Cellular automata a parallel model
Mazoyer, J
1999-01-01
Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.
Cellular automata modelling of SEIRS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Quan-Xing; Jin Zhen
2005-01-01
In this paper the SEIRS epidemic spread is analysed, and a two-dimensional probability cellular automata model for SEIRS is presented. Each cellular automation cell represents a part of the population that may be found in one of five states of individuals: susceptible, exposed (or latency), infected, immunized (or recovered) and death. Here studied are the effects of two cases on the epidemic spread. i.e. the effects of non-segregation and segregation on the latency and the infected of population. The conclusion is reached that the epidemic will persist in the case of non-segregation but it will decrease in the case of segregation. The proposed model can serve as a basis for the development of algorithms to simulate real epidemics based on real data. Last we find the density series of the exposed and the infected will fluctuate near a positive equilibrium point, when the constant for the immunized is less than its corresponding constant τ0. Our theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations.
Cellular automata modeling of pedestrian's crossing dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张晋; 王慧; 李平
2004-01-01
Cellular automata modeling techniques and the characteristics of mixed traffic flow were used to derive the 2-dimensional model presented here for simulation of pedestrian's crossing dynamics.A conception of "stop point" is introduced to deal with traffic obstacles and resolve conflicts among pedestrians or between pedestrians and the other vehicles on the crosswalk.The model can be easily extended,is very efficient for simulation of pedestrian's crossing dynamics,can be integrated into traffic simulation software,and has been proved feasible by simulation experiments.
Cellular automata modelling of hantarvirus infection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdul Karim, Mohamad Faisal [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: faisal@usm.my; Md Ismail, Ahmad Izani [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: izani@cs.usm.my; Ching, Hoe Bee [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: Bee_Ching_Janice_Hoe@dell.com
2009-09-15
Hantaviruses are a group of viruses which have been identified as being responsible for the outbreak of diseases such as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In an effort to understand the characteristics and dynamics of hantavirus infection, mathematical models based on differential equations have been developed and widely studied. However, such models neglect the local characteristics of the spreading process and do not include variable susceptibility of individuals. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach based on cellular automata to analyze and study the spatiotemporal patterns of hantavirus infection.
Cellular Automata Models for Diffusion of Innovations
Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino
1997-01-01
We propose a probabilistic cellular automata model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc. in a social system. The local rule used in the model is outertotalistic, and the range of interaction can vary. When the range R of the rule increases, the takeover time for innovation increases and converges toward its mean-field value, which is almost inversely proportional to R when R is large. Exact solutions for R=1 and $R=\\infty$ (mean-field) are presented, as well as simulation results for other values of R. The average local density is found to converge to a certain stationary value, which allows us to obtain a semi-phenomenological solution valid in the vicinity of the fixed point n=1 (for large t).
A cellular automata model for ant trails
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sibel Gokce; Ozhan Kayacan
2013-05-01
In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, goodand poor-smelling ants, (ii) ants might make U-turn for some special reasons. For some values of densities of good- and poor-smelling ants, the flux and mean velocity of the colony were studied as a function of density and evaporation rate of pheromone.
Codd, E F
1968-01-01
Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t
Cellular automata modelling of biomolecular networks dynamics.
Bonchev, D; Thomas, S; Apte, A; Kier, L B
2010-01-01
The modelling of biological systems dynamics is traditionally performed by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When dealing with intracellular networks of genes, proteins and metabolites, however, this approach is hindered by network complexity and the lack of experimental kinetic parameters. This opened the field for other modelling techniques, such as cellular automata (CA) and agent-based modelling (ABM). This article reviews this emerging field of studies on network dynamics in molecular biology. The basics of the CA technique are discussed along with an extensive list of related software and websites. The application of CA to networks of biochemical reactions is exemplified in detail by the case studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, the FAS-ligand (FASL)-induced and Bcl-2-related apoptosis. The potential of the CA method to model basic pathways patterns, to identify ways to control pathway dynamics and to help in generating strategies to fight with cancer is demonstrated. The different line of CA applications presented includes the search for the best-performing network motifs, an analysis of importance for effective intracellular signalling and pathway cross-talk. PMID:20373215
Cellular automata modeling of cooperative eutectic growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Olejnik
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The model and results of the 2D simulation of the cooperative growth of two phases in the lamellar eutectic are presented. The pro-posed model takes into account heat transfer, components diffusion and nonstationary concentration distribution in the liquid and solid phases, non-equlibrium nature of the phase transformation and kinetics of the growth, influence of the surface energy and interface curva-ture on the conditions of the thermodynamic equilibrium. For the determination of the phase interface shape the Cellular Automata tech-nique (CA was used. For the calculation of temperature and concentration distribution the numerical solution of the Fourier equation was used. The partial differential equations were solved by Finite Differences Method (FDM. The spatial position and cell sizes of CA lattice and FDM mesh are equal.Proposed model can predict the steady state growth with a constant interlamellar spacing in the regular plate eutectic, as well as some transient processes that bring to the changes of that parameters. Obtained simulation data show the solid-liquid interface changes result in the termination of lamella and enlargement of interlamellar spacing. Another simulation results illustrate a pocket formation in the center of one phase that forestalls nucleation (or intergrowth of the new lamellae of another phase. The data of the solidification study of the transparent material (CBr4 – 8,4% C2Cl6 obtained in the thin layer demonstrate the qualita-tive agreement of the simulation.
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
The brittleness model of complex system based on cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN De-ming; JIN Hong-zhang; LI Qi; WU Hong-mei
2004-01-01
Now the research on the complex system is a hot spot. Brittleness is one of the basic characteristics of a complex system. In a complex system, after one of subsystems is struck to be collapsed, the whole system will collapse. Meanwhile, cellular automata is a discrete dynamic system. When the rule is given, the cellular automata could be defined. Then it can imitate the complex action. Cellular automata is used to simulate the brittleness action in this study. Entropy was used to analyze the action and get the rule. Then,three normal brittleness models were given. The result shows that the brittleness of complex system is existent and in addition some important behavior mode of complex system brittleness has been achieved.
Modeling diffusion of innovations with probabilistic cellular automata
Boccara, N; Boccara, Nino; Fuks, Henryk
1997-01-01
We present a family of one-dimensional cellular automata modeling the diffusion of an innovation in a population. Starting from simple deterministic rules, we construct models parameterized by the interaction range and exhibiting a second-order phase transition. We show that the number of individuals who eventually keep adopting the innovation strongly depends on connectivity between individuals.
A cellular automata evacuation model considering friction and repulsion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Weiguo; YU Yanfei; FAN Weicheng; Zhang Heping
2005-01-01
There exist interactions among pedestrians and between pedestrian and environment in evacuation. These interactions include attraction, repulsion and friction that play key roles in human evacuation behaviors, speed and efficiency. Most former evacuation models focus on the attraction force, while repulsion and friction are not well modeled. As a kind of multi-particle self-driven model, the social force model introduced in recent years can represent those three forces but with low simulation efficiency because it is a continuous model with complex rules. Discrete models such as the cellular automata model and the lattice gas model have simple rules and high simulation efficiency, but are not quite suitable for interactions' simulation. In this paper, a new cellular automata model based on traditional models is introduced in which repulsion and friction are modeled quantitatively. It is indicated that the model can simulate some basic behaviors, e.g.arching and the "faster-is-slower" phenomenon, in evacuation as multi-particle self-driven models, but with high efficiency as the normal cellular automata model and the lattice gas model.
Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUN Jing; NING Bin; LI Ke-Ping
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station.Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track.Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered.One is the scheme of "pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track".The other is the scheme of "two tracks play the same role".We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced.Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values.This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.
A cellular automata model with probability infection and spatial dispersion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin Zhen; Liu Quan-Xing; Mainul Haque
2007-01-01
In this article, we have proposed an epidemic model based on the probability cellular automata theory. The essential mathematical features are analysed with the help of stability theory. We have given an alternative modelling approach for the spatiotemporal system which is more realistic from the practical point of view. A discrete and spatiotemporal approach is shown by using cellular automata theory. It is interesting to note that both the size of the endemic equilibrium and the density of the individuals increase with the increase of the neighbourhood size and infection rate, but the infections decrease with the increase of the recovery rate. The stability of the system around the positive interior equilibrium has been shown by using a suitable Lyapunov function. Finally, experimental data simulation for SARS disease in China in 2003 and a brief discussion are given.
Cellular Automata Model for Elastic Solid Material
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Yin-Feng; ZHANG Guang-Cai; XU Ai-Guo; GAN Yan-Biao
2013-01-01
The Cellular Automaton (CA) modeling and simulation of solid dynamics is a long-standing difficult problem.In this paper we present a new two-dimensional CA model for solid dynamics.In this model the solid body is represented by a set of white and black particles alternatively positioned in the x-and y-directions.The force acting on each particle is represented by the linear summation of relative displacements of the nearest-neighboring particles.The key technique in this new model is the construction of eight coefficient matrices.Theoretical and numerical analyses show that the present model can be mathematically described by a conservative system.So,it works for elastic material.In the continuum limit the CA model recovers the well-known Navier equation.The coefficient matrices are related to the shear module and Poisson ratio of the material body.Compared with previous CA model for solid body,this model realizes the natural coupling of deformations in the x-and y-directions.Consequently,the wave phenomena related to the Poisson ratio effects are successfully recovered.This work advances significantly the CA modeling and simulation in the field of computational solid dynamics.
Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezzi, M. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Florence (Italy)
2001-07-01
In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section.
Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section
Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling
Kozelov, B. V.; Kozelova, T. V.
2003-01-01
We propose a cellular automata model (CAM) to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two b...
Cellular automata modeling of cooperative eutectic growth
E. Olejnik; E. Fraś; D. Gurgul; A. Burbelko
2010-01-01
The model and results of the 2D simulation of the cooperative growth of two phases in the lamellar eutectic are presented. The pro-posed model takes into account heat transfer, components diffusion and nonstationary concentration distribution in the liquid and solid phases, non-equlibrium nature of the phase transformation and kinetics of the growth, influence of the surface energy and interface curva-ture on the conditions of the thermodynamic equilibrium. For the determination of the phase ...
Modeling chemical systems using cellular automata a textbook and laboratory manual
Kier, Lemont B; Cheng, Chao-Kun
2006-01-01
Provides a practical introduction to an exciting modeling paradigm for complex systems. This book discusses the nature of scientific inquiry using models and simulations, and describes the nature of cellular automata models. It gives descriptions of how cellular automata models can be used in the study of a variety of phenomena.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winarno, Nanang, E-mail: nanang-winarno@upi.edu; Prima, Eka Cahya [International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia); Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu [Department of Physics Education, Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia)
2016-02-08
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations
Modelling Nonlinear Sequence Generators in terms of Linear Cellular Automata
Fúster-Sabater, Amparo; 10.1016/j.apm.2005.08.013
2010-01-01
In this work, a wide family of LFSR-based sequence generators, the so-called Clock-Controlled Shrinking Generators (CCSGs), has been analyzed and identified with a subset of linear Cellular Automata (CA). In fact, a pair of linear models describing the behavior of the CCSGs can be derived. The algorithm that converts a given CCSG into a CA-based linear model is very simple and can be applied to CCSGs in a range of practical interest. The linearity of these cellular models can be advantageously used in two different ways: (a) for the analysis and/or cryptanalysis of the CCSGs and (b) for the reconstruction of the output sequence obtained from this kind of generators.
Reversible quantum cellular automata
Schumacher, B
2004-01-01
We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...
Occupant evacuation model based on cellular automata in fire
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
By applying the rules set in traffic flow and pedestrian flow models, a basic cellular automata model is presented to simulate occupant evacuation in fire. Some extended models are introduced to study the special phenomena of evacuation from the fire room. The key of the models is the introduction of the danger grade which makes the route choice convenient and reasonable. Fire not only influences the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual but also affects his physical constitution, which reduces his maximal possible velocity. The models consider these influence factors by applying a set of simple but effective rules. It is needed to emphasize that all rules are established according to the essential phenomenon in fire evacuation, that is, all the occupants would try to move to the safest place as fast as possible. Some simulation examples are also presented to validate the applicability of the models.
Modeling and simulation for train control system using cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; KePing; GAO; ZiYou; YANG; LiXing
2007-01-01
Train control system plays a key role in railway traffic. Its function is to manage and control the train movement on railway networks. In our previous works, based on the cellular automata (CA) model, we proposed several models and algorithms for simulating the train movement under different control system conditions. However, these models are only suitable for some simple traffic conditions. Some basic factors, which are important for train movement, are not considered. In this paper, we extend these models and algorithms and give a unified formula. Using the proposed method, we analyze and discuss the space-time diagram of railway traffic flow and the trajectories of the train movement. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the unified CA model is an effective tool for simulating the train control system.
Robustness of a Cellular Automata Model for the HIV Infection
Figueirêdo, P H; Santos, R M Zorzenon dos
2008-01-01
An investigation was conducted to study the robustness of the results obtained from the cellular automata model which describes the spread of the HIV infection within lymphoid tissues [R. M. Zorzenon dos Santos and S. Coutinho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 168102 (2001)]. The analysis focussed on the dynamic behavior of the model when defined in lattices with different symmetries and dimensionalities. The results illustrated that the three-phase dynamics of the planar models suffered minor changes in relation to lattice symmetry variations and, while differences were observed regarding dimensionality changes, qualitative behavior was preserved. A further investigation was conducted into primary infection and sensitiveness of the latency period to variations of the model's stochastic parameters over wide ranging values. The variables characterizing primary infection and the latency period exhibited power-law behavior when the stochastic parameters varied over a few orders of magnitude. The power-law exponents were app...
Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model
Morley, P D; Chang, Julius
2003-01-01
Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...
Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity
Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.
2003-01-01
We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.
Simple Cellular Automata-Based Linear Models for the Shrinking Generator
Fúster-Sabater, Amparo
2010-01-01
Structural properties of two well-known families of keystream generators, Shrinking Generators and Cellular Automata, have been analyzed. Emphasis is on the equivalence of the binary sequences obtained from both kinds of generators. In fact, Shrinking Generators (SG) can be identified with a subset of linear Cellular Automata (mainly rule 90, rule 150 or a hybrid combination of both rules). The linearity of these cellular models can be advantageously used in the cryptanalysis of those keystream generators.
Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics
A. S. Komarov; E. V. Zubkova; P. V. Frolov
2015-01-01
The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area...
A cellular automata model of epidemics of a heterogeneous susceptibility
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin Zhen; Liu Quan-Xing
2006-01-01
In this paper we present a model with spatial heterogeneity based on cellular automata (CA). In the model we consider the relevant heterogeneity of host (susceptible) mixing and the natural birth rate. We divide the susceptible population into three groups according to the immunity of each individual based on the classical susceptible-infectedremoved (SIR) epidemic models, and consider the spread of an infectious disease transmitted by direct contact among humans and vectors that have not an incubation period to become infectious. We test the local stability and instability of the disease-free equilibrium by the spectrum radii of Jacobian. The simulation shows that the structure of the nearest neighbour size of the cell (or the degree of the scale-free networks) plays a very important role in the spread properties of infectious disease. The positive equilibrium of the infections versus the neighbour size follows the third power law if an endemic equilibrium point exists. Finally, we analyse the feature of the infection waves for the homogeneity and heterogeneous cases respectively.
A cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hallan Souza-e-Silva
Full Text Available Intrathymic T cell development is an important process necessary for the normal formation of cell-mediated immune responses. Importantly, such a process depends on interactions of developing thymocytes with cellular and extracellular elements of the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, it includes a series of oriented and tunely regulated migration events, ultimately allowing mature cells to cross endothelial barriers and leave the organ. Herein we built a cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte migration and development. The rules comprised in this model take into account the main stages of thymocyte development, two-dimensional sections of the normal thymic microenvironmental network, as well as the chemokines involved in intrathymic cell migration. Parameters of our computer simulations with further adjusted to results derived from previous experimental data using sub-lethally irradiated mice, in which thymus recovery can be evaluated. The model fitted with the increasing numbers of each CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subset. It was further validated since it fitted with the times of permanence experimentally ascertained in each CD4/CD8-defined differentiation stage. Importantly, correlations using the whole mean volume of young normal adult mice revealed that the numbers of cells generated in silico with the mathematical model fall within the range of total thymocyte numbers seen in these animals. Furthermore, simulations made with a human thymic epithelial network using the same mathematical model generated similar profiles for temporal evolution of thymocyte developmental stages. Lastly, we provided in silico evidence that the thymus architecture is important in the thymocyte development, since changes in the epithelial network result in different theoretical profiles for T cell development/migration. This model likely can be used to predict thymocyte evolution following therapeutic strategies designed for recovery of the
Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model
Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius
Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.
Adaptive stochastic cellular automata: Applications
Qian, S.; Lee, Y. C.; Jones, R. D.; Barnes, C. W.; Flake, G. W.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Lee, K.; Chen, H. H.; Sun, G. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, D.; Giles, C. L.
1990-09-01
The stochastic learning cellular automata model has been applied to the problem of controlling unstable systems. Two example unstable systems studied are controlled by an adaptive stochastic cellular automata algorithm with an adaptive critic. The reinforcement learning algorithm and the architecture of the stochastic CA controller are presented. Learning to balance a single pole is discussed in detail. Balancing an inverted double pendulum highlights the power of the stochastic CA approach. The stochastic CA model is compared to conventional adaptive control and artificial neural network approaches.
Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. V. Kozelov
Full Text Available We propose a cellular automata model (CAM to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two boundaries of the system. The energy flux inside is ensured by the penetration of the energy from the solar wind into the array of cells (magnetospheric tail with a finite velocity. The third boundary (near to the Earth is closed and the fourth boundary is opened, thereby modeling the flux far away from the tail. The energy dissipation in the system is quite similar to other CAM models, when the energy in a particular cell exceeds some pre-defined threshold, and the part of the energy excess is redistributed between the neighbouring cells. The second number attributed to each cell mimics ionospheric conductivity that can allow for a part of the energy to be shed on field-aligned currents. The feedback between "ionosphere" and "magnetospheric tail" is provided by the change in a part of the energy, which is redistributed in the tail when the threshold is surpassed. The control parameter of the model is the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz IMF, "frozen" into the solar wind. To study the internal dynamics of the system at the beginning, this control parameter is taken to be constant. The dynamics of the system undergoes several bifurcations, when the constant varies from - 0.6 to - 6.0. The Bz IMF input results in the periodic transients (activation regions and the inter-transient period decreases with the decrease of Bz. At the same time the onset of activations in the array shifts towards the "Earth". When the modulus of the Bz IMF exceeds some
A Cellular Automata Model for the Study of Landslides
Liucci, Luisa; Suteanu, Cristian; Melelli, Laura
2016-04-01
Power-law scaling has been observed in the frequency distribution of landslide sizes in many regions of the world, for landslides triggered by different factors, and in both multi-temporal and post-event datasets, thus indicating the universal character of this property of landslides and suggesting that the same mechanisms drive the dynamics of mass wasting processes. The reasons for the scaling behavior of landslide sizes are widely debated, since their understanding would improve our knowledge of the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon. Self-Organized Critical (SOC) dynamics and the key role of topography have been suggested as possible explanations. The scaling exponent of the landslide size-frequency distribution defines the probability of landslide magnitudes and it thus represents an important parameter for hazard assessment. Therefore, another - still unanswered - important question concerns the factors on which its value depends. This paper investigates these issues using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA uses a real topographic surface acquired from a Digital Elevation Model to represent the initial state of the system, where the states of cells are defined in terms of altitude. The stability criterion is based on the slope gradient. The system is driven to instability through a temporal decrease of the stability condition of cells, which may be thought of as representing the temporal weakening of soil caused by factors like rainfall. A transition rule defines the way in which instabilities lead to discharge from unstable cells to the neighboring cells, deciding upon the landslide direction and the quantity of mass involved. Both the direction and the transferred mass depend on the local topographic features. The scaling properties of the area-frequency distributions of the resulting landslide series are investigated for several rates of weakening and for different time windows, in order to explore the response of the system to model
Cellular Automata Models Applied to the Study of Landslide Dynamics
Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian
2015-04-01
Landslides are caused by complex processes controlled by the interaction of numerous factors. Increasing efforts are being made to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon, and the use of remote sensing data is making significant contributions in improving forecast. This paper studies landslides seen as complex dynamic systems, in order to investigate their potential Self Organized Critical (SOC) behavior, and in particular, scale-invariant aspects of processes governing the spatial development of landslides and their temporal evolution, as well as the mechanisms involved in driving the system and keeping it in a critical state. For this purpose, we build Cellular Automata Models, which have been shown to be capable of reproducing the complexity of real world features using a small number of variables and simple rules, thus allowing for the reduction of the number of input parameters commonly used in the study of processes governing landslide evolution, such as those linked to the geomechanical properties of soils. This type of models has already been successfully applied in studying the dynamics of other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and forest fires. The basic structure of the model is composed of three modules: (i) An initialization module, which defines the topographic surface at time zero as a grid of square cells, each described by an altitude value; the surface is acquired from real Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). (ii) A transition function, which defines the rules used by the model to update the state of the system at each iteration. The rules use a stability criterion based on the slope angle and introduce a variable describing the weakening of the material over time, caused for example by rainfall. The weakening brings some sites of the system out of equilibrium thus causing the triggering of landslides, which propagate within the system through local interactions between neighboring cells. By using different rates of
Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.; Kainz, W.; Boloorani, A.
2013-01-01
This research analyses the suburban expansion in the metropolitan area of Tehran, Iran. A hybrid model consisting of logistic regression model, Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA) was designed to improve the performance of the standard logistic regression model. Environmental and socio-eco
A study of a main-road cellular automata traffic flow model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄乒花; 孔令江; 刘慕仁
2002-01-01
A main-road cellular automata traffic flow model on two dimensions is presented based on the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic model. Its evolution equations are given and the self-organization and organization cooperation phenomenain this model are also studied by using computer simulation.
A cellular automata intraurban model with prices and income-differentiated actors
Furtado, B.A.; Ettema, D.F.; Ruiz, R.M.; Hurkens, J.; Delden, H. van
2012-01-01
This paper presents an intraurban cellular automata model that is an extension to White and Engelen’s pioneering model. The paper’s main contribution is to distinguish between agglomerative eff ects, determined by the attraction of the neighbourhood, and disagglomerative eff ects, driven by land pri
Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model
Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran
2014-09-01
Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.
A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang
2006-01-01
A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.
Chaotic behavior in the disorder cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disordered cellular automata (DCA) represent an intermediate class between elementary cellular automata and the Kauffman network. Recently, Rule 126 of DCA has been explicated: the system can be accurately described by a discrete probability function. However, a means of extending to other rules has not been developed. In this investigation, a density map of the dynamical behavior of DCA is formulated based on Rule 22 and other totalistic rules. The numerical results reveal excellent agreement between the model and original automata. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous situation is also discussed
A cellular automata model of Ebola virus dynamics
Burkhead, Emily; Hawkins, Jane
2015-11-01
We construct a stochastic cellular automaton (SCA) model for the spread of the Ebola virus (EBOV). We make substantial modifications to an existing SCA model used for HIV, introduced by others and studied by the authors. We give a rigorous analysis of the similarities between models due to the spread of virus and the typical immune response to it, and the differences which reflect the drastically different timing of the course of EBOV. We demonstrate output from the model and compare it with clinical data.
Public Evacuation Process Modeling and Simulatiaon Based on Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhikun Wang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Considering attraction of the nearest exit, repulsive force of the fire, barrier and its display style, effect of fire exit location on escape time in fire hazard, a mathematical model of evacuation process model was build based on cellular automatic theory. The program was developed by JavaScript. The influencing factors of evacuation were obtained through the simulation model by inputting crew size, creating initial positions of crew and fire seat stochastically. The experimental results show that the evacuation simulation model with authenticity and validity, which has guiding significance for people evacuation and public escape system design.
Car Deceleration Considering Its Own Velocity in Cellular Automata Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ke-Ping
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton model, which is based on NaSch traffic model. In our method, when a car has a larger velocity, if the gap between the car and its leading car is not enough large, it will decrease. The aim is that the following car has a buffer space to decrease its velocity at the next time, and then avoid to decelerate too high. The simulation results show that using our model, the car deceleration is realistic, and is closer to thefield measure than that of NaSch model.
Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong
2016-08-01
This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.
Benchmark study between FIDAP and a cellular automata code
Akau, R. L.; Stockman, H. W.
A fluid flow benchmark exercise was conducted to compare results between a cellular automata code and FIDAP. Cellular automata codes are free from gridding constraints, and are generally used to model slow (Reynolds number approximately 1) flows around complex solid obstacles. However, the accuracy of cellular automata codes at higher Reynolds numbers, where inertial terms are significant, is not well-documented. In order to validate the cellular automata code, two fluids problems were investigated. For both problems, flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, isothermal, incompressible and periodic. Results showed that the cellular automata code simulated the overall behavior of the flow field.
Cellular automata modelling of phase-change memories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wanhua Yu; David Wright
2008-01-01
A novel approach to modelling phase-transition processes in phase change materials used for optical and electrical data storage applications is presented. The model is based on a cellular automaton (CA) approach to predict crystallization behaviour that is linked to thermal and electrical simulations to enable the study of the data writing and erasing processes. The CA approach is shown to be able to predict the evolution of the microstructure during the rapid heating and cooling cycles pertinent to data storage technology, and maps crystallization behaviour on the nanoscale. A simple example based on possible future nonvolatile phase-change random access solid-state memory is presented.
Fluctuation in option pricing using cellular automata based market models
Gao, Yuying; Beni, Gerardo
2005-05-01
A new agent-based Cellular Automaton (CA) computational algorithm for option pricing is proposed. CAs have been extensively used in modeling complex dynamical systems but not in modeling option prices. Compared with traditional tools, which rely on guessing volatilities to calculate option prices, the CA model is directly addressing market mechanisms and simulates price fluctuation from aggregation of actions made by interacting individual market makers in a large population. This paper explores whether CA models can provide reasonable good answers to pricing European options. The Black-Scholes model and the Binomial Tree model are used for comparison. Comparison reveals that CA models perform reasonably well in pricing options, reproducing overall characteristics of random walk based model, while at the same time providing plausible results for the 'fat-tail' phenomenon observed in many markets. We also show that the binomial tree model can be obtained from a CA rule. Thus, CA models are suitable tools to generalize the standard theories of option pricing.
Quantum features of natural cellular automata
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-01-01
Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schroedinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of "natural" Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, "deformed" quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale $l$ are obtained, which for $l\\rightarrow 0$ reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form "multipartite" systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce...
About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurice Margenstern
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.
A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order enzyme kinetics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abhishek Dutta; Saurajyoti Kar; Advait Apte; Ingmar Nopens; Denis Constales
2015-04-01
Biochemical processes occur through intermediate steps which are associated with the formation of reaction complexes. These enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions are inhibited in a number of ways such as inhibitors competing for the binding site directly, inhibitors deforming the allosteric site or inhibitors changing the structure of active substrate. Using an in silico approach, the concentration of various reaction agents can be monitored at every single time step, which are otherwise difficult to analyze experimentally. Cell-based models with discrete state variables, such as Cellular Automata (CA) provide an understanding of the organizational principles of interacting cellular systems to link the individual cell (microscopic) dynamics wit a particular collective (macroscopic) phenomenon. In this study, a CA model representing a first order enzyme kinetics with inhibitor activity is formulated. The framework of enzyme reaction rules described in this study is probabilistic. An extended von Neumann neighborhood with periodic boundary condition is implemented on a two-dimensional (2D) lattice framework. The effect of lattice-size variation is studied followed by a sensitivity analysis of the model output to the probabilistic parameters which represent various kinetic reaction constants in the enzyme kinetic model. This provides a deeper insight into the sensitivity of the CA model to these parameters. It is observed that cellular automata can capture the essential features of a discrete real system, consisting of space, time and state, structured with simple local rules without making complex implementations but resulting in complex but explainable patterns.
Equal Distribution Model of Epidemic Drugs Based on a Cellular Automata Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Xinyi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The epidemic spreading of infectious disease is a process of evolution over time. Based on the cellular automata model[1], this paper analyzes the epidemic spreading rules, and establishes an efficient equal distribution model of drugs in a broad sense. For multiple regions, in case of demand of drugs exceeding supply, the drugs shall be distributed according to the proportion of a total number of people in each region, the number of patients, the number of the isolated, and the number of deaths. It is necessary to simulate based on these four schemes to obtain simulation results. The results show that, when the drugs are distributed by the proportion of the number of deaths, it is optimal for controlling over epidemic situations.
Cellular automata model based on GIS and urban sprawl dynamics simulation
Mu, Fengyun; Zhang, Zengxiang
2005-10-01
The simulation of land use change process needs the support of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other relative technologies. While the present commercial GIS lack capabilities of distribution, prediction, and simulation of spatial-temporal data. Cellular automata (CA) provide dynamically modeling "from bottom-to-top" framework and posses the capability of modeling spatial-temporal evolvement process of a complicated geographical system, which is composed of a fourfold: cells, states, neighbors and rules. The simplicity and flexibility make CA have the ability to simulate a variety of behaviors of complex systems. One of the most potentially useful applications of cellular automata from the point of view of spatial planning is their use in simulations of urban sprawl at local and regional level. The paper firstly introduces the principles and characters of the cellular automata, and then discusses three methods of the integration of CA and GIS. The paper analyses from a practical point of view the factors that effect urban activities in the science of spatial decision-making. The status of using CA to dynamic simulates of urban expansion at home and abroad is analyzed. Finally, the problems and tendencies that exist in the application of CA model are detailed discussed, such as the quality of the data that the CA needs, the self-organization of the CA roots in the mutual function among the elements of the system, the partition of the space scale, the time calibration of the CA and the integration of the CA with other modular such as artificial nerve net modular and population modular etc.
Modeling Mixed Traffic Flow at Crosswalks in Micro-Simulations Using Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN Houli; ZHANG Yi
2007-01-01
The cellular automata (CA) micro-simulation model was used to describe the behavior of the mixed traffic flows at crosswalks where the pedestrians compete with the vehicles to cross the roadway. The focus of this paper is the behavior of pedestrians and the influence of pedestrians' behavior on the vehicle flow, pedestrian flows, and the vehicle waiting time. The proportion of pedestrians who do not obey traffic laws, the group effect, and expected waiting time of pedestrians, regarded as the most important pedestrian characteristics, are taken into consideration in the analysis. Simulation results show the ability of the microsimulation to capture the most important features of mixed traffic flow.
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)
2015-10-16
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mondry Adrian
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods
Cellular automata cell structure for modeling heterogeneous traffic
Pal, Dibyendu; C.Mallikarjuna
2010-01-01
Gap maintaining behavior significantly affects the traffic flow modeling under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The clearance between two adjacent moving vehicles varies depending on several traffic conditions. From the data collected on the gap maintaining behavior it has been observed that vehicles maintain different gaps when travelling under different traffic conditions and this is also influenced by lateral position of the vehicle. Mallikarjuna (2007) has found that this variable gap ma...
Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2016-10-01
With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).
Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah
2016-03-01
Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle. PMID:27087101
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
W.H. Yu; E.J. Palmiere; S.P. Banks; J.T. Han
2005-01-01
A novel 2D cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for description of normal grain coarsening and abnormal grain coarsening process. The program reflects the grain coarsening quite well even through the average grain size becomes very large. Follow results have been obtained: (a) The model reflect the normal grain growth kinetics gradually increase with probability and grain growth speed can be controlled. Based on this result, temperature can be coupled in the model. (b) Abnormal grain growth is modelled successfully. (c) Methodology has been put forward to find the relationship between the experiment results and modelling results. The experimental work on the grain coarsening has been carried out. Graphical output matched the realistic microstructure in every detail. Because many physical parameters can be taken into account in the CA programme, this CA model could not only qualitatively demonstrate the grain growth process, but also quantitatively predict and analyse the grain coarsening process.
Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU ZaiFa; HUANG QingAn; LI WeiHua; LU Wei
2007-01-01
For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dynamic CA model and the structure of "if-else" description in the simulation program is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available experimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.
Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dy-namic CA model and the structure of “if-else” description in the simulation pro-gram is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available ex-perimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.
Identification of Nonstationary Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
AndrewI.Adamatzky
1992-01-01
The principal feature of nonstationary cellular automata(NCA) is that a local transitiol rule of each cell is changed at each time step depending on neighborhood configuration at previous time step.The identification problem for NCA is extraction of local transition rules and the establishment of mechanism for changing these rules using sequence of NCA configurations.We present serial and parallel algorithms for identification of NCA.
Empirical results for pedestrian dynamics and their implications for cellular automata models
Schadschneider, Andreas
2010-01-01
A large number of models for pedestrian dynamics have been developed over the years. However, so far not much attention has been paid to their quantitative validation. Usually the focus is on the reproduction of empirically observed collective phenomena, as lane formation in counterflow. This can give an indication for the realism of the model, but practical applications, e.g. in safety analysis, require quantitative predictions. We discuss the current experimental situation, especially for the fundamental diagram which is the most important quantity needed for calibration. In addition we consider the implications for the modelling based on cellular automata. As specific example the floor field model is introduced. Apart from the properties of its fundamental diagram we discuss the implications of an egress experiment for the relevance of conflicts and friction effects.
Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Komarov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area projective cover. The model allows us to investigate the conditions of self-maintenance and sustainability population under different environmental conditions (inaccessibility of the territory for settlement, mosaic moisture conditions of soil and wealth. The model provides a forecast of the total biomass dynamics shrubs and their fractions (stems, leaves, roots, fine roots, fruits on the basis of the data obtained in the discrete description of ontogenesis and further information on the productivity of the plant fractions. The inclusion of the joint dynamics of biomass of shrubs and soil in EFIMOD models cycle of carbon and nitrogen to evaluate the role of shrubs in these circulations, especially at high impact, such as forest fires and clear cutting, allow forecasting of the dynamics of populations and ecosystem functions of shrubs (regulation of biogeochemical cycles maintaining biodiversity, participation in the creation of non-wood products with changing climatic conditions and strong damaging effects (logging, fires; and application of the models developed to investigate the stability and productivity of shrubs and their participation in the cycle of carbon and nitrogen in different climatic and edaphic conditions.
Modeling of the competition life cycle using the software complex of cellular automata PyCAlab
Berg, D. B.; Beklemishev, K. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Medvedeva, M. A.
2015-11-01
The aim of the work is to develop a numerical model of the life cycle of competition on the basis of software complex cellular automata PyCAlab. The model is based on the general patterns of growth of various systems in resource-limited settings. At examples it is shown that the period of transition from an unlimited growth of the market agents to the stage of competitive growth takes quite a long time and may be characterized as monotonic. During this period two main strategies of competitive selection coexist: 1) capture of maximum market space with any reasonable costs; 2) saving by reducing costs. The obtained results allow concluding that the competitive strategies of companies must combine two mentioned types of behavior, and this issue needs to be given adequate attention in the academic literature on management. The created numerical model may be used for market research when developing of the strategies for promotion of new goods and services.
A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.
Directed Ligand Passage Over the Surface of Diffusion-Controlled Enzymes: A Cellular Automata Model
Ghaemi, M; Sarbolouki, M N; Ghaemi, Mehrdad; Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Sarbolouki, Mohammad-Nabi
2004-01-01
The rate-limiting step of some enzymatic reactions is a physical step, i.e. diffusion. The efficiency of such reactions can be improved through an increase in the arrival rate of the substrate molecules, e.g. by a directed passage of substrate (ligand) to active site after its random encounter with the enzyme surface. Herein, we introduce a cellular automata model simulating the ligand passage over the protein surface to its destined active site. The system is simulated using the lattice gas automata with probabilistic transition rules. Different distributions of amino acids over the protein surface are examined. For each distribution, the hydration pattern is achieved and the mean number of iteration steps needed for the ligand to arrive at the active site calculated. Comparison of results indicates that the rate at which ligand arrives at the active site is clearly affected by the distribution of amino acids outside the active side. Such a process can facilitate the ligand diffusion towards the active site ...
Potential Field Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Evacuation in a Domain with a Ramp
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Xiao-Xia Jian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a potential field cellular automata model with a pushing force field to simulate the pedestrian evacuation in a domain with a ramp. We construct a cost potential depending on the ramp angle and introduce a function to evaluate the pushing force, which is related to the cost and the desired direction of pedestrian. With increase of crowd density, there is no empty space for pedestrian moving forward; pedestrian will purposefully push another pedestrian on her or his desired location to arrive the destination quickly. We analyse the relationship between the slope of ramp and the pushing force and investigate the changing of injured situations with the changing of the slope of ramp. When the number of pedestrians and the ramp angle arrive at certain critical points, the Domino effect will be simulated by this proposed model.
Modeling and Simulation for Urban Rail Traffic Problem Based on Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许琰; 曹成铉; 李明华; 罗金龙
2012-01-01
Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the urban rail traffic flow under moving block system and present a new minimum instantaneous distance formula under pure moving block. We also analyze the characteristics of the urban rail traffic flow under the influence of train density, station dwell times, the length of train, and the train velocity. Train delays can be decreased effectively through flexible departure intervals according to the preceding train type before its departure. The results demonstrate that a suitable adjustment of the current train velocity based on the following train velocity can greatly shorten the minimum departure intervals and then increase the capacity of rail transit.
Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the
Asymptotic Behavior of Excitable Cellular Automata
Durrett, R; Durrett, Richard; Griffeath, David
1993-01-01
Abstract: We study two families of excitable cellular automata known as the Greenberg-Hastings Model (GHM) and the Cyclic Cellular Automaton (CCA). Each family consists of local deterministic oscillating lattice dynamics, with parallel discrete-time updating, parametrized by the range of interaction, the "shape" of its neighbor set, threshold value for contact updating, and number of possible states per site. GHM and CCA are mathematically tractable prototypes for the spatially distributed periodic wave activity of so-called excitable media observed in diverse disciplines of experimental science. Earlier work by Fisch, Gravner, and Griffeath studied the ergodic behavior of these excitable cellular automata on Z^2, and identified two distinct (but closely-related) elaborate phase portraits as the parameters vary. In particular, they noted the emergence of asymptotic phase diagrams (and Euclidean dynamics) in a well-defined threshold-range scaling limit. In this study we present several rigorous results and som...
Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata
Vukotić, B
2012-01-01
Search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous input parameters' space. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding actual empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and ne...
Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.
Universal map for cellular automata
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García-Morales, V., E-mail: vmorales@ph.tum.de [Institute for Advanced Study – Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2012-08-20
A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.
Designing beauty the art of cellular automata
Martínez, Genaro
2016-01-01
This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand working experiences in the production of art works, using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour, at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries in the theory of computation and complex systems with artistic representations of the research results. In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior. Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems: heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors, water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics, reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation. The book inspires artists to tak...
A Vector-based Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Urban Land Use Change
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Yi; CAO Min; ZHANG Lei
2015-01-01
Cellular Automata (CA) is widely used for the simulation of land use changes.This study applied a vector-based CA model to simulate land use change in order to minimize or eliminate the scale sensitivity in traditional raster-based CA model.The cells of vector-based CA model are presented according to the shapes and attributes of geographic entities,and the transition rules of vector-based CA model are improved by taking spatial variables of the study area into consideration.The vector-based CA model is applied to simulate land use changes in downtown of Qidong City,Jiangsu Province,China and its validation is confirmed by the methods of visual assessment and spatial accuracy.The simulation result of vector-based CA model reveals that nearly 75％ of newly increased urban cells are located in the northwest and southwest parts of the study area from 2002 to 2007,which is in consistent with real land use map.In addition,the simulation results of the vector-based and raster-based CA models are compared to real land use data and their spatial accuracies are found to be 84.0％ and 81.9％,respectively.In conclusion,results from this study indicate that the vector-based CA model is a practical and applicable method for the simulation of urbanization processes.
Geographic Spatiotemporal Dynamic Model using Cellular Automata and Data Mining Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Zuhdi
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Geospatial data and information availability has been increasing rapidly and has provided users with knowledge on entities change and movement in a system. Cellular Geography model applies Cellular Automata on Geographic data by defining transition rules to the data grid. This paper presents the techniques for extracting transition rule(s from time series data grids, using multiple linear regression analysis. Clustering technique is applied to minimize the number of transition rules, which can be offered and chosen to change a new unknown grid. Each centroid of a cluster is associated with a transition rule and a grid of data. The chosen transition rule is associated with grid that has a minimum distance to the new data grid to be simulated. Validation of the model can be provided either quantitatively through an error measurement or qualitatively by visualizing the result of the simulation process. The visualization can also be more informative by adding the error information. Increasing number of cluster may give possibility to improve the simulation accuracy.
Pavlou, L.; Georgoudas, I. G.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Scordilis, E. M.; Andreadis, I.
This paper presents an extensive simulation tool based on a Cellular Automata (CA) system that models fundamental seismic characteristics of a region. The CA-based dynamic model consists of cells-charges and it is used for the simulation of the earthquake process. The simulation tool has remarkably accelerated the response of the model by incorporating principles of the High Performance Computing (HPC). Extensive programming features of parallel computing have been applied, thus improving its processing effectiveness. The tool implements an enhanced (or hyper-) 2-dimensional version of the proposed CA model. Regional characteristics that depend on the seismic background of the area under study are assigned to the model with the application of a user-friendly software environment. The model is evaluated with real data that correspond to a circular region around Skyros Island, Greece, for different time periods, as for example one of 45 years (1901-1945). The enhanced 2-dimensional version of the model incorporates all principal characteristics of the 2-dimensional one, also including groups of CA cells that interact with others, located to a considerable distance in an attempt to simulate long-range interaction. The advanced simulation tool has been thoroughly evaluated. Several measurements have been made for different critical states, as well as for various cascade (earthquake) sizes, cell activities and different neighbourhood sizes. Simulation results qualitatively approach the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) scaling law and reveal fundamental characteristics of the system.
Simulation of earthquakes with cellular automata
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P. G. Akishin
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The relation between cellular automata (CA models of earthquakes and the Burridge–Knopoff (BK model is studied. It is shown that the CA proposed by P. Bak and C. Tang,although they have rather realistic power spectra, do not correspond to the BK model. We present a modification of the CA which establishes the correspondence with the BK model.An analytical method of studying the evolution of the BK-like CA is proposed. By this method a functional quadratic in stress release, which can be regarded as an analog of the event energy, is constructed. The distribution of seismic events with respect to this “energy” shows rather realistic behavior, even in two dimensions. Special attention is paid to two-dimensional automata; the physical restrictions on compression and shear stiffnesses are imposed.
A Multitarget Land Use Change Simulation Model Based on Cellular Automata and Its Application
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Jun Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the existing land use change simulation model, combined with macroland use change driving factors and microlocal land use competition, and through the application of Python language integrated technical approaches such as CA, GIS, AHP, and Markov, a multitarget land use change simulation model based on cellular automata(CA is established. This model was applied to conduct scenario simulation of land use/cover change of the Jinzhou New District, based on 1:10000 map scale land use, planning, topography, statistics, and other data collected in the year of 1988, 2003, and 2012. The simulation results indicate the following: (1 this model can simulate the mutual transformation of multiple land use types in a relatively satisfactory way; it takes land use system as a whole and simultaneously takes the land use demand in the macrolevel and the land use suitability in the local scale into account; and (2 the simulation accuracy of the model reaches 72%, presenting higher creditability. The model is capable of providing auxiliary decision-making support for coastal regions with the analysis of the land use change driving mechanism, prediction of land use change tendencies, and establishment of land resource sustainable utilization policies.
Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong
2016-10-01
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.
Vassiliadis, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgoulis, M.; Vlahos, L.
1998-12-01
Cellular automata (CA) models account for the power-law distributions found for solar flare hard X-ray observations, but their physics has been unclear. We examine four of these models and show that their criteria and magnetic field distribution rules can be derived by discretizing the MHD diffusion equation as obtained from a simplified Ohm's law. Identifying the discrete MHD with the CA models leads to an expression for the resistivity as a function of the current on the flux tube boundary, as may be expected from current-driven instabilities. Anisotropic CA models correspond to a nonlinear resistivity η(J), while isotropic ones are associated with hyperresistivity η(▽2J). The discrete equations satisfy the necessary conditions for self-organized criticality (Lu): there is local conservation of a field (magnetic flux), while the nonlinear resistivity provides a rapid dissipation and relaxation mechanism. The approach justifies many features of the CA models that were originally based on intuition.
Quasi-classical modeling of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata multidriver gates
Rahimi, Ehsan; Nejad, Shahram Mohammad
2012-05-01
Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (mQCA) has received considerable attention in nanoscience. Unlike the current-based molecular switches, where the digital data is represented by the on/off states of the switches, in mQCA devices, binary information is encoded in charge configuration within molecular redox centers. The mQCA paradigm allows high device density and ultra-low power consumption. Digital mQCA gates are the building blocks of circuits in this paradigm. Design and analysis of these gates require quantum chemical calculations, which are demanding in computer time and memory. Therefore, developing simple models to probe mQCA gates is of paramount importance. We derive a semi-classical model to study the steady-state output polarization of mQCA multidriver gates, directly from the two-state approximation in electron transfer theory. The accuracy and validity of this model are analyzed using full quantum chemistry calculations. A complete set of logic gates, including inverters and minority voters, are implemented to provide an appropriate test bench in the two-dot mQCA regime. We also briefly discuss how the QCADesigner tool could find its application in simulation of mQCA devices.
Discrete geodesics and cellular automata
Arrighi, Pablo
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.
Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street
Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu
2016-11-01
In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.
Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata
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Yaofeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1 It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2 Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3 Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4 Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5 Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions.
Densities and entropies in cellular automata
Guillon, Pierre
2012-01-01
Following work by Hochman and Meyerovitch on multidimensional SFT, we give computability-theoretic characterizations of the real numbers that can appear as the topological entropies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata.
Chen, Qingcai; Shi, Jianghong; Liu, Xiaowei; Wu, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hui
2013-03-01
A cellular automata model (CA model) was used to simulate the soil column leaching process of estrogens during the processes of migration and transformation. The results of the simulated leaching experiment showed that the first-order degradation rates of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were 0.131 h- 1 for E2, 0.099 h- 1 for E1 and 0.064 h- 1 for EE2 in the EE2 and E2 leaching process, and the first-order sorption rates were 5.94 h- 1 for E2, 5.63 h- 1 for EE2, 3.125 h- 1 for E1. Their sorption rates were positively correlated with the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. When the diffusion rate was low, its impact on the simulation results was insignificant. The increase in sorption and degradation rates caused the decrease in the total estrogens that leached. In addition, increasing the sorption rate could delay the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached, whereas increasing the degradation rate could shorten the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached. The comparison made between the experimental data and the simulation results of the CA model and the HYDRUS-1D software showed that the establishment of one-component and multi-component CA models could simulate EE2 and E2 soil column leaching processes, and the CA models achieve an intuitive, dynamic, and visual simulation.
On the Behavior Characteristics of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jin-cai; ZHANG Jiang-ling; FENG Dan
2005-01-01
In this paper, the inherent relationships between the running regulations and behavior characteristics of cellular automata are presented; an imprecise taxonomy of such systems is put forward; the three extreme cases of stable systems are discussed; and the illogicalness of evolutional strategies of cellular automata is analyzed. The result is suitable for the emulation and prediction of behavior of discrete dynamics systems; especially it can be taken as an important analysis means of dynamic performance of complex networks.
Simulating debris flows through a hexagonal cellular automata model: SCIDDICA S3–hex
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D. D’Ambrosio
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Cellular Automata (CA represent a formal frame for dynamical systems, which evolve on the base of local interactions. Some types of landslide, such as debris flows, match well this requirement. The latest hexagonal release (S3–hex of the deterministic model SCIDDICA, specifically developed for simulating debris flows, is described. For CA simulation purposes, landslides can be viewed as a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves exclusively as a consequence of local interactions within a spatial and temporal discretum. Space is the world of the CA, here constituted by hexagonal cells. The attributes of each cell ("substates" describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is "decomposed" into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the "transition function" of the CA. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. SCIDDICA S3–hex exhibits a great flexibility in modelling debris flows. With respect to the previous releases of the model, the mechanism of progressive erosion of the soil cover has been added to the transition function. Considered substates are: altitude; thickness and energy of landslide debris; depth of erodable soil cover; debris outflows. Considered elementary processes are: mobilisation triggering and effect (T1, debris outflows (I1, update of landslide debris thickness and energy (I2, and energy loss (T2. Simulations of real debris flows, occurred in Campania (Southern Italy in May 1998 (Sarno and December 1999 (San Martino V.C. and Cervinara, have been performed for model calibration purposes; some examples of analysis are briefly described. Possible applications of the method are: risk mapping, also based on a statistical approach; evaluating the effects of mitigation actions (e.g. stream deviations, topographic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Zhi-Zhen; Wang Ai-Ling
2009-01-01
Spatially explicit models have become widely used in today's mathematical ecology and epidemiology to study the persistence of populations. For simplicity, population dynamics is often analysed by using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or partial differential equations (PDEs) in the one-dimensional (1D) space. An important question is to predict species extinction or persistence rate by mean of computer simulation based on the spatial model. Recently, it has been reported that stable turbulent and regular waves are persistent based on the spatial susceptible-infected-resistant-susceptible (SIRS) model by using the cellular automata (CA) method in the two-dimensional (2D) space [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 18246 (2004)]. In this paper, we address other important issues relevant to phase transitions of epidemic persistence. We are interested in assessing the significance of the risk of extinction in 1D space. Our results show that the 2D space can considerably increase the possibility of persistence of spread of epidemics when the degree distribution of the individuals is uniform, I.e. The pattern of 2D spatial persistence corresponding to extinction in a 1D system with the same parameters. The trade-offs of extinction and persistence between the infection period and infection rate are observed in the 1D case. Moreover, near the trade-off (phase transition) line, an independent estimation of the dynamic exponent can be performed, and it is in excellent agreement with the result obtained by using the conjectured relationship of directed percolation. We find that the introduction of a short-range diffusion and a long-range diffusion among the neighbourhoods can enhance the persistence and global disease spread in the space.
Astrobiological complexity with probabilistic cellular automata.
Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M
2012-08-01
The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches. PMID:22832998
SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ,M.
2007-01-01
Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya
2005-01-01
Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.
Traffic jam dynamics in stochastic cellular automata
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Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Schreckenberg, M. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany)
1995-09-01
Simple models for particles hopping on a grid (cellular automata) are used to simulate (single lane) traffic flow. Despite their simplicity, these models are astonishingly realistic in reproducing start-stop-waves and realistic fundamental diagrams. One can use these models to investigate traffic phenomena near maximum flow. A so-called phase transition at average maximum flow is visible in the life-times of jams. The resulting dynamic picture is consistent with recent fluid-dynamical results by Kuehne/Kerner/Konhaeuser, and with Treiterer`s hysteresis description. This places CA models between car-following models and fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. CA models are tested in projects in Los Alamos (USA) and in NRW (Germany) for large scale microsimulations of network traffic.
Modelling the role of nucleation on recrystallization kinetics: A cellular automata approach
Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rai, Arun Kumar; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Raju, Subramanian; Saibaba, Saroja
2016-05-01
In present study, a two dimensional cellular automata (CA) simulation has been carried out to study the effect of nucleation mode on the kinetics of recrystallization and microstructure evolution in an austenitic stainless steel. Two different nucleation modes i.e. site saturation and continuous nucleation with interface control growth mechanism has been considered in this modified CA algorithm. The observed Avrami exponent for both nucleation modes shows a better agreement with the theoretical predicted values. The site saturated nucleation mode shows a nearly consistent value of Avrami exponent, whereas in the case of continuous nucleation the exponent shows a little variation during transformation. The simulations in the present work can be applied for the optimization of microstructure and properties in austenitic steels.
Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata
Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa
2016-05-01
Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
Simulating Complex Systems by Cellular Automata
Kroc, Jiri; Hoekstra, Alfons G
2010-01-01
Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex emergent behavior. Conversely, CA can also be designed to produce a desired emergent behavior, using either theoretical methodologies or evolutionary techniques. Meanwhile, beyond the original realm of applications - Physics, Computer Science, and Mathematics – CA have also become work horses in very different disciplines such as epidemiology, immunology, sociology, and finance. In this context of fast and impressive progress, spurred further by the enormous attraction these topics have on students, this book emerges as a welcome overview of the field for its practitioners, as well as a good starting point for detailed study on the graduate and post-graduate level. The book contains three parts, two major parts on th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ángel Monteagudo
Full Text Available Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.
Particle acceleration in a complex solar active region modelled by a Cellular automata model
Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N.; Anastasiadis, A.
2004-12-01
The models of cellular automat allowed to reproduce successfully several statistical properties of the solar flares. We use a cellular automat model based on the concept of self-organised critical system to model the evolution of the magnetic energy released in an eruptive active area. Each burst of magnetic energy released is assimilated to a process of magnetic reconnection. We will thus generate several current layers (RCS) where the particles are accelerated by a direct electric field. We calculate the energy gain of the particles (ions and electrons) for various types of magnetic configuration. We calculate the distribution function of the kinetic energy of the particles after their interactions with a given number of RCS for each type of configurations. We show that the relative efficiency of the acceleration of the electrons and the ions depends on the selected configuration.
Some applications and prospects of cellular automata in traffic problems
Goldengorin, Boris; Makarenko, Alexander; Smelyanec, Natalia; Yacoubi, SE; Chopard, B; Bandini, S
2006-01-01
In this paper we deal with mathematical modeling of participants' movement based on cellular automata (CA). We describe some improvements of CA models of pedestrian motion taking into account the real geometrical constraints induced by a specific restricted space. Also some presumable optimization p
Rohrbach, F; Vesztergombi, G
1997-01-01
In the near future, the computer performance will be completely determined by how long it takes to access memory. There are bottle-necks in memory latency and memory-to processor interface bandwidth. The IRAM initiative could be the answer by putting Processor-In-Memory (PIM). Starting from the massively parallel processing concept, one reached a similar conclusion. The MPPC (Massively Parallel Processing Collaboration) project and the 8K processor ASTRA machine (Associative String Test bench for Research \\& Applications) developed at CERN \\cite{kuala} can be regarded as a forerunner of the IRAM concept. The computing power of the ASTRA machine, regarded as an IRAM with 64 one-bit processors on a 64$\\times$64 bit-matrix memory chip machine, has been demonstrated by running statistical physics algorithms: one-dimensional stochastic cellular automata, as a simple model for dynamical phase transitions. As a relevant result for physics, the damage spreading of this model has been investigated.
Cellular automata with majority rule on evolving network
Makowiec, Danuta
2004-01-01
The cellular automata discrete dynamical system is considered as the two-stage process: the majority rule for the change in the automata state and the rule for the change in topological relations between automata. The influence of changing topology to the cooperative phenomena, namely zero-temperature ferromagnetic phase transition, is observed.
Some Properties of Fractals Generated by Linear Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
倪天佳
2003-01-01
Fractals and cellular automata are both significant areas of research in nonlinear analysis. This paper studies a class of fractals generated by cellular automata. The patterns produced by cellular automata give a special sequence of sets in Euclidean space. The corresponding limit set is shown to be a fractal and the dimension is independent of the choice of the finite initial seed. As opposed to previous works, the fractals here do not depend on the time parameter.
Game of Life Cellular Automata
Adamatzky, Andrew
2010-01-01
In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational
Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2016-06-01
In this article we present an improved version of the Cellular Automata floor field model making use of a sub-mesh system to increase the maximum density allowed during simulation and reproduce phenomena observed in dense crowds. In order to calibrate the model's parameters and to validate it we used data obtained from an empirical observation of bidirectional pedestrian flow. A good agreement was found between numerical simulation and experimental data and, in particular, the double outflow peak observed during the formation of deadlocks could be reproduced in numerical simulations, thus allowing the analysis of deadlock formation and dissolution. Finally, we used the developed high density model to compute the flow-ratio dependent fundamental diagram of bidirectional flow, demonstrating the instability of balanced flow and predicting the bidirectional flow behavior at very high densities. The model we presented here can be used to prevent dense crowd accidents in the future and to investigate the dynamics of the accidents which already occurred in the past. Additionally, fields such as granular and active matter physics may benefit from the developed framework to study different collective phenomena.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanyuan Yang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Decadal to centennial land use and land cover change has been consistently singled out as a key element and an important driver of global environmental change, playing an essential role in balancing energy use. Understanding long-term human-environment interactions requires historical reconstruction of past land use and land cover changes. Most of the existing historical reconstructions have insufficient spatial and thematic detail and do not consider various land change types. In this context, this paper explored the possibility of using a cellular automata-Markov model in 90 m × 90 m spatial resolution to reconstruct historical land use in the 1930s in Zhenlai County, China. Then the three-map comparison methodology was employed to assess the predictive accuracy of the transition modeling. The model could produce backward projections by analyzing land use changes in recent decades, assuming that the present land use pattern is dynamically dependent on the historical one. The reconstruction results indicated that in the 1930s most of the study area was occupied by grasslands, followed by wetlands and arable land, while other land categories occupied relatively small areas. Analysis of the three-map comparison illustrated that the major differences among the three maps have less to do with the simulation model and more to do with the inconsistencies among the land categories during the study period. Different information provided by topographic maps and remote sensing images must be recognized.
Single spin measurement using cellular automata techniques
Perez-Delgado, C A; Cory, D G; Mosca, M; Cappellaro, Paola; Cory, David G.; Mosca, Michele; Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.
2006-01-01
We propose an approach for single spin measurement. Our method uses techniques from the theory of quantum cellular automata to correlate a large amount of ancillary spins to the one to be measured. It has the distinct advantage of being efficient, and to a certain extent fault-tolerant. Under ideal conditions, it requires the application of only order of cube root of N steps (each requiring a constant number of rf pulses) to create a system of N correlated spins. It is also fairly robust against pulse errors, imperfect initial polarization of the ancilla spin system, and does not rely on entanglement. We study the scalability of our scheme through numerical simulation.
Single spin measurement using cellular automata techniques
Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Mosca, Michele; Cappellaro, Paola; Cory, David G.
2006-01-01
We propose an approach for single spin measurement. Our method uses techniques from the theory of quantum cellular automata to correlate a large amount of ancillary spins to the one to be measured. It has the distinct advantage of being efficient, and to a certain extent fault-tolerant. Under ideal conditions, it requires the application of only order of cube root of N steps (each requiring a constant number of rf pulses) to create a system of N correlated spins. It is also fairly robust agai...
An overview of quantum computation models: quantum automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Quantum automata,as theoretical models of quantum computers,include quantum finite automata (QFA),quantum sequential machines (QSM),quantum pushdown automata (QPDA),quantum Turing machines (QTM),quantum cellular automata (QCA),and the others,for example,automata theory based on quantum logic (orthomodular lattice-valued automata).In this paper,we try to outline a basic progress in the research on these models,focusing on QFA,QSM,QPDA,QTM,and orthomodular lattice-valued automata.Also,other models closely relative to them are mentioned.In particular,based on the existing results in the literature,we finally address a number of problems to be studied in future.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Górny
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular AutomatonFinite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grainsgrowth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniformtemperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibriumnature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1 on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.
Using Cellular Automata for Parking Recommendations in Smart Environments
Gwo-Jiun Horng
2014-01-01
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking...
Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium
Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji
2015-04-01
The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.
Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen
1994-01-01
A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping...... as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set...
Cellular automata in image processing and geometry
Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang
2014-01-01
The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...
Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Parimal; Barik, Jyotiskona; Chowdhury, S M; Ghosh, Tuhin; Hazra, Sugata
2015-06-01
The composition and assemblage of mangroves in the Bangladesh Sundarbans are changing systematically in response to several environmental factors. In order to understand the impact of the changing environmental conditions on the mangrove forest, species composition maps for the years 1985, 1995 and 2005 were studied. In the present study, 1985 and 1995 species zonation maps were considered as base data and the cellular automata-Markov chain model was run to predict the species zonation for the year 2005. The model output was validated against the actual dataset for 2005 and calibrated. Finally, using the model, mangrove species zonation maps for the years 2025, 2055 and 2105 have been prepared. The model was run with the assumption that the continuation of the current tempo and mode of drivers of environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, salinity change) of the last two decades will remain the same in the next few decades. Present findings show that the area distribution of the following species assemblages like Goran (Ceriops), Sundari (Heritiera), Passur (Xylocarpus), and Baen (Avicennia) would decrease in the descending order, whereas the area distribution of Gewa (Excoecaria), Keora (Sonneratia) and Kankra (Bruguiera) dominated assemblages would increase. The spatial distribution of projected mangrove species assemblages shows that more salt tolerant species will dominate in the future; which may be used as a proxy to predict the increase of salinity and its spatial variation in Sundarbans. Considering the present rate of loss of forest land, 17% of the total mangrove cover is predicted to be lost by the year 2105 with a significant loss of fresh water loving mangroves and related ecosystem services. This paper describes a unique approach to assess future changes in species composition and future forest zonation in mangroves under the 'business as usual' scenario of climate change. PMID:25719448
Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N.; Anastasiadis, A.
2007-06-01
Context: We study the acceleration and radiation of electrons and ions interacting with multiple small-scale dissipation regions resulting from the magnetic energy release process. Aims: We aim to calculate the distribution functions of the kinetic energy of the particles and the X-ray spectra and γ-ray fluxes produced by the accelerated particles. Methods: The evolution of the magnetic energy released in an active region is mimicked by a cellular automaton model based on the concept of self-organized criticality. Each burst of magnetic energy release is associated with a reconnecting current sheet (RCS) in which the particles are accelerated by a direct electric field. Results: We calculate the energy gain of the particles (ions and electrons) for three different magnetic configurations of the RCS after their interactions with a given number of RCS. We finally compare our results with existing observations. Conclusions: The results of our simulation can reproduce several properties of the observations such as variable electron and ion energy contents and γ-ray line ratio. Even if very flat X-ray spectra have been reported in a few events, the X-ray spectra produced in this model are too flat when compared to most X-ray observations.
Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.
Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I
2015-09-01
Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould. PMID
Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks
Knowledge discovery for geographical cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xia; Anthony Gar-On Yeh
2005-01-01
This paper proposes a new method for geographical simulation by applying data mining techniques to cellular automata. CA has strong capabilities in simulating complex systems. The core of CA is how to define transition rules. There are no good methods for defining these transition rules. They are usually defined by using heuristic methods and thus subject to uncertainties. Mathematical equations are used to represent transition rules implicitly and have limitations in capturing complex relationships. This paper demonstrates that the explicit transition rules of CA can be automatically reconstructed through the rule induction procedure of data mining. The proposed method can reduce the influences of individual knowledge and preferences in defining transition rules and generate more reliable simulation results. It can efficiently discover knowledge from a vast volume of spatial data.
Caracciolo, Domenico; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Collins, Scott L.
2016-05-01
Arid and semiarid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of woody plant encroachment. Overgrazing, reduced fire frequency, and climate change are known drivers of woody plant encroachment into grasslands. In this study, relatively simple algorithms for encroachment factors (i.e., grazing, grassland fires, and seed dispersal by grazers) are proposed and implemented in the ecohydrological Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS). CATGraSS is used in a 7.3 km2 rectangular domain located in central New Mexico along a zone of grassland to shrubland transition, where shrub encroachment is currently active. CATGraSS is calibrated and used to investigate the relative contributions of grazing, fire frequency, seed dispersal by herbivores and climate change on shrub abundance over a 150-year period of historical shrub encroachment. The impact of future climate change is examined using a model output that realistically represents current vegetation cover as initial condition, in a series of stochastic CATGraSS future climate simulations. Model simulations are found to be highly sensitive to the initial distribution of shrub cover. Encroachment factors more actively lead to shrub propagation within the domain when the model starts with randomly distributed individual shrubs. However, when shrubs are naturally evolved into clusters, the model response to encroachment factors is muted unless the effect of seed dispersal by herbivores is amplified. The relative contribution of different drivers on modeled shrub encroachment varied based on the initial shrub cover condition used in the model. When historical weather data is used, CATGraSS predicted loss of shrub and grass cover during the 1950 s drought. While future climate change is found to amplify shrub encroachment (∼13% more shrub cover by 2100), grazing remains the dominant factor promoting shrub encroachment. When we modeled future climate
Stylized Facts Generated Through Cellular Automata Models. Case of Study: The Game of Life
Coronel-Brizio, H F; Rodriguez-Achach, M E; Stevens-Ramirez, G A
2007-01-01
In the present work, a geometrical method to generate a two dimensional random walk by means of a bidimensional Cellular Automaton is presented. We illustrate it by means of Conway's Game of Life with periodical borders, with a large lattice of 3000 x 3000 cells. The obtained random walk is of character anomalous, and its projection to a one dimensional random walk is analyzed, showing that it presents some statistical properties similar to the so-called stylized facts observed in financial time series. We consider that the procedure presented here is important not only because of its simplicity, but also because it could help us to understand and shed light on the stylized facts formation mechanism.
Cellular automata for traffic flow simulation with safety embedded notions
Larraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.
2007-01-01
In this paper a cellular automata model for one-lane traffic flow is presented. A new set of rules is proposed to better capture driver reactions to traffic that are intended to preserve safety on the highway. As a result, drivers behavior is derived from an analysis that determines the most appropriate action for a vehicle based on the distance from the vehicle ahead of it and the velocities of the two neighbor vehicles. The model preserves simplicity of CA rules and at the same time makes t...
On reversibility of cellular automata with periodic boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nobe, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yura, Fumitaka [Imai Quantum Computing and Information Project, ERATO, JST, Daini Hongo White Bldg 201, 5-28-3 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2004-06-04
Reversibility of one-dimensional cellular automata with periodic boundary conditions is discussed. It is shown that there exist exactly 16 reversible elementary cellular automaton rules for infinitely many cell sizes by means of a correspondence between elementary cellular automaton and the de Bruijn graph. In addition, a sufficient condition for reversibility of three-valued and two-neighbour cellular automaton is given.
Renormalization group and continuum limit of quantum cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimboras, Zoltan [Quantum Information Theory Group, ISI, Torino (Italy)
2012-07-01
We develop a renormalization group formalism for quantum cellular automata (reminiscent of the algebraic renormalization group of Buchholz and Verch). Using this formalism, we can define the continuum limit for certain automata. As a particular example, we show that the continuum limit of the so-called ''Glider Clifford cellular automaton'' is the 1+1 dimensional relativistic QFT of free Majorana fermions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jia Ning; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan
2012-01-01
Previous studies suggest that there are three different jam phases in the cellular automata automaton model with a slow-to-start rule under open boundaries.In the present paper,the dynamics of each free-flow-jam phase transition is studied.By analysing the microscopic behaviour of the traffic flow,we obtain analytical results on the phase transition dynamics.Our results can describe the detailed time evolution of the system during phase transition,while they provide good approximation for the numerical simulation data.These findings can perfectly explain the microscopic mechanism and details of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics.
Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion
Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela
2010-06-01
Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.
Accelerating cellular automata simulations using AVX and CUDA
Szkoda, Sebastian; Tykierko, Mateusz
2012-01-01
We investigated various methods of parallelization of the Frish-Hasslacher-Pomeau (FHP) cellular automata algorithm for modeling fluid flow. These methods include SSE, AVX, and POSIX Threads for central processing units (CPUs) and CUDA for graphics processing units (GPUs). We present implementation details of the FHP algorithm based on AVX/SSE and CUDA technologies. We found that (a) using AVX or SSE is necessary to fully utilize the potential of modern CPUs; (b) CPUs and GPUs are comparable in terms of computational and economic efficiency only if the CPU code uses AVX or SSE instructions; (c) AVX does not offer any substantial improvement relative to SSE.
Persistence, extinction and spatio-temporal synchronization of SIRS cellular automata models
Liu, Quan-Xing; Jin, Zhen
2008-01-01
Spatially explicit models have been widely used in today's mathematical ecology and epidemiology to study persistence and extinction of populations as well as their spatial patterns. Here we extend the earlier work--static dispersal between neighbouring individuals to mobility of individuals as well as multi-patches environment. As is commonly found, the basic reproductive ratio is maximized for the evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) on diseases' persistence in mean-field theory. This has important implications, as it implies that for a wide range of parameters that infection rate will tend maximum. This is opposite with present results obtained in spatial explicit models that infection rate is limited by upper bound. We observe the emergence of trade-offs of extinction and persistence on the parameters of the infection period and infection rate and show the extinction time having a linear relationship with respect to system size. We further find that the higher mobility can pronouncedly promote the persisten...
Modelling land-use effects of future urbanization using cellular automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten
2013-01-01
Danish case area was selected, comprising of the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different descriptive GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban density and structure......, and distribution of jobs and population. These indicators are then incorporated in the model calculations as factors determining urban development, related to the scenario outlines. The results calculated from the scenarios reveals the great difference in urban distribution that different spatial planning...
On the topological sensitivity of cellular automata
Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard
2011-06-01
Ever since the conceptualization of cellular automata (CA), much attention has been paid to the dynamical properties of these discrete dynamical systems, and, more in particular, to their sensitivity to the initial condition from which they are evolved. Yet, the sensitivity of CA to the topology upon which they are based has received only minor attention, such that a clear insight in this dependence is still lacking and, furthermore, a quantification of this so-called topological sensitivity has not yet been proposed. The lack of attention for this issue is rather surprising since CA are spatially explicit, which means that their dynamics is directly affected by their topology. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose topological Lyapunov exponents that measure the divergence of two close trajectories in phase space originating from a topological perturbation, and we relate them to a measure grasping the sensitivity of CA to their topology that relies on the concept of topological derivatives, which is introduced in this paper. The validity of the proposed methodology is illustrated for the 256 elementary CA and for a family of two-state irregular totalistic CA.
Unstable vicinal crystal growth from cellular automata
Krasteva, A.; Popova, H.; KrzyŻewski, F.; Załuska-Kotur, M.; Tonchev, V.
2016-03-01
In order to study the unstable step motion on vicinal crystal surfaces we devise vicinal Cellular Automata. Each cell from the colony has value equal to its height in the vicinal, initially the steps are regularly distributed. Another array keeps the adatoms, initially distributed randomly over the surface. The growth rule defines that each adatom at right nearest neighbor position to a (multi-) step attaches to it. The update of whole colony is performed at once and then time increases. This execution of the growth rule is followed by compensation of the consumed particles and by diffusional update(s) of the adatom population. Two principal sources of instability are employed - biased diffusion and infinite inverse Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier (iiSE). Since these factors are not opposed by step-step repulsion the formation of multi-steps is observed but in general the step bunches preserve a finite width. We monitor the developing surface patterns and quantify the observations by scaling laws with focus on the eventual transition from diffusion-limited to kinetics-limited phenomenon. The time-scaling exponent of the bunch size N is 1/2 for the case of biased diffusion and 1/3 for the case of iiSE. Additional distinction is possible based on the time-scaling exponents of the sizes of multi-step Nmulti, these are 0.36÷0.4 (for biased diffusion) and 1/4 (iiSE).
Schema Redescription in Cellular Automata: Revisiting Emergence in Complex Systems
Marques-Pita, Manuel
2011-01-01
We present a method to eliminate redundancy in the transition tables of Boolean automata: schema redescription with two symbols. One symbol is used to capture redundancy of individual input variables, and another to capture permutability in sets of input variables: fully characterizing the canalization present in Boolean functions. Two-symbol schemata explain aspects of the behaviour of automata networks that the characterization of their emergent patterns does not capture. We use our method to compare two well-known cellular automata for the density classification task: the human engineered CA GKL, and another obtained via genetic programming. We show that despite having very different collective behaviour, these rules are very similar. Indeed, GKL is a special case of GP. Therefore, we demonstrate that it is more feasible to compare cellular automata via schema redescriptions of their rules, than by looking at their emergent behaviour, leading us to question the tendency in complexity research to pay much m...
Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation
Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning
2016-02-01
In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.
Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles
Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.
2012-04-01
As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.
Integration of Neural Networks and Cellular Automata for Urban Planning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Anthony Gar-on Yeh; LI Xia
2004-01-01
This paper presents a new type of cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of alternative land development using neural networks for urban planning. CA models can be regarded as a planning tool because they can generate alternative urban growth. Alternative development patterns can be formed by using different sets of parameter values in CA simulation. A critical issue is how to define parameter values for realistic and idealized simulation. This paper demonstrates that neural networks can simplify CA models but generate more plausible results. The simulation is based on a simple three-layer network with an output neuron to generate conversion probability. No transition rules are required for the simulation. Parameter values are automatically obtained from the training of network by using satellite remote sensing data. Original training data can be assessed and modified according to planning objectives. Alternative urban patterns can be easily formulated by using the modified training data sets rather than changing the model.
元胞自动机理论在金融市场建模中的应用%Application of Cellular Automata in Financial Market Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李捷
2013-01-01
本文建立基于元胞自动机的金融市场演化模型，其中将市场交易者分为基础资产价值导向和技术分析导向两类，并通过模拟不同交易者的市场行为来建立演化模型，从而生成市场价格时间序列。文章对模型产出进行分析，发现价格序列表现出随机波动、尖峰厚尾和波动聚集等经典金融理论无法解释的金融市场特性，这些特性和实际金融市场有很高的相似度。因此论文得出结论：元胞自动机是探索金融复杂性的强有力工具。%Cellular automata modeling in financial market is introduced in this paper. The financial market model divides the traders in the market into two types: fundamental trader and charted trader. The behaviors of these two kind traders are simulated by the cells and rules in the cellular automata model. The price of the financial assets is the key output of the model, which is produced by the evolution of the cells’ inter-reacting. The price data series generated from the model fit the features of actual market well.
Considering Forces in Cellular Automata Model for Crowd Evacuation%考虑作用力的人群疏散元胞自动机模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张维; 郑小平; 程礼盛
2013-01-01
疏散者之间以及疏散者和环境之间的相互作用力，对拥挤状态下的人群疏散动力学具有重要影响。在对现有相关模型进行深入分析总结的基础上，提出了将可重叠多格子元胞结合修正地板场来考虑作用力效应的改进元胞自动机模型。对不同出口宽度和人群密度条件下的人群疏散动力学进行了对比研究。结果表明，在人群疏散的元胞自动机模型中加入人群拥挤受力作用机制，具有必要性；改进模型能更好地模拟人群疏散过程。% The forces between evacuees and environment have an critical influence on the evacuation dynamics of crowds. Based on the analysis of current related models, an improved cellular automata model is proposed, which takes into account those forces by adopting both overlappable multi-grid cell and modified floor field. Comparative study of crowd dynamics against exit width and crowd density is carried out for the improved model and the traditional. The results reveal the necessity and rationality of involving crowding forces into the cellular automata model for evacuation simulations. This work is helpful to those researches of crowd dynamics by simulations.
Cellular automata simulation of medication-induced autoimmune diseases
Stauffer, Dietrich; Proykova, Ana
2004-01-01
We implement the cellular automata model proposed by Stauffer and Weisbuch in 1992 to describe the response of the immune system to antigens in the presence of medications. The model contains two thresholds, θ1 and θ2, suggested by de Boer, Segel, and Perelson to present the minimum field needed to stimulate the proliferation of the receptors and to suppress it, respectively. The influence of the drug is mimicked by increasing the second threshold, thus enhancing the immune response. If this increase is too strong, the immune response is triggered in the whole immune repertoire, causing it to attack the own body. This effect is seen in our simulations to depend both on the ratio of the thresholds and on their absolute values.
