. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  8. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  9. Estimating cellular network performance during hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Graham; Torres, Jacob; Guikema, Seth; Sprintson, Alex; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Cellular networks serve a critical role during and immediately after a hurricane, allowing citizens to contact emergency services when land-line communication is lost and serving as a backup communication channel for emergency responders. However, due to their ubiquitous deployment and limited design for extreme loading events, basic network elements, such as cellular towers and antennas are prone to failures during adverse weather conditions such as hurricanes. Accordingly, a systematic and computationally feasible approach is required for assessing and improving the reliability of cellular networks during hurricanes. In this paper we develop a new multi-disciplinary approach to efficiently and accurately assess cellular network reliability during hurricanes. We show how the performance of a cellular network during and immediately after future hurricanes can be estimated based on a combination of hurricane wind field models, structural reliability analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and cellular network models and simulation tools. We then demonstrate the use of this approach for assessing the improvement in system reliability that can be achieved with discrete topological changes in the system. Our results suggest that adding redundancy, particularly through a mesh topology or through the addition of an optical fiber ring around the perimeter of the system can be an effective way to significantly increase the reliability of some cellular systems during hurricanes.

  10. HSV-I and the cellular DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha; Weller, Sandra K

    2015-04-01

    Peter Wildy first observed genetic recombination between strains of HSV in 1955. At the time, knowledge of DNA repair mechanisms was limited, and it has only been in the last decade that particular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways have been examined in the context of viral infections. One of the first reports addressing the interaction between a cellular DDR protein and HSV-1 was the observation by Lees-Miller et al . that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit levels were depleted in an ICP0-dependent manner during Herpes simplex virus 1 infection. Since then, there have been numerous reports describing the interactions between HSV infection and cellular DDR pathways. Due to space limitations, this review will focus predominantly on the most recent observations regarding how HSV navigates a potentially hostile environment to replicate its genome.

  11. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 3