An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility
Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito
The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Arai
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.
The Study Of Properties Of The Word Of Mouth Marketing Using Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kowalska-Styczeń Agnieszka
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of using cellular automata, to study the properties of word of mouth (w-o-m marketing. Cellular automata allow to analyze the dynamics of changes in views and attitudes in social groups based on local interactions between people in small groups of friends, family members etc. The proposed paper shows the possibility of modelling the dynamics of word of mouth mechanism, if the basic assumptions of this process are: different size groups where this phenomenon occurs, and varied access to information. On the competing firms market, the dependence of the w-o-m mechanism dynamics on the model parameters is shown
Simple cellular automata to mimic foraging ants submitted to abduction
Tejera, F
2015-01-01
Many species of ants forage by building up two files: an outbound one moving from the nest to the foraging area, and a nestbound one, returning from it to the nest. Those files are eventually submitted to different threats. If the danger is concentrated at one point of the file, one might expect that ants returning to the nest will pass danger information to their nestmates moving in the opposite direction towards the danger area. In this paper, we construct simple cellular automata models for foraging ants submitted to localized abduction, were danger information is transmitted using different protocols, including the possibility of no transmission. The parameters we have used in the simulations have been estimated from actual experiments under natural conditions. So, it would be easy to test our information-transmission hypothese in real experiments. Preliminary experimental results published elsewhere suggest that the behavior of foraging ants of the species Atta insularis is best described using the hypot...
Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata
Martín Del Rey, Ángel
2014-12-01
In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.
Return of the Quantum Cellular Automata: Episode VI
Carr, Lincoln D.; Hillberry, Logan E.; Rall, Patrick; Halpern, Nicole Yunger; Bao, Ning; Montangero, Simone
2016-05-01
There are now over 150 quantum simulators or analog quantum computers worldwide. Although exploring quantum phase transitions, many-body localization, and the generalized Gibbs ensemble are exciting and worthwhile endeavors, there are totally untapped directions we have not yet pursued. One of these is quantum cellular automata. In the past a principal goal of quantum cellular automata was to reproduce continuum single particle quantum physics such as the Schrodinger or Dirac equation from simple rule sets. Now that we begin to really understand entanglement and many-body quantum physics at a deeper level, quantum cellular automata present new possibilities. We explore several time evolution schemes on simple spin chains leading to high degrees of quantum complexity and nontrivial quantum dynamics. We explain how the 256 known classical elementary cellular automata reduce to just a few exciting quantum cases. Our analysis tools include mutual information based complex networks as well as more familiar quantifiers like sound speed and diffusion rate. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.
Completely reproducible description of digital sound data with cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wada, Masato; Kuroiwa, Jousuke; Nara, Shigetoshi
2002-12-30
A novel method of compressive and completely reproducible description of digital sound data by means of rule dynamics of CA (cellular automata) is proposed. The digital data of spoken words and music recorded with the standard format of a compact disk are reproduced completely by this method with use of only two rules in a one-dimensional CA without loss of information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chudech Losiri
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.
The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata
Shuiping Zhang; Huijune Luo
2012-01-01
The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimen...
Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet–triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (∼10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet–triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time ∼300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds—the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time. (paper)
Self-Learning Cellular Automata for Forecasting Precipitation from Radar Images
Li, H.; Corzo Perez, G.A.; Martinez, C.A.; Mynett, A.E.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new forecasting methodology that uses self-learning cellular automata (SLCA) for including variables that consider the spatial dynamics of the mass of precipitation in a radar forecast model. Because the meteorological conditions involve nonlinear dynamic behavior, an automatic
Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata
Guck, Dennis; Timmer, Mark; Hatefi, Hassan; Ruijters, Enno; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2014-01-01
Costs and rewards are important ingredients for many types of systems, modelling critical aspects like energy consumption, task completion, repair costs, and memory usage. This paper introduces Markov reward automata, an extension of Markov automata that allows the modelling of systems incorporating
元胞自动机可逆性研究%Research on Reversibility of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘栋
2011-01-01
Cellular automata is an important theoretical tool of modeling complex adaptive system. As a necessary condition of simulating physics reversible space, reversibility is an important attribute of cellular automata. This paper introduces basic concept, reversibility and computability about cellular automata, and describes how one-dimensional reversible cellular automata are computationally universal.%元胞自动机是对复杂适应系统建模的重要理论工具.可逆性是元胞自动机的一个重要属性,是模拟物理可逆空间的必要条件.本文介绍元胞自动机的基本概念、可逆性和可计算性,并介绍一维可逆元胞自动机可计算的证明思路.
Neural networks and cellular automata in experimental high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the past few years, two novel computing techniques, cellular automata and neural networks, have shown considerable promise in the solution of problems of a very high degree of complexity, such as turbulent fluid flow, image processing, and pattern recognition. Many of the problems faced in experimental high energy physics are also of this nature. Track reconstruction in wire chambers and cluster finding in cellular calorimeters, for instance, involve pattern recognition and high combinatorial complexity since many combinations of hits or cells must be considered in order to arrive at the final tracks or clusters. Here we examine in what way connective network methods can be applied to some of the problems of experimental high physics. It is found that such problems as track and cluster finding adapt naturally to these approaches. When large scale hardwired connective networks become available, it will be possible to realize solutions to such problems in a fraction of the time required by traditional methods. For certain types of problems, faster solutions are already possible using model networks implemented on vector or other massively parallel machines. It should also be possible, using existing technology, to build simplified networks that will allow detailed reconstructed event information to be used in fast trigger decisions
Nanosensor Data Processor in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Fenghui Yao; Mohamed Saleh Zein-Sabatto; Guifeng Shao; Mohammad Bodruzzaman; Mohan Malkani
2014-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an attractive nanotechnology with the potential alterative to CMOS technology. QCA provides an interesting paradigm for faster speed, smaller size, and lower power consumption in comparison to transistor-based technology, in both communication and computation. This paper describes the design of a 4-bit multifunction nanosensor data processor (NSDP). The functions of NSDP contain (i) sending the preprocessed raw data to high-level processor, (ii) counting...
Feedback Shift Registers as Cellular Automata Boundary Conditions
Salman, K.
2013-01-01
We present a new design for random number generatio n. The outputs of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) act as continuous inputs to the t wo boundaries of a one-dimensional (1-D) Elementary Cellular Automata (ECA). The results sho w superior randomness features and the output string has passed the Diehard statistical ba ttery of tests. The design is good candidate for parallel random number generation, ...
Evolution of Cellular Automata using Lindenmayer Systems and Fourier Transforms
Berg, Sivert
2013-01-01
Cellular automata (CAs) are a class of highly parallel computing systems consisting of many simple computing elements called cells. The cells can only communicate with neighboring cells, meaning there is no global communication in the system. Programming such a system to solve complex problems can be a daunting task, and indirect methods are often applied to make it easier. In this thesis we use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to evolve CAs. We also look at the possibility of employing L-system...
Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming
2016-01-01
A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios polluting enterprises, distance from the town center, soil pH, and distance from bodies of water. Categorical variables, including soil type, parent material type, organic content grade, and land use type, also significantly influenced HMC according to Wald statistics. The relative operating characteristic and kappa coefficients were 0.91 and 0.64, respectively, which proved the validity and accuracy of the model. The scenario simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.
Improving Quality of Clustering using Cellular Automata for Information retrieval
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. K. Sree
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Clustering has been widely applied to Information Retrieval (IR on the grounds of its potential improved effectiveness over inverted file search. Clustering is a mostly unsupervised procedure and the majority of the clustering algorithms depend on certain assumptions in order to define the subgroups present in a data set .A clustering quality measure is a function that, given a data set and its partition into clusters, returns a non-negative real number representing the quality of that clustering. Moreover, they may behave in a different way depending on the features of the data set and their input parameters values. Therefore, in most applications the resulting clustering scheme requires some sort of evaluation as regards its validity. The quality of clustering can be enhanced by using a Cellular Automata Classifier for information retrieval. In this study we take the view that if cellular automata with clustering is applied to search results (query-specific clustering, then it has the potential to increase the retrieval effectiveness compared both to that of static clustering and of conventional inverted file search. We conducted a number of experiments using ten document collections and eight hierarchic clustering methods. Our results show that the effectiveness of query-specific clustering with cellular automata is indeed higher and suggest that there is scope for its application to IR.
The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuiping Zhang
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.
Genetic Cellular Automata Model of Evolving Stock Market%股市演化的遗传元胞自动机模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
应尚军; 范英
2013-01-01
Guided by the theory of complexity sciences ,this paper formulates a genetic cellular automa model of stock market using several research tools including cellular automata ,genetic algorithm and simulation ,and techniques of investment analysis is involved as well .During the modeling ,the reservoir of evolving rules is used to conduct the stock market simulation ,whereas classifier system is used to training the model′s parameters so that the evolving model is as close to real market as possible .The application to YZMY stock market implies that the intelligent e‐volving model can simulate the real market on complexity characteristics ,and can provide scien‐tific basis for stock market administration and regulation after further studies .% 以复杂性科学的理论方法为指导，运用元胞自动机、遗传算法、系统仿真、分类器系统等研究工具，结合投资分析技术，在形成演化规则库的基础上，构建了股市系统演化的遗传元胞自动机模型。其中，分类器系统被用来学习演化模型的参数，它使演化市场的复杂性特征充分逼近现实市场。通过对兖州煤业的实证分析，表明该演化模型可以模拟现实市场的复杂性，可以通过具有学习功能的演化模型进一步分析股票市场，为股市的监管和调控提供依据。
Using cellular automata for parking recommendations in smart environments.
Horng, Gwo-Jiun
2014-01-01
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671
Using cellular automata for parking recommendations in smart environments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gwo-Jiun Horng
Full Text Available In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space.
Using cellular automata for parking recommendations in smart environments.
Horng, Gwo-Jiun
2014-01-01
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space.
The Consensus Problem, Cellular Automata, and Self- replicating Structures
Griffin, David
2016-01-01
Over The course of the last four years I have researched the consensus problem. I have done so by studying how cellular automata following the 2DGKL rule are able to reach consensus in a verity of ways. There are only certain structures that can form within a network, and these structures can be described and examined directly from the rules that make them up. I have also explored a variety of methods to study the rule including, graph theory and liner algebra representations of the cellular ...
Generalized Cayley Graphs and Cellular Automata over them
Arrighi, Pablo; Nesme, Vincent
2012-01-01
Cayley graphs have a number of useful features: the ability to graphically represent finitely generated group elements and their equality; to name all vertices relative to a point; the fact that they have a well-defined notion of translation, and that they can be endowed with a compact metric. We propose a notion of graph associated to a language, which conserves or generalizes these features. Whereas Cayley graphs are regular; associated graphs are arbitrary, although of a bounded degree. Moreover, it is well-known that cellular automata can be characterized as the set of translation-invariant continuous functions for a distance on the set of configurations that makes it a compact metric space; this point of view makes it easy to extend their definition from grids to Cayley graphs. Similarly, we extend their definition to these arbitrary, bounded degree, time-varying graphs. KEYWORDS: Causal Graph Dynamics, Curtis-Hedlund-Lynden, Dynamical networks, Boolean networks, Generative networks automata, Graph Autom...
Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Sakamoto, Arnaldo Yoso; Quénol, Hervé; Vannier, Clémence; Corgne, Samuel
2016-01-01
The dynamics of land use/land cover change in the Lower Nhecolândia wetland are marked by deforestation for pasture expansion, resulting in a real threat to the ecological stability. The aim of our work was to analyze the spatial distribution of land cover changes in the Lower Nhecolândia from 1985 to 2013 and to predict changes in trends for 2040. The mapping of land cover changes was developed using Landsat satellite images of 1985, 1999, 2007, and 2013, based on geographic object-based image analysis approach. This study uses integrated Markov chains and cellular automata modeling and multicriteria evaluation techniques to produce transition probability maps and describe the trajectory analysis methodology to construct a continuity of spatial and temporal changes for the wetland. The results of the multitemporal change detection classification show that, from 1985 to 2013, the forest woodland decreased by 6.89% and the grassland class increased by 18.29%. On the other hand, all water bodies showed a reducing trend, while the bare soil class increased compared to 1985, but did not present a regular trend of increase or decrease. From the present day, the trend for the future is a reduction of almost 6.4% by 2040. We found that deforestation actions will be concentrated in the areas with the highest concentration of saline lakes, constituting a serious threat to the natural functioning of this environmental system.
Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Yu, D.; Liu, K.; Huang, H.; Hu, G.
2015-03-01
Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas of southern China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model is urgently needed for urban storm-water and emergency management. This study develops an efficient and flexible cellular automaton (CA) model to simulate storm-water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamics can be simulated with little preprocessing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented to govern the water flow in a rectangular template of three cells by three cells of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street-monitoring closed-circuit television (CCTV) videos and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically based 2-D model (FloodMap) show that the model is capable of effectively simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of the CA model can meet the needs of city emergency management.
Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers
Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika
2012-01-01
In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.
Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin
2016-06-01
Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.
Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N
2015-03-01
As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region.
Caracciolo, Domenico; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Fatichi, Simone; Zhou, Xiaochi
2014-11-01
Regions of vegetation transitions (ecotones) are known to be highly sensitive to climate fluctuations. In this study, the Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) has been modified, calibrated and used with downscaled future climate scenarios to examine the role of climate change on vegetation patterns in a steep mountainous catchment (1.3 km2) located in Sicily, Italy. In the catchment, north-facing slopes are mostly covered by trees and grass, and south-facing slopes by Indian Fig opuntia and grass, with grasses dominating as elevation grows. CATGraSS simulates solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in space and time. Each model cell can hold a single plant type or can be bare soil. Plant competition is modeled explicitly through mortality and the establishment of individual plants in open spaces. In this study, CATGraSS is modified to account for heterogeneity in soil thickness and tested in the study catchment using the historical climate of the region. Predicted vegetation patterns are compared with those obtained from satellite images. Results of model under current climate underscore the importance of solar irradiance and soil thickness, especially in the uplands where soil is shallow, in determining vegetation composition over complex terrain. A stochastic weather generator is used to generate future climate change scenarios for the catchment by downscaling GCM realizations in space and time. Future increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration was considered through modifying the vegetation water use efficiency and stomatal resistance for our study site. Model results suggest that vegetation pattern is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall variations provided by climate scenarios (30% reduction of the annual precipitation and a 2.8 °C increase of the mean annual temperature). Future climate change is predicted to bring a considerable reorganization of the plant composition following topographic patterns, leading to a
Validating Cellular Automata Lava Flow Emplacement Algorithms with Standard Benchmarks
Richardson, J. A.; Connor, L.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.; Gallant, E.
2015-12-01
A major existing need in assessing lava flow simulators is a common set of validation benchmark tests. We propose three levels of benchmarks which test model output against increasingly complex standards. First, imulated lava flows should be morphologically identical, given changes in parameter space that should be inconsequential, such as slope direction. Second, lava flows simulated in simple parameter spaces can be tested against analytical solutions or empirical relationships seen in Bingham fluids. For instance, a lava flow simulated on a flat surface should produce a circular outline. Third, lava flows simulated over real world topography can be compared to recent real world lava flows, such as those at Tolbachik, Russia, and Fogo, Cape Verde. Success or failure of emplacement algorithms in these validation benchmarks can be determined using a Bayesian approach, which directly tests the ability of an emplacement algorithm to correctly forecast lava inundation. Here we focus on two posterior metrics, P(A|B) and P(¬A|¬B), which describe the positive and negative predictive value of flow algorithms. This is an improvement on less direct statistics such as model sensitivity and the Jaccard fitness coefficient. We have performed these validation benchmarks on a new, modular lava flow emplacement simulator that we have developed. This simulator, which we call MOLASSES, follows a Cellular Automata (CA) method. The code is developed in several interchangeable modules, which enables quick modification of the distribution algorithm from cell locations to their neighbors. By assessing several different distribution schemes with the benchmark tests, we have improved the performance of MOLASSES to correctly match early stages of the 2012-3 Tolbachik Flow, Kamchakta Russia, to 80%. We also can evaluate model performance given uncertain input parameters using a Monte Carlo setup. This illuminates sensitivity to model uncertainty.
A new phenomenon of quantum-dot cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Ifan external point charge and the movable charges of an isolated quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) cell have the same polarity, the point charge greatly affects the polarization (P) of the cell only when it is in a narrow band with periodically changing width. The center of the band is on a radius R circle. The ratio of R to the electric charge (q) is a constant determined by the parameters of the cell. A QCA cell can be used as charge detector based on the above phenomenon.
Nanosensor Data Processor in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fenghui Yao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is an attractive nanotechnology with the potential alterative to CMOS technology. QCA provides an interesting paradigm for faster speed, smaller size, and lower power consumption in comparison to transistor-based technology, in both communication and computation. This paper describes the design of a 4-bit multifunction nanosensor data processor (NSDP. The functions of NSDP contain (i sending the preprocessed raw data to high-level processor, (ii counting the number of the active majority gates, and (iii generating the approximate sigmoid function. The whole system is designed and simulated with several different input data.
Do integrable cellular automata have the confinement property?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grammaticos, B. [IMNC, Universite Paris VII-Paris XI, CNRS, UMR 8165, Bat. 104, 91406 Orsay (France); Ramani, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Tamizhmani, K.M. [Departement of Mathematics, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, 605014 Puducherry (India); Tamizhmani, T. [Department of Mathematics, Kanchi Mamunivar Centre for Postgraduate Studies, Puducherry (India); Carstea, A.S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 407 Atomistilor, Magurele, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)
2007-07-27
We analyse a criterion, introduced by Joshi and Lafortune, for the integrability of cellular automata obtained from discrete systems through the ultradiscretization procedure. We show that while this criterion can be used in order to single out integrable ultradiscrete systems, there do exist cases where the system is nonintegrable and still the criterion is satisfied. Conversely we show that for ultradiscrete systems that are derived from linearizable mappings the criterion is not satisfied. We investigate this phenomenon further in the case of a mapping which includes a linearizable subcase and show how the violation of the criterion comes to be. Finally, we comment on the growth properties of ultradiscrete systems. (fast track communication)
Do integrable cellular automata have the confinement property?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse a criterion, introduced by Joshi and Lafortune, for the integrability of cellular automata obtained from discrete systems through the ultradiscretization procedure. We show that while this criterion can be used in order to single out integrable ultradiscrete systems, there do exist cases where the system is nonintegrable and still the criterion is satisfied. Conversely we show that for ultradiscrete systems that are derived from linearizable mappings the criterion is not satisfied. We investigate this phenomenon further in the case of a mapping which includes a linearizable subcase and show how the violation of the criterion comes to be. Finally, we comment on the growth properties of ultradiscrete systems. (fast track communication)
Two Novel Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Full Adders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdie Qanbari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is an efficient technology to create computing devices. QCA is a suitable candidate for the next generation of digital systems. Full adders are the main member of computational systems because other operations can be implemented by adders. In this paper, two QCA full adders are introduced. The first one is implemented in one layer, and the second one is implemented in three layers. Five-input majority gate is used in both of them. These full adders are better than pervious designs in terms of area, delay, and complexity.
Synergistic cellular automata model for dissemination of Internet public opinion%因特网舆情传播的协同元胞自动机模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方薇; 何留进; 宋良图
2012-01-01
现有的因特网舆情传播研究或者从话题文本增长一消亡过程的数学统计或智能学习出发,或者采用元胞自动机或隐马尔可夫模型(HMM)分析主题倾向度的演化过程.但这些研究均缺乏有关舆情主体属性对因特网舆情传播影响的分析.基于因特网舆情空间的系统协同性,首先计算元胞状态协同转移概率,同时将整体协同转移概率与中心元胞之九邻居局域状态概率比较,确定中心元胞状态是否转换.经过若干次时间序列的迭代计算,获得舆情整体传播趋向“+”或“-”的程度(磁化率).通过观察磁化率一时间变化曲线,能清楚地了解舆情传播的演化.在此基础上,提出一个扩展的协同元胞自动机模型及算法.仿真结果表明环境适应度参变量表达了网络舆情主体从众心理,其变化影响磁化率向多数人意见靠拢；而偏好参变量使网络舆情整体快速向“偏好”方向传播.该模型比较接近现实社会网络的舆情传播方式.%As for the present research on the dissemination of Internet Public Opinion ( IPO), some research use mathematic statistics or intelligent learning to analyze the growing or descending process of a topic related text, and some use cellular automata or Hidden Markov Model ( HMM) to find the tendency propagation of the subject of IPO. However, all of them lack the analyses of the impacts of the subject attributes in IPO on its tendency propagation. Based on the systematic synergy of IPO space, the synergistic transition probability between states on whole cells space of discussed IPO was computed firstly, and then it was compared with a local state probability in 9 neighbors of a central cell to decide whether the state of central cell should be converted. After several iterative operations, the degree (magnetisability) which expressed the tendency propagation upon to " + " or " - " was obtained. Through observing the magnetisability
A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata
Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.
2012-12-01
Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in
Effect of asynchronous updating on the stability of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► An upper bound on the Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously updated CA is established. ► The employed update method has repercussions on the stability of CAs. ► A decision on the employed update method should be taken with care. ► Substantial discrepancies arise between synchronously and asynchronously updated CA. ► Discrepancies between different asynchronous update schemes are less pronounced. - Abstract: Although cellular automata (CAs) were conceptualized as utter discrete mathematical models in which the states of all their spatial entities are updated simultaneously at every consecutive time step, i.e. synchronously, various CA-based models that rely on so-called asynchronous update methods have been constructed in order to overcome the limitations that are tied up with the classical way of evolving CAs. So far, only a few researchers have addressed the consequences of this way of updating on the evolved spatio-temporal patterns, and the reachable stationary states. In this paper, we exploit Lyapunov exponents to determine to what extent the stability of the rules within a family of totalistic CAs is affected by the underlying update method. For that purpose, we derive an upper bound on the maximum Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously iterated CAs, and show its validity, after which we present a comparative study between the Lyapunov exponents obtained for five different update methods, namely one synchronous method and four well-established asynchronous methods. It is found that the stability of CAs is seriously affected if one of the latter methods is employed, whereas the discrepancies arising between the different asynchronous methods are far less pronounced and, finally, we discuss the repercussions of our findings on the development of CA-based models.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹爱春; 杨晓艇; 侯旭东
2013-01-01
A crowd evacuation model for large sports venues based on multi-agent and cellular automata technology according to the behavior characteristics and rules of evacuation is proposed. The cell in the cellular space occupied by virtual individuals is taken as an independent agent, and cellular and state are encapsulated and extended to the autonomy agent, and then individual differences are realized through the design of evacuation behavior strategy as the evolution rules to reflect the individual character, physical strength, mental effect on evacuation behavior. The evacuation simulation are carried out in sports venues. The results show that the proposed model fully considers the factors. Case evacuation is closer to the reality of large sports venues shortening the time of evacuation.%根据体育场馆人群疏散的特点与规律，提出一种基于多智能体和元胞自动机相融合的大型体育场馆人群疏散模型（Agent-CA）。将元胞空间中被虚拟人个体占据的元胞视为一个独立的智能体，将元胞及其状态进行封装，扩展为具有自主性的智能体，通过设计各种人群疏散行为策略做为演化规则，实现个体的差异性以体现个人个性、体力、心理等对疏散行为的影响，对体育场馆的人群疏散进行仿真实验。结果表明，Agent-CA综合了多智能体和元胞自动机的优点，充分考虑了个体内在因素，更接近现实大型体育场馆的人群疏散情形，缩短了疏散时间。
Reversible computing and cellular automata - A survey
Morita, Kenichi
2008-01-01
Reversible computing is a paradigm where computing models are defined so that they reflect physical reversibility, one of the fundamental microscopic physical property of Nature. In this survey/tutorial paper, we discuss how computation can be carried out in a reversible system, how a universal reversible computer can be constructed by reversible logic elements, and how such logic elements are related to reversible physical phenomena. We shall see that, in reversible systems, computation can ...
Cellular Automata Simulations - Tools and Techniques
Fuks, Henryk
2010-01-01
We presented an overview of basic issues associated with CA simulations, concentrating on selected problems which, in the mind of the author, deserve closer attention. We also demonstrated how HCELL can be used to perform some typical CA simulation tasks. Obviously, many important topics have been omitted. In particular, the issue of dimensionality of space has not been addressed, and yet many important CA models require 2D, 3D, and higher dimensional lattices. Some collective phenomena in CA...
Visualization of Gene Mutation Complicated Pattern of Hepatitis B Virus Based on Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Shi-huang; XIAO Xuan; DING Yong-sheng; HUANG Zhen-de
2005-01-01
Hepatitis B virus shows instantaneous and high rate mutations in biological experiments, some sorts of which affect the efficiency of virus replication greatly through enhancing or depressing the viral replication, while others have no influence at all. Taking advantage of prominent features of cellular automata, we simulate the effect of hepatitis B virus gene mutation on its replication efficiency. The computer simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel model by comparing with the results of biological experiments.
Progresses in the Analysis of Stochastic 2D Cellular Automata: a Study of Asynchronous 2D Minority
Regnault, Damien; Thierry, Éric
2007-01-01
Cellular automata are often used to model systems in physics, social sciences, biology that are inherently asynchronous. Over the past 20 years, studies have demonstrated that the behavior of cellular automata drastically changed under asynchronous updates. Still, the few mathematical analyses of asynchronism focus on one-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata, either on single examples or on specific classes. As for other classic dynamical systems in physics, extending known methods from one- to two-dimensional systems is a long lasting challenging problem. In this paper, we address the problem of analysing an apparently simple 2D asynchronous cellular automaton: 2D Minority where each cell, when fired, updates to the minority state of its neighborhood. Our experiments reveal that in spite of its simplicity, the minority rule exhibits a quite complex response to asynchronism. By focusing on the fully asynchronous regime, we are however able to describe completely the asymptotic behavior of this dynamics...
A Snaking and Interweaving Bicycle Flow Model Based on Cellular Automata%基于元胞自动机的自行车流蛇行、穿插模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓建华
2011-01-01
通过重新定义元胞尺寸、状态值及元胞邻域,建立了自行车元胞自动机基本模型,并在基本模型中引入随机偏移概率来表达自行车不遵循车道行驶的特性.通过模型模拟运行,并对获得的自行车流参数进行分析,结果表明引入随机偏移概率能很好地描述自行车不遵循车道随机蛇行、穿插的特性.%Through the re-definition of cellular size, cellular state value and the neighborhood, The paper establishs a bicycle basic cellular automata model and introduc the stochastic offset probability in bicycle’s base cellular automata model innovatively to express the property of riding not following with one lane.Through models simulation, the paper analyzs the result of the bicycle flow-parameters of simulated models and shows that the stochastic offset probability is corresponding sufficiently to describe the bicycle’s snaking and interweaving property.
From deterministic cellular automata to coupled map lattices
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-07-01
A general mathematical method is presented for the systematic construction of coupled map lattices (CMLs) out of deterministic cellular automata (CAs). The entire CA rule space is addressed by means of a universal map for CAs that we have recently derived and that is not dependent on any freely adjustable parameters. The CMLs thus constructed are termed real-valued deterministic cellular automata (RDCA) and encompass all deterministic CAs in rule space in the asymptotic limit κ \\to 0 of a continuous parameter κ. Thus, RDCAs generalize CAs in such a way that they constitute CMLs when κ is finite and nonvanishing. In the limit κ \\to ∞ all RDCAs are shown to exhibit a global homogeneous fixed-point that attracts all initial conditions. A new bifurcation is discovered for RDCAs and its location is exactly determined from the linear stability analysis of the global quiescent state. In this bifurcation, fuzziness gradually begins to intrude in a purely deterministic CA-like dynamics. The mathematical method presented allows to get insight in some highly nontrivial behavior found after the bifurcation.
Exploring Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Reversible Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saroj Kumar Chandra
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a new technology for development of logic circuits based on nanotechnology, and it is an one of the alternative for designing high performance computing over existing CMOS technology. The basic logic in QCA does not use voltage level for logic representation rather it represent binary state by polarization of electrons on the Quantum Cell which is basic building block of QCA. Extensive work is going on QCA for circuit design due to low power consumption and regularity in the circuit.. Clocking is used in QCA circuit to synchronize and control the information flow and to provide the power to run the circuit. Reversible logic design is a well-known paradigm in digital computation, and if circuit developed is reversible then it consumes very low power . Here, in this paper we are presenting a Reversible Universal Gate (RUG based on Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA. The RUG implemented by QCA Designer tool and also its behavior is simulated by it.
Simulating three-dimensional hydrodynamics on a cellular-automata machine
Adler, C; Margolus, N H; Rothman, D H; Adler, Christopher; Boghosian, Bruce M; Margolus, Norman; Rothman, Daniel H
1995-01-01
We demonstrate how three-dimensional fluid flow simulations can be carried out on the Cellular Automata Machine 8 (CAM-8), a special-purpose computer for cellular-automata computations. The principal algorithmic innovation is the use of a lattice-gas model with a 16-bit collision operator that is specially adapted to the machine architecture. It is shown how the collision rules can be optimized to obtain a low viscosity of the fluid. Predictions of the viscosity based on a Boltzmann approximation agree well with measurements of the viscosity made on CAM-8. Several test simulations of flows in simple geometries -- channels, pipes, and a cubic array of spheres -- are carried out. Measurements of average flux in these geometries compare well with theoretical predictions.
Opinion evolution based on cellular automata rules in small world networks
Shi, Xiao-Ming; Shi, Lun; Zhang, Jie-Fang
2010-03-01
In this paper, we apply cellular automata rules, which can be given by a truth table, to human memory. We design each memory as a tracking survey mode that keeps the most recent three opinions. Each cellular automata rule, as a personal mechanism, gives the final ruling in one time period based on the data stored in one's memory. The key focus of the paper is to research the evolution of people's attitudes to the same question. Based on a great deal of empirical observations from computer simulations, all the rules can be classified into 20 groups. We highlight the fact that the phenomenon shown by some rules belonging to the same group will be altered within several steps by other rules in different groups. It is truly amazing that, compared with the last hundreds of presidential voting in America, the eras of important events in America's history coincide with the simulation results obtained by our model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomeng Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.
The Improved Cellular Automata and Its Application in Delineation of Urban Spheres of Influence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Deng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The issue of spatial diffusion and pattern division of traditional cellular automata (CA has drawn widespread attention and generated extensive work by scholars. However, there are many deficiencies in traditional configurations of CA neighborhoods, which reduce simulation accuracy. The effect of improved methods of traditional configurations of CA neighborhoods is not obvious, and its interoperability is not strong. Therefore, this paper firstly puts forward the concept of the circular neighborhood of CA constrained by the space metric method based on map algebra, and compares the spatial division pattern and anisotropy of different types of neighborhoods in detail. Then, the CA’s weighted diffusion model is discussed to delineate urban spheres of influence in Henan Province. Finally, Weibo data is used to justify a reasonable delineation of urban spheres of influence and can correctly reflect the state of regional development, further proving that improved cellular automata in algorithms and applications have great significance.
Vanag, Vladimir K.
1999-05-01
Spatially extended dynamical systems are ubiquitous and include such things as insect and animal populations; complex chemical, technological, and geochemical processes; humanity itself, and much more. It is clearly desirable to have a certain universal tool with which the highly complex behaviour of nonlinear dynamical systems can be analyzed and modelled. For this purpose, cellular automata seem to be good candidates. In the present review, emphasis is placed on the possibilities that various types of probabilistic cellular automata (PCA), such as DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) and LGCA (lattice-gas cellular automata), offer. The methods are primarily designed for modelling spatially extended dynamical systems with inner fluctuations accounted for. For the Willamowskii-Roessler and Oregonator models, PCA applications to the following problems are illustrated: the effect of fluctuations on the dynamics of nonlinear systems; Turing structure formation; the effect of hydrodynamic modes on the behaviour of nonlinear chemical systems (stirring effects); bifurcation changes in the dynamical regimes of complex systems with restricted geometry or low spatial dimension; and the description of chemical systems in microemulsions.
Scale Sensitive Analysis of Cellular Automata Model%元胞自动机模型的尺度敏感性分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
以深圳市龙华镇为案例区,构建了土地利用/覆被变化的元胞自动机模型,从时间和空间两个方面定量研究了LUCC模型的尺度效应。通过改变模型输入数据的空间分辨率和模型模拟的时间长度,探讨了尺度对土地利用变化模型的影响。分别采用龙华镇1990年30,60,90,120,150,180,210和240 m空间分辨率的土地利用数据作为元胞自动机模型的输入,模拟研究区1995年和2000年的土地利用变化状况以诠释CA模型内在的尺度依赖特征,并依据模型的点对点模拟精度、Kappa系数、实际变化元胞的模拟精度3个指标评价了该%The authors present an analysis of how scale issues affect a cellular automata model of land use change developed for a research area in Longhua Town,Shenzhen City.The scale dependence of the model is explored by varying the resolution of the input data in 1990 used to calibrate the model and changing the length of model simulating time.To explore the impact of these scale relationships the model is run with input datasets constructed at the following spatial resolutions： 30,60,90,120,150,180,210 and 240 m for simulating land use in 1995 and 2000.Three kinds of indicator,i.e.point by point accuracy,Kappa and real change accuracy are used to assess the scale sensitivity of the model.The results show that 1） the more fine the cell sizes are,the higher the accuracy of the simulation results;2） path dependence of the isolated cells is an important source of the spatial scale sensitivity of CA model;3） the specific geographical process in different periods of time is an important source of the temporal sensitivity scale of CA model.The results have great significance for the scale selection of CA model.
D'Ambrosio, D.; Iovine, G.
2003-04-01
Cellular Automata (CA) offer a valid alternative to the classic approach, based on partial differential equation, in order to simulate complex phenomena, when these latter can be described in terms of local interactions among their constituent parts. SCIDDICA S3hex is a two-dimensional hexagonal CA model developed for simulating debris flows: it has recently been applied to several real cases of landslides occurred in Campania (Southern Italy). The release S3hex has been derived by progressively improving an initial simplified CA model, originally derived for simulating simple cases of flow-type landslides. The model requires information related to topography, thickness of erodable regolith overlying the bedrock, and location and extension of landslide sources. Performances depend on a set of global parameters which are utilised in the transition function of the model: their value affect the elementary processes of the transition function and thus the overall results. A fine calibration is therefore an essential phase, in order to evaluate the reliability of the model for successive applications to debris-flow susceptibility zonation. The complexity of both the model and the phenomena to be simulated suggested to employ an automated technique of evaluation, for the determination of the best set of global parameters. Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a powerful optimization tool inspired to natural selection. In the last decades, in spite of their intrinsic simplicity, they have largely been successfully applied on a wide number of highly complex problems. The calibration of the model could therefore be performed through such technique of optimisation, by considering several real cases of study. Owing to the large number of simulations generally needed for performing GA experiments on complex phenomena, which imply long lasting tests on sequential computational architectures, the adoption of a parallel computational environment seemed appropriate: the original source code
Lorentz symmetry for 3d Quantum Cellular Automata
Bisio, Alessandro; Perinotti, Paolo
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of Lorentz transformations in the framework of quantum cellular automata. Our definition does not require space-time, and retains the usual interpretation in the emergent one. The definition is group theoretical, with flatness of space-time corresponding to Abelianity of the cellular automaton group. We consider the covariance in the case of the Weyl automaton. The notion of particle as Poincar\\'e irreducible representation survives at all scales. The interpolation of the Lorentz symmetry from the discrete to the continuum scale occurs through a nonlinear representation. We also discuss the connection of the nonlinear Lorentz transformations with the Poincar\\'e and k-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra, the emerging non-commutative space-time, and the deformed Heisenberg commutation relations.
Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata (extended version)
Guck, Dennis; Timmer, Mark; Hatefi, Hassan; Ruijters, Enno; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2014-01-01
Costs and rewards are important ingredients for cyberphysical systems, modelling critical aspects like energy consumption, task completion, repair costs, and memory usage. This paper introduces Markov reward automata, an extension of Markov automata that allows the modelling of systems incorporating
Geetha, P
2010-01-01
In this paper, Deterministic Cellular Automata (DCA) based video shot classification and retrieval is proposed. The deterministic 2D Cellular automata model captures the human facial expressions, both spontaneous and posed. The determinism stems from the fact that the facial muscle actions are standardized by the encodings of Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and Action Units (AUs). Based on these encodings, we generate the set of evolutionary update rules of the DCA for each facial expression. We consider a Person-Independent Facial Expression Space (PIFES) to analyze the facial expressions based on Partitioned 2D-Cellular Automata which capture the dynamics of facial expressions and classify the shots based on it. Target video shot is retrieved by comparing the similar expression is obtained for the query frame's face with respect to the key faces expressions in the database video. Consecutive key face expressions in the database that are highly similar to the query frame's face, then the key faces are use...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于群; 曹娜; 郭剑波
2011-01-01
将元胞自动机理论应用到电力系统大停电机理研究中,提出并建立了用元胞自动机来模拟电网故障演化的电网故障元胞自动机模型,定义了电网故障元胞自动机模型中元胞、元胞空间、规则和邻居等的构成方法。利用电网故障元胞自动机模型,仿真研究了电网故障的传播演化过程,并对电网故障的自组织临界性（SOC）进行了验证。%By applying the theory of cellular automata in the evolutionary mechanism of the power system blackout,a model for simulating power failure with cellular automata is presented.The model defines the composing method of cells,cellular space,rules,neighbors,etc.The spread and evolution of power failure is investigated using proposed model and the self-organized criticality（SOC） of the power grid failure is verified. This work is supported by State Administration of Work Safety Project（No.10-052） and State Grid Corporation of China.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Iovine
2003-01-01
Full Text Available On 15–16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy, triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000. Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI –Hydrogeological setting plan, in press, an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones". Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3–hex – a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966, specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002. In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices; moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3–hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial
Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.
Sulis, William H
2016-04-01
Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients.
Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.
Sulis, William H
2016-04-01
Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients. PMID:27033136
Evolving localizations in reaction-diffusion cellular automata
Adamatzky, Andrew; Collet, Pierre; Sapin, Emmanuel
2007-01-01
We consider hexagonal cellular automata with immediate cell neighbourhood and three cell-states. Every cell calculates its next state depending on the integral representation of states in its neighbourhood, i.e. how many neighbours are in each one state. We employ evolutionary algorithms to breed local transition functions that support mobile localizations (gliders), and characterize sets of the functions selected in terms of quasi-chemical systems. Analysis of the set of functions evolved allows to speculate that mobile localizations are likely to emerge in the quasi-chemical systems with limited diffusion of one reagent, a small number of molecules is required for amplification of travelling localizations, and reactions leading to stationary localizations involve relatively equal amount of quasi-chemical species. Techniques developed can be applied in cascading signals in nature-inspired spatially extended computing devices, and phenomenological studies and classification of non-linear discrete systems.
The Toothpick Sequence and Other Sequences from Cellular Automata
Applegate, David; Sloane, N J A
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional arrangement of toothpicks is constructed by the following iterative procedure. At stage 1, place a single toothpick of length 1 on a square grid, aligned with the y-axis. At each subsequent stage, for every exposed toothpick end, place an orthogonal toothpick centered at that end. The resulting structure has a fractal-like appearance. We will analyze the toothpick sequence, which gives the total number of toothpicks after n steps. We also study several related sequences that arise from enumerating active cells in cellular automata. Some unusual recurrences appear: a typical example is that instead of the Fibonacci recurrence, which we may write as a(2+i) = a(i) + a(i+1), we set n = 2^k+i (0 = 0} (1+x^{2^k-1}+2x^{2^k}) and variations thereof.
Cellular Automata Model Based on Safety Distance%基于安全距离的元胞自动机交通流模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邱小平; 于丹; 孙若晓; 杨达
2015-01-01
With the traffic congestion increasing significantly, traffic safety level declines and traffic accident rate increases gradually. To improve driving safety, the length of the cellular cells is fined, and the Gipps’safe distance rule is introduced to improve the NaSch model, further, a new cellular automata traffic flow model is proposed. The Gipps’safe distance rule is widely proved to have good performance in describing the vehicle driving behavior. In addition, we use the field data to calibrate and evaluate the proposed model. The numerical simulation analysis is carried out to analyze the model. Model evaluation results show that the performance of the new model is better than NaSch model. The simulation results show that the improved model can describe the traffic flow characteristics well and can reproduce free flow, synchronized flow, congestion and other traffic phenomenon in the real traffic flow. Furthermore, the study also found that the drivers’overestimation of the maximum deceleration of vehicle ahead will lead to decreased road capacity. However, the drivers’overestimation of their own vehicle maximum deceleration will increase the capacity of the road, but is likely to cause unsafe driving behaviors and increase accident rate.%随着交通拥堵状况日益显著，整体交通安全性下降，交通事故率逐渐增大。基于提高驾驶安全性考虑，细化元胞长度，引入被广泛证明在描述车辆驾驶行为方面具有很高精度的Gipps安全距离规则，对NaSch模型进行改进，提出一个新的基于安全距离的元胞自动机交通流模型。采用实测数据对模型进行标定和评估，进一步对模型进行数值模拟分析。模型评估结果显示，新建立的模型相对NaSch模型精度更高。数值模拟结果表明，改进模型能够很好地表现交通流特性，再现实际交通中的自由流、同步流及拥堵流等交通现象。此外，还发现驾驶员对前车最大
Komatsuzaki, Toshihiko; Iwata, Yoshio
2016-01-01
A particle impact damper is a vibration absorber type that consists of a container attached to a primary vibrating structure. It also contains many particles that are constrained to move inside the container, whereby the damping effect can be obtained by collision between particles and the container. The discrete element method (DEM) has been developed for modeling granular systems, where the kinematics of each particle are calculated numerically using the equations of motion. However, the co...
Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David H. K. Hoe
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.
Pitsa, Despoina; Vardakis, George; Danikas, Michael G.; Kozako, Masahiro
2010-03-01
In this paper the propagation of electrical treeing in nanodielectrics using the DIMET (Dielectric Inhomogeneity Model for Electrical Treeing) is studied. The DIMET is a model which simulates the growth of electrical treeing based on theory of Cellular Automata. Epoxy/glass nanocomposites are used as samples between a needle-plane electrode arrangement. The diameter of nanofillers is 100 nm. The electric treeing, which starts from the needle electrode, is examined. The treeing growth seems to be stopped by the nanofillers. The latter act as elementary barriers to the treeing propagation.
Ntalaperas, D
2016-01-01
We propose an architecture based on Quantum cellular Automata which allows the use of only one type of quantum gates per computational step in order to perform nearest neighbor interactions. The model is built in partial steps, each one of them analyzed using nearest neighbor interactions, starting with single qubit operations and continuing with two qubit ones. The effectiveness of the model is tested and valuated by developing a quantum circuit implementing the Quantum Fourier Transform. The important outcome of this validation was that the operations are performed in a local and controlled manner thus reducing the error rate of each computational step.
Simple and Flexible Self-Reproducing Structures in Asynchronous Cellular Automata and Their Dynamics
Huang, Xin; Lee, Jia; Yang, Rui-Long; Zhu, Qing-Sheng
2013-03-01
Self-reproduction on asynchronous cellular automata (ACAs) has attracted wide attention due to the evident artifacts induced by synchronous updating. Asynchronous updating, which allows cells to undergo transitions independently at random times, might be more compatible with the natural processes occurring at micro-scale, but the dark side of the coin is the increment in the complexity of an ACA in order to accomplish stable self-reproduction. This paper proposes a novel model of self-timed cellular automata (STCAs), a special type of ACAs, where unsheathed loops are able to duplicate themselves reliably in parallel. The removal of sheath cannot only allow various loops with more flexible and compact structures to replicate themselves, but also reduce the number of cell states of the STCA as compared to the previous model adopting sheathed loops [Y. Takada, T. Isokawa, F. Peper and N. Matsui, Physica D227, 26 (2007)]. The lack of sheath, on the other hand, often tends to cause much more complicated interactions among loops, when all of them struggle independently to stretch out their constructing arms at the same time. In particular, such intense collisions may even cause the emergence of a mess of twisted constructing arms in the cellular space. By using a simple and natural method, our self-reproducing loops (SRLs) are able to retract their arms successively, thereby disentangling from the mess successfully.
Design of arithmetic circuits in quantum dot cellular automata nanotechnology
Sridharan, K
2015-01-01
This research monograph focuses on the design of arithmetic circuits in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA). Using the fact that the 3-input majority gate is a primitive in QCA, the book sets out to discover hitherto unknown properties of majority logic in the context of arithmetic circuit designs. The pursuit for efficient adders in QCA takes two forms. One involves application of the new results in majority logic to existing adders. The second involves development of a custom adder for QCA technology. A QCA adder named as hybrid adder is proposed and it is shown that it outperforms existing multi-bit adders with respect to area and delay. The work is extended to the design of a low-complexity multiplier for signed numbers in QCA. Furthermore the book explores two aspects unique to QCA technology, namely thermal robustness and the role of interconnects. In addition, the book introduces the reader to QCA layout design and simulation using QCADesigner. Features & Benefits: This research-based book: · �...
Text Extraction and Enhancement of Binary Images Using Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
G. Sahoo; Tapas Kumar; B.L. Rains; C.M. Bhatia
2009-01-01
Text characters embedded in images represent a rich source of information for content-based indexing and retrieval applications. However, these text characters are difficult to be detected and recognized due to their various sizes, grayscale values, and complex backgrounds. Existing methods cannot handle well those texts with different contrast or embedded in a complex image background. In this paper, a set of sequential algorithms for text extraction and enhancement of image using cellular automata are proposed. The image enhancement includes gray level, contrast manipulation, edge detection, and filtering. First, it applies edge detection and uses a threshold to filter out for low-contrast text and simplify complex background of high-contrast text from binary image. The proposed algorithm is simple and easy to use and requires only a sample texture binary image as an input. It generates textures with perceived quality, better than those proposed by earlier published techniques. The performance of our method is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of text based binary images. The quality of thresholding is assessed using the precision and recall analysis of the resultant text in the binary image.
Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi
2010-01-01
This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinci...
Avolio, M. V.; Crisci, G. M.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Iovine, G.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.
Cellular Automata (CA) are able to capture the peculiar characteristics of systems, whose global evolution can be exclusively described on the basis of local interactions among their constituent parts ("a-centrism"). Such systems match the paradigm of parallelism with the a-centrism one. In modelling complex phenomena by means of classical CA, elementary automata characterised by few states and simple transition function have usually been involved. On the other hand, many complex macroscopic phenomena (even though characterised by properties of parallelism and a-centrism) can be very difficult to be modelled through classical CA, because of their hetero- geneous characteristics, which require a very large number of states. For such cases, which perfectly fit the general definition of CA, more complex transition rules (differ- ing from typical transition functions) would be, in fact, needed. Aiming at modelling these latter phenomena, an empirical method has been developed, based on the decom- position of the phenomenon into "elementary" components, whose behaviour can be described through local rules. Furthermore, criteria and conditions have been defined, in order to translate the local rules into a transition function, as needed for perform- ing cellular automata simulations. Applications of CA models to real cases of study have recently been attempted: landslides (earth flows, rock avalanches, debris flows), lava flows, soil erosion, soil contamination and bioremediation, forest fires have all been analysed through CA simulations, and encouraging results have been obtained. In the present paper, examples of application of the method for hazard evaluation are described, with particular reference to the Sarno 1998 debris flows and the Etna 2001 lava flows.
Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.
Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方峻; 覃征; 陈喜群; 冷彪; 徐朝晖; 江子能
2012-01-01
We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.
Fuel management optimization based on power profile by Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuel management in PWR nuclear reactors is comprised of a collection of principles and practices required for the planning, scheduling, refueling, and safe operation of nuclear power plants to minimize the total plant and system energy costs to the extent possible. Despite remarkable advancements in optimization procedures, inherent complexities in nuclear reactor structure and strong inter-dependency among the fundamental parameters of the core make it necessary to evaluate the most efficient arrangement of the core. Several patterns have been presented so far to determine the best configuration of fuels in the reactor core by emphasis on minimizing the local power peaking factor (Pq). In this research, a new strategy for optimizing the fuel arrangements in a VVER-1000 reactor core is developed while lowering the Pq is considered as the main target. For this purpose, a Fuel Quality Factor, Z(r), served to depict the reactor core pattern. Mapping to ideal pattern is tracked over the optimization procedure in which the ideal pattern is prepared with considering the Z(r) constraints and their effects on flux and Pq uniformity. For finding the best configuration corresponding to the desired pattern, Cellular Automata (CA) is applied as a powerful and reliable tool on optimization procedure. To obtain the Z(r) constraints, the MCNP code was used and core calculations were performed by WIMS and CITATION codes. The results are compared with the predictions of a Neural Network as a smart optimization method, and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as a reference proposed by the designer.
A novel image encryption algorithm using chaos and reversible cellular automata
Wang, Xingyuan; Luan, Dapeng
2013-11-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on reversible cellular automata (RCA) combining chaos. In this algorithm, an intertwining logistic map with complex behavior and periodic boundary reversible cellular automata are used. We split each pixel of image into units of 4 bits, then adopt pseudorandom key stream generated by the intertwining logistic map to permute these units in confusion stage. And in diffusion stage, two-dimensional reversible cellular automata which are discrete dynamical systems are applied to iterate many rounds to achieve diffusion on bit-level, in which we only consider the higher 4 bits in a pixel because the higher 4 bits carry almost the information of an image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm achieves a high security level and processes good performance against common attacks like differential attack and statistical attack. This algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc-Thorsten Hütt
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are a remarkably efficient tool for exploring general properties of complex systems and spatiotemporal patterns arising from local rules. Totalistic cellular automata, where the update rules depend only on the density of neighboring states, are at the same time a versatile tool for exploring dynamical processes on graphs. Here we briefly review our previous results on cellular automata on graphs, emphasizing some systematic relationships between network architecture and dynamics identified in this way. We then extend the investigation towards graphs obtained in a simulated-evolution procedure, starting from Erdő s–Rényi (ER graphs and selecting for low entropies of the CA dynamics. Our key result is a strong association of low Shannon entropies with a broadening of the graph’s degree distribution.
CCABC: Cyclic Cellular Automata Based Clustering For Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks
Banerjee, Indrajit; Rahaman, Hafizur
2011-01-01
Sensor network has been recognized as the most significant technology for next century. Despites of its potential application, wireless sensor network encounters resource restriction such as low power, reduced bandwidth and specially limited power sources. This work proposes an efficient technique for the conservation of energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) by forming an effective cluster of the network nodes distributed over a wide range of geographical area. The clustering scheme is developed around a specified class of cellular automata (CA) referred to as the modified cyclic cellular automata (mCCA). It sets a number of nodes in stand-by mode at an instance of time without compromising the area of network coverage and thereby conserves the battery power. The proposed scheme also determines an effective cluster size where the inter-cluster and intra-cluster communication cost is minimum. The simulation results establish that the cyclic cellular automata based clustering for energy conservation in sens...
González, Ramón E. R.; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo; Coutinho, Sérgio
2013-10-01
We study a cellular automata model to test the timing of antiretroviral therapy strategies for the dynamics of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We focus on the role of virus diffusion when its population is included in previous cellular automata model that describes the dynamics of the lymphocytes cells population during infection. This inclusion allows us to consider the spread of infection by the virus-cell interaction, beyond that which occurs by cell-cell contagion. The results show an acceleration of the infectious process in the absence of treatment, but show better efficiency in reducing the risk of the onset of AIDS when combined antiretroviral therapies are used even with drugs of low effectiveness. Comparison of results with clinical data supports the conclusions of this study.
Is there a sharp phase transition for deterministic cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wootters, W.K. (Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Williams Coll., Williamstown, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Langton, C.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1990-01-01
Previous work has suggested that there is a kind of phase transition between deterministic automata exhibiting periodic behavior and those exhibiting chaotic behavior. However, unlike the usual phase transitions of physics, this transition takes place over a range of values of the parameter rather than at a specific value. The present paper asks whether the transition can be made sharp, either by taking the limit of an infinitely large rule table, or by changing the parameter in terms of which the space of automata is explored. We find strong evidence that, for the class of automata we consider, the transition does become sharp in the limit of an infinite number of symbols, the size of the neighborhood being held fixed. Our work also suggests an alternative parameter in terms of which it is likely that the transition will become fairly sharp even if one does not increase the number of symbols. In the course of our analysis, we find that mean field theory, which is our main tool, gives surprisingly good predictions of the statistical properties of the class of automata we consider. 18 refs., 6 figs.
Is there a sharp phase transition for deterministic cellular automata?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous work has suggested that there is a kind of phase transition between deterministic automata exhibiting periodic behavior and those exhibiting chaotic behavior. However, unlike the usual phase transitions of physics, this transition takes place over a range of values of the parameter rather than at a specific value. The present paper asks whether the transition can be made sharp, either by taking the limit of an infinitely large rule table, or by changing the parameter in terms of which the space of automata is explored. We find strong evidence that, for the class of automata we consider, the transition does become sharp in the limit of an infinite number of symbols, the size of the neighborhood being held fixed. Our work also suggests an alternative parameter in terms of which it is likely that the transition will become fairly sharp even if one does not increase the number of symbols. In the course of our analysis, we find that mean field theory, which is our main tool, gives surprisingly good predictions of the statistical properties of the class of automata we consider. 18 refs., 6 figs
Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro
2015-10-01
After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).
A Novel Approach for Attacks Mitigation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Cellular Automatas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Himadri Nath Saha
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Many security schemes for mobile ad-hoc network(MANET have been proposed so far but none of them has been successful in combating the different types of attacks that a mobile ad-hoc network often faces. This paper is providing one way of mitigating attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks by authenticating the node who tries to access this network .This scheme has been applied by using cellular automata (CA. Our simulation results show how cellular automata(CA is implemented for user authentication and secure transmission in MANET.
A comparative analysis of electronic and molecular quantum dot cellular automata
Umamahesvari, H.; Ajitha, D.
2015-06-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis of electronic quantum-dot cellular automata (EQCA) and Magnetic quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). QCA is a computing paradigm that encodes and processes information by the position of individual electrons. To enhance the high dense and ultra-low power devices, various researches have been actively carried out to find an alternative way to continue and follow Moore's law, so called "beyond CMOS technology". There have been several proposals for physically implementing QCA, EQCA and MQCA are the two important QCAs reported so far. This paper provides a comparative study on these two QCAs
A Characterization of Cellular Automata Generated by Idempotents on the Full Shift
Salo, Ville
2012-01-01
In this article, we discuss the family of cellular automata generated by so-called idempotent cellular automata (CA G such that G^2 = G) on the full shift. We prove a characterization of products of idempotent CA, and show examples of CA which are not easy to directly decompose into a product of idempotents, but which are trivially seen to satisfy the conditions of the characterization. Our proof uses ideas similar to those used in the well-known Embedding Theorem and Lower Entropy Factor Theorem in symbolic dynamics. We also consider some natural decidability questions for the class of products of idempotent CA.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Xia(黎夏); YEH; Gar-On(叶嘉安)
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the issues about the correlation of spatial variables during spatial decisionmaking using multicriteria evaluation (MCE) and cellular automata (CA). The correlation of spatial variables can cause the malfunction of MCE. In urban simulation, spatial factors often exhibit a high degree of correlation which is considered as an undesirable property for MCE. This study uses principal components analysis (PCA) to remove data redundancy among a large set of spatial variables and determine 'ideal points' for land development. PCA is integrated with cellular automata and geographical information systems (GIS) for the simulation of idealized urban forms for planning purposes.
Performance of 1D quantum cellular automata in the presence of error
McNally, Douglas M.; Clemens, James P.
2016-09-01
This work expands a previous block-partitioned quantum cellular automata (BQCA) model proposed by Brennen and Williams [Phys. Rev. A. 68, 042311 (2003)] to incorporate physically realistic error models. These include timing errors in the form of over- and under-rotations of quantum states during computational gate sequences, stochastic phase and bit flip errors, as well as undesired two-bit interactions occurring during single-bit gate portions of an update sequence. A compensation method to counteract the undesired pairwise interactions is proposed and investigated. Each of these error models is implemented using Monte Carlo simulations for stochastic errors and modifications to the prescribed gate sequences to account for coherent over-rotations. The impact of these various errors on the function of a QCA gate sequence is evaluated using the fidelity of the final state calculated for four quantum information processing protocols of interest: state transfer, state swap, GHZ state generation, and entangled pair generation.
Model Checking Timed Automata with Priorities using DBM Subtraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, Paul;
2006-01-01
In this paper we describe an extension of timed automata with priorities, and efficient algorithms to compute subtraction on DBMs (difference bounded matrices), needed in symbolic model-checking of timed automata with priorities. The subtraction is one of the few operations on DBMs that result in...
A federation of simulations based on cellular automata in cyber-physical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoang Van Tran
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In cyber-physical system (CPS, cooperation between a variety of computational and physical elements usually poses difficulties to current modelling and simulation tools. Although much research has proposed to address those challenges, most solutions do not completely cover uncertain interactions in CPS. In this paper, we present a new approach to federate simulations for CPS. A federation is a combination of, and coordination between simulations upon a standard of communication. In addition, a mixed simulation is defined as several parallel simulations federated in a common time progress. Such simulations run on the models of physical systems, which are built based on cellular automata theory. The experimental results are performed on a federation of three simulations of forest fire spread, river pollution diffusion and wireless sensor network. The obtained results can be utilized to observe and predict the behaviours of physical systems in their interactions.
Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-xin Liu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晓斌; 杨贯中; 欧阳柳波; 李勇军
2015-01-01
目前软件体系结构动态演化的元胞自动机模型存在描述单一、元胞间关系不明确、没有详细阐述动态演化过程应用约束条件的缺点。针对这些不足进行相关的研究，重新定义了软件体系结构动态演化的扩展元胞自动机模型，基于扩展元胞自动机模型结合演化应用约束条件，分析了软件体系结构的动态演化过程，运用元胞间控制约束条件和行为相关约束条件来正确地指导SA动态演化。提出了动点稳态转移的概念，对演化程度和一致性进行定义分析，此方法比以往的元胞自动机模型更能准确指导SA动态演化，促进SA动态演化的进一步研究。通过案例验证了该方法的应用价值和可行性，可以更全面地应用于软件体系结构的动态演化。%There are some defects in dynamic evolution of software architecture based on cellular automata model in recent research, including that specification is not detailed and relationship between cellular is not clear, that it can’t describe the constraints in process of dynamic evolution. In regard to these deficiencies, this paper refines the extend-cellular automata model of dynamic evolution of software architecture, which is based on the combination of evolutionary constraints applied to analyze the dynamic evolution of software architecture process, and SA dynamic evolution is correctly guided by applying both inter-cell behavior related constraints and control constraints. Besides, it puts forward the concept of steady-state transfer of moving-point for charactering the degree and consistency of evolution and can more exactly guide SA dynamic evolution than ever on cellular automata model, which advances the further study on dynamic evolution of software archi-tecture. The case study shows that the proposed method is valuable and feasible, which can be more fully applied to the dynamic evolution of software architecture.
Applications of the Cellular Automata Paradigm in Structural Analysis and Design
Abdalla, M.M.
2004-01-01
Recent is een techniek ontstaan voor de aanpak van gecombineerde automatische analyse en ontwerp van een- of meerdimensionale elastische systemen in een omgeving van meervoudig parallel rekenen. De aanpak is gebaseerd op het paradigma van âcellular automata (CA)â. De implementatie van deze techniek
An application of lattice-gas cellular automata to the study of Brownian motion
Ladd, A.J.C.; Frenkel, D.; Colvin, M.E.
1988-01-01
An adaptation of lattice-gas cellular automata to the simulation of solid-fluid suspensions is described. The method incorporates both dissipative hydrodynamic forces and thermal fluctuations. At low solid densities, theoretical results for the drag force on a single disk and the viscosity of a susp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the first part of a series devoted to the study of thermodynamic behavior of large dynamical systems with the use of a family of full-discrete and conservative models named elementary reversible cellular automata (ERCAs). In this paper, basic properties such as conservation laws and phase space structure are investigated in preparation for the later studies. ERCAs are a family of one-dimensional reversible cellular automata having two Boolean variables on each site. Reflection and Boolean conjugation symmetries divide them into 88 equivalence classes. For each rule, additive conserved quantities written in a certain form are regarded as a kind of energy, if they exist. By the aid of the discreteness of the variables, every ERCA satisfies the Liouville theorem or the preservation of phase space volume. Thus, if an energy exists in the above sense, statistical mechanics of the model can formally be constructed. If a locally defined quantity is conserved, however, it prevents the realization of statistical mechanics. The existence of such a quantity is examined for each class and a number of rules which have at least one energy but no local conservation laws are selected as hopeful candidates for the realization of thermodynamic behavior. In addition, the phase space structure of ERCAs is analyzed by enumerating cycles exactly in the phase space for systems of comparatively small sizes. As a result, it is revealed that a finite ERCA is not ergodic, that is, a large number of orbits coexist on an energy surface. It is argued that this fact does not necessarily mean the failure of thermodynamic behavior on the basis of an analogy with the ergodic nature of infinite systems
Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi
of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
永贵; 黄海军; 许岩
2013-01-01
The modified floor field cellular automata model is used to simulate the pedestrian evacuation in rooms which are discretized into squared rhombus cells. This discretization can effectively stop pedestrians to move against walls or obstacles. The pedestrian transition probabilities from one cell to neighbor cells are computed by considering various factors influencing evacuation. Simulation results show that the pedestrian distribution nearby exit is basically the same as that indicated by the experimental snapshot, the evacuation time increases almost linearly with exit width, and the flow rate from exit is close to the one observed from experiment.%利用改进的层次域元胞自动机模型,研究了正菱形网格空间中的行人疏散问题.这类网格可以避免行人贴近房间墙壁或障碍物,转移概率考虑了各种逃生受阻因素.数值仿真显示,出口处的行人分布与实验快照展示的行人分布基本相同,疏散时间和出口宽度呈线性关系,行人流率接近实验结果.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王仲君; 张莉丽
2014-01-01
年龄结构影响群体发病率，将群体年龄分为5个阶段，建立扩展的异质元胞自动机模型，研究艾滋病在高发区及普通地区的传播行为。模型中，元胞具有不同的年龄，传染强度依状态改变，结合邻域内个体间致病性接触行为建立邻域元胞影响力函数，改进状态更新规则。仿真结果发现，个体的致病性接触行为、人群密度、元胞影响半径对艾滋病的传播速度及群体感染率具有一定影响，而个体年龄结构则在一定程度上影响群体感染分布情况。%According to statistics , age structure has an effect on the incidence of AIDS .The group can be divided into five categories with different incubations based on different ages .An expanded heterogeneous cellular automata model was built and then HIV transmission in area of high and average infection rate were respectively simulated .In this model , the cellular has dif-ferent ages;the intensity of infection changes with cell state .The influence function of neighborhood considering of the pathogenic contact behavior between neighborhoods was built to improve the rule of status updates .The simulation shows that pathogenic con-tact behavior , crowd density , and radius of influence have certain influences on the spread of HIV transmission; and the age structure has a certain influence on the outbreak of AIDS .
A new small-world network created by Cellular Automata
Ruan, Yuhong; Li, Anwei
2016-08-01
In this paper, we generate small-world networks by the Cellular Automaton based on starting with one-dimensional regular networks. Besides the common properties of small-world networks with small average shortest path length and large clustering coefficient, the small-world networks generated in this way have other properties: (i) The edges which are cut in the regular network can be controlled that whether the edges are reconnected or not, and (ii) the number of the edges of the small-world network model equals the number of the edges of the original regular network. In other words, the average degree of the small-world network model equals to the average degree of the original regular network.
Threshold-Range Scaling of Excitable Cellular Automata
Fisch, R; Griffeath, D; Fisch, Robert; Gravner, Janko; Griffeath, David
1993-01-01
Each cell of a two-dimensional lattice is painted one of k colors, arranged in a "color wheel." The colors advance (0 to k-1 mod k) either automatically or by contact with at least a threshold number of successor colors in a prescribed local neighborhood. Discrete-time parallel systems of this sort in which color 0 updates by contact and the rest update automatically are called Greenberg-Hastings (GH) rules. A system in which all colors update by contact is called a cyclic cellular automaton (CCA). Started from appropriate initial conditions these models generate periodic traveling waves. Started from random configurations the same rules exhibit complex self-organization, typically characterized by nucleation of locally periodic "ram's horns" or spirals. Corresponding random processes give rise to a variety of "forest fire" equilibria that display large-scale stochastic wave fronts. This article describes a framework, theoretically based, but relying on extensive interactive computer graphics experimentation,...
An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata
Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba
2013-06-01
This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.
Combining cellular automata and Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate three-dimensional grain growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Wei; CHEN Ju-hua; GUO Pei-quan; ZHAO Ping
2006-01-01
A 3-D simulation of grain growth was conducted by utilizing cellular automata (CA) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. In the simulating procedure, the three-dimensional space is divided into a large number of 2-D isometric planes. Then, each of the planes is divided into identical square cells. Finally, the cellular automata and Monte Carlo algorithm are combined together to simulate the grain growth. Through an evolutionary simulation, the recrystallized microstructure, the grain growth rate and the grain size distribution are acceptably predicted. The simulation routine can be used to simulate the real physical-metallurgy processes and to predict quantitative dynamic information of the evolution of microstructure. Further more, the method is also useful for optimization of materials properties by controlling the microstructure evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Srinivasa Rao
2015-06-01
Full Text Available As clustering techniques are gaining more important today, we propose a new clustering technique by means of ACFO and cellular automata. The cellular automata uniquely characterizes the condition of a cell at a specific moment by employing the data like the conditions of a reference cell together with its adjoining cell, total number of cells, restraint, transition function and neighbourhood calculation. With an eye on explaining the condition of the cell, morphological functions are executed on the image. In accordance with the four stages of the morphological process, the rural and the urban areas are grouped separately. In order to steer clear of the stochastic turbulences, the threshold is optimized by means of the ACFO. The test outcomes obtained vouchsafe superb performance of the innovative technique. The accomplishment of the new-fangled technique is assessed by using additional number of images and is contrasted with the traditional methods like CFO (Central Force Optimization and PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization.
Pseudorandom Sequences in Spread-Spectrum Communications Generated by Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.C. Ordaz-Salazar
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Dynamical systems methods have been recently used in spread-spectrum digital communication systems. Theexpansion of the spectrum using a pseudorandom sequence with a higher frequency than the information signal is thekey feature for its robustness against the signal traveling interference through the channel. In this work, we propose togenerate pseudorandom sequences by employing cellular automata and we check these sequences have thenecessary properties which are required in modern communication systems. The computed sequences obtained bythe cellular automata are tested in a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK spread-spectrum communication system.The efficiency of the system is analyzed by computing the bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions.These results are compared with systems that employ Golden code and other typical pseudorandom sequences.
A Novel Design of Half Subtractor using Reversible Feynman Gate in Quantum Dot cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rubina Akter
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum Dot cellular Automata (QCA is an emerging, promising alternative to CMOS technology that performs its task by encoding binary information on electronic charge configuration of a cell. All circuit based on QCA has an advantages of high speed, high parallel processing, high integrityand low power consumption. Reversible logic gates are the leading part in Quantum Dot cellular Automata. Reversible logic gates have an extensive feature that does not lose information. In this paper, we present a novel architecture of half subtractor gate design by reversible Feynman gate. This circuit is designedbased on QCA logic gates such as QCA majority voter gate, majority AND gate, majority OR gate and inverter gate. This circuit will provide an effective working efficiency on computational units of the digital circuit system.
Stability of Cellular Automata Trajectories Revisited: Branching Walks and Lyapunov Profiles
Baetens, Jan M.; Gravner, Janko
2016-10-01
We study non-equilibrium defect accumulation dynamics on a cellular automaton trajectory: a branching walk process in which a defect creates a successor on any neighborhood site whose update it affects. On an infinite lattice, defects accumulate at different exponential rates in different directions, giving rise to the Lyapunov profile. This profile quantifies instability of a cellular automaton evolution and is connected to the theory of large deviations. We rigorously and empirically study Lyapunov profiles generated from random initial states. We also introduce explicit and computationally feasible variational methods to compute the Lyapunov profiles for periodic configurations, thus developing an analog of Floquet theory for cellular automata.
Efficient Design of Reversible Code Converters Using Quantum Dot Cellular Automata
Javeed Iqbal Reshi; M. Tariq Banday
2016-01-01
Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is an attractive field of nano-technology which offers the various advantages over existing CMOS technology for the development of logic circuits. Contradictory to other technologies which use the voltage levels for logic representation, QCA utilizes the polarization of electrons for representing the binary states in the QCA Cell. Conventional logic circuits are not energy efficient as they are not reversible in nature and hence lead to energy dissipation. ...
Learning emergence: adaptive cellular automata façade trained by artificial neural networks
Skavara, M. M. E.
2009-01-01
This thesis looks into the possibilities of controlling the emergent behaviour of Cellular Automata (CA) to achieve specific architectural goals. More explicitly, the objective is to develop a performing, adaptive building facade, which is fed with the history of its achievements and errors, to provide optimum light conditions in buildings’ interiors. To achieve that, an artificial Neural Network (NN) is implemented. However, can an artificial NN cope with the complexity of suc...
Blázquez, J.S.; Conde, C. F.; Conde, A.
2011-01-01
Cellular automata simulations have been performed to simulate the crystallization process under a limited growth approximation. This approximation resembles several characteristics exhibited by nanocrystalline microstructures and nanocrystallization kinetics. Avrami exponent decreases from a value n = 4 indicating interface controlled growth and constant nucleation rate to a value n ~ 1 indicating absence of growth. A continuous change of the growth contribution to the Avrami exponent from ze...
Zakhama, R.
2009-01-01
Topology optimisation of continuum structures has become mature enough to be often applied in industry and continues to attract the attention of researchers and software companies in various engineering fields. Traditionally, most available algorithms for solving topology optimisation problems are based on the global solution approach and require a large number of costly analyses. An alternative methodology, based on cellular automata (CA) and accelerated with a multigrid discretisation schem...
Makovetskiy, S D
2008-01-01
We report some qualitatively new features of emergence, competition and dynamical stabilization of dissipative rotating spiral waves (RSWs) in the cellular-automaton model of laser-like excitable media proposed in arXiv:cond-mat/0410460v2 ; arXiv:cond-mat/0602345 . Part of the observed features are caused by unusual mechanism of excitation vorticity when the RSW's core get into the surface layer of an active medium. Instead of the well known scenario of RSW collapse, which takes place after collision of RSW's core with absorbing boundary, we observed complicated transformations of the core leading to regeneration (nonlinear "reflection" from the boundary) of the RSW or even to birth of several new RSWs in the surface layer. Computer experiments on bottlenecked evolution of such the RSW-ensembles (vortex matter) are reported and a possible explanation of real experiments on spin-lattice relaxation in dilute paramagnets is proposed on the basis of an analysis of the RSWs dynamics. Chimera states in RSW-ensemble...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王砚帛; 谭永东; 文菓; 杨佳
2012-01-01
Based on Fisher discriminant and cellular automata model an approach to calculate the configuration of micro-grid is proposed. The cell space of micro-grid is established and Fisher discriminant is utilized to obtain the macroscopic evolution rules for cell space of micro-grid. According to the diversity of micro-grid user's electricity demands and decision-making uncertainty of power transaction a local evolution rule considering neighbors' relationship is drafted, and a concept of role transition's probability is also proposed. Using Matlab, a model to simulate the time-space dynamic evolution process of micro-grid configuration is built. The availability and effectiveness of the proposed method in the calculation of micro-grid's configuration and in the simulation of time-space dynamic evolution process of micro-grid configuration are verified by simulation results.%基于Fisher判别方法和元胞自动机模型提出了一种微电网格局计算方法.建立了微电网元胞空间,运用Fisher判别方法获取微电网元胞空间的宏观演化规则,并根据微电网用户角色的多样化和电力交易决策的不确定性,制定了考虑领域关系的局部演化规则,提出了角色转化概率的概念.在Matlab环境下建立了仿真算例模拟微电网格局的时空动态演化过程.仿真结果验证了该方法对于微电网格局计算以及模拟微电网格局时空动态演化过程的可行性和有效性.
Calculation of impulse responses with a cellular automata algorithm
Barjau, Ana
2001-05-01
The air columns in musical instruments usually have a predominant dimension and thus are very often modeled as 1D systems where uniparametric waves propagate. Different algorithms can be found in the literature to simulate this propagation. The more widely used are finite difference schemes and delay lines. A finite difference scheme (FD) is a numerical integration of a differential formulation (the wave equation), while delay lines (DL) use analytical exact solutions of the wave equation over finite lengths. A new and different approach is that of a cellular automaton (CA) scheme. The underlying philosophy is opposite those of FD and DL, as the starting point is not the wave equation. In a CA approach, the phenomenon to be studied is reduced to a few simple physical laws that are applied to a set of cells representing the physical system (in the present case, the propagation medium). In this paper, a CA will be proposed to obtain the impulse response of different bore geometries. The results will be compared to those obtained with other algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Mubea
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This research explores urban growth based scenarios for the city of Nairobi using a cellular automata urban growth model (UGM. African cities have experienced rapid urbanization over the last decade due to increased population growth and high economic activities. We used multi-temporal Landsat imageries for 1976, 1986, 2000 and 2010 to investigate urban land-use changes in Nairobi. Our UGM used data from urban land-use of 1986 and 2010, road data, slope data and exclusion layer. Monte-Carlo technique was used for model calibration and Multi Resolution Validation (MRV technique for validation. Simulation of urban land-use was done up to the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Three scenarios were explored in the urban modelling process; unmanaged growth with no restriction on environmental areas, managed growth with moderate protection, and a managed growth with maximum protection on forest, agricultural areas, and urban green. Thus alternative scenario development using UGM is useful for planning purposes so as to ensure sustainable development is achieved. UGM provides quantitative, visual, spatial and temporal information which aid policy and decision makers can make informed decisions.
Aono, Masashi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2004-08-01
How can non-algorithmic/non-deterministic computational syntax be computed? "The hyperincursive system" introduced by Dubois is an anticipatory system embracing the contradiction/uncertainty. Although it may provide a novel viewpoint for the understanding of complex systems, conventional digital computers cannot run faithfully as the hyperincursive computational syntax specifies, in a strict sense. Then is it an imaginary story? In this paper we try to argue that it is not. We show that a model of complex systems "Elementary Conflictable Cellular Automata (ECCA)" proposed by Aono and Gunji is embracing the hyperincursivity and the nonlocality. ECCA is based on locality-only type settings basically as well as other CA models, and/but at the same time, each cell is required to refer to globality-dominant regularity. Due to this contradictory locality-globality loop, the time evolution equation specifies that the system reaches the deadlock/infinite-loop. However, we show that there is a possibility of the resolution of these problems if the computing system has parallel and/but non-distributed property like an amoeboid organism. This paper is an introduction to "the slime mold computing" that is an attempt to cultivate an unconventional notion of computation.
Javaheri Javid, Mohammad Ali; Blackwell, Tim; Zimmer, Robert; Majid al-Rifaie, Mohammad
2016-04-01
Shannon entropy fails to discriminate structurally different patterns in two-dimensional images. We have adapted information gain measure and Kolmogorov complexity to overcome the shortcomings of entropy as a measure of image structure. The measures are customised to robustly quantify the complexity of images resulting from multi-state cellular automata (CA). Experiments with a two-dimensional multi-state cellular automaton demonstrate that these measures are able to predict some of the structural characteristics, symmetry and orientation of CA generated patterns.
Modelling Social-Technical Attacks with Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Nicolas; David, Alexandre; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;
2015-01-01
Attacks on a system often exploit vulnerabilities that arise from human behaviour or other human activity. Attacks of this type, so-called socio-technical attacks, cover everything from social engineering to insider attacks, and they can have a devastating impact on an unprepared organisation....... In this paper we develop an approach towards modelling socio-technical systems in general and socio-technical attacks in particular, using timed automata and illustrate its application by a complex case study. Thanks to automated model checking and automata theory, we can automatically generate possible attacks...... in our model and perform analysis and simulation of both model and attack, revealing details about the specific interaction between attacker and victim. Using timed automata also allows for intuitive modelling of systems, in which quantities like time and cost can be easily added and analysed....
TRAFFIC FLOW MODEL BASED ON CELLULAR AUTOMATION WITH ADAPTIVE DECELERATION
Shinkarev, A. A.
2016-01-01
This paper describes continuation of the authors’ work in the field of traffic flow mathematical models based on the cellular automata theory. The refactored representation of the multifactorial traffic flow model based on the cellular automata theory is used for a representation of an adaptive deceleration step implementation. The adaptive deceleration step in the case of a leader deceleration allows slowing down smoothly but not instantly. Concepts of the number of time steps without confli...
Nanopatterned graphene quantum dots as building blocks for quantum cellular automata
Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng
2011-10-01
Quantum cellular automata (QCA) is an innovative approach that incorporates quantum entities in classical computation processes. Binary information is encoded in different charge states of the QCA cells and transmitted by the inter-cell Coulomb interaction. Despite the promise of QCA, however, it remains a challenge to identify suitable building blocks for the construction of QCA. Graphene has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its remarkable electronic properties. The planar structure makes it feasible to pattern the whole device architecture in one sheet, compatible with the existing electronics technology. Here, we demonstrate theoretically a new QCA architecture built upon nanopatterned graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Using the tight-binding model, we determine the phenomenological cell parameters and cell-cell response functions of the GQD-QCA to characterize its performance. Furthermore, a GQD-QCA architecture is designed to demonstrate the functionalities of a fundamental majority gate. Our results show great potential in manufacturing high-density ultrafast QCA devices from a single nanopatterned graphene sheet.
Alonso, J; Fort, H; Alonso, Julia; Fernandez, Ariel; Fort, Hugo
2005-01-01
We propose an extension of the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata introduced by Nowak and May \\cite{nm92}, in which the pressure of the environment is taken into account. This is implemented by requiring that an individual needs to collect a score $U$ above a threshold $U_{min}$, representing vital resources (nutrients, energy, etc.). Thus agents, instead of evolving just by adopting the strategy of the most successful neighbour (who got $U^{msn}$), also take into account if $U^{msn}$ is above or below $U_{min}$. Three different model variants are considered: (1) If $U^{msn}
SPATIAL DEFORESTATION MODELILNG USING CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CASE STUDY: CENTRAL ZAGROS FORESTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Naghdizadegan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Forests have been highly exploited in recent decades in Iran and deforestation is going to be the major environmental concern due to its role in destruction of natural ecosystem and soil cover. Therefore, finding the effective parameters in deforestation and simulation of this process can help the management and preservation of forests. It helps predicting areas of deforestation in near future which is a useful tool for making socioeconomic disciplines in order to prevent deforestation in the area. Recently, GIS technologies are widely employed to support public policies in order to preserve ecosystems from undesirable human activities. The aim of this study is modelling the distribution of forest destruction in part of Central Zagros Mountains and predicting its process in future. In this paper we developed a Cellular Automata (CA model for deforestation process due to its high performance in spatial modelling, land cover change prediction and its compatibility with GIS. This model is going to determine areas with deforestation risk in the future. Land cover maps were explored using high spatial resolution satellite imageries and the forest land cover was extracted. In order to investigate the deforestation modelling, major elements of forest destruction relating to human activity and also physiographic parameters was explored and the suitability map was produced. Then the suitability map in combination with neighbourhood parameter was used to develop the CA model. Moreover, neighbourhood, suitability and stochastic disturbance term were calibrated in order to improve the simulation results. Regarding this, several neighbourhood configurations and different temporal intervals were tested. The accuracy of model was evaluated using satellite image. The results showed that the developed CA model in this research has proper performance in simulation of deforestation process. This model also predicted the areas with high potential for future
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冒玉婷; 邓建华
2015-01-01
An improved cellular automata model considering demand space is proposed to simulate bidirectional pedestrian flow based on NS model . New model incorporates a social distance to describe territorial effects between pedestrians and to avoid the conflicts in advance . In order to display the attraction between synthetic pedestrians , this model also considered the vision field that allows a pedestrian to collect information from cells in front of him/her and also to get the weighted demand parameter .Through Matlab simulation ,the velocity‐density diagram is obtained .Comparing the result with social model and Weidmann diagram ,we can see that new model can avoid the conflicts in advance effectively and the overall average speed has increased . Besides ,the presented model can reproduce Weidmann within the range of 0~5 p/m2 .%在NS模型的基础上提出考虑需求空间的双向行人交通流仿真模型。新模型采用需求空间来描述行人之间一定区域内的相互影响，提前避免冲突的发生。为更好地描述同向行人之间的吸引力，模型还考虑视野邻域以收集行人视野范围内的交通信息从而得到加权社会参数值。通过M atlab对改进的模型进行仿真，将仿真实验所得的流密图与Weidmann基本图和社会力模型比较，结果表明：新模型有效地提前避免冲突，行人流整体速度有所提高；行人密度在0～5 p／m2区间变化时能够再现Weidmann基本图。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冷明; 孙凌宇; 边计年; 马昱春; 朱平
2012-01-01
对超图划分问题运用元胞自动机理论进行分析建模,提出一种元胞自动机模型以及基于该模型的赋权超图划分优化算法.在该模型中,元胞对应于赋权超图中的结点,邻接元胞对应于邻接超边所包含的结点,元胞的状态对应于所在的划分子集.引入二维辅助数组存储每条超边在划分子集中的结点个数,给出快速的元胞收益值和划分割切值的计算方法,从而避免遍历超边中的结点.实验结果表明,与赋权图划分算法和迁移方法相比,该算法可以取得更优的划分,且时间复杂度和空间复杂度较低.%The Cellular Automata(CA) model for the problem by applying the CA theory and a min-cut partitioning algorithm based on the model for bisecting weighted hypergraph are proposed. In the model, the vertex of hypergraph can be considered as the cell, the vertices of adjacent hypergraph are denoted by the CA-neighborhoods and each cell's state represents the partitioning which the corresponded vertex belongs to. Furthermore, the two-dimensional auxiliary array is designed for counting the vertices of each hypergraph in different partitions. The rapid method of calculating the cell's gain and the cut's size are proposed to avoid traversing each vertex of hypergraph. Experimental results show that the algorithm not only can find the better partitioning of weighted hypergraph than the move-based method and graph parti-tioning algorithm, but also can reduce the time complexity and the space complexity.
Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David
2016-04-01
The snow availability in Alpine catchments is essential for the economy of these areas. It plays an important role in tourist development but also in the management of the Water Resources Snow is an important water resource in many river basins with mountains in the catchment area. The determination of the snow water equivalent requires the estimation of the evolution of the snow pack (cover area, thickness and snow density) along the time. Although there are complex physical models of the dynamics of the snow pack, sometimes the data available are scarce and a stochastic model like the cellular automata (CA) can be of great practical interest. CA can be used to model the dynamics of growth and wane of the snow pack. The CA is calibrated with historical data. This requires the determination of transition rules that are capable of modeling the evolution of the spatial pattern of snow cover area. Furthermore, CA requires the definition of states and neighborhoods. We have included topographical variables and climatological variables in order to define the state of each pixel. The evolution of snow cover in a pixel depends on its state, the state of the neighboring pixels and the transition rules. The calibration of the CA is done using daily MODIS data, available for the period 24/02/2002 to present with a spatial resolution of 500 m, and the LANDSAT information available with a sixteen-day periodicity from 1984 to the present and with spatial resolution of 30 m. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area of Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain to obtain snow cover area daily information with 500 m spatial resolution for the period 1980-2014. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank NASA DAAC and LANDSAT project for the data provided for this study.
Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.
Yilmaz, Ozgur
2015-12-01
This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air?
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Li, X. W.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. J.; Kim, S. T.
2013-01-01
A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...
Sub-classes and evolution stability of Wolfram's classesin the total-rule cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Guangwu; TIAN Feng; DONG Yinfeng
2004-01-01
In this paper, we propose a concept of sub-classes and its evolution stability for the Wolfram's classes. Firstly, we obtain the sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV, gene-piece of these sub-classes and their existing circumstance. Secondly, we introduce a new concept, the evolution stability, for the Wolfram's classes and sub-classes of Wolfram's class IV. Lastly, we find that Wolfram's classes I, II, and III have the evolution stability, but sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV have not the evolution stability for the total rule cellular automata.
Hologram authentication based on a secure watermarking algorithm using cellular automata.
Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chan, Hao-Tang; Cheng, Chau-Jern
2014-09-20
A secure watermarking algorithm for hologram authentication is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the noise-like feature of holograms to randomly embed a watermark in the domain of the discrete cosine transform with marginal degradation in transparency. The pseudo random number (PRN) generators based on a cellular automata algorithm with asymmetrical and nonlocal connections are used for the random hiding. Each client has its own unique PRN generators for enhancing the watermark security. In the proposed algorithm, watermarks are also randomly generated to eliminate the requirements of prestoring watermarks in the clients and servers. An authentication scheme is then proposed for the algorithm with random watermark generation and hiding.
Cellular Automata as a learning process in Architecture and Urban design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mads Brath; Foged, Isak Worre
2014-01-01
. An architectural methodological response to this situation is presented through the development of a conceptual computational design system that allows these dynamics to unfold and to be observed for architectural design decision taking. Reflecting on the development and implementation of a cellular automata based...... design approach on a master level urban design studio this paper will discuss the strategies for dealing with complexity at an urban scale as well as the pedagogical considerations behind applying computational tools and methods to a urban design education....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Rangel Rios
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Microstructural evolution in three dimensions of nucleation and growth transformations is simulated by means of cellular automata (CA. In the simulation, nuclei are located in space according to a heterogeneous Poisson point processes. The simulation is compared with exact analytical solution recently obtained by Rios and Villa supposing that the intensity is a harmonic function of the spatial coordinate. The simulated data gives very good agreement with the analytical solution provided that the correct shape factor for the growing CA grains is used. This good agreement is auspicious because the analytical expressions were derived and thus are exact only if the shape of the growing regions is spherical.
Cellular automata model of urban traffic emergency evacuation and rescue%城市交通疏散救援的元胞自动机模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨兆升; 高学英; 孙迪
2011-01-01
The effects of vehicle delay on the emergency evacuation and rescue decision-making of all traffic flow conflicts within cities were analyzed. An intersection control parameter was introduced into the exciting simulation model of emergency evacuation and rescue, and the model was based on cell transmission model. A simulation model of emergency evacuation and rescue was built under intersection emergency control. In the improved model, the weighted travel time of emergency evacuation and rescue in planning horizon was minimized, and contraflow strategy was introduced. Simulation result shows that because giving way to high-priority traffic flows G3 and G4, the average travel times of low-priority traffic flows G1 and G2 increase by 10.0 s and 11.1 s respectively, which accords with the actual circumstance of urban emergency evacuation and rescue. After the implementation of contraflow strategy, the travel times of beneficial traffic flows G2 and G4 decrease by 6.5 s and 6.0 s respectively. So the model and contraflow strategy are feasible. 6 tabs, 3 figs, 16 refs.%分析了城市内部各向车流冲突造成的车辆延误对疏散与救援决策的影响,将交叉口控制参数引入到现有的基于元胞传输模型的应急疏散救援仿真模型中,建立灾时交叉口紧急控制下的应急疏散救援仿真模型.改进后的模型以规划周期内疏散与救援加权行程时间最小为目标,并引入反流策略.仿真结果表明:由于低优先级的车流G1和G2让行高优先级车流G3和G4而产生延误,其平均行程时间分别增加了10.0、11.1 s,符合城市内部疏散与救援的实际情况;反流策略实施后,受益的车流G2和G4行程时间分别下降了6.5、6.0 s.可见,提出的模型及反流策略有效.
Modelling and simulating in-stent restenosis with complex automata
A.G. Hoekstra; P. Lawford; R. Hose
2010-01-01
In-stent restenosis, the maladaptive response of a blood vessel to injury caused by the deployment of a stent, is a multiscale system involving a large number of biological and physical processes. We describe a Complex Automata Model for in-stent restenosis, coupling bulk flow, drug diffusion, and s
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘星飞; 原立峰; 吴淑芳; 霍云云
2012-01-01
土壤侵蚀系统是一个典型的非线性动力系统,系统内部的侵蚀发育演化过程十分复杂,为了对该过程进行精确的模拟和预测,需要发展有效的技术和方法.元胞自动机( cellular automata,CA)是一种具有时空特征的离散动力学模型,采用“自下而上”的构模方式,对于模拟和分析具有空间特征的土壤侵蚀系统具有先天优势.由于空间尺度变化所引起的土壤侵蚀因子对侵蚀产沙过程的影响不同,CA模型在坡面尺度下主要针对细沟侵蚀和土壤颗粒的变化,在小流域尺度下涉及到更多的元胞状态和更加完整的侵蚀过程,在大区域尺度下重点研究气候和地貌之间的相互作用.不同空间尺度建立的CA模型没有确定的转换规则,模型通用性较低,今后需要在三维可视化、智能化等方面深入研究CA模型在土壤侵蚀领域的应用.%Soil erosion system is a typical nonlinear dynamic system, in the inner of which the erosion development and evolution is very complex and require effective technology and method to simulate and predict the process accurately. And the cellular automatic is a kind of discrete dynamics model with temporal and spatial features, which uses the method of bottom up and can be suitable to application in the time space evolution of soil erosion, for its inherent advantages in simulation and analysis the soil erosion system with spatial features. Then in the study of time-space evolution of soil erosion, the variation of spatial scales can cause that the erosion factors have different effects on the process of soil erosion. Therefore in the construction of CA model, in slope scale the main research is rill erosion and the change of soil particles, in small watershed scale the CA model includes more cell states and more complete erosion process, in region scale the CA focuses on interaction of the climate and topography.Because of no unified conversion rule in different scales, the
Bartoletti, Massimo
Usage automata are an extension of finite stata automata, with some additional features (e.g. parameters and guards) that improve their expressivity. Usage automata are expressive enough to model security requirements of real-world applications; at the same time, they are simple enough to be statically amenable, e.g. they can be model-checked against abstractions of program usages. We study here some foundational aspects of usage automata. In particular, we discuss about their expressive power, and about their effective use in run-time mechanisms for enforcing usage policies.
Application of cellular automata approach for cloud simulation and rendering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christopher Immanuel, W. [Department of Physics, Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, Chennai 600 062 (India); Paul Mary Deborrah, S. [Research Department of Physics, The American College, Tamil Nadu, Madurai 625 002 (India); Samuel Selvaraj, R. [Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Tamil Nadu, Chennai 600 005 (India)
2014-03-15
Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time applications, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight simulators, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.
Application of cellular automata approach for cloud simulation and rendering
Christopher Immanuel, W.; Paul Mary Deborrah, S.; Samuel Selvaraj, R.
2014-03-01
Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time applications, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight simulators, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.
Design and Analysis of Adders using Nanotechnology Based Quantum dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Lakshmi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The area and complexity are the major issues in circuit design. Here, we propose different types of adder designs based on Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA that reduces number of QCA cells and area compare to previous designs. The quantum dot cellular automata is a novel computing paradigm in nanotechnology that can implement digital circuits with faster speed, smaller size and low power consumption. By taking the advantages of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architectures. The QCA cell is a basic building block of nanotechnology that can be used to make gates, wires and memories. The basic logic circuits used in this technology are the inverter and the Majority Gate (MG, using this other logical circuits can be designed. Approach: In this paper, the adders such as half, full and serial bit were designed and analyzed. These structures were designed with minimum number of cells by using cell minimization techniques. The techniques are (1 using two cells inverter and (2 suitable arrangement of cells without overlapping of neighboring cells. The proposed method can be used to minimize area and complexity. Results: These circuits were designed by majority gate and implemented by QCA cells. Then, they simulated using QCA Designer. The simulated results were verified according to the truth table. Conclusion: The performance analyses of those circuits are compared according to complexity, area and number of clock cycles and are also compared with previous designs.
Complex systems modeling by cellular automata
J. Kroc; P.M.A. Sloot
2009-01-01
In recent years, the notion of complex systems proved to be a very useful concept to define, describe, and study various natural phenomena observed in a vast number of scientific disciplines. Examples of scientific disciplines that highly benefit from this concept range from physics, mathematics, an
元胞自动机(CA)模型在土地利用领域的研究综述%The Research Summary of Land use with the Model of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周嵩山; 李红波
2012-01-01
通过模型对区域土地利用/覆盖变化(LUCC)进行分析已经成为了当前全球的研究主要内容之一.元胞自动机(CA)模型是一种通过定义局部的简单的计算规则来模拟和表示整个系统中复杂现象的时空动态模型,其“自下而上”的研究思路,强大的复杂计算功能及高度动态,使得它在模拟空间复杂系统的时空动态演变方面具有很强的能力.CA模型通过与其他模型相结合,在综合考虑各种限制因素和转换规则的前提下,通过反复迭代综合空间分析与非空间分析,模拟土地利用变化情景,在国内外已经形成了较为成熟的研究模型.本文首先提出了CA模型在土地利用变化中应用的背景及其特点；然后,分析了CA模型的构成原理以及在国内外的应用进展与现状;最后,详细阐述了CA模型在土地利用变化中的发展趋势及今后研究工作中应注意的问题.%The model of the regional land use /cover change (I.UCC) has become main content of global research. Cellular automata (CA) model is a temporal and spatial dynamic model to simulate and represent complex phenomena in the entire system by definition of local simple calculation rules, its "bottom up" research approach, strong functions of complexity computing and highly dynamic, make it has a strong ability in the evolution of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the simulated space complex systems. CA model by combining with other models in the premise of considering the various constraints and transformation rules through iterative comprehensive spatial analysis and non-spatial analysis, for the simulation of land-use change scenarios, both at home and abroad it has been a comparatively mature research model. In this paper we first give the background and characteristics of the CA model in the application of land-use change; then analyzing the composition principles of the CA model and application condition and progress at home and
A Novel Seven Input Majority Gate in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keivan Navi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A Quantum Cellular Automaton (QCA is a nanotechnology which is an attractive alternative for transistor based technologies in the near future. A new seven input majority gate in quantum dot cellular automata is proposed in this paper. The basic elements in QCA are majority and inverter gates, therefore using a majority gate with more inputs in QCA circuit will cause reduction in cell count, latency and complexity. Furthermore, by using the proposed seven input majority gate we can design four inputs AND gate and OR gate in only two clock phases. By applying these kinds of gates QCA circuits could be simplified and optimized. In order to prove the functionality of the proposed device, QCADesigner tool and some physical proofs are utilized.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢鹏; 岳彩荣; 冯水琴; 任健; 岑纲; 禄鑫
2011-01-01
选取林地面积减少较为严重的滇西北香格里拉县为例,对研究区的土地利用变化驱动机制进行了分析,并集合GIS技术,尝试运用元胞自动机理论构建Loit模型对研究区的土地利用空间格局进行了模拟和预测.模拟的Kappa指数为0.79,表明CA模型在土地利用/覆盖变化的预测方面有巨大优势.%A study was conducted to analyze the land-use change-driven mechanism of forest land in Shangri-La County, northwest Yunnan Province, where the forest land area decreased more seriously. The spatial pattern of land use in the study area was simulated and predicted by CIS technology and the Logit Model obtained from the cellular automata theory. The kappa index of the simulation was 0. 79, indicating that the cellular automata model has more advantages in the simulation of Land use/cover change.
Asymptotic analysis of Complex Automata models for reaction-diffusion systems
A. Caiazzo; J.-L. Falcone; B. Chopard; A.G. Hoekstra
2009-01-01
Complex Automata (CxA) have been recently introduced as a paradigm to simulate multiscale multiscience systems as a collection of generalized Cellular Automata on different scales. The approach yields numerical and computational challenges and can become a powerful tool for the simulation of particu
Vafaee Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Mosafer, Sara; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein
2016-06-01
This paper proposes an approach for gene selection in microarray data. The proposed approach consists of a primary filter approach using Fisher criterion which reduces the initial genes and hence the search space and time complexity. Then, a wrapper approach which is based on cellular learning automata (CLA) optimized with ant colony method (ACO) is used to find the set of features which improve the classification accuracy. CLA is applied due to its capability to learn and model complicated relationships. The selected features from the last phase are evaluated using ROC curve and the most effective while smallest feature subset is determined. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are K-nearest neighbor; support vector machine and naïve Bayes. The proposed approach is evaluated on 4 microarray datasets. The evaluations confirm that the proposed approach can find the smallest subset of genes while approaching the maximum accuracy. PMID:27154739
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李锰; 杨峰
2011-01-01
A 2-D cellular automata fault model with 81×81 cells was constructed to test its seismicity performance. In a series of tests 4 kinds of fault strength heterogeneity and 6 different strength geometrical distributions were taken. With the model simulation we analyzed how the fault structure heterogeneity affects macroscopic fault failure behavior and generated seismic sequence type. The results show that with increasing degree of heterogeneity the macroscopic deformation and fracture process present from brittle to plastic behavior, and produce 3 different types of seismic sequence, I.e. , main shock type, foreshock-main shock-aftershock type and swarm type. In the same time, with increasing fault strength heterogeneity the fracture size distribution more regularly follows the G-R relation. Besides, temporarily the events occur in a certain random process, that is, small events appear randomly, medium size events occur in clusters and large ones emerge quasi-periodically. The event clustering and quasi-periodic occurrences become less significant with the fault heterogeneity increasing. It is also found that the randomness of structural geometric variation may affect characteristics of seismic sequences, but the difference in randomness becomes weaker as degree of heterogeneity increases.%基于断层强度分布的非均匀性,构建了由81×81个细胞单元组成的4种不同匀质度及其各自6种不同随机构型共计24个非均匀二维单断层模型样本,并通过设计的细胞自动机模拟程序,在保持其它模拟参数不变的条件下对它们进行了模拟试验.研究结果表明,随着断层结构非匀质度的增加,其宏观变形破坏行为由相对脆性向塑性变化；地震序列类型依次表现出主震型、前震-主震-余震型和震群型；震级分布表现出非均匀性依次减小；地震发生在时间上表现为一种确定性的随机过程,即小震随机、中强地震丛集和大震准周期的特点.此
Efficient Design of Reversible Code Converters Using Quantum Dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javeed Iqbal Reshi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA is an attractive field of nano-technology which offers the various advantages over existing CMOS technology for the development of logic circuits. Contradictory to other technologies which use the voltage levels for logic representation, QCA utilizes the polarization of electrons for representing the binary states in the QCA Cell. Conventional logic circuits are not energy efficient as they are not reversible in nature and hence lead to energy dissipation. Thus there is a need of a serious effort that will provide an efficient paradigm for designing the circuits which does not dissipation the energy and hence will preserve the information. This paper offers the efficient design of various QCA reversible code converters which prove to be efficient in term of cell Area, cell count, total area, latency and complexity. All the proposed reversible code converter designs were simulated and their credibility was successfully verified with the QCADesigner tool
3D image copyright protection based on cellular automata transform and direct smart pixel mapping
Li, Xiao-Wei; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon
2014-10-01
We propose a three-dimensional (3D) watermarking system with the direct smart pixel mapping algorithm to improve the resolution of the reconstructed 3D watermark plane images. The depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained through the computational pixel mapping method. In the watermark embedding process, the depth-converted EIA is first scrambled by using the Arnold transform, which is then embedded in the middle frequency of the cellular automata (CA) transform. Compared with conventional computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) methods, this proposed scheme gives us a higher resolution of the reconstructed 3D plane images by using the quality-enhanced depth-converted EIA. The proposed method, which can obtain many transform planes for embedding watermark data, uses CA transforms with various gateway values. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we present the results of our preliminary experiments.
A Compact Self-organizing Cellular Automata-based Genetic Algorithm
Barmpoutis, Vasileios
2007-01-01
A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed in which each member of the population can change schemata only with its neighbors according to a rule. The rule methodology and the neighborhood structure employ elements from the Cellular Automata (CA) strategies. Each member of the GA population is assigned to a cell and crossover takes place only between adjacent cells, according to the predefined rule. Although combinations of CA and GA approaches have appeared previously, here we rely on the inherent self-organizing features of CA, rather than on parallelism. This conceptual shift directs us toward the evolution of compact populations containing only a handful of members. We find that the resulting algorithm can search the design space more efficiently than traditional GA strategies due to its ability to exploit mutations within this compact self-organizing population. Consequently, premature convergence is avoided and the final results often are more accurate. In order to reinforce the superior mutation capability, ...
Hologram authentication based on a secure watermarking algorithm using cellular automata.
Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chan, Hao-Tang; Cheng, Chau-Jern
2014-09-20
A secure watermarking algorithm for hologram authentication is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the noise-like feature of holograms to randomly embed a watermark in the domain of the discrete cosine transform with marginal degradation in transparency. The pseudo random number (PRN) generators based on a cellular automata algorithm with asymmetrical and nonlocal connections are used for the random hiding. Each client has its own unique PRN generators for enhancing the watermark security. In the proposed algorithm, watermarks are also randomly generated to eliminate the requirements of prestoring watermarks in the clients and servers. An authentication scheme is then proposed for the algorithm with random watermark generation and hiding. PMID:25322138
Non-probabilistic cellular automata-enhanced stereo vision simultaneous localization and mapping
Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Gasteratos, Antonios
2011-11-01
In this paper, a visual non-probabilistic simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm suitable for area measurement applications is proposed. The algorithm uses stereo vision images as its only input and processes them calculating the depth of the scenery, detecting occupied areas and progressively building a map of the environment. The stereo vision-based SLAM algorithm embodies a stereo correspondence algorithm that is tolerant to illumination differentiations, the robust scale- and rotation-invariant feature detection and matching speeded-up robust features method, a computationally effective v-disparity image calculation scheme, a novel map-merging module, as well as a sophisticated cellular automata-based enhancement stage. A moving robot equipped with a stereo camera has been used to gather image sequences and the system has autonomously mapped and measured two different indoor areas.
Non-probabilistic cellular automata-enhanced stereo vision simultaneous localization and mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a visual non-probabilistic simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm suitable for area measurement applications is proposed. The algorithm uses stereo vision images as its only input and processes them calculating the depth of the scenery, detecting occupied areas and progressively building a map of the environment. The stereo vision-based SLAM algorithm embodies a stereo correspondence algorithm that is tolerant to illumination differentiations, the robust scale- and rotation-invariant feature detection and matching speeded-up robust features method, a computationally effective v-disparity image calculation scheme, a novel map-merging module, as well as a sophisticated cellular automata-based enhancement stage. A moving robot equipped with a stereo camera has been used to gather image sequences and the system has autonomously mapped and measured two different indoor areas
Novel Design for Quantum Dots Cellular Automata to Obtain Fault-Tolerant Majority Gate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Razieh Farazkish
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is one of the most attractive technologies for computing at nanoscale. The principle element in QCA is majority gate. In this paper, fault-tolerance properties of the majority gate is analyzed. This component is suitable for designing fault-tolerant QCA circuits. We analyze fault-tolerance properties of three-input majority gate in terms of misalignment, missing, and dislocation cells. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed component some physical proofs using kink energy (the difference in electrostatic energy between the two polarization states and computer simulations using QCA Designer tool are provided. Our results clearly demonstrate that the redundant version of the majority gate is more robust than the standard style for this gate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.E.N.Ganesh
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum cellular automata (QCA is a new technology in the nanometer scale and has been considered as one of the alternative to CMOS technology. QCA have a large potential in the development of circuits with high space density and low heat dissipation and allow the development of faster computers with lower power consumption. This paper discusses the design and construction of simple two bit arithmetic logic unit , four bit shifter and carry save in multiplier circuits. The advantage of this type of ALU is to construct functional unit all around the input lines and thereby reducing circuit complexity. Four bit shifter are constructed using serial AND and OR QCA circuits. QCA multiplier designed and constructed here has advantage of carry save in by delaying one clock cycle and no of bits can also be increased by adding the full adder stages. These circuits are the building block of nanoprocessors and provide us to understand the nanodevices of the future.
基于元胞自动机模型的开采沉陷模拟%Simulation of Coal Mining Subsidence Based on the Model of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈秋计
2013-01-01
The simulation of mining subsidence plays an important role in mining environmental management and ecological restoration. Based on the GIS platform, the mining subsidence theory and geographical Cellular Automata (CA) are combined with each other, and then the mining subsidence cellular space is constructed by using the development tool of object-oriented method with the help of software of VS2010. The mining subsidence frame structure of CA model and realization method is discussed, and the mining subsidence simulation object relation graph is constructed. The evolution model of CA for mining subsidence is established based on the research result. Finally, the prototype system of mining subsidence CA is developed by taking a coal mine in Shanxi Province as an example. Based on the coal seam condition and mining method of the study area, the evolution of mining subsidence in the future is simulated usi ng the prototype system in order to provide the basis for land reclamation and ecological restoration. The results show that object-oriented method is good for the analysis and exploitation of mining subsidence simulation system, and mining subsidence simulation based on GIS and CA, which is facilitated to the development of the system and has good compatibility, is able to show more spatiotemporal information, facilitating data management. In space division, the CA model could organically integrate into traditional method, and is able to accurately predict the future of surface subsidence damage, providing the basis for the treatment for subsidence area. Since mining subsidence relates to many subjects, there are many works need to be down in the future for further perfecting evolution model, exploring the evolution process of system in three-dimensional space, and enhancing the reality and practicability of simulation.%开采沉陷模拟对矿区的环境治理和生态恢复具有重要意义.本文将开采沉陷理论与地理元胞自动
Encryption Based on the Permutation of Cellular Automata%细胞自动机置换群加密技术研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张传武; 彭启琮; 朱甫臣
2003-01-01
With the development of the information technology ,information security ,as well as the implementation ofthe encryption system becomes more and more complexity,and therefore new methods are explored to simplify com-plexity of the implementation. Cellular automata has the characters of simplicity of basic components ,locality of cellu-lar automata interactions ,massive parallelism of information processing ,and exhibits complex global properties, whichmakes it suitable for the application in cryptography. This paper presents a new method of encryption,the key of thenew method consists of the permutation cellular automata, the vectors inputted, and the number of the itera-tion. Evidently,it has larger kev space than other methods with only the cellular automata itself as the key.
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume I – Number I
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun
2013-01-01
Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaolin Liu
Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS and cellular automata (CA. The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.
Learning and Model-checking Networks of I/O Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred
2012-01-01
We introduce a new statistical relational learning (SRL) approach in which models for structured data, especially network data, are constructed as networks of communicating nite probabilistic automata. Leveraging existing automata learning methods from the area of grammatical inference, we can le...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张梦珂; 刘艳芳; 何青松
2016-01-01
The potential of land cover change could be estimated on the basis of urbanization level and land development evaluation. Based on the potential value, a new method of simulating urban expansion that is different from the traditional Cellular Automata is proposed.According to development potentiality in every search process, the method described in this article only transforms cells with a maximum potential value that are suitable for neighborhood requirements into urban cells.Compared with traditional methods, trans-formation threshold is not required with this new strategy.Each of the two methods is applied to simulating urban expansion of the main urban area of Wuhan from 2003 to 2013 separately, and it is demonstrated that the precision of the new ameliorated method is signifi-cantly improved compared to the traditional methodology.%在城镇化发展水平及土地开发评价的基础上，评价待扩张区域土地转变潜力分值，基于最大转变潜力分值，提出一种有别于传统元胞自动机模拟城市扩张的新方法。该方法与传统元胞自动机模拟城市扩张相比在迭代方式上存在不同，它克服了传统元胞自动机因阈值设置不同而导致结果不确定的难题。分别将该方法与传统元胞自动机模型应用于武汉主城区，模拟了其2003年到2013年的城市扩张情况，最后，将模拟结果与实际土地利用现状图进行对比发现改进后的新方法在模拟精度上大大提高。
Egger, Jan; Nimsky, Christopher
2016-03-01
Due to the aging population, spinal diseases get more and more common nowadays; e.g., lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is 40% for white women and 13% for white men in the United States. Thus the numbers of surgical spinal procedures are also increasing with the aging population and precise diagnosis plays a vital role in reducing complication and recurrence of symptoms. Spinal imaging of vertebral column is a tedious process subjected to interpretation errors. In this contribution, we aim to reduce time and error for vertebral interpretation by applying and studying the GrowCut - algorithm for boundary segmentation between vertebral body compacta and surrounding structures. GrowCut is a competitive region growing algorithm using cellular automata. For our study, vertebral T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were first manually outlined by neurosurgeons. Then, the vertebral bodies were segmented in the medical images by a GrowCut-trained physician using the semi-automated GrowCut-algorithm. Afterwards, results of both segmentation processes were compared using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the Hausdorff Distance (HD) which yielded to a DSC of 82.99+/-5.03% and a HD of 18.91+/-7.2 voxel, respectively. In addition, the times have been measured during the manual and the GrowCut segmentations, showing that a GrowCutsegmentation - with an average time of less than six minutes (5.77+/-0.73) - is significantly shorter than a pure manual outlining.
Small universal cellular automata in hyperbolic spaces a collection of jewels
Margenstern, Maurice
2013-01-01
Hyperbolic geometry is an essential part of theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. Besides specialists of these domains, many specialists of new domains start to show a growing interest both to hyperbolic geometry and to cellular automata. This is especially the case in biology and computer science. This book gives the reader a deep and efficient introduction to an algorithmic approach to hyperbolic geometry. It focuses the attention on the possibilities to obtain in this frame the power of computing everything a computer can compute, that is to say: universality. The minimal ways to get universality are invistigated in a large family of tilings of the hyperbolic plane. In several cases the best results are obtained.In all cases, the results are close to the theoretical best values. This gives rise to fantastic illustrations: the results are jewels in all meanings of the word. ------------------------ Maurice MARGENSTERN is professor emeritus at the University of Lorraine, he is a member of LI...
Genetic algorithms for determining the parameters of cellular automata in urban simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Xia; YANG; QingSheng; LIU; XiaoPing
2007-01-01
This paper demonstrates that cellular automata (CA) can be a useful tool for analyzing the process of many geographical phenomena. There are many studies on using CA to simulate the evolution of cites. Urban dynamics is determined by many spatial variables. The contribution of each spatial variable to the simulation is quantified by its parameter or weight. Calibration procedures are usually required for obtaining a suitable set of parameters so that the realistic urban forms can be simulated. Each parameter has a unique role in controlling urban morphology in the simulation. In this paper, these parameters for urban simulation are determined by using empirical data. Genetic algorithms are used to search for the optimal combination of these parameters. There are spatial variations for urban dynamics in a large region. Distinct sets of parameters can be used to represent the unique features of urban dynamics for various subregions. A further experiment is to evaluate each set of parameters based on the theories of compact cities. It is considered that the better set of parameters can be identified according to the utility function in terms of compact development. This set of parameters can be cloned to other regions to improve overall urban morphology. The original parameters can be also modified to produce more compact urban forms for planning purposes. This approach can provide a useful exploratory tool for testing various planning scenarios for urban development.
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. W. Li
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.
Chen, Tinghuan; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Jianhui; Yuen, Chau; Tong, You
2016-10-01
Because of simple encryption and compression procedure in single step, compressed sensing (CS) is utilized to encrypt and compress an image. Difference of sparsity levels among blocks of the sparsely transformed image degrades compression performance. In this paper, motivated by this difference of sparsity levels, we propose an encryption and compression approach combining Kronecker CS (KCS) with elementary cellular automata (ECA). In the first stage of encryption, ECA is adopted to scramble the sparsely transformed image in order to uniformize sparsity levels. A simple approximate evaluation method is introduced to test the sparsity uniformity. Due to low computational complexity and storage, in the second stage of encryption, KCS is adopted to encrypt and compress the scrambled and sparsely transformed image, where the measurement matrix with a small size is constructed from the piece-wise linear chaotic map. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our proposed scrambling method based on ECA has great performance in terms of scrambling and uniformity of sparsity levels. And the proposed encryption and compression method can achieve better secrecy, compression performance and flexibility.
Learning automata an introduction
Narendra, Kumpati S
2012-01-01
This self-contained introductory text on the behavior of learning automata focuses on how a sequential decision-maker with a finite number of choices responds in a random environment. Topics include fixed structure automata, variable structure stochastic automata, convergence, 0 and S models, nonstationary environments, interconnected automata and games, and applications of learning automata. A must for all students of stochastic algorithms, this treatment is the work of two well-known scientists and is suitable for a one-semester graduate course in automata theory and stochastic algorithms.
Cellular automata-based tunnel fire simulation%基于元胞自动机的井巷火灾仿真
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李翠平; 胡磊; 侯定勇; 张佳
2013-01-01
提出了一种基于元胞自动机的井巷火灾可视化仿真方法。在矿井巷道可视化的基础上，通过对火灾元胞进行表征，综合考虑可燃物类型与投放密度、井巷通风、井巷坡度等因素对井巷火源引燃效果的影响及双扩散作用、井巷通风、浮力作用和节流作用等因素对火灾烟气蔓延效果的影响，采用概率函数进行元胞自动机建模，构建了表达元胞温度的井巷火源燃烧模型和表达元胞浓度的井巷火灾烟气蔓延模型。基于火源元胞燃烧演化规则和烟气元胞蔓延演化规则，通过可视化手段展示了井巷火灾火源燃烧和有害气体浓度的时空发展变化。同时以矿山实际数据进行检验，说明了基于元胞自动机的井巷火灾仿真的可行性与有效性。%This article introduces a mine fire visualization simulation method based on cellular automata. On the basis of mine tunnel visualization, a tunnel fire combustion model for expressing cellular temperature and a tunnel fire smoke spread model for expressing cellular concentration were built by fire cell characterization. In these models the influence of fuel type and input density, ventilation and roadway slope on mine fire ignition and the effect of double diffusion, ventilation, buoyancy and throttling on fire smoke spread were taken into account, and a probability function was used for cellular automata modelling. Then according to the fire cellular combustion evolution rules and smoke cellular spreading evolution rules, the spatial changes of tunnel fire burning and harmful gas concentration were demonstrated through visualization means. Actual data from a mine proves the feasibility and effectiveness of tunnel fire simulation based on cellular automata.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Jinsong; HE Likun
2012-01-01
Abstract In order to accurately simulate the diffusion of chloride ion in the existing concrete bridge and acquire the precise chloride ion concentration at given time,a cellular automata (CA)-based model is proposed.The process of chloride ion diffusion is analyzed by the CA-based method and a nonlinear solution of the Fick's second law is obtained.Considering the impact of various factors such as stress states,temporal and spatial variability of diffusion parameters and water-cement ratio on the process of chloride ion diffusion,the model of chloride ion diffusion under multi-factor coupling actions is presented.A chloride ion penetrating experiment reported in the literature is used to prove the effectiveness and reasonability of the present method,and a T-type beam is taken as an illustrative example to analyze the process of chloride ion diffusion in practical application.The results indicate that CA-based method can simulate the diffusion of chloride ion in the concrete structures with acceptable precision.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandini, S. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dell' Informazione); Casati, R.; Milani, M. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica)
1998-10-01
The prey-predator competition is a typical problem exhibited by the dynamics of phytophagous and predaceous mite population. Biological parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Amblyseius californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are set up in order to establish the fundamental aspects to be embodied into a simulation model. The paper introduces the Lotka-Volterra differential equations as the classical approach to the problem and present the Cellular-Automata (CA) approach as an alternative one. It reports preliminary results which account for a number of interesting features such as: 1) oscillations in time of the population, 2) a link between the populations' initial conditions and the obtained solution, 3) the appearance of spatial structures, and 4) the effect on the population dynamics of parameters which may be linked to photoperiodic and circadian features. Furthermore, it is shown that several sophisticated features affecting populations evolution, such as the egg opening time, the sexual maturation time, the limited lifetime, the limited survival capability of predators in fasting condition and juvenile mortality can be easily included in a CA-based model.
Reaction-Diffusion Automata Phenomenology, Localisations, Computation
Adamatzky, Andrew
2013-01-01
Reaction-diffusion and excitable media are amongst most intriguing substrates. Despite apparent simplicity of the physical processes involved the media exhibit a wide range of amazing patterns: from target and spiral waves to travelling localisations and stationary breathing patterns. These media are at the heart of most natural processes, including morphogenesis of living beings, geological formations, nervous and muscular activity, and socio-economic developments. This book explores a minimalist paradigm of studying reaction-diffusion and excitable media using locally-connected networks of finite-state machines: cellular automata and automata on proximity graphs. Cellular automata are marvellous objects per se because they show us how to generate and manage complexity using very simple rules of dynamical transitions. When combined with the reaction-diffusion paradigm the cellular automata become an essential user-friendly tool for modelling natural systems and designing future and emergent computing arch...
Automata-Based CSL Model Checking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;
2011-01-01
For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...... probability can then be approximated in polynomial time (using uniformization). This makes the present work the centerpiece of a broadly applicable full CSL model checker. Recently, the decision algorithm by Aziz et al. was shown to be incorrect in general. In fact, it works only for stratified CTMCs...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Sosa
2011-03-01
Full Text Available One of the main interdisciplinary challenges today is to understand and change the dominant social perceptions and values that support and perpetuate unsustainable practices. Social computational simulations have been conceived in recent years to understand emergent results from complex systems. These dynamic social models are of interest to sustainability researchers because they provide a means to implement hypotheses and explore scenarios that could help extend our understanding of the future role of change agency in society. Change agents are individuals who directly or indirectly enable sustainable behaviors or inhibit practices that damage the environment and large social groups. Evidence-based strategies, guidelines and methods are necessary in order to manage creative change agency more effectively. This paper presents work with computational simulations, known as cellular automata, in order to explore the role of timing in triggering social change through uncoordinated, autonomous individual action. The paper identifies a number of issues related to creative change agency and proposes associated guidelines for practitioners. As a means of early validation, these findings are portrayed against empirical studies in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiran Sree Pokkuluri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000. The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata and MCC (modified clonal classifier to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992 datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006 dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000 and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002 datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.
Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S. S. S. N. Usha Devi
2014-01-01
Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively. PMID:25132849
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李锰; 杨峰; 胡伟华
2011-01-01
为解释实际观测资料震源破裂过程与自相似(分形)模型的不一致性,本文基于观测结果,构建了由81×81个细胞单元组成二维非均匀断层模型,并通过设计的细胞自动机模拟程序进行了模拟试验.研究结果表明:断层结构非均匀性是影响孕震过程特征的重要因素,而且地震强度分布并非简单的自相似.随着断层非匀质性增加,破裂过程出现由相对的脆性破坏向塑性破坏特征变化的趋势.利用细胞自动机不仅能较好地解释震级-频度关系中的大、小震级段低头现象,而且也可解释大震级事件具有相对恒定的应力降,得到了与实际观测研究相一致的结果.%In the paper, three kinds of heterogeneous faults with 81 ×81 cells are set up using celluar automata models and simulated for explaining the inconsistency between the observations and fractal-based model. The results show that the G-R relations behave not in simple self-similarity but multi-fractal, and with the increasing of heterogeneity the fracture process tends to turn from brittle to plastic behaviors. At the same time, using the models can explain not only the curvature at smaller and larger magnitudes in G-R relation but also the relatively constant stress drop for larger magnitude earthquake events.Fault structural heterogeneity plays a important role in earthquake preparation process.The results from computer simulation are consistent with observations from detailed seismicity studies.
Computer Models and Automata Theory in Biology and Medicine
Baianu, I C
2004-01-01
The applications of computers to biological and biomedical problem solving goes back to the very beginnings of computer science, automata theory [1], and mathematical biology [2]. With the advent of more versatile and powerful computers, biological and biomedical applications of computers have proliferated so rapidly that it would be virtually impossible to compile a comprehensive review of all developments in this field. Limitations of computer simulations in biology have also come under close scrutiny, and claims have been made that biological systems have limited information processing power [3]. Such general conjectures do not, however, deter biologists and biomedical researchers from developing new computer applications in biology and medicine. Microprocessors are being widely employed in biological laboratories both for automatic data acquisition/processing and modeling; one particular area, which is of great biomedical interest, involves fast digital image processing and is already established for rout...
Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.
Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M
2016-01-01
Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches. PMID:27347956
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Rangel Rios
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.
Average Analysis of Glushkov Automata under a BST-Like Model
Nicaud, Cyril; Pivoteau, Carine; Razet, Benoît
2010-01-01
We study the average number of transitions in Glushkov automata built from random regular expressions. This statistic highly depends on the probabilistic distribution set on the expressions. A recent work shows that, under the uniform distribution, regular expressions lead to automata with a linear number of transitions. However, uniform regular expressions are not necessarily a satisfying model. Therefore, we rather focus on an other model, inspired from random binary search trees (BST), whi...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Deepak D’Souza; P S Thiagarajan
2002-04-01
We identify a subclass of timed automata called product interval automata and develop its theory. These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across the agents. We show that the resulting automata admit a clean theory in both logical and language theoretic terms. We also show that product interval automata are expressive enough to model the timed behaviour of asynchronous digital circuits.
An Automata-Based Symbolic Approach for Verifying Programs on Relaxed Memory Models
Linden, Alexander; Wolper, Pierre
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of verifying programs for the relaxed memory models implemented in modern processors. Specifically, it considers the TSO (Total Store Order) relaxation, which corresponds to the use of store buffers. The proposed approach proceeds by using finite automata to symbolically represent the possible contents of the store buffers. Store, load and commit operations then correspond to operations on these finite automata. The advantage of this approa...
Bialecki, Mariusz
2010-01-01
Inspired by extremely simplified view of the earthquakes we propose the stochastic domino cellular automaton model exhibiting avalanches. From elementary combinatorial arguments we derive a set of nonlinear equations describing the automaton. Exact relations between the average parameters of the model are presented. Depending on imposed triggering, the model reproduces both exponential and inverse power statistics of clusters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Govinda.K
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The information housed on the cloud is often seen as valuable to individuals with malicious intent. There is a lot of personal information and potentially secure data that people store on theircomputers, and this information is now being transferred to the cloud. This makes it critical for you to understand the security measures that your cloud provider has in place, and it is equally important to take personal precautions to secure your data. In the world of cloud computing, security is the big issue because of open system architecture. The data transferred through cloud should be secure and there is a possible to attack the data in middle. In this paper, we deal with key exchange between cloud user’s using cellular automata. It is hard to trace the key by man-in-the-middle-attack because of Strong encryption algorithm (Triple-DES with CA (Cellular Automata Rules. Besides CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check is done to ensure data integrity at the user’s end.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper presents a development of the extended Cellular Automata (CA), based on relational databases(RDB), to model dynamic interactions among spatial objects. The integration of Geographical Information System (GIS)and CA has the great advantage of simulating geographical processes. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellularshape and neighbourhood and neighbour rules, which restrict the CA's ability to simulate complex, real world environ-ments. This paper discusses a cell's spatial relation based on the spatial object's geometrical and non-geometrical characteris-tics, and extends the cell' s neighbour definition, and considers that the cell' s neighbour lies in the forms of not only spa-tial adjacency but also attribute correlation. This paper then puts forward that spatial relations between two different cellscan be divided into three types, including spatial adjacency, neighbourhood and complicated separation. Based on tradition-al ideas, it is impossible to settle CA's restrictions completely. RDB-based CA is an academic experiment, in whichsome fields are designed to describe the essential information needed to define and select a cell's neighbour. The cultureinnovation diffusion system has multiple forms of space diffusion and inherited characteristics that the RDB-based CA iscapable of simulating more effectively. Finally this paper details a successful case study on the diffusion of fashion weartrends. Compared to the original CA, the RDB-based CA is a more natural and efficient representation of human knowl-edge over space, and is an effective tool in simulating complex systems that have multiple forms of spatial diffusion.
Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin
2013-09-01
Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.
Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samar Hayat Khan Tareen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model
Christie, John A; Forrest, Ryan P; Corcelli, Steven A; Wasio, Natalie A; Quardokus, Rebecca C; Brown, Ryan; Kandel, S Alex; Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S; Henderson, Kenneth W
2015-12-14
The preparation of 7-Fc(+) -8-Fc-7,8-nido-[C2 B9 H10 ](-) (Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) ) demonstrates the successful incorporation of a carborane cage as an internal counteranion bridging between ferrocene and ferrocenium units. This neutral mixed-valence Fe(II) /Fe(III) complex overcomes the proximal electronic bias imposed by external counterions, a practical limitation in the use of molecular switches. A combination of UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic and TD-DFT computational studies indicate that electron transfer within Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) is achieved through a bridge-mediated mechanism. This electronic framework therefore provides the possibility of an all-neutral null state, a key requirement for the implementation of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) molecular computing. The adhesion, ordering, and characterization of Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) on Au(111) has been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. PMID:26516063
Bahar, Ali Newaz; Waheed, Sajjad
2016-01-01
The fundamental logical element of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuit is majority voter gate (MV). The efficiency of a QCA circuit is depends on the efficiency of the MV. This paper presents an efficient single layer five-input majority voter gate (MV5). The structure of proposed MV5 is very simple and easy to implement in any logical circuit. This proposed MV5 reduce number of cells and use conventional QCA cells. However, using MV5 a multilayer 1-bit full-adder (FA) is designed. The functional accuracy of the proposed MV5 and FA are confirmed by QCADesigner a well-known QCA layout design and verification tools. Furthermore, the power dissipation of proposed circuits are estimated, which shows that those circuits dissipate extremely small amount of energy and suitable for reversible computing. The simulation outcomes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed circuit. PMID:27330902
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subrata Nandi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this modern era, biometrics incorporate various mechanisms to recognize inimitable features of human beings by utilizing their biological and evident features. This paper proposes a novel technique for constructing a resilient and secure biometric recognition system. In this paper, an ECG-hash code of two distinct individuals has been formed by taking dot product of electrocardiogram (ECG feature matrices of two persons located at two different sites at respective databases. The validity of the system increases as samples from both persons, between whom the transmission takes place, are essential. Besides, electrocardiogram is such a unique feature of an individual that could not be compromised at any circumstance as contradictory to other features like fingerprints, face recognition etc. Moreover, the ECG-hash code is encrypted using rule vector of cellular automata that gives better security in terms of randomness of generated cipher text.
Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens;
2009-01-01
-balance as a biologically inspired quantity describing how much the cow has been resting for a preceding period. A dynamic lying-balance model is identified from real data and the lying balance is used as input, together with lying/standing sensor measurements. Using different automata models for oestrus and non......This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying......-oestrus conditions, with state transition probability densities identified from observations, diagnosis theory for stochastic automata is employed to obtain diagnoses of oestrus. The oestrus cases are detected using consistency based diagnosis on real data....
Tau -- a lightweight tool for specifying and verifying tiny automata models
Holzmann, Gerard,
2015-01-01
Tau is a small Tcl/Tk application that can be used to quickly specify and formally verify small automata models (the name 'tau' is short for 'tiny automata'). It is used as a teaching aid in CS118, a course on the formal verification of asynchronous software systems using logic model checking. Tau requires the availability of a standard C compiler (e.g., gcc) and a recent version of the Spin model checker (e.g., Version 6.4.3 or later) as background tools.
Robust tracking by cellular automata and neural networks with nonlocal weights
Ososkov, Gennadii A.
1995-04-01
A modified rotor model of the Hopfield neural networks (HNN) is proposed for finding tracks in multiwire proportional chambers. That requires us to apply both raw data prefiltering by cellular automaton and HNN weights furnishing by a special robust multiplier. Then this model is developed to be applicable for a more general type of data and detectors. As an example, data processing of ionospheric measurements are considered. For handling tracks detected by high pressure drift chambers with their up-down ambiguity a modification of deformable templates method is proposed. A new concept of controlled HNN is proposed for solving the so-called track-match problem.
Stochastic Semantics and Statistical Model Checking for Networks of Priced Timed Automata
David, Alexandre; Legay, Axel; Mikučionis, Marius; Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted; van Vliet, Jonas; Wang, Zheng
2011-01-01
This paper offers a natural stochastic semantics of Networks of Priced Timed Automata (NPTA) based on races between components. The semantics provides the basis for satisfaction of probabilistic Weighted CTL properties (PWCTL), conservatively extending the classical satisfaction of timed automata with respect to TCTL. In particular the extension allows for hard real-time properties of timed automata expressible in TCTL to be refined by performance properties, e.g. in terms of probabilistic guarantees of time- and cost-bounded properties. A second contribution of the paper is the application of Statistical Model Checking (SMC) to efficiently estimate the correctness of non-nested PWCTL model checking problems with a desired level of confidence, based on a number of independent runs of the NPTA. In addition to applying classical SMC algorithms, we also offer an extension that allows to efficiently compare performance properties of NPTAs in a parametric setting. The third contribution is an efficient tool implem...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Rehkopf
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Transmission of the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is dependent on social context. A discrete spatial model representing neighborhoods segregated by levels of crowding and immunocompetence is constructed and used to evaluate prevention strategies, based on a number of assumptions about the spatial dynamics of tuberculosis. A cellular automata model is used to (a construct neighborhoods of different densities, (b model stochastically local interactions among individuals, and (c model the spread of tuberculosis within and across neighborhoods over time. Since infected people may become progressively sick but also heal through treatment, the transition among stages was modeled with transition probabilities. A moderate level of successful treatment (40% dramatically reduced the number of infections across all neighborhoods. Increasing the treatment in neighborhoods of a lower socioeconomic level from 40% to 90% results in an additional decrease of approximately 25% in the number of infected individuals overall. In conclusion, we find that a combination of a moderate level of successful treatment across all areas with more focused treatment efforts in lower socioeconomic areas resulted in the least number of infections over time.
Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-11-05
Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.
McCoy, Sophie J; Allesina, Stefano; Pfister, Catherine A
2016-03-16
Historical ecological datasets from a coastal marine community of crustose coralline algae (CCA) enabled the documentation of ecological changes in this community over 30 years in the Northeast Pacific. Data on competitive interactions obtained from field surveys showed concordance between the 1980s and 2013, yet also revealed a reduction in how strongly species interact. Here, we extend these empirical findings with a cellular automaton model to forecast ecological dynamics. Our model suggests the emergence of a new dominant competitor in a global change scenario, with a reduced role of herbivory pressure, or trophic control, in regulating competition among CCA. Ocean acidification, due to its energetic demands, may now instead play this role in mediating competitive interactions and thereby promote species diversity within this guild. PMID:26936244
Cellular Automaton Model for Immunology of Tumor Growth
Voitikova, M
1998-01-01
The stochastic discrete space-time model of an immune response on tumor spreading in a two-dimensional square lattice has been developed. The immunity-tumor interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of cellular automata (CA). The multistate CA model for system, in which all statesoflattice sites, composing of both immune and tumor cells populations, are the functions of the states of the 12 nearest neighbors. The CA model incorporates the essential featuresof the immunity-tumor system. Three regimes of neoplastic evolution including metastatic tumor growth and screen effect by inactive immune cells surrounding a tumor have been predicted.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王丽萍; 金晓斌; 杜心栋; 周寅康
2012-01-01
LUCC model is an efficient tool to analysis the processes and consequences of land use systems, and to support land use planning and policy. According to the problem that constructive land expansion is the main reason for land use change in Foshan city, based on remote sensing data of land use change with spatial resolution of 30 m, the paper choose grey model as quantitative model and the cellular automata model as spatial model to simulate the land use pattern of 2015 by setting different scenario conditions. Results showed that in three kinds of expansion circumstances of.constructive land, the area of constructive land increased 27 830 、 21 645 and 15 461 hm2 respectively, the corresponding proportion of the cultivated land was 42.28%, 48.38% and 55.96% respectively. This indicates that cultivated land is still the main source of constructive land expansion, the contradiction between cultivated land protection and economic development will further expend.%通过模拟土地利用变化情景,了解土地利用变化趋势,可为制定科学的土地利用管理策略提供支持,根据近年来建设用地扩张在佛山市土地利用类型变化中占主导地位的特点,选择灰色模型作为数量模型,元胞自动机模型作为空间模型,设定3种建设用地扩张情景:适度约束、中度约束和强力约束,结合数量模型和空间模型的优点,模拟2015年土地利用空间布局.研究结果表明:在设定的3种建设用地扩张情景下,建设用地增加的面积分别为278.3、216.5和154.6 km2,相应来源于耕地的比率分别为42.28％、48.38％和55.96％,说明耕地仍然是建设用地增加的主要来源,也即耕地保护和经济发展的矛盾将会进一步增大,可为政府和土地管理部门制定政策提供一定的参考,从而采取更有针对性的措施.
Crisci, G. M.; Avolio, M. V.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, G. V.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.; Benhcke, B.; Neri, M.
2009-04-01
Forecasting the time, character and impact of future eruptions is difficult at volcanoes with complex eruptive behaviour, such as Mount Etna, where eruptions occur from the summit and on the flanks, affecting areas distant from each other. Modern efforts for hazard evaluation and contingency planning in volcanic areas draw heavily on hazard maps and numerical simulations. The computational model here applied belongs to the SCIARA family of lava flow simulation models. In the specific case this is the SCIARA-fv release, which is considered to give the most accurate and efficient performance, given the extent (567 km2) of the study area and the great number of simulations to be carried out. The model is based on the Cellular Automata computational paradigm and, specifically, on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata approach for the modelling of spatially extended dynamic systems2. This work addresses the problem of compiling high-detailed susceptibility maps with an elaborate approach in the numerical simulation of Etnean lava flows, based on the results of 39,300 simulations of flows erupted from a grid of 393 hypothetical vents in the eastern sector of Etna. This sector was chosen because it is densely populated and frequently affected by flank eruptions. Besides the definition of general susceptibility maps, the availability of a large number of lava flows of different eruption types, magnitudes and locations simulated for this study allows the instantaneous extraction of various scenarios on demand. For instance, in a Civil Defence oriented application, it is possible to identify all source areas of lava flows capable of affecting a given area of interest, such as a town or a major infrastructure. Indeed, this application is rapidly accomplished by querying the simulation database, by selecting the lava flows that affect the area of interest and by circumscribing their sources. Eventually, a specific category of simulation is dedicated to the assessment of protective
Visualization of Patterns and Self-organization of Cellular Automata in Urban Traffic Situations
Zhou, Lei; Brian, Schwartz
2001-06-01
The use of cellular automaton (CA) techniques is very good at modeling complex or nonlinear systems. In dynamic system within the context of discrete mathematical steps for CA simulations, simple local rules produce complex global rules. The simplicity of CA rules enables us to model and investigate more realistic models for the behavior traffic in two-dimensional flow systems. Our numerical solution presents self-organization behavior, which is called grid-lock for urban city street traffic and a phase transitions in the fundamental flow rate vs. density diagrams. We present calculations, which demonstrate the effects of micro CA rules and traffic parameters on the macro properties of traffic flow and behavior. We modified the stochastic parameter p, which is constant in the original CA rules, to a variable depending on the state of the vehicles. This structure of path dependence on history for traffic properties is in many cases analogous to solutions obtained for interactive magnetic systems. Using 3D ray tracer software, we are able to render the visualization of patterns of grid-lock into a 3D virtual urban environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsukerblat, Boris, E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Palii, Andrew, E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universidad de Valencia, Paterna (Spain)
2015-10-07
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between
Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio
2015-10-01
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jadav Chandra DAS; Debashis DE
2016-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an emerging area of research in reversible computing. It can be used to design nanoscale circuits. In nanocommunication, the detection and correction of errors in a received message is a major factor. Besides, device density and power dissipation are the key issues in the nanocommunication architecture. For the first time, QCA-based designs of the reversible low-power odd parity generator and odd parity checker using the Feynman gate have been achieved in this study. Using the proposed parity generator and parity checker circuit, a nanocommunication architecture is pro-posed. The detection of errors in the received message during transmission is also explored. The proposed QCA Feynman gate outshines the existing ones in terms of area, cell count, and delay. The quantum costs of the proposed conventional reversible circuits and their QCA layouts are calculated and compared, which establishes that the proposed QCA circuits have very low quantum cost compared to conventional designs. The energy dissipation by the layouts is estimated, which ensures the possibility of QCA nano-device serving as an alternative platform for the implementation of reversible circuits. The stability of the proposed circuits under thermal randomness is analyzed, showing the operational efficiency of the circuits. The simulation results of the proposed design are tested with theoretical values, showing the accuracy of the circuits. The proposed circuits can be used to design more complex low-power nanoscale lossless nanocommunication architecture such as nano-transmitters and nano-receivers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper introduces a design methodology in the context of finding new and innovative design principles by means of optimization techniques. In this method cellular automata (CA) and simulated annealing (SA) were combined and used for solving the optimization problem. This method contains two principles that are neighboring concept from CA and accepting each displacement basis on decreasing of objective function and Boltzman distribution from SA that plays role of transition rule. Proposed method was used for solving fuel management optimization problem in VVER-1000 Russian reactor. Since the fuel management problem contains a huge amount of calculation for finding the best configuration for fuel assemblies in reactor core this method has been introduced for reducing the volume of calculation. In this study reducing of power peaking factor inside the reactor core of Bushehr NPP is considered as the objective function. The proposed optimization method is compared with Hopfield neural network procedure that was used for solving this problem and has been shown that the result, velocity and qualification of new method are comparable with that. Besides, the result is the optimum configuration, which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer.
Waldorp, Lourens J
2016-01-01
It was recently shown how graphs can be used to provide descriptions of psychopathologies, where symptoms of, say, depression, affect each other and certain configurations determine whether someone could fall into a sudden depression. To analyse changes over time and characterise possible future behaviour is rather difficult for large graphs. We describe the dynamics of networks using one-dimensional discrete time dynamical systems theory obtained from a mean field approach to (elementary) probabilistic cellular automata (PCA). Often the mean field approach is used on a regular graph (a grid or torus) where each node has the same number of edges and the same probability of becoming active. We show that we can use variations of the mean field of the grid to describe the dynamics of the PCA on a random and small-world graph. Bifurcation diagrams for the mean field of the grid, random, and small-world graphs indicate possible phase transitions for certain parameter settings. Extensive simulations indicate for di...
Cellular automata pedestrian movement model considering human behavior
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Lizhong; FANG Weifeng; LI Jian; HUANG Rui; FAN Weicheng
2003-01-01
The pedestrian movement is more complex than vehicular flow for the reason that people are more flexible and intelligent than car. Without the limit of "lanes" pedestrian movement is loose and free. Furthermore, they are easily affected by other walkers as well as the environment around. In this paper some special technique is introduced considering human behavior to make the rules more reasonable. By simulating the two-dimension pedestrian movement, the phase transition phenomena of pedestrian movement, including the up walkers moving from the bottom to the upper boundary and the right walkers moving from the left to the right boundary, are presented. Studying on the effect of the system size on the critical density shows that the critical density is independent of the system size in the scope studied in this paper.
A cellular automata algorithm of finding critical path%求解关键路径的元胞自动机算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钱鑫; 吴晓军; 张甜甜; 易宇
2009-01-01
A new algorithm is put forward according to the characteristics of parallel calculation and local space-time of cellular automata model. In the algorithm, the critical path will develop with the evolvement of cells by selecting cells and setting corresponding rules. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can he used to solve the critical path searching problem in multi-source-point and multi-collecting-point AOE network, eliminate the linear procedure of traditional algorithm based on topological sort and reverse topological scan, and also unify the algorithms of shortest path searching and critical path searching problems.%利用元胞自动机的离散空间与并行计算特性,通过对元胞的抽象和局部规则的设计,借助于元胞状态的动态演化,解决了AOE网络(Activity on edge network)中多源点多汇点关键路径的求解,消除了基于拓扑排序和逆拓扑扫描的传统算法的线性化过程,并从算法上实现了AOE网最短路径与关键路径求解的统一.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Tokunaga
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of signal transmission through metal complexes [L5M-BL-ML5]5+ (M=Fe, Ru, Os, BL=pyrazine (py, 4,4’-bipyridine (bpy, L=NH3, which are simplified models of the molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (molecular QCA, is discussed from the viewpoint of one-electron theory, density functional theory. It is found that for py complexes, the signal transmission time (tst is Fe(0.6 fs < Os(0.7 fs < Ru(1.1 fs and the signal amplitude (A is Fe(0.05 e < Os(0.06 e < Ru(0.10 e. For bpy complexes, tst and A are Fe(1.4 fs < Os(1.7 fs < Ru(2.5 fs and Os(0.11 e < Ru(0.12 e
Automata and Quantum Computing
Ambainis, Andris; Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer
2015-01-01
Quantum computing is a new model of computation, based on quantum physics. Quantum computers can be exponentially faster than conventional computers for problems such as factoring. Besides full-scale quantum computers, more restricted models such as quantum versions of finite automata have been studied. In this paper, we survey various models of quantum finite automata and their properties. We also provide some open questions and new directions for researchers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Adamatzky, Andrew
2015-01-01
The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Thirumaran
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Incorporating changes into the logics of composed services dynamically and successfully is a challenge for sustaining a business’ image and profit in the society, especially when the change is expected to be made immediately at low cost. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a change impact analysis framework for long term composed services (LCS which: (i enables the business people to implement the changes by themselves through their analysts, (ii reduces cost and time by eliminating the dependence on IT developers once the application services are developed and delivered, (iii ensures effective incorporation of the changes made by using standard methodologies for evaluation – finite state automaton for verifying the runtime compatibilities and change evaluation and probabilistic cellular automaton for impact analysis and prediction. Through the evaluated probability measures and effective incident matching, the knowledge gained by the analyst over his service logics and the efficiency of incorporating changes are increased.
Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata
Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.
2012-08-01
With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.
The MIRELA framework: modeling and analyzing mixed reality applications using timed automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bachir Djafri
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Mixed Reality (MR aims to link virtual entities with the real world and has many applications such as military and medical ones. In many MR systems and more precisely in augmented scenes, one needs the application to render the virtual part accurately at the right time. To achieve this, such systems acquire data related to the real world from a set of sensors before rendering virtual entities. A suitable system architecture should minimize the delays to keep the overall system delay (also called end-to-end latency within the requirements for real-time performance. In this context, we propose a compositional modeling framework for MR software architectures in order to specify, simulate and validate formally the time constraints of such systems. Our approach is first based on a functional decomposition of such systems into generic components. The obtained elements as well as their typical interactions give rise to generic representations in terms of timed automata. A whole system is then obtained as a composition of such defined components.To write specifications, a textual language named MIRELA (MIxed REality LAnguage is proposed along with the corresponding compilation tools. The generated output contains timed automata in UPPAAL format for simulation and verification of time constraints. These automata may also be used to generate source code skeletons for an implementation on a MR platform.The approach is illustrated first on a small example. A realistic case study is also developed. It is modeled by several timed automata synchronizing through channels and including a large number of time constraints. Both systems have been simulated in UPPAAL and checked against the required behavioral properties.
Simulation of Forest Fire Spreading Based on Geographic Cellular Automata%林火蔓延地理元胞自动机仿真模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
湛玉剑; 张帅; 张磊; 刘学军
2013-01-01
On the basis of geographical cellular automata, a forest fire spread simulation model which applied in the complex diversity of tree species is proposed for the complexity of the impact of forest fire spread factors in this paper. Meanwhile ,GIS technology, which is convenient to CA forest fire spread model for its ability to handle and analysis raster data and other abilities, is used to design and achieve a dynamic simulation of the spread model in this paper. Simulation results show that the model can simulate forest fire spread of different environments, and is suitable for simulation analyzing forest fire spread under the combined effects of various factors ,and also can provide technical support for prediction analysis of fire spread,estimating fire shape,burned area and the rate of spread and optimizing fire suppression decision-making.%针对林火蔓延影响因子的复杂性,在地理元胞自动机的基础上,提出一种应用于具有复杂树种多样性的林火蔓延模拟模型,同时借助GIS技术实现了蔓延模型的动态模拟.实验结果表明,模型可以模拟不同环境下的林火蔓延,适用于仿真分析多种因素综合作用下的林火蔓延,能够为预测分析火势蔓延趋势,估算火场形状、过火面积、蔓延速度以及优化灭火决策等提供技术支持.
Cellular automata for the spreading of technologies in socio-economic systems
Kun, Ferenc; Kocsis, Gergely; Farkas, Janos
2008-01-01
We introduce an agent-based model for the spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems where the technology is mainly used for the collaboration/interaction of agents. Agents use products of different technologies to collaborate with each other which induce costs proportional to the difference of technological levels. Additional costs arise when technologies of different providers are used. Agents can adopt technologies and providers of their interacting partners in order...
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Benny N.
2000-01-01
There has been significant improvement in the performance of VLSI devices, in terms of size, power consumption, and speed, in recent years and this trend may also continue for some near future. However, it is a well known fact that there are major obstacles, i.e., physical limitation of feature size reduction and ever increasing cost of foundry, that would prevent the long term continuation of this trend. This has motivated the exploration of some fundamentally new technologies that are not dependent on the conventional feature size approach. Such technologies are expected to enable scaling to continue to the ultimate level, i.e., molecular and atomistic size. Quantum computing, quantum dot-based computing, DNA based computing, biologically inspired computing, etc., are examples of such new technologies. In particular, quantum-dots based computing by using Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has recently been intensely investigated as a promising new technology capable of offering significant improvement over conventional VLSI in terms of reduction of feature size (and hence increase in integration level), reduction of power consumption, and increase of switching speed. Quantum dot-based computing and memory in general and QCA specifically, are intriguing to NASA due to their high packing density (10(exp 11) - 10(exp 12) per square cm ) and low power consumption (no transfer of current) and potentially higher radiation tolerant. Under Revolutionary Computing Technology (RTC) Program at the NASA/JPL Center for Integrated Space Microelectronics (CISM), we have been investigating the potential applications of QCA for the space program. To this end, exploiting the intrinsic features of QCA, we have designed novel QCA-based circuits for co-planner (i.e., single layer) and compact implementation of a class of data permutation matrices, a class of interconnection networks, and a bit-serial processor. Building upon these circuits, we have developed novel algorithms and QCA
Formal Specification and Model-Checking of CSMA/CA Using Finite Precision Timed Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Liang; MA Hua-dong; LI Guang-yuan
2005-01-01
This paper presents the formal specification and model-checking of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance(CSMA/CA) protocol using the model checker we developed for real-time systems, which are specified as networks of finite precision timed automata. The CSMA/CA protocol proposed in the IEEE 802.11 standard is designed to reduce the probability of collision during a transmission in wireless random access environments. However, it does not eliminate completely the possibility of a collision between two or more frames transmitted simultaneously. We investigate what will give rise to a collision between frames and use our automatic verification tool for model-checking.
Modeling the topological organization of cellular processes.
Giavitto, Jean-Louis; Michel, Olivier
2003-07-01
The cell as a dynamical system presents the characteristics of having a dynamical structure. That is, the exact phase space of the system cannot be fixed before the evolution and integrative cell models must state the evolution of the structure jointly with the evolution of the cell state. This kind of dynamical systems is very challenging to model and simulate. New programming concepts must be developed to ease their modeling and simulation. In this context, the goal of the MGS project is to develop an experimental programming language dedicated to the simulation of this kind of systems. MGS proposes a unified view on several computational mechanisms (CHAM, Lindenmayer systems, Paun systems, cellular automata) enabling the specification of spatially localized computations on heterogeneous entities. The evolution of a dynamical structure is handled through the concept of transformation which relies on the topological organization of the system components. An example based on the modeling of spatially distributed biochemical networks is used to illustrate how these notions can be used to model the spatial and temporal organization of intracellular processes. PMID:12915272
Cellular automata with inertia: species competition, spatial patterns, and survival in ecotones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a two-dimensional CA model with three possible states for the system individual cells, 0 and ±. As for the dynamical rules, only ± can exert pressure to change the cells actual states. In this way, the 0 state is neutral and in some sense competitively weaker than the other two states. We further assume an inner property, the inertia, which is an intrinsic resistance to changes in the system. We evolve an ensemble of initial configurations for the CA until reaching steady states. By calculating averages over some relevant quantities for the final stationary configurations, we discuss how certain features of the problem, namely, initial states population and degree of aggregation as well as the values of inertia, can determine the different characteristics of the spatio-temporal pattern created by the CA evolution. We finally discuss how our findings may be relevant in the understanding of structures formation due to species competition in biology, specially in the transition regions between different biomes, the so called ecotones.
A verification strategy for web services composition using enhanced stacked automata model.
Nagamouttou, Danapaquiame; Egambaram, Ilavarasan; Krishnan, Muthumanickam; Narasingam, Poonkuzhali
2015-01-01
Currently, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is becoming the most popular software architecture of contemporary enterprise applications, and one crucial technique of its implementation is web services. Individual service offered by some service providers may symbolize limited business functionality; however, by composing individual services from different service providers, a composite service describing the intact business process of an enterprise can be made. Many new standards have been defined to decipher web service composition problem namely Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). BPEL provides an initial work for forming an Extended Markup Language (XML) specification language for defining and implementing business practice workflows for web services. The problems with most realistic approaches to service composition are the verification of composed web services. It has to depend on formal verification method to ensure the correctness of composed services. A few research works has been carried out in the literature survey for verification of web services for deterministic system. Moreover the existing models did not address the verification properties like dead transition, deadlock, reachability and safetyness. In this paper, a new model to verify the composed web services using Enhanced Stacked Automata Model (ESAM) has been proposed. The correctness properties of the non-deterministic system have been evaluated based on the properties like dead transition, deadlock, safetyness, liveness and reachability. Initially web services are composed using Business Process Execution Language for Web Service (BPEL4WS) and it is converted into ESAM (combination of Muller Automata (MA) and Push Down Automata (PDA)) and it is transformed into Promela language, an input language for Simple ProMeLa Interpreter (SPIN) tool. The model is verified using SPIN tool and the results revealed better recital in terms of finding dead transition and deadlock in contrast to the
基于元胞自动机的海上溢油扩散模拟%Simulation of marine oil spill diffusion based on cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2015-01-01
利用逻辑回归算法和决策树C5.0算法分别获取溢油扩散的转换规则，并构建了基于逻辑回归的CA模型和决策树CA模型。这两个模型仅需要设置起始影像、影响因子和权重等少数的变量，便可以方便地模拟出溢油的动态变化情况。把逻辑回归CA模型和决策树CA模型应用到DeepSpill项目的海上溢油模拟实验，结果表明逻辑回归CA模型的模拟总精度达到96.4%，Kappa系数达0.893，而决策树CA模型的模拟结果更为理想，其精度和kappa系数分别提高了0.2%和0.006。利用元胞自动机能够很好地模拟并预测出海上溢油的动态变化，可以满足对溢油快速响应的要求。%Cellular automata (CA) is an effective tool for simulating geographical process. In this paper, logistic regression and decision tree algorithm (C5.0) are introduced to obtain transition rules, which are used to build logistic regression CA model and decision-tree CA model. These two models are very convenient because they only need a few variables, such as starting image, impact factors and weights. And the simulation results of oil spill can be obtained. The logistic regression CA model and decision-tree CA model are applied to simulate the movement of oil spill in Deep Spill projects. Experiment re-sults showed that the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of simulation results in logistic regression CA were 96.4%and 0.893.Better results could be obtained using decision-tree CA model. Its overall accuracy and kappa coefficients increased by 0.2%and 0.006. Our experiment results showed that the CA models could simulate the dynamic changes of the oil spill and meet the requirements for rapid response of governments.
Quantum Finite Automata and Weighted Automata
Rao, M V P
2007-01-01
Quantum finite automata derive their strength by exploiting interference in complex valued probability amplitudes. Of particular interest is the 2-way model of Ambainis and Watrous that has both quantum and classical states (2QCFA) [A. Ambainis and J. Watrous, Two-way finite automata with quantum and classical state, Theoretical Computer Science, 287(1), pp. 299-311, 2002], since it combines the advantage of the power of interference in a constant-sized quantum system with a 2-way head. This paper is a step towards finding the least powerful model which is purely classical and can mimic the dynamics of quantum phase. We consider weighted automata with the Cortes-Mohri definition of language recognition [C. Cortes and M. Mohri, Context-Free Recognition with Weighted Automata, Grammars 3(2/3), pp. 133-150, 2000] as a candidate model for simulating 2QCFA. Given any 2QCFA that (i) uses the accept-reject-continue observable, (ii) recognizes a language with one-sided error and (iii) the entries of whose unitary mat...
Efficient modelling, generation and analysis of Markov automata
Timmer, Mark
2013-01-01
Quantitative model checking is concerned with the verification of both quantitative and qualitative properties over models incorporating quantitative information. Increases in expressivity of these models allow more types of systems to be analysed, but also raise the difficulty of their efficient an
Efficient Modelling, Generation and Analysis of Markov Automata
Timmer, Mark; Iwama, K.
2014-01-01
Quantitative model checking is concerned with the verification of both quantitative and qualitative properties over models incorporating quantitative information. Increases in expressivity of the models involved allow more types of systems to be analysed, but also raise the difficulty of their effic
Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger
2001-01-01
Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
寇勇刚; 吴桐水; 朱金福
2011-01-01
In order to research the role of airlines service innovation in the competition of the aviation market, the competition model of aviation service innovation is built up with cellular automata. Taken one of Shenzhen Airlinees' Shenzhen to Beijing flight in 2008 as an example, satisfied result have acquired by repeated experiments of simulation to the innovational cabin service evolution during the competition. The research conclusion shows that there are three factors which include the initial data of cellular automata,the service fitness and the sales promotion,all of the three effect the evolutional mutation period and make it into positive trend. Meanwhile, the role of the three factors become decreasing while the parameter of them gradually increasing.%为研究航空公司服务创新在市场竞争中的作用,基于元胞自动机设计了航空服务创新竞争模型.以深航2008年在深圳-北京航线上推出服务创新为例,经过重复试验较好地模拟了在该航线上进行服务创新取得成功的竞争演化过程.研究结果表明:初始接受服务创新的元胞数量、服务匹配度和品牌宣传效应度三个影响因素都对演化的突变周期起正向影响作用,且三个因素对突变周期的正向作用随着取值的增大而逐渐减弱.
Research of the Production Process of a Company Based on Cellular Automata%基于元胞自动机的企业生产过程的研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗丽珍; 吴瑞明
2012-01-01
To reduce and prevent the accidents in the production process of a company, the theory of cellular automata is applied to the research of this, a cellular automata model for the executing system of the workers in the processing plant is formulated. Through the simulation in different states of personal factors and environmental factors , the analysis shows that the extend that the works comply with the regulations is one of the key factors that affect the degree of safety in the production process. The advices are helpful that the company must pay more attention to how the regulations can be executed carefully to reduce the gaps between actual behaviors and standard behaviors according to the regulations. This is meaningful for the research of safe production of a company.%为减少和预防企业生产中意外事故的发生,将元胞自动机理论应用于企业生产过程的研究,建立了某企业生产中基层-员工执行系统的元胞自动机模型.通过对安全生产的个人因素和环境因素在不同状态下的模拟和分析,认为员工遵守规章规程的程度是影响企业安全生产的关键因素之一；并在此基础上,建议企业多关注于如何保证政策法规被规范执行,以缩小实际操作与规则规程之间的差距.这为企业安全生产的研究提供了一种新的思路.
UPPAAL-SMC: Statistical Model Checking for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;
2012-01-01
in the form of probability distributions and compare probabilities to analyze performance aspects of systems. The focus of the survey is on the evolution of the tool – including modeling and specification formalisms as well as techniques applied – together with applications of the tool to case studies....... on a series of extensions of the statistical model checking approach generalized to handle real-time systems and estimate undecidable problems. U PPAAL - SMC comes together with a friendly user interface that allows a user to specify complex problems in an efficient manner as well as to get feedback...
Modelling discrete longitudinal data using acyclic probabilistic finite automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha; Edwards, David
2015-01-01
to minimize a penalized likelihood criterion such as AIC or BIC is described. This algorithm is compared to one implemented in Beagle, a widely used program for processing genomic data, both in terms of rate of convergence to the true model as the sample size increases, and a goodness-of-fit measure assessed...
Correlating Formal Semantic Models of Reo Connectors: Connector Coloring and Constraint Automata
Jongmans, Sung-Shik T Q; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.8
2011-01-01
Over the past decades, coordination languages have emerged for the specification and implementation of interaction protocols for communicating software components. This class of languages includes Reo, a platform for compositional construction of connectors. In recent years, various formalisms for describing the behavior of Reo connectors have come to existence, each of them serving its own purpose. Naturally, questions about how these models relate to each other arise. From a theoretical point of view, answers to these questions provide us with better insight into the fundamentals of Reo, while from a more practical perspective, these answers broaden the applicability of Reo's development tools. In this paper, we address one of these questions: we investigate the equivalence between coloring models and constraint automata, the two most dominant and practically relevant semantic models of Reo. More specifically, we define operators that transform one model to the other (and vice versa), prove their correctnes...
基于细胞自动机的安全图像加密算法%Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊永红; 廖晓峰; 周庆
2011-01-01
In order to solve the problems that the cipher image encrypted by encryption algorithm based on the merit of the state attractors of Elementary Cellular Automata(ECA) can still discern part outline of the original image, and the plaintext sensitivity is poor, this paper proposes a secure image encryption algorithm. It employs the method which encrypts every bit plane with period two 2D Cellular Automata(CA), and then uses state attractors to encrypt the image, to achieve the effect that I bit change in the plaintext can be spreaded to the whole cipher image. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm is more sensitive, has larger key space, and easy to implement.%利用初等细胞自动机状态环性质进行加密后的密文图像仍可看出原图像的部分轮廓,且明文敏感性差.由此提出一种安全的图像加密算法,采用周期为2的二维细胞自动机对图像进行位平面加密,再通过状态环加密的方法使明文改变1 bit即可影响整个密文图像.仿真结果表明,改进算法敏感性更高,密钥空间更大,且加密速度较快.
Oku, Makito; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2010-11-01
A modularly-structured neural network model is considered. Each module, which we call a ‘cell’, consists of two parts: a Hopfield neural network model and a multilayered perceptron. An array of such cells is used to simulate the Rule 110 cellular automaton with high accuracy even when all the units of neural networks are replaced by stochastic binary ones. We also find that noise not only degrades but also facilitates computation if the outputs of multilayered perceptrons are below the threshold required to update the states of the cells, which is a stochastic resonance in computation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum
2004-01-01
This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European proj...... projects VHS [22] and AMETIST [17] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [20,5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of priced timed automata....
Automata networks model for alignment and least effort on vocabulary formation
Vera, Javier; Goles, Eric
2015-01-01
Can artificial communities of agents develop language with scaling relations close to the Zipf law? As a preliminary answer to this question, we propose an Automata Networks model of the formation of a vocabulary on a population of individuals, under two in principle opposite strategies: the alignment and the least effort principle. Within the previous account to the emergence of linguistic conventions (specially, the Naming Game), we focus on modeling speaker and hearer efforts as actions over their vocabularies and we study the impact of these actions on the formation of a shared language. The numerical simulations are essentially based on an energy function, that measures the amount of local agreement between the vocabularies. The results suggests that on one dimensional lattices the best strategy to the formation of shared languages is the one that minimizes the efforts of speakers on communicative tasks.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku
2014-07-01
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
覃松; 邓敏艺; 孔令江
2011-01-01
In order to study the influences of margin financing, as well as how to relieve the impact of short selling system,modeling theory and method using cellular automata are applied to establish a single stock automata model. In this paper,simulations of trading volume and price fluctuation before and after the introduction of margin financing business are carried out. Simulation results show that the release of new margin financing can increase trading volume and stabalize trading price more easily,and it may help to increase the fluctuation of the trading price. The advices about relieving the impact of short selling system are helpful to financial supervision departments in maintaining market stability.%为研究融资融券推出对股票市场带来的影响以及如何减少融券卖空对市场的冲击,建立基于元胞自动机的股票市场模型,对融资融券推出前后的股票交易量和价格波动进行计算机仿真.仿真结果表明,融资融券的推出既可能增加股票市场的交易量,有利于市场内在价格稳定机制形成,也可能对价格助涨助跌,增大市场的波动.本文还针对融券卖空的潜在风险提出规避建议,这对相关金融部门保障市场稳定运行具有一定借鉴意义.
Automata, universality, computation tribute to Maurice Margenstern
2015-01-01
This book is an intellectually stimulating excursion into mathematical machines and structures capable for a universal computation. World top experts in computer science and mathematics overview exciting and intriguing topics of logical theory of monoids, geometry of Gauss word, philosophy of mathematics in computer science, asynchronous and parallel P-systems, decidability in cellular automata, splicing systems, reversible Turing machines, information flows in two-way finite automata, prime generators in automaton arrays, Grossone and Turing machines, automaton models of atomic lattices. The book is full of visually attractive examples of mathematical machines, open problems and challenges for future research. Those interested in the advancement of a theory of computation, philosophy of mathematics, future and emergent computing paradigms, architectures and implementations will find the book vital for their research and development.
Global Network Model based on Earth Grid and Cellular
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongqi Lu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We aim to understand the current health state of the Earth and find how human activities influence it. Based on the theory of Earth’s Grid and Cellular Automata, we define and test a global network model, analyze the mutual interactions and feedbacks of ecosystem, hydrologic circle and atmosphere. In addition, we consult a lot of data to find a benchmark for the “Earth Health Map”, with the ecosystem distribution on it, which can be helpful for making a strategic decision for policy makers and prediction. Our model can be extended to other similar fields. In the end, we discuss the sensitivity of parameters selection, and the superiorities and weaknesses of our model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zou
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Reconciling competing desires to build urban models that can be simple and complicated is something of a grand challenge for urban simulation. It also prompts difficulties in many urban policy situations, such as urban sprawl, where simple, actionable ideas may need to be considered in the context of the messily complex and complicated urban processes and phenomena that work within cities. In this paper, we present a novel architecture for achieving both simple and complicated realizations of urban sprawl in simulation. Fine-scale simulations of sprawl geography are run using geographic automata to represent the geographical drivers of sprawl in intricate detail and over fine resolutions of space and time. We use Equation-Free computing to deploy population as a coarse observable of sprawl, which can be leveraged to run automata-based models as short-burst experiments within a meta-simulation framework.
Performance Evaluation of Road Traffic Control Using a Fuzzy Cellular Model
Płaczek, Bartłomiej
2011-01-01
In this paper a method is proposed for performance evaluation of road traffic control systems. The method is designed to be implemented in an on-line simulation environment, which enables optimisation of adaptive traffic control strategies. Performance measures are computed using a fuzzy cellular traffic model, formulated as a hybrid system combining cellular automata and fuzzy calculus. Experimental results show that the introduced method allows the performance to be evaluated using imprecise traffic measurements. Moreover, the fuzzy definitions of performance measures are convenient for uncertainty determination in traffic control decisions.
Learning communicating and nondeterministic automata
Kern, Carsten
2009-01-01
The results of this dissertation are two-fold. On the one hand, inductive learning techniques are extended and two new inference algorithms for inferring nondeterministic, and universal, respectively, finite-state automata are presented. On the other hand, certain learning techniques are employed and enhanced to semi-automatically infer communicating automata (also called design models in the software development cycle). For both topics, theoretical results on the feasibility of the approache...
A Proliferation of Air Pollution Simulation System base on Cellular Automata%基于元胞自动机的污染气体扩散模拟系统
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
秦弋丰; 杨雨诚; 谢育武; 李俚; 吴皆强
2015-01-01
元胞自动机模型( Cellular Automation Model, CA模型)是一种用于模拟离散动力系统内部的各独立单元间因为强烈非线性作用而引发的系统自组织演化过程的建模方式,规则的局部性和时空离散化是CA模型的主要特征.本系统基于当今城市最为严重的空气污染问题展开研究,主要通过在地图上确定污染源位置,并录入污染源数据,通过元胞自动机原理,模拟在有风和无风状态下污染气体元胞的运动状况,从微观到宏观,系统地描述污染气体的运动状况.%Cellular Automation Model(CA) is a modeling method used to simulate the internal unit between discrete dynamic system that caused the evolution of a self-organization in system because of nonlinear function. Temporal discretization and local rule is it main feature. We developed this system according to the one of the most serious problems of our city in these days which is air pollution. By pain point the source of pollution on the map and input the pollution data, through the principle of the Cellular automata, stimulated the movement of pollution gas cell under condition of both windy calm. Describe the motion of the pollution gas from micro to macro.
Energy Games in Multiweighted Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fahrenberg, U.; Juhl, L.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;
2011-01-01
Energy games have recently attracted a lot of attention. These are games played on finite weighted automata and concern the existence of infinite runs subject to boundary constraints on the accumulated weight, allowing e.g only for behaviours where a resource is always available (nonnegative...... accumulated weight), yet does not exceed a given maximum capacity. We extend energy games to a multiweighted and parameterized setting, allowing us to model systems with multiple quantitative aspects. We present reductions between Petri nets and multiweighted automata and among different types...... of multiweighted automata and identify new complexity and (un)decidability results for both one- and two-player games. We also investigate the tractability of an extension of multiweighted energy games in the setting of timed automata....
Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.
Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg
2016-01-01
Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a novel design paradigm for circuits designed in quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) technology. Previously reported QCA circuits in the literature have generally been designed in a single layer which is the main logical block in which the inverter and majority gate are on the base layer, except for the parts where multilayer wire crossing was used. In this paper the concept of multilayer wire crossing has been extended to design logic gates in multilayers. Using a 5-input majority gate in a multilayer, a 1-bit and 2-bit adder have been designed in the proposed multilayer gate design paradigm. A comparison has been made with some adders reported previously in the literature and it has been shown that circuits designed in the proposed design paradigm are much more efficient in terms of area, the requirement of QCA cells in the design and the input–output delay of the circuit. Over all, the availability of one additional spatial dimension makes the design process much more flexible and there is scope for the customizability of logic gate designs to make the circuit compact. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Capiluppi
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. The new object, called World Automaton (WA, is built in such a way to preserve as much as possible of the compositional properties of HIOAs and its underlying theory. From the formal point of view we enrich classical HIOAs with a set of world variables whose values are functions both of time and space. World variables are treated similarly to local variables of HIOAs, except in parallel composition, where the perturbations produced by world variables are summed. In such way, we obtain a structure able to model both agents and environments, thus inducing a hierarchy in the model and leading to the introduction of a new operator. Indeed this operator, called inplacement, is needed to represent the possibility of an object (WA of living inside another object/environment (WA.
Modelling Implicit Communication in Multi-Agent Systems with Hybrid Input/Output Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Capiluppi
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. To this end we decided to specialize some variables of the HIOAs whose values are functions both of time and space. We call them world variables. Basically they are treated similarly to the other variables of HIOAs, but they have the function of representing the interaction of each automaton with the surrounding environment, hence they can be output, input or internal variables. Since these special variables have the role of simulating implicit communication, their dynamics are specified both in time and space, because they model the perturbations induced by the agent to the environment, and the perturbations of the environment as perceived by the agent. Parallel composition of world variables is slightly different from parallel composition of the other variables, since their signals are summed. The theory is illustrated through a simple example of agents systems.
Quantum Finite Automata and Probabilistic Reversible Automata: R-trivial Idempotent Languages
Golovkins, Marats; Kravtsev, Maksim; Kravcevs, Vasilijs
2011-01-01
We study the recognition of R-trivial idempotent (R1) languages by various models of "decide-and-halt" quantum finite automata (QFA) and probabilistic reversible automata (DH-PRA). We introduce bistochastic QFA (MM-BQFA), a model which generalizes both Nayak's enhanced QFA and DH-PRA. We apply tools from algebraic automata theory and systems of linear inequalities to give a complete characterization of R1 languages recognized by all these models. We also find that "forbidden constructions" kn...
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Extended Two-dimensional Cellular Automata%基于扩展型二维CA的图像加密算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗小刚; 李轩; 彭承琳; 侯长军; 霍丹群
2009-01-01
根据数字图像的存储特点,提出一种基于扩展型二维元胞自动机的图像加密算法,将二维元胞自动机与图像加密技术结合,利用元胞自动机生成数值范围在0～255区间的二维伪随机数矩阵,截取与图像大小相等的伪随机数矩阵作为密码对图像像素进行加密,解密为加密的逆过程.实验结果表明,该算法能快速产生密码,加密形式简单,具有较好的抗攻击能力,适合对数据量大的数字图像进行加密.%According to the storage characteristics of digital image, an image encryption algorithm based on extended two-dimensional Cellular Automata(CA) is proposed in this paper. It combines the two-dimensional CA with the technology of image encryption, which uses CA to generate a two-dimensional matrix pseudo-random number ranged from 0 to 255 automatically and takes a part of this matrix as the code to enerypt image pixels, and the size of this matrix is the same as the image. The decryption is the converse process of encryption. Experimental results demonstrate this algorithm can generate cryptogram rapidly and has a simple encrypt form as well as a better performance against attacks. It is suitable for encrypting digital images with huge data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jiri
2006-01-01
We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...
Parrondo games as lattice gas automata
Meyer, David A.; Blumer, Heather
2001-01-01
Parrondo games are coin flipping games with the surprising property that alternating plays of two losing games can produce a winning game. We show that this phenomenon can be modelled by probabilistic lattice gas automata. Furthermore, motivated by the recent introduction of quantum coin flipping games, we show that quantum lattice gas automata provide an interesting definition for quantum Parrondo games.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴义虎; 李意芬; 喻伟; 喻丹
2014-01-01
The behavior of the driver was considered as the rule of the driver change of lanes,and the new rule of the changes of lanes with the combination between the driver behavior and the coincidental traffic was put forward,then a improved cellular automa-ton model was put forward,the model was proposed to describe the characteristics of co-incidental traffic j ams.By the proposed model,the velocity of traffic flow and the length of vehicle lines by coincidental traffic j ams was simulated,and the results of the simula-tion was proposed.%以元胞自动机模型为基础，在传统的车辆换道规则上，引入驾驶人行为因素，根据不同区域交通流特点和驾驶行为特点，给出了不同的车辆换道规则，建立了一种适用于城市道路偶发性拥堵交通流行为分析的元胞自动机改进模型。并利用该模型，模拟分析了偶发性拥堵发生时不同车流密度的车辆排队和平均车速情况。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方敏; 牛文科; 张晓松
2012-01-01
基于多吸引子细胞自动机的分类方法多是二分类算法,难以克服过度拟合问题,在生成多吸引子细胞自动机时如何有效地处理多分类及过度拟合问题还缺乏可行的方法.从细胞空间角度对模式空间进行分割是一种均匀分割,难以适应空间非均匀分割的需要.将CART算法同多吸引子细胞自动机相结合构造树型结构的分类器,以解决空间的非均匀分割及过度拟合问题,并基于粒子群优化方法提出树节点的最优多吸引子细胞自动机特征矩阵的构造方法.基于该方法构造的多吸引子细胞自动机分类器能够以较少的伪穷举域比特数获得好的分类性能,减少了分类器中的空盆数量,在保证分类正确率的同时改善了过拟合问题,缩短了分类时间.实验分析证明了所提出方法的可行性和有效性.%The classification methods based on multiple attractor cellular automata can process the classification of two classes, and they are difficult to overcome overfitting problem. There are not yet effective methods for constructing a multiple attractor cellular automata which can process multi-classification and overfitting problem. The pattern space partition in the view of cell space is a kind of uniform partition which is difficult to adapt to the needs of spatial non-uniform partition. By combining the CART algorithm with the multiple attractor cellular automata, a kind of classifier with tree structure is constructed to solve the non-uniform partition problem and overfitting problem. The multiple attractor cellular automata characteristic matrix is defined, and the learning method of classifiers as a node in a tree is studied based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. The multiple attractor cellular automata classifiers built on this approach are able to obtain good classification performance by using less number of bits of pseudo-exhaustive field. The classifier with tree frame of multiple
Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C. A.
2004-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick
2012-01-01
Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...
Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota
Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong
2016-01-01
Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H. B. HUNT; D. J. ROSENKRANTS; ET AL
2001-03-01
We identify several simple but powerful concepts, techniques, and results; and we use them to characterize the complexities of a number of basic problems II, that arise in the analysis and verification of the following models M of communicating automata and discrete dynamical systems: systems of communicating automata including both finite and infinite cellular automata, transition systems, discrete dynamical systems, and succinctly-specified finite automata. These concepts, techniques, and results are centered on the following: (i) reductions Of STATE-REACHABILITY problems, especially for very simple systems of communicating copies of a single simple finite automaton, (ii) reductions of generalized CNF satisfiability problems [Sc78], especially to very simple communicating systems of copies of a few basic acyclic finite sequential machines, and (iii) reductions of the EMPTINESS and EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION problems, for several kinds of regular set descriptors. For systems of communicating automata and transition systems, the problems studied include: all equivalence relations and simulation preorders in the Linear-time/Branching-time hierarchies of equivalence relations and simulation preorders of [vG90, vG93], both without and with the hiding abstraction. For discrete dynamical systems, the problems studied include the INITIAL and BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS (denoted IVPs and BVPS, respectively), for nonlinear difference equations over many different algebraic structures, e.g. all unitary rings, all finite unitary semirings, and all lattices. For succinctly-specified finite automata, the problems studied also include the several problems studied in [AY98], e.g. the EMPTINESS, EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION, EQUIVALENCE and CONTAINMENT problems. The concepts, techniques, and results presented unify and significantly extend many of the known results in the literature, e.g. [Wo86, Gu89, BPT91, GM92, Ra92, HT94, SH+96, AY98, AKY99, RH93, SM73, Hu73, HRS76, HR78], for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunt, H. B. (Harry B.); Rosenkrantz, D. J. (Daniel J.); Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ravi, S. S. (Sekharipuram S.)
2001-01-01
We identify several simple but powerful concepts, techniques, and results; and we use them to characterize the complexities of a number of basic problems II, that arise in the analysis and verification of the following models M of communicating automata and discrete dynamical systems: systems of communicating automata including both finite and infinite cellular automata, transition systems, discrete dynamical systems, and succinctly-specified finite automata. These concepts, techniques, and results are centered on the following: (1) reductions Of STATE-REACHABILITY problems, especially for very simple systems of communicating copies of a single simple finite automaton, (2) reductions of generalized CNF satisfiability problems [Sc78], especially to very simple communicating systems of copies of a few basic acyclic finite sequential machines, and (3) reductions of the EMPTINESS and EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION problems, for several kinds of regular set descriptors. For systems of communicating automata and transition systems, the problems studied include: all equivalence relations and simulation preorders in the Linear-time/Branching-time hierarchies of equivalence relations and simulation preorders of [vG90, vG93], both without and with the hiding abstraction. For discrete dynamical systems, the problems studied include the INITIAL and BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS (denoted IVPs and BVPs, respectively), for nonlinear difference equations over many different algebraic structures, e.g. all unitary rings, all finite unitary semirings, and all lattices. For succinctly specified finite automata, the problems studied also include the several problems studied in [AY98], e.g. the EMPTINESS, EMPTINESS-OF-INTERSECTION, EQUIVALENCE and CONTAINMENT problems. The concepts, techniques, and results presented unify and significantly extend many of the known results in the literature, e.g. [Wo86, Gu89, BPT91, GM92, Ra92, HT94, SH+96, AY98, AKY99, RH93, SM73, Hu73, HRS76, HR78], for
Degeling, K.; Koffijberg, H.; Schivo, S.; Langerak, R.; IJzerman, M.J.
2015-01-01
Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the usefulness of two promising alternative modeling techniques, Timed Automata (TA) originating from informatics, and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) known in operations research, for modeling todays complex and personalized treatment decisions over ti
Modeling dynamics of HIV infected cells using stochastic cellular automaton
Precharattana, Monamorn; Triampo, Wannapong
2014-08-01
Ever since HIV was first diagnosed in human, a great number of scientific works have been undertaken to explore the biological mechanisms involved in the infection and progression of the disease. Several cellular automata (CA) models have been introduced to gain insights into the dynamics of the disease progression but none of them has taken into account effects of certain immune cells such as the dendritic cells (DCs) and the CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8+ T cells). In this work, we present a CA model, which incorporates effects of the HIV specific immune response focusing on the cell-mediated immunities, and investigate the interaction between the host immune response and the HIV infected cells in the lymph nodes. The aim of our work is to propose a model more realistic than the one in Precharattana et al. (2010) [10], by incorporating roles of the DCs, the CD4+ T cells, and the CD8+ T cells into the model so that it would reproduce the HIV infection dynamics during the primary phase of HIV infection.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘天卓; 孙伟然; 杨靖
2011-01-01
在企业所面临的不同类型的危机中，产品质量危机所占的比重最大。本文从群体行为的角度研究企业产品质量危机的形成机理，利用元胞自动机的定性模拟理论和方法，建立消费者对产品的购买行为的演化模型，通过基于不同的从众系数和演化规则的演化，揭示群体从众行为与企业危机公关与企业产品质量危机的形成之间的关系，并在此基础上提出了基于消费者信任修复理论的管理思路，对现代企业的危机管理有一定的借鉴与指导意义。%In modem society, exigencies happen frequently, and if not handled properly in the incident, the influence that does not digest and relieve the crisis will result in formation. In the different types of crisis the corporation faced, the most proportion is product quality crisis. We research the formation mechanism of enterprise manufacture crisis from the point of group behaviour, utilize the theory and method of qualitative simulation of cellular automata, build the buying behaviour evolution model of customers, by the evolution based different conformity ratio and evolution rule, reveal the relationship between the group behaviour and business crisis public relation and enterprise production crisis, and based on that we propose management thread based on the consumer confidence restore model, which can guide the crisis management for companies.
量子元胞自动机器件和电路的研究进展%Research Progress of Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Devices and Circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨晓阔; 蔡理; 李政操; 陈祥叶
2011-01-01
Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel nanotechnology, the information of QCA is calculated and transferred not by the voltage or current, but by the field interaction. The computation principles, basic logic gates and clockings of two kinds of QCA (EQCA and MQCA) devices are introduced firstly. It shows that different wire structures comprised of QCA cells could realize planar crossover and transmit signals in a single layer independently. Furthermore, the experiment methods and materials to fabricate QCA devices and function arrays or circuits are summarized, and the conclusion is obtained that the development of MQCA and molecular EQCA devices would bring QCA up to the actual application level gradually. The research progresses and existent issues of QCA devices and circuits (particularly memory cell architecture) are discussed in detail. The open projects and directions in theory and application research of QCA are presented.%量子元胞自动机(QCA)是一种新颖的纳米技术,该技术不再通过电流或电压而是基于场相互作用进行信息的计算和传递.首先,综述了两种量子元胞自动机(EQCA和MQCA)器件的计算原理、基本逻辑门和时钟.指出了QCA元胞构成的不同线结构可在相同层交叉传递信号而不受影响.然后,进一步总结了制备QCA器件和功能阵列或电路的实验方法和材料,得出MQCA器件和分子EQCA器件的发展将使该器件逐步达到实际应用水平的结论.详细讨论了目前QCA器件和电路(尤其是存储单元结构)研究取得的重要进展以及面临的问题.提出了QCA器件未来理论和应用研究中的开放课题和方向.
Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.
Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing
2009-11-01
Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.
Towards Cancer Hybrid Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loes Olde Loohuis
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces Cancer Hybrid Automata (CHAs, a formalism to model the progression of cancers through discrete phenotypes. The classification of cancer progression using discrete states like stages and hallmarks has become common in the biology literature, but primarily as an organizing principle, and not as an executable formalism. The precise computational model developed here aims to exploit this untapped potential, namely, through automatic verification of progression models (e.g., consistency, causal connections, etc., classification of unreachable or unstable states and computer-generated (individualized or universal therapy plans. The paper builds on a phenomenological approach, and as such does not need to assume a model for the biochemistry of the underlying natural progression. Rather, it abstractly models transition timings between states as well as the effects of drugs and clinical tests, and thus allows formalization of temporal statements about the progression as well as notions of timed therapies. The model proposed here is ultimately based on hybrid automata, and we show how existing controller synthesis algorithms can be generalized to CHA models, so that therapies can be generated automatically. Throughout this paper we use cancer hallmarks to represent the discrete states through which cancer progresses, but other notions of discretely or continuously varying state formalisms could also be used to derive similar therapies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mindaugas Snipas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.
Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri
2007-01-01
of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...
Automata Networks Model of Memory Loss Effects on the Formation of Linguistic Conventions
Vera, Javier
2015-01-01
This paper proposes an Automata Networks approach to address the influence of memory loss on the formation of shared conventions. We focus our analysis on a numerical description of the dynamics over one and two dimensional periodic lattices, through an energy function that measures the local agreement between the individuals. For the two dimensional case, it exhibits a sharp transition on the relation between the energy and the parameter defined to measure the amount of memory loss. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications for the formation of language.
Cellular automaton for chimera states
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-01-01
A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...
Probabilistic weighted automata
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.
2009-01-01
Nondeterministic weighted automata are finite automata with numerical weights on transitions. They define quantitative languages $L$ that assign to each word $w$ a real number $L(w)$. The value of an infinite word $w$ is computed as the maximal value of all runs over $w$, and the value of a run as the maximum, limsup, liminf, limit average, or discounted sum of the transition weights. We introduce probabilistic weighted automata, in which the transitions are chosen in a randomized (rather ...
Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould
Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.
2015-04-01
In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned
Combinatorics of Boolean automata circuits dynamics
Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain
2012-01-01
International audience In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks to model regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying structures are oriented cycles, that is, Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain them. Our work fo...
基于土壤侵蚀的元胞自动机转换规则框架%The Transition Rule Frame for Cellular Automata based on Soil Erosion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵京
2014-01-01
The erosion process of the Loess Plateau can be regarded as the computation of a huge comles system, cellular automaton is a theoretical model which couldreact the comlexphenomenonverywel due to the charataristc of itsnonlinearness than the other traditional model in the are a of soilerosion forecast.Inthispaper,we use the theory of cel ularautomata to disscuss the process of soilerosionon the micro-scale,we for cuson the dynamicbalance of water and soil in each cel to built a transition rule frame of erosion cel ular automata, single flow direction algorithm cal ed D8(Deterministic eight-node) appoint the outflow direction and use the multi-agent proguammable modeling environment cal ed NelLogo to simulate the transition rule, the com-putaionofthecel ularautomatonshowsgoodresult.%黄土高原的土壤侵蚀过程可以被看做是一种地形演变的复杂系统。元胞自动机是一种能够很好的体现这样复杂现象的理论模型，因其非线性的特点使得其在土壤侵蚀的预测方面相比其他模型能够有一定的优势。本文利用元胞自动机的思想对于在降雨条件下的土壤侵蚀过程进行探究。利用每个单位元胞内的水量平衡和泥沙平衡构建元胞之间各参数的转换规则，利用D8流向算法计算水流方向。综合得出一种基于水量平衡与泥沙平衡的土壤侵蚀元胞自动机转换规则框架，并利用netlogo建模环境来实现模型，得出了较好的模拟结果。
Priced Timed Automata: Theory and Tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2009-01-01
Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems.......Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永; 王晓明; 党建武
2012-01-01
交通运输能源消耗已经成为决策管理者高度关注的信息.采用元胞自动机(CA)理论研究了快速公交系统能耗问题,以元胞自动机NaSch交通流模型为基础,通过结合动能定理,建立了快速公交系统的元胞自动机能耗动力学仿真模型.并以目前建设的兰州市快速公交系统为例,仿真研究了周期性边界条件下,不同行车密度、不同停靠站时间以及驾驶员行为差异下随机慢化对快速公交车系统能耗的影响,得到了相应的定量分析结论.仿真结果表明,快速公交车辆停靠站时间越长,拥堵的范围越大,路面交通流能耗损失越小,对应的流量、速度也越小,系统越早进入堵塞相.%Transportation energy consumption has aroused high attention of the decision-makers. In this case, an energy consumption of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Cellular Automata (CA) model was designed, which was based on NaSch traffic model and Kinetic energy theorem. Taking Lanzhou city bus rapid transit traffic system as an example, the effects of BRT vehicle random slowness in the different traffic density, different road condition and drivers' behavior under periodic boundary conditions was studied. And corresponding quantitative analysis conclusion was get. The simulation results show that the rapid transit vehicle stops longer, the greater the range of congestion and the smaller the energy loss of the road traffic flow. Besides, the corresponding flow rate is also smaller, thus the system is plugged into congestion phase earlier.
Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2004-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of
Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2008-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈晨; 陈建桥
2011-01-01
According to the theory of cellular automata ( CA), the urban traffic flows at 4 intersections were investigated and a set of discrete equations were proposed to describe the traffic dynamics. The effect of two signal control strategies, i.e., synchronous timing control and actuated control, on traffic flow were discussed. Simulation results show that ( 1 ) the effect of signal control strategies is related to the density of traffic flow; (2) and there exists a certain range of actuated control parameters in which the efficiency of traffic flow can be optimized. Therefore, in order to ensure the efficiency of traffic flow, one the proper signal control strategy should be chosen for different global densities of traffic flow.%采用细胞自动机方法(Cellular Automata:CA)模拟含4个路口的城市道路交通流状态,并通过离散方程描述车辆的运动过程.研究了信号灯控制策略(同步定时控制及感应控制)对交通流状态的影响.数值模拟结果表明,信号灯对交通流的影响与道路中车辆密度有关,同时,感应控制参数的选取存在一合理的取值范围,可优化交通流通行效率.因此,为保证交通流的通行效率,应针对不同的车辆密度,选取适当的信号灯控制方式.
Deterministic recognizability of picture languages with Wang automata
V. Lonati; M. Pradella
2010-01-01
special issue dedicated to the second edition of the conference AutoMathA: from Mathematics to Applications International audience We present a model of automaton for picture language recognition, called Wang automaton, which is based on labeled Wang tiles. Wang automata combine features of both online tessellation acceptors and 4-way automata: as in online tessellation acceptors, computation assigns states to each picture position; as in 4-way automata, the input head visits the pictur...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
寇勇刚; 吴桐水; 柳青
2011-01-01
为研究民航运输产业的竞争演化,考虑航空公司的资源竞争力、职能竞争力、核心竞争力及动态核心能力四层次竞争力等因素,建立了元胞自动机模型.以中美两国民航运输产业的竞争演化为例,对主导元胞(航空公司)和支持元胞(机场)的协同发展及其盈利状况进行了模拟研究.研究结果表明,美国民航业放松航空管制后因航空公司动态核心能力不强,行业整体盈利状况不佳；我国民航业半放松管制后,盈利状况也不容乐观.然而,提高航空公司的动态核心能力既可以避免美国民航业发展中经营惨淡的局面,同时又能促进我国民航业的快速发展.%In order to research the competition evolution of the aviation industry, built the cellular automata model with consideration of resource, function, core competence and dynamic core competence of airlines four competition factors. Took competition evolution of the civil aviation industry in China and USA for examples, simulated the coordinated development and profit status of the major cells (airlines) and supportive cells (airports). The result indicates the industry profit status of USA are not good after the deregulation because airlines do not have enough dynamic core competence, the industry profit status of China also are not good after the half-deregulation. However, improving the dynamic core competence of airlines could prevent the civil aviation industry from the loss of USA development example, meanwhile, could promote rapidly development of our country's civil aviation industry, too.
Deterministic Timed AFA: A New Class of Timed Alternating Finite Automata
Abdelaziz Fellah; Zachary Friggstad; Soufiane Noureddine
2007-01-01
Timed Alternating Finite Automata (TAFA), a natural generalization of Timed Finite Automata (TFA), are synchronous and powerful models for real-time computations. They become an effective and expressive model for developing embedded systems with real-time constraint computations which are required in many applications. We introduce Deterministic Timed Alternating Finite Automata (DTAFA), a new class of timed alternating finite automata, extended with a finite set of restricted and mutually ex...
A cellular automaton model adapted to sandboxes to simulate the transport of solutes
Lora, Boris; Donado, Leonardo; Castro, Eduardo; Bayuelo, Alfredo
2016-04-01
The increasingly use of groundwater sources for human consumption and the growth of the levels of these hydric sources contamination make imperative to reach a deeper understanding how the contaminants are transported by the water, in particular through a heterogeneous porous medium. Accordingly, the present research aims to design a model, which simulates the transport of solutes through a heterogeneous porous medium, using cellular automata. Cellular automata (CA) are a class of spatially (pixels) and temporally discrete mathematical systems characterized by local interaction (neighborhoods). The pixel size and the CA neighborhood were determined in order to reproduce accurately the solute behavior (Ilachinski, 2001). For the design and corresponding validation of the CA model were developed different conservative tracer tests using a sandbox packed heterogeneously with a coarse sand (size # 20 grain diameter 0,85 to 0,6 mm) and clay. We use Uranine and a saline solution with NaCl as a tracer which were measured taking snapshots each 20 seconds. A calibration curve (pixel intensity Vs Concentration) was used to obtain concentration maps. The sandbox was constructed of acrylic (caliber 0,8 cms) with 70 x 45 x 4 cms of dimensions. The "sandbox" had a grid of 35 transversal holes with a diameter of 4 mm each and an uniform separation from one to another of 10 cms. To validate the CA-model it was used a metric consisting in rating the number of correctly predicted pixels over the total per image throughout the entire test run. The CA-model shows that calibrations of pixels and neighborhoods allow reaching results over the 60 % of correctly predictions usually. This makes possible to think that the application of the CA- model could be useful in further researches regarding the transport of contaminants in hydrogeology.
Membrane Automata with Priorities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová
2004-01-01
In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.
Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models.
STORDAL, BRITTA KRISTINA
2007-01-01
PUBLISHED Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 ?g/ml. Cisplatin resistance i...
Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models
Stordal, Britta; Davey, Mary
2007-01-01
Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 microg/ml. Cisplatin resistance in these cells correlated...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik
from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees......A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...
Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
We present a form of automaton, referred to as data automata, suited for monitoring sequences of data-carrying events, for example emitted by an executing software system. This form of automata allows states to be parameterized with data, forming named records, which are stored in an efficiently indexed data structure, a form of database. This very explicit approach differs from other automaton-based monitoring approaches. Data automata are also characterized by allowing transition conditions to refer to other parameterized states, and by allowing transitions sequences. The presented automaton concept is inspired by rule-based systems, especially the Rete algorithm, which is one of the well-established algorithms for executing rule-based systems. We present an optimized external DSL for data automata, as well as a comparable unoptimized internal DSL (API) in the Scala programming language, in order to compare the two solutions. An evaluation compares these two solutions to several other monitoring systems.
Algebraic and structural automata theory
Mikolajczak, B
1991-01-01
Automata Theory is part of computability theory which covers problems in computer systems, software, activity of nervous systems (neural networks), and processes of live organisms development.The result of over ten years of research, this book presents work in the following areas of Automata Theory: automata morphisms, time-varying automata, automata realizations and relationships between automata and semigroups.Aimed at those working in discrete mathematics and computer science, parts of the book are suitable for use in graduate courses in computer science, electronics, telecommunications, and control engineering. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the basic concepts of algebra and graph theory.
Katja, Verbeeck; Ann, Nowe; Peter, Vrancx; Maarten, Peeters
2008-01-01
In this chapter we have demonstrated that Learning Automata are interesting building blocks for multi-agent Reinforcement learning algorithms. LA can be viewed as policy iterators, that update their action probabilities based on private information only. Even in multi-automaton settings, each LA is updated using only the environment response, and not on the basis of any knowledge regarding the other automata, i.e. nor their strategies, nor their feedback. As such LA based agent algorithms are...
Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada
2016-08-01
Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.
Using Learning Automata in Coordination Among Heterogeneous Agents in a Complex Multi-Agent Domain
Mohammadreza Khojasteh; Aida Kazimi
2012-01-01
This paper describes our use of Learning Automata as a reinforcement learning method in coordination among three heterogeneous teams of agents acting in RoboCup Rescue Simulation environment. We provide a brief introduction to Learning Automata and Cellular Learning Automata, the reinforcement machine learning methods that we have used in lots of parts of our agents’ development. Then we will describe the major challenges each team of agents should be concerned about in such a complex domain ...
Animal and cellular models of human disease
Arends, Mark; White, Eric; Whitelaw, Christopher
2016-01-01
In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases.
A Modified Sensitive Driving Cellular Automaton Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GE Hong-Xia; DAI Shi-Qiang; DONG Li-Yun; LEI Li
2005-01-01
A modified cellular automaton model for traffic flow on highway is proposed with a novel concept about the variable security gap. The concept is first introduced into the original Nagel-Schreckenberg model, which is called the non-sensitive driving cellular automaton model. And then it is incorporated with a sensitive driving NaSch model,in which the randomization brake is arranged before the deterministic deceleration. A parameter related to the variable security gap is determined through simulation. Comparison of the simulation results indicates that the variable security gap has different influence on the two models. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation with the modified sensitive driving NaSch model shows that the maximumflow are in good agreement with the observed data, indicating that the presented model is more reasonable and realistic.
Theory of automata, formal languages and computation
Xavier, SPE
2004-01-01
This book is aimed at providing an introduction to the basic models of computability to the undergraduate students. This book is devoted to Finite Automata and their properties. Pushdown Automata provides a class of models and enables the analysis of context-free languages. Turing Machines have been introduced and the book discusses computability and decidability. A number of problems with solutions have been provided for each chapter. A lot of exercises have been given with hints/answers to most of these tutorial problems.
Research on cellular automata of traffic flow based on granular computing%基于粒计算的元胞自动机交通流的研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江顺亮; 黄小慧; 杨力; 徐少平
2009-01-01
Granular computing technology is introduced into the cellular automata traffic flow study. Based on the three-layer construction of cells, granules and traffic network, the traditional traffic flow systems may be improved. For the new traffic flow simulation system, the idea of granules and granular computing is reflected in the concept of motorcade, and the status of all cars will be updated in the hierarchal order of road sections, motorcades and vehicles during a time step.%将粒计算技术引入到元胞自动机的交通流研究中,从而为进一步提出基于元胞、粒和交通网络三层结构的交通流系统奠定基础,继而改进传统交通流模拟系统的架构.在此交通流模拟系统中,粒及粒计算的思想反映为系统设计中的车队概念,而在某一时间步进内,交通网络中所有车辆的更新将按照路段、车队、车辆的层级顺序进行.
Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Marques-Pita
Full Text Available We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level, which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level. This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks, identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought, the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.
On Probabilistic Automata in Continuous Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eisentraut, Christian; Hermanns, Holger; Zhang, Lijun
2010-01-01
We develop a compositional behavioural model that integrates a variation of probabilistic automata into a conservative extension of interactive Markov chains. The model is rich enough to embody the semantics of generalised stochastic Petri nets. We define strong and weak bisimulations and discuss...
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Margaria, Tiziana (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Steffen, Bernard (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, automata learning algorithms and techniques are implemented to generate a more complete set of scenarios for requirements based programming. More specifically, a CSP-based, syntax-oriented model construction, which requires the support of a theorem prover, is complemented by model extrapolation, via automata learning. This may support the systematic completion of the requirements, the nature of the requirement being partial, which provides focus on the most prominent scenarios. This may generalize requirement skeletons by extrapolation and may indicate by way of automatically generated traces where the requirement specification is too loose and additional information is required.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马世发; 艾彬; 赵克飞
2014-01-01
Geography simulation model such as Cellular Automata (CA) is one of the most important tools for simulating and early warning the urban growth. The CA model can simulate urban sprawling accurately only when suitable conversion rules for every cell are achieved. Hence, the core of CA is to derive the conversion rules, and many researchers have been interested in discovering the rules. However, the conversion rules of tradi-tional CA are mainly derived from historic samples, in which both changed samples and unchanged ones are con-sidered for function fitting to retrieve parameters simultaneously. In this approach, it is assumed that if the urban sprawling occurred, samples were labeled as 1; otherwise, samples were accordingly labeled as 0. However, it will result in over fitting for the unchanged samples, because those samples with labels of 0 may have the potenti-ality to transform in future, especially for those located at the rural-urban fringe. Therefore, we proposed a gradi-ent CA for simulating urban sprawling. In this model, whether or not urban growth would occur was determined by the developing probability instead of its developed or undeveloped status. Accordingly, the unchanged sam-ples were set to the values ranging from 0 to 1. And in this research, the developing potentiality was estimated ac-cording to present planning maps. Compared with traditional CA, the gradient CA could avoid the over fitting problem for the unchanged samples to a certain degree. Moreover, the fitting objective was distinguished from traditional CA for its ability in retrieving conversion rules. In addition, particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to obtain the parameters of spatial indices. Finally, Guangzhou City, which locates in the Pearl River Delta of China, was chosen as the study area for model implementation and validation. In this case study, the spa-tial developing potentiality was allocated referring to the major function zone (MFZ) planning, because MFZ is
Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
The field of runtime verification has during the last decade seen a multitude of systems for monitoring event sequences (traces) emitted by a running system. The objective is to ensure correctness of a system by checking its execution traces against formal specifications representing requirements. A special challenge is data parameterized events, where monitors have to keep track of the combination of control states as well as data constraints, relating events and the data they carry across time points. This poses a challenge wrt. efficiency of monitors, as well as expressiveness of logics. Data automata is a form of automata where states are parameterized with data, supporting monitoring of data parameterized events. We describe the full details of a very simple API in the Scala programming language, an internal DSL (Domain-Specific Language), implementing data automata. The small implementation suggests a design pattern. Data automata allow transition conditions to refer to other states than the source state, and allow target states of transitions to be inlined, offering a temporal logic flavored notation. An embedding of a logic in a high-level language like Scala in addition allows monitors to be programmed using all of Scala's language constructs, offering the full flexibility of a programming language. The framework is demonstrated on an XML processing scenario previously addressed in related work.
Cellular automaton for chimera states
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-04-01
A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.
Towards a theory of modelling with Boolean automata networks - I. Theorisation and observations
Noual, Mathilde
2011-01-01
Although models are built on the basis of some observations of reality, the concepts that derive theoretically from their definitions as well as from their characteristics and properties are not necessarily direct consequences of these initial observations. Indeed, many of them rather follow from chains of theoretical inferences that are only based on the precise model definitions and rely strongly, in addition, on some consequential working hypotheses. Thus, it is important to address the question of which features of a model effectively carry some modelling meaning and which only result from the task of formalising observations of reality into a mathematical language. In this article, we address this question with a theoretical point view that sets our discussion strictly between the two stages of the modelling process that require knowledge of real systems, that is, between the initial stage that chooses a global theoretical framework to build the model and the final stage that exploits its formal predicti...
A Mathematical Model for Cisplatin Cellular Pharmacodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ardith W. El-Kareh
2003-03-01
Full Text Available A simple theoretical model for the cellular pharmacodynamics of cisplatin is presented. The model, which takes into account the kinetics of cisplatin uptake by cells and the intracellular binding of the drug, can be used to predict the dependence of survival (relative to controls on the time course of extracellular exposure. Cellular pharmacokinetic parameters are derived from uptake data for human ovarian and head and neck cancer cell lines. Survival relative to controls is assumed to depend on the peak concentration of DNA-bound intracellular platinum. Model predictions agree well with published data on cisplatin cytotoxicity for three different cancer cell lines, over a wide range of exposure times. In comparison with previously published mathematical models for anticancer drug pharmacodynamics, the present model provides a better fit to experimental data sets including long exposure times (∼100 hours. The model provides a possible explanation for the fact that cell kill correlates well with area under the extracellular concentration-time curve in some data sets, but not in others. The model may be useful for optimizing delivery schedules and for the dosing of cisplatin for cancer therapy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李政操; 蔡理; 黄宏图
2012-01-01
介绍了一种量子元胞自动机(QCA)可编程逻辑阵列结构,该结构可用于实现量子元胞自动机大规模可编程逻辑电路,采用QCADesigner仿真软件研究了元胞缺失、移位缺陷和未对准缺陷对可编程逻辑阵列单元逻辑功能的影响.得出了特定结构下,每个元胞移位缺陷和未对准缺陷的最大错位距离,以及导线模式中存在特定位置的8个可缺失元胞.这为缺陷单元的应用提供了一个具体的参数标准,提高了PLA阵列的单元利用率.%A programmable logic array (PLA) structure that can be used in the large scale integrated circuit using quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) was introduced. The effects of the cell omission , cell misalignment and cell displacement on the PLA were researched by QCADesigner. And the maximum fault-tolerant ranges of displacement and misalignment for each cell were obtained for a certain structure. Besides that, the 8-cell omission defect in the wire mode was also achieved. The research provides a concrete parameter criterion for applying defect units normally, and advances the utilizing rate of the cell.
城市交通拥堵的经济学分析和元胞自动机模拟%Economic Analysis of Urban Traffic Congestion and Cellular Automata Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李捷; 朱明皓
2011-01-01
分析了城市道路系统的公共性和外部性.使用均衡分析的方法对城市交通拥堵进行了经济学分析,认为当城市道路的使用者超过一定数量时,道路交通的外部性凸显出来,由于这种外部性,道路交通系统总数处于过度使用的状态.最后使用元胞自动机对城市交通拥堵现象进行了模拟,发现为了改善城市交通堵塞,虽然需要增加交通供给,但是更为重要的是如何优化车流使得现有的交通供给得到充分的利用.%This paper discusses the economic characteristics of urban road traffic system, analyzes the public and external nature of the urban road system. Using the method of equilibrium analysis, the paper gives an economic analysis of urban traffic congestion and finds that the urban road traffic system shows externality when the number of road users reach a certain threshold. Because of this externality, the urban road traffic system is constantly in the state of excessive use. Finally, the article uses cellular automata to simulate the urban traffic congestion phenomenon and finds that, to improve urban traffic congestion, necessary as it is to increase the supply of urban road traffic system, what is more important is to figure out how to optimize traffic flow to make existing supply fully utilized.
Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone
Vukotic, Branislav
2010-01-01
We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆秋琴; 杨少敏; 黄光球
2012-01-01
为了求得非线性方程组所有精确解,根据元胞自动机的特点构造了求解非线性方程组的全局收敛算法.在该算法中,将非线性方程组解的理论搜索空间划分为离散搜索空间,将离散搜索空间定义为元胞空间;离散搜索空间的每个点就是一个元胞,而一个元胞对应着非线性方程组的一个试探解;元胞的状态由其空间位置及位置修正量构成.将元胞空间划分为若干个非空子集,所有元胞的状态从一个非空子集转移到另一个非空子集的状态演化过程实现了元胞空间对理论搜索空间的搜索.在元胞状态演化过程中,元胞从一个状态转移到另一个状态的状态转移概率可以计算出来;元胞演化过程中的每个状态对应于有限Markov链上的一个状态.利用可归约随机矩阵的稳定性条件证明了该算法具有全局收敛性.仿真实例表明该算法是高效的.%To get all the accurate solutions to Nonlinear Systems of Equations (NSE), the algorithm with global convergence was constructed for solving NSE based on the characteristics of Cellular Automata (CA). In the algorithm, the theoretical search space of NSE was divided into the discrete space, the discrete space was defined as the cellular space; each point in the discrete space was a cell in the cellular space, and each cell was a trial solution of NSE; a cellular state consisted of position and increment of position. The cellular space was divided into many nonempty subsets, and states evolution of all cells from one nonempty subset to another realized the search of the cellular space on the theoretical search space. During evolution process of all cells, each cell's transition probability from one position to any another position could be simply calculated; each state of cells during evolution corresponded to a state of a finite Markov chain. The stability condition of a reducible stochastic matrix was used to prove the global convergence
On the number of attractors of Boolean automata circuits
Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain
2009-01-01
In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks often seen as models of regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying interaction graphs are circuits, that is Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain them. Our work focuses on th...
Achieving of Fuzzy Automata for Processing Fuzzy Logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Lan; WU Qing-e
2005-01-01
At present, there has been an increasing interest in neuron-fuzzy systems, the combinations of artificial neural networks with fuzzy logic. In this paper, a definition of fuzzy finite state automata (FFA) is introduced and fuzzy knowledge equivalence representations between neural networks, fuzzy systems and models of automata are discussed. Once the network has been trained, we develop a method to extract a representation of the FFA encoded in the recurrent neural network that recognizes the training rules.
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
Event-Clock Automata: From Theory to Practice
Geeraerts, Gilles; Sznajder, Nathalie
2011-01-01
Event clock automata (ECA) are a model for timed languages that has been introduced by Alur, Fix and Henzinger as an alternative to timed automata, with better theoretical properties (for instance, ECA are determinizable while timed automata are not). In this paper, we revisit and extend the theory of ECA. We first prove that no finite time abstract language equivalence exists for ECA, thereby disproving a claim in the original work on ECA. This means in particular that regions do not form a time abstract bisimulation. Nevertheless, we show that regions can still be used to build a finite automaton recognizing the untimed language of an ECA. Then, we extend the classical notions of zones and DBMs to let them handle event clocks instead of plain clocks (as in timed automata) by introducing event zones and Event DBMs (EDBMs). We discuss algorithms to handle event zones represented as EDBMs, as well as (semi-) algorithms based on EDBMs to decide language emptiness of ECA.
Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Arai
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.
Modelling Morphogenesis: From Single Cells to Crawling Slugs
Savill, N.J.; Hogeweg, P.
2002-01-01
We present a three-dimensional hybrid cellular automata (CA)/partial differential equation (PDE) model that allows for the study of morphogenesis in simple cellular systems. We apply the model to the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum "from single cells to crawling slug". Using simple loca
Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Highfield, Linda D
2009-09-01
We investigated how the size and distribution of wild deer and feral pigs - species that might act as potential foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus maintenance hosts - might affect the persistence and spread of FMD. We used a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model and spatially referenced data from southern Texas, USA. Within this study area, 100 locations were randomly selected and FMD virus spread was simulated (50 simulations each) at each location. As expected, the predicted sizes (km(2)) of the wild deer outbreaks were highly correlated (r(SP)>0.95) with the number of deer at incursion locations, the total number of deer within 2 km of incursion locations, and the minimum and maximum deer herd size within 2 km of incursion locations. However, the predicted sizes of the feral pig outbreaks were only moderately correlated (r(SP) 0.63-0.67) with the total, maximum and variance of the number of feral pigs within 2 km of incursion locations. Lack of continuity within the feral pig herd distribution across the landscape makes predicting disease spread more difficult than for deer, a more homogenously distributed species. When assessing the potential of wild and feral animal species at a locality to act as maintenance hosts of FMD virus, estimates of the population size and distribution might serve as a useful indicator of potential outbreaks in some circumstances.
Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ∼ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape – magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size – automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭川
2012-01-01
为了有效改进细胞自动机加密系统的实现复杂度和加解密效率,提出了一种二阶可逆耦合触发细胞自动机的图像加密方法.通过对简单的可逆细胞自动机进行扩展,构造二阶可逆细胞自动机,并以耦合触发规则对明文图像实行分块加密.二阶可逆细胞自动机的转移状态由其当前状态以及前一状态决定,有效增大了邻域范围,并且因为采用耦合触发规则,因此能明显增大加密系统的密钥空间,保证了系统的计算安全性.与一般触发自动机反向迭代的串行加密方式相比,该方法对于每个细胞的加密具有本质并行性,因此具有极高的加解密效率.通过实验验证其性能,结果表明与其它算法相比,该算法具有较大的密钥空间,能够有效抵抗蛮力攻击和差分分析攻击,且较小的邻域半径即可得到良好的加密效果,因此非常便于硬件实现.%To effectively improve the implement complexity and execution efficiency, an algorithm for image encryption is proposed which is based on two-order reversible couple toggle cellular automata (CA). By ways that extending the structure of simple reversible CA (RCA) and adopting couple toggle rules, the algorithm ciphers image which is divided into blocks previously. The CA's state is determined by previous state and next state, so it has larger key space and this can make system safe enough. Compared with general toggle CA (TCA) methods, the algorithm has much better efficiency because each cell is updated parallel Experiments and analysis indicate that this method has an enough large key space, high cipher and decipher speed and good scrambling effect. And the cryptosystem can resist brute attack and differential attack effectively.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆秋琴; 牛倩倩; 黄光球
2013-01-01
To solve large-scale optimization problems (OP) ,the algorithm with global convergence was constructed for solving OP based on the characteristics of memory principles(MP) and cellular automata(CA). In the algorithm, the theoretical search space of OP is divided into the discrete space,and the discrete space is defined as celullar space where each cell is an alternative solution of OP; the memorizing and forgeting rules of MP are used to control transition of states of each cell;a cellular state consists of position,increment of position and residual memory which is divided into three kinds of memory state such as instantaneous, short and long-term memory, each of which is strengthed or weakened by accepted stimulus strength, A cell is forgotted and then discarded when its residual memory is lower than a threshould. During evoluation process,a cell's transferring from one state to another realizes the search of cellular space on the theoretical search space. The stability condition of a reducible stochastic matrix was applied to prove the global convergence of the algorithm. The case study shows that the algorithm is efficient.%为了求解大规模优化问题,根据记忆原理与元胞自动机的特点构造了求解优化问题的全局收敛算法.在该算法中,将优化问题的理论搜索空间划分为离散搜索空间,该空间定义为元胞空间,其中的每个元胞对应着一个候选解.将记忆原理的记忆、遗忘规律用于控制每个元胞的状态转移；元胞的状态由其空间位置、位置修正量以及记忆残留值构成,该值分为瞬时记忆、短时记忆和长时记忆3种状态类型,并依据元胞接受刺激的强度被加强或衰减；记忆残留值低于某个阈值的元胞时被遗忘,不再被处理.在元胞演化过程中,元胞从一个状态转移到另一个状态实现了元胞空间对理论搜索空间的搜索.应用可归约随机矩阵的稳定性条件证明了本算法具有全局收敛性.
Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms
Analytical Modeling of Uplink Cellular Networks
Novlan, Thomas D; Andrews, Jeffrey G
2012-01-01
Cellular uplink analysis has typically been undertaken by either a simple approach that lumps all interference into a single deterministic or random parameter in a Wyner-type model, or via complex system level simulations that often do not provide insight into why various trends are observed. This paper proposes a novel middle way that is both accurate and also results in easy-to-evaluate integral expressions based on the Laplace transform of the interference. We assume mobiles and base stations are randomly placed in the network with each mobile pairing up to its closest base station. The model requires two important changes compared to related recent work on the downlink. First, dependence is introduced between the user and base station point processes to make sure each base station serves a single mobile in the given resource block. Second, per-mobile power control is included, which further couples the locations of the mobiles and their receiving base stations. Nevertheless, we succeed in deriving the cov...
Lateral Drift Behavior Analysis in Mixed Bicycle Traffic: A Cellular Automaton Model Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue Feng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Bicycle movements are always associated with lateral drifts. However, the impacts of lateral drift behavior, as well as variable lateral clearance maintaining behavior due to the variation of drift intensity, on mixed bicycle flow are not clear. This paper establishes a new cellular automata model to study typical characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic induced by lateral drift and its accompanying behavior. Based on derived positive correlation between passing speed and drift speed through survey, the occurrence probability of lateral drift and the degree of maintained lateral clearance are both introduced in accordance with the variance of passing speed. Then, in whole density region, firm conformity between simulation results and actual survey data is reached, which has seldom been achieved in previous studies. It is further verified that speed distortions in intermediate and high density region induced by assumption of constant lateral clearance requirements can be revised by introducing its variability characteristics. In addition, two contrastive impacts of lateral drift behavior are observed. That is, it causes speed fluctuation in low density while alleviating the speed fluctuation in relatively high density. These results are expected to be helpful to improve the simulation performance of mixed bicycle flow as well as depict more realistic vehicle-bicycle conflicts and so on.
A brief review of cellular automata packages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiebeler, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))
1990-01-01
A very frequently asked question is [open quotes]what CA simulation packages are available [close quotes] Of course, the answer depends largely on what features you are looking for, and how much you are willing to pay. I would like to briefly mention here a few of the simulation packages that I have encountered. This is by no means a complete list, and I apologize to those authors whose packages I failed to mention. Please feel free to contact me about omissions, so that future versions of this article will be more complete.
VERIFICATION OF PARALLEL AUTOMATA-BASED PROGRAMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Lukin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with an interactive method of automatic verification for parallel automata-based programs. The hierarchical state machines can be implemented in different threads and can interact with each other. Verification is done by means of Spin tool and includes automatic Promela model construction, conversion of LTL-formula to Spin format and counterexamples in terms of automata. Interactive verification gives the possibility to decrease verification time and increase the maximum size of verifiable programs. Considered method supports verification of the parallel system for hierarchical automata that interact with each other through messages and shared variables. The feature of automaton model is that each state machine is considered as a new data type and can have an arbitrary bounded number of instances. Each state machine in the system can run a different state machine in a new thread or have nested state machine. This method was implemented in the developed Stater tool. Stater shows correct operation for all test cases.
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin;
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine the mini......This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Borowik, Bohdan; Lahno, Valery; Petrov, Oleksandr
2013-01-01
This book serves a dual purpose: firstly to combine the treatment of circuits and digital electronics, and secondly, to establish a strong connection with the contemporary world of digital systems. The need for this approach arises from the observation that introducing digital electronics through a course in traditional circuit analysis is fast becoming obsolete. Our world has gone digital. Automata theory helps with the design of digital circuits such as parts of computers, telephone systems and control systems. A complete perspective is emphasized, because even the most elegant computer architecture will not function without adequate supporting circuits. The focus is on explaining the real-world implementation of complete digital systems. In doing so, the reader is prepared to immediately begin design and implementation work. This work serves as a bridge to take readers from the theoretical world to the everyday design world where solutions must be complete to be successful.
Execution spaces for simple higher dimensional automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raussen, Martin
Higher Dimensional Automata (HDA) are highly expressive models for concurrency in Computer Science, cf van Glabbeek [26]. For a topologist, they are attractive since they can be modeled as cubical complexes - with an inbuilt restriction for directions´of allowable (d-)paths. In Raussen [25], we...... applicable in greater generality. Furthermore, we take a close look at semaphore models with semaphores all of arity one. It turns out that execution spaces for these are always homotopy discrete with components representing sets of “compatible” permutations. Finally, we describe a model for the complement...
L.A.U.D.E: Learning Automata for Urban Development Exploration. The Case Study of Rome Urban System
Rabino, Giovanni A.; Papini, Lorenzo; Silvana T. Lombardo; Colonna, Antonio; Stefano, Vittorio Di
1998-01-01
This paper deals with urban cellular automata. It is organized in two parts. The first one is concerning theory, methodology and operational aspects of the application of cellular automata to the simulation of dynamics of urban systems. Starting with a review of the literature on this research field (Batty, Cecchini, Couclelis, White et al.) we present: ? as to theoretical foundation of the approach, a clarification on the distinction between global and local description (the traditional mode...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongsheng Chen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Coupled heat transfer and chemical reaction of fluid flow in complex boundaries are explored by introducing two additional properties, i.e. particle type and energy state into the Lattice gas automata (LGA Frisch–Hasslacher–Pomeau (FHP-II model. A mix-redistribute of energy and type of particles is also applied on top of collision rules to ensure randomness while maintaining the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Simulations of heat transfer and heterogeneous reaction of gas flow passing a circular porous cylinder in a channel are presented. The effects of porosity of cylinder, gas inlet velocity, and reaction probability on the reaction process are further analyzed with respect to the characteristics of solid morphology, product concentration, and temperature profile. Numerical results indicate that the reaction rate increases with increasing reaction probability as well as gas inlet velocity. Cylinders with a higher value of porosity and more homogeneous structure also react with gas particles faster. These results agree well with the basic theories of gas–solid reactions, indicating the present model provides a method for describing gas–solid reactions in complex boundaries at mesoscopic level.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
2002-01-01
The advantageous performance of the UASB reactors is due to the immobilisation of the active biomass, since bacteria coagulate forming aggregates usually called granules. Changes in organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate or influent substrate composition usually result in changes in granule...
Two-tape finite automata with quantum and classical states
Zheng, Shenggen; Qiu, Daowen
2011-01-01
{\\it Two-way finite automata with quantum and classical states} (2QCFA) were introduced by Ambainis and Watrous, and {\\it two-way two-tape deterministic finite automata} (2TFA) were introduced by Rabin and Scott. In this paper we study 2TFA and propose a new computing model called {\\it two-way two-tape finite automata with quantum and classical states} (2TQCFA). First, we give efficient 2TFA algorithms for recognizing languages which can be recognized by 2QCFA. Second, we give efficient 2TQCFA algorithms to recognize several languages whose status vis-a-vis 2QCFA have been posed as open questions, such as $L_{square}=\\{a^{n}b^{n^{2}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$. Third, we show that $\\{a^{n}b^{n^{k}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$ can be recognized by {\\it $(k+1)$-tape deterministic finite automata} ($(k+1)$TFA). Finally, we introduce {\\it $k$-tape automata with quantum and classical states} ($k$TQCFA) and prove that $\\{a^{n}b^{n^{k}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$ can be recognized by $k$TQCFA.
3D similar pattern generation of snow crystals with cellular automata%基于元胞自动化模型的三维雪花晶体近似模式的产生
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李芳佳; 高尚策; 唐政; 石井雅博; 山下和也
2009-01-01
Computer simulation of snow crystal growing process has been done for many years. Cellular automaton is a computing model which is made from lattice cells and simple rules. Though it is a very simple model, it gives good results when used to imitate complex processes such as the life phenomenon, crystal growth and the turbulent flow. In this paper, a cellular model for 3Dimensional snow crystallization was proposed by extending the traditional 2-Dimensional cellular model. Simulation results indicated that the proposed model can accurately simulate most 3-Dimensional snow erystaUization processes.%关于雪花生长过程的计算机模拟已经受到了广泛关注.其中,元胞自动化模型是一种基于网格和简单规则的计算方法.尽管这是一种简单的模型,但其在模拟复杂过程(比如:生命现象,晶体生长和湍流)时往往能取得较好的结果.提出了一种由传统的二维模型扩展而来的三维雪花晶体生长方法.计算机模拟结果显示提出的方法能够更精确地模拟出三维雪花的晶体化过程.
Automata theory and its applications
Khoussainov, Bakhadyr
2001-01-01
The theory of finite automata on finite stings, infinite strings, and trees has had a dis tinguished history. First, automata were introduced to represent idealized switching circuits augmented by unit delays. This was the period of Shannon, McCullouch and Pitts, and Howard Aiken, ending about 1950. Then in the 1950s there was the work of Kleene on representable events, of Myhill and Nerode on finite coset congruence relations on strings, of Rabin and Scott on power set automata. In the 1960s, there was the work of Btichi on automata on infinite strings and the second order theory of one successor, then Rabin's 1968 result on automata on infinite trees and the second order theory of two successors. The latter was a mystery until the introduction of forgetful determinacy games by Gurevich and Harrington in 1982. Each of these developments has successful and prospective applications in computer science. They should all be part of every computer scientist's toolbox. Suppose that we take a computer scientist's ...
Using Learning Automata in Coordination Among Heterogeneous Agents in a Complex Multi-Agent Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Khojasteh
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes our use of Learning Automata as a reinforcement learning method incoordination among three heterogeneous teams of agents acting in RoboCup Rescue Simulationenvironment. We provide a brief introduction to Learning Automata and Cellular LearningAutomata, the reinforcement machine learning methods that we have used in lots of parts of ouragents’ development. Then we will describe the major challenges each team of agents should beconcerned about in such a complex domain and for each challenge, we propose our approachesto develop cooperative teams. Finally, some results of using Learning Automata in coordinatingthese heterogeneous teams of agents that cooperate to mitigate the disastrous damages in asimulated city are evaluated.
Using Learning Automata in Coordination Among Heterogeneous Agents in a Complex Multi-Agent Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Khojasteh
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes our use of Learning Automata as a reinforcement learning method in coordination among three heterogeneous teams of agents acting in RoboCup Rescue Simulation environment. We provide a brief introduction to Learning Automata and Cellular Learning Automata, the reinforcement machine learning methods that we have used in lots of parts of our agents’ development. Then we will describe the major challenges each team of agents should be concerned about in such a complex domain and for each challenge, we propose our approaches to develop cooperative teams. Finally, some results of using Learning Automata in coordinating these heterogeneous teams of agents that cooperate to mitigate the disastrous damages in a simulated city are evaluated.
Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco;
2012-01-01
Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully...
Team Automata for Security Analysis of Multicast/Broadcast Communication
Beek, ter Maurice; Lenzini, Gabriele; Petrocchi, Marinella; Busi, N.; Gorrieri, R.; Martinelli, F.
2003-01-01
We show that team automata (TA) are well suited to model secure multicast/broadcast communication with possible packet loss. This is a consequence of the natural way in which one-to-many (one-to-all) transmissions typical of multicast (broadcast) sessions can be modelled as communications between th
An Application of Quantum Finite Automata to Interactive Proof Systems
Nishimura, H; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2004-01-01
Quantum finite automata have been studied intensively since their introduction in late 1990s as a natural model of a quantum computer with finite-dimensional quantum memory space. This paper seeks their direct application to interactive proof systems in which a mighty quantum prover communicates with a quantum-automaton verifier through a common communication cell. Our quantum interactive proof systems are juxtaposed to Dwork-Stockmeyer's classical interactive proof systems whose verifiers are two-way probabilistic automata. We demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of our systems and further study how various restrictions on the behaviors of quantum-automaton verifiers affect the power of quantum interactive proof systems.
Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata
Srba, Jiří
2009-01-01
We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata and show that they can be decided in polynomial time.
Application of Fuzzy Algebra in Automata theory
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Kharatti Lal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In our first application we consider strings of fuzzy singletons as input to a fuzzy finite state machine. The notion of fuzzy automata was introduced in [58]. There has been considerable growth in the area [18]. In this section present a theory of free fuzzy monoids and apply the results to the area of fuzzy automata. In fuzzy automata, the set of strings of input symbols can be considered to be a free monoid. We introduced the motion of fuzzy strings of input symbols, where the fuzzy strings from free fuzzy submonoids of the free monoids of input strings. We show that fuzzy automata with fuzzy input are equivalent to fuzzy automata with crisp input. Hence the result of fuzzy automata theory can be immediately applied to those of fuzzy automata theory with fuzzy input. The result are taken from [7] and [34].
Cellular modelling using P systems and process algebra
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Francisco J.Romero-Campero; Marian Gheorghe; Gabriel Ciobanu; John M. Auld; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez
2007-01-01
In this paper various molecular chemical interactions are modelled under different computational paradigms. P systems and π-calculus are used to describe intra-cellular reactions like protein-protein interactions and gene regulation control.
Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles
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Dwaipayan Mukherjee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (NPs have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.
Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min
2013-05-01
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.
Stochastic transition model for pedestrian dynamics
Schultz, Michael
2012-01-01
The proposed stochastic model for pedestrian dynamics is based on existing approaches using cellular automata, combined with substantial extensions, to compensate the deficiencies resulting of the discrete grid structure. This agent motion model is extended by both a grid-based path planning and mid-range agent interaction component. The stochastic model proves its capabilities for a quantitative reproduction of the characteristic shape of the common fundamental diagram of pedestrian dynamics. Moreover, effects of self-organizing behavior are successfully reproduced. The stochastic cellular automata approach is found to be adequate with respect to uncertainties in human motion patterns, a feature previously held by artificial noise terms alone.
Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios
Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.
2008-01-01
During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田启华; 向晓波; 王进学
2014-01-01
针对连续体结构拓扑优化中的网格依赖性和灰度单元问题,基于混合元胞自动机(Hybrid Celular Automata,HCA)算法,提出了一种改进的状态场变量更新规则,以应变能最小化为优化目标,构建基于固体各向同性微惩罚结构的拓扑优化模型,通过二维经典拓扑优化算例,与已有的状态场变量更新规则的对比分析,验证了本文提出的变量更新规则的有效性和正确性.
Computer generation of initial spatial distribution for cell automata
GuangHua Liu; WenJun Zhang
2011-01-01
The algorithm to generate spatial distribution patterns was developed and presented in this study. Three typical spatial distribution patterns, i.e., Poisson distribution, binomial distribution, and negative binomial distribution were included in the algorithm. The Java program was also provided. The algorithm can be used to generate initial distribution in cell automata modeling.
Algebraic Systems and Pushdown Automata
Petre, Ion; Salomaa, Arto
We concentrate in this chapter on the core aspects of algebraic series, pushdown automata, and their relation to formal languages. We choose to follow here a presentation of their theory based on the concept of properness. We introduce in Sect. 2 some auxiliary notions and results needed throughout the chapter, in particular the notions of discrete convergence in semirings and C-cycle free infinite matrices. In Sect. 3 we introduce the algebraic power series in terms of algebraic systems of equations. We focus on interconnections with context-free grammars and on normal forms. We then conclude the section with a presentation of the theorems of Shamir and Chomsky-Schützenberger. We discuss in Sect. 4 the algebraic and the regulated rational transductions, as well as some representation results related to them. Section 5 is dedicated to pushdown automata and focuses on the interconnections with classical (non-weighted) pushdown automata and on the interconnections with algebraic systems. We then conclude the chapter with a brief discussion of some of the other topics related to algebraic systems and pushdown automata.
Interface Input/Output Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej
2006-01-01
Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumption...
Computational model of cellular metabolic dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Yanjun; Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M;
2010-01-01
Identifying the mechanisms by which insulin regulates glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle is critical to understanding the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our knowledge of these mechanisms is limited by the difficulty of obtaining in vivo intracellular data. To quantitatively...... cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data...... type 2 diabetes....
Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism
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Yang Liu
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM, in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiration and show how this viscoelastic model can be incorporated into LSM simulations to recreate the observed protrusion of cells into the micropipette faithfully. We also demonstrate the use of our techniques by simulating the cell shape changes elicited by the chemotactic response to an external chemoattractant gradient. Conclusion Our results provide a simple but effective means of incorporating cellular deformations into mathematical simulations of cell signaling. Such methods will be useful for simulating important cellular events such as chemotaxis and cytokinesis.
Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism
Yang Liu; Effler Janet C; Kutscher Brett L; Sullivan Sarah E; Robinson Douglas N; Iglesias Pablo A
2008-01-01
Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM), in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiratio...