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Sample records for cells multi-faceted perspectives

  1. [Multi-facetted clinical presentation of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Niemann, C.U.; Jurlander, J.; Daugaard, G.

    2009-01-01

    smears. Determination of the ADAMTS13-activity is now becoming available as a routine analysis. We present two cases that illustrate the multi-facetted clinical presentation under which TTP occurs. The importance of access to ADAMTS13 measurements is stressed Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/26...

  2. Metformin: Multi-faceted protection against cancer

    Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2011-01-01

    The biguanide metformin, a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, may exert cancer chemopreventive effects by suppressing the transformative and hyperproliferative processes that initiate carcinogenesis. Metformin's molecular targets in cancer cells (e.g., mTOR, HER2) are similar to those currently being used for directed cancer therapy. However, metformin is nontoxic and might be extremely useful for enhancing treatment efficacy of mechanism-based and biologically targeted drugs. Here, we first revisit the epidemiological, preclinical, and clinical evidence from the last 5 years showing that metformin is a promising candidate for oncology therapeutics. Second, the anticancer effects of metformin by both direct (insulin-independent) and indirect (insulin-dependent) mechanisms are discussed in terms of metformin-targeted processes and the ontogenesis of cancer stem cells (CSC), including Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and microRNAs-regulated dedifferentiation of CSCs. Finally, we present preliminary evidence that metformin may regulate cellular senescence, an innate safeguard against cellular immortalization. There are two main lines of evidence that suggest that metformin's primary target is the immortalizing step during tumorigenesis. First, metformin activates intracellular DNA damage response checkpoints. Second, metformin attenuates the anti-senescence effects of the ATP-generating glycolytic metabotype-the Warburg effect-, which is required for self-renewal and proliferation of CSCs. If metformin therapy presents an intrinsic barrier against tumorigenesis by lowering the threshold for stress-induced senescence, metformin therapeutic strategies may be pivotal for therapeutic intervention for cancer. Current and future clinical trials will elucidate whether metformin has the potential to be used in preventive and treatment settings as an adjuvant to current cancer therapeutics. PMID:22203527

  3. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment.

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a Multi-Faceted Nickel Catalyst

    Blaylock, D. Wayne; Zhu, Yi-An; Green, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using planewave, periodic boundary condition density functional theory is presented. The multi-faceted model consists of a Ni(111) surface, a Ni(100) surface

  5. Towards informed and multi-faceted wildlife trade interventions

    Daniel W.S. Challender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade in wildlife is a key threat to biodiversity conservation. CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, seeks to ensure international wildlife trade is sustainable, relying on trade bans and controls. However, there has been little comprehensive review of its effectiveness and here we review approaches taken to regulate wildlife trade in CITES. Although assessing its effectiveness is problematic, we assert that CITES boasts few measurable conservation successes. We attribute this to: non-compliance, an over reliance on regulation, lack of knowledge and monitoring of listed species, ignorance of market forces, and influence among CITES actors. To more effectively manage trade we argue that interventions should go beyond regulation and should be multi-faceted, reflecting the complexity of wildlife trade. To inform these interventions we assert an intensive research effort is needed around six key areas: (1 factors undermining wildlife trade governance at the national level, (2 determining sustainable harvest rates for, and adaptive management of CITES species, (3 gaining the buy-in of local communities in implementing CITES, (4 supply and demand based market interventions, (5 means of quantifying illicit trade, and (6 political processes and influence within CITES.

  6. A Framework for a Multi-Faceted, Educational, Knowledge-Based Recommender System

    John W. Coffey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature on intelligent or adaptive tutoring systems generally has a focus on how to determine what resources to present to students as they make their way through a course of study. The idea of multi-faceted student modeling is that a variety of measures, both academic and non-academic, might be represented in student models in service of a broader educational context. This paper contains a framework for a multi-faceted, educational, knowledge-based recommender system, including a basic set of descriptors that the model contains, and a taxonomy of inferences that might be made over such models.

  7. The Fate of the World is in your hands: computer gaming for multi-faceted climate change education

    Bedford, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a multi-faceted (or 'wicked') problem. True climate literacy therefore requires understanding not only the workings of the climate system, but also the current and potential future impacts of climate change and sea level rise on individuals, communities and countries around the world, as noted in the US Global Change Research Program's (2009) Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The asymmetric nature of climate change impacts, whereby the world's poorest countries have done the least to cause the problem but will suffer disproportionate consequences, has also been widely noted. Education in climate literacy therefore requires an element of ethics in addition to physical and social sciences. As if addressing these multiple aspects of climate change were not challenging enough, polling data has repeatedly shown that many members of the public tend to see climate change as a far away problem affecting people remote from them at a point in the future, but not themselves. This perspective is likely shared by many students. Computer gaming provides a possible solution to the combined problems of, on the one hand, addressing the multi-faceted nature of climate change, and, on the other hand, making the issue real to students. Fate of the World, a game produced by the company Red Redemption, has been used on several occasions in a small (20-30 students) introductory level general education course on global warming at Weber State University. Players are required to balance difficult decisions about energy investment while managing regional political disputes and attempting to maintain minimum levels of development in the world's poorer countries. By providing a realistic "total immersion" experience, the game has the potential to make climate change issues more immediate to players, and presents them with the ethical dilemmas inherent in climate change. This presentation reports on the use of Fate of the World in an educational

  8. Infinity as a Multi-Faceted Concept in History and in the Mathematics Classroom

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Bussi, Maria G., Bartolini; Robutti, Ornella

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptualisation of infinity as a multi-faceted concept, discussing two examples. The first is from history and illustrates the work of Euler, when using infinity in an algebraic context. The second sketches an activity in a school context, namely students who approach the definite integral with symbolic-graphic…

  9. The multi-faceted outcomes of conjunct diabetes and cardiovascular familial history in type 2 diabetes.

    Hermans, Michel P; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2012-01-01

    Familial history of early-onset CHD (EOCHD) is a major risk factor for CHD. Familial diabetes history (FDH) impacts β-cell function. Some transmissible, accretional gradient of CHD risk may exist when diabetes and EOCHD familial histories combine. We investigated whether the impact of such combination is neutral, additive, or potentiating in T2DM descendants, as regards cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis and micro-/macroangiopathies. Cross-sectional retrospective cohort study of 796 T2DM divided according to presence (Diab[+]) or absence (Diab[-]) of 1st-degree diabetes familial history and/or EOCHD (CVD(+) and (-)). Four subgroups: (i) [Diab(-)CVD(-)] (n=355); (ii) [Diab(+)CVD(-)] (n=338); (iii) [Diab(-)CVD(+)] (n=47); and (iv) [Diab(+)CVD(+)] (n=56). No interaction on subgroup distribution between presence of both familial histories, the combination of which translated into additive detrimental outcomes and higher rates of fat mass, sarcopenia, (hs)CRP and retinopathy. FDH(+) had lower insulinemia, insulin secretion, hyperbolic product, and accelerated hyperbolic product loss. An EOCHD family history affected neither insulin secretion nor sensitivity. There were significant differences regarding macroangiopathy/CAD, more prevalent in [Diab(-)CVD(+)] and [Diab(+)CVD(+)]. Among CVD(+), the highest macroangiopathy prevalence was observed in [Diab(-)CVD(+)], who had 66% macroangiopathy, and 57% CAD, rates higher (absolute-relative) by 23%-53% (overall) and 21%-58% (CAD) than [Diab(+)CVD(+)], who inherited the direst cardiometabolic familial history (p 0.0288 and 0.0310). A parental history for diabetes markedly affects residual insulin secretion and secretory loss rate in T2DM offspring without worsening insulin resistance. It paradoxically translated into lower macroangiopathy with concurrent familial EOCHD. Conjunct diabetes and CV familial histories generate multi-faceted vascular outcomes in offspring, including lesser macroangiopathy/CAD. Copyright

  10. Enabling multi-faceted measures of success for protected area management in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Granderson, Ainka A

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge has been to define and measure "success" in managing protected areas. A case study was conducted of efforts to evaluate the new protected area management system in Trinidad and Tobago using a participatory approach. The aim of the case study was to (1) examine whether stakeholder involvement better captures the multi-faceted nature of success and (2) identify the role and influence of various stakeholder groups in this process. An holistic and systematic framework was developed with stakeholder input that facilitated the integration of expert and lay knowledge, a broad emphasis on ecological, socio-economic, and institutional aspects, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data allowing the evaluation to capture the multi-faceted nature and impacts of protected area management. Input from primary stakeholders, such as local communities, was critical as they have a high stake in protected area outcomes. Secondary and external stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector, were also important in providing valuable technical assistance and serving as mediators. However, a lack of consensus over priorities, politics, and limited stakeholder capacity and data access pose significant barriers to engaging stakeholders to effectively measure the management success of protected areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Examination of the Multi-Faceted Motivation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Susana Da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ and depression (MDD, and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent. Thus, the present study adopted a person-centered approach, and comprehensively examined the reward system in a non-clinical sample in an attempt to explore potential subtypes of motivation impairments, while minimizing the effects of illness-related confounds.Methods: Ninety-six healthy undergraduate students were evaluated for amotivation, schizotypal traits, depressive symptoms, and cognition, and administered objective computerized tasks to measure the different facets of motivation. Cluster analysis was performed to explore subgroups of individuals based on similar motivation task performance. Additionally, correlational analyses were conducted in order to examine inter-relationships between motivation facets, and relations between clinical measures and facets of motivation.Results: Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of individuals with differential motivation performance profiles. Correlational analyses revealed that reward responsiveness was associated with amotivation, depressive symptoms, and negative schizotypy. Further, significant inter-correlations were found between reward responsiveness and reward expectancy, as well as between reward valuation and effort valuation.Conclusions: Our results mark important steps forward in understanding motivation in a non-clinical sample, and guide future dimensional and comprehensive analyses of the multi-faceted reward system. It remains to be seen whether these patterns of

  12. An Examination of the Multi-Faceted Motivation System in Healthy Young Adults.

    Da Silva, Susana; Apatsidou, Areti; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Jeffay, Eliyas; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Remington, Gary; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George

    2018-01-01

    Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and depression (MDD), and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent. Thus, the present study adopted a person-centered approach, and comprehensively examined the reward system in a non-clinical sample in an attempt to explore potential subtypes of motivation impairments, while minimizing the effects of illness-related confounds. Methods: Ninety-six healthy undergraduate students were evaluated for amotivation, schizotypal traits, depressive symptoms, and cognition, and administered objective computerized tasks to measure the different facets of motivation. Cluster analysis was performed to explore subgroups of individuals based on similar motivation task performance. Additionally, correlational analyses were conducted in order to examine inter-relationships between motivation facets, and relations between clinical measures and facets of motivation. Results: Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of individuals with differential motivation performance profiles. Correlational analyses revealed that reward responsiveness was associated with amotivation, depressive symptoms, and negative schizotypy. Further, significant inter-correlations were found between reward responsiveness and reward expectancy, as well as between reward valuation and effort valuation. Conclusions: Our results mark important steps forward in understanding motivation in a non-clinical sample, and guide future dimensional and comprehensive analyses of the multi-faceted reward system. It remains to be seen whether these patterns of results will

  13. A Multi-faceted Mentoring Program for Junior Faculty in Academic Pediatrics

    Chen, Mary M.; Sandborg, Christy I.; Hudgins, Louanne; Sanford, Rania; Bachrach, Laura K.

    2016-01-01

    Problem The departure of physician-scientists from education and research into clinical practice is a growing challenge for the future of academic medicine. Junior faculty face competing demands for clinical productivity, teaching, research and work-life integration which can undermine confidence in the value of an academic career. Mentorship is important to foster career development and satisfaction in junior faculty. Intervention The goals of this academic pediatrics department were to develop, implement, and evaluate a multi-faceted pediatric mentoring program to promote retention and satisfaction of junior faculty. Program elements included one-on-one mentor-mentee meetings, didactic workshops, grant review assistance, and facilitated peer-group mentoring. Program effectiveness was assessed using annual surveys of mentees, structured mentee exit interviews as well as retention data for assistant professors. Context The mentees were Instructors and Assistant Professors in the department of pediatrics Outcome Seventy-nine mentees participated in the program from 2007 through 2014. The response rate from seven annual surveys was 84%. Sixty-nine percent of mentees felt more prepared to advance their careers, 81% had a better understanding of the criteria for advancement, 84% were satisfied with the program, and 95% found mentors accessible. Mentees who exited the program reported they most valued the one-on-one mentoring and viewed the experience positively regardless of promotion. Retention of Assistant Professors improved after initiation of the program; 4 of 13 hired from 2002–2006 left the institution whereas 18 of 18 hired from 2007–2014 were retained. Lessons Learned This multi-faceted mentoring program appeared to bolster satisfaction and enhance retention of junior pediatric faculty. Mentees reported increased understanding of the criteria for promotion and viewed the program as a positive experience regardless of career path. Individual mentor

  14. Treatment of bipolar disorder: a complex treatment for a multi-faceted disorder

    Fresno David

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manic-depression or bipolar disorder (BD is a multi-faceted illness with an inevitably complex treatment. Methods This article summarizes the current status of our knowledge and practice of its treatment. Results It is widely accepted that lithium is moderately useful during all phases of bipolar illness and it might possess a specific effectiveness on suicidal prevention. Both first and second generation antipsychotics are widely used and the FDA has approved olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole for the treatment of acute mania. These could also be useful in the treatment of bipolar depression, but only limited data exists so far to support the use of quetiapine monotherapy or the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Some, but not all, anticonvulsants possess a broad spectrum of effectiveness, including mixed dysphoric and rapid-cycling forms. Lamotrigine may be effective in the treatment of depression but not mania. Antidepressant use is controversial. Guidelines suggest their cautious use in combination with an antimanic agent, because they are supposed to induce switching to mania or hypomania, mixed episodes and rapid cycling. Conclusion The first-line psychosocial intervention in BD is psychoeducation, followed by cognitive-behavioral therapy. Other treatment options include Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. There is a gap between the evidence base, which comes mostly from monotherapy trials, and clinical practice, where complex treatment regimens are the rule.

  15. Multi-faceted Rasch measurement and bias patterns in EFL writing performance assessment.

    He, Tung-Hsien; Gou, Wen Johnny; Chien, Ya-Chen; Chen, I-Shan Jenny; Chang, Shan-Mao

    2013-04-01

    This study applied multi-faceted Rasch measurement to examine rater bias in the assessment of essays written by college students learning English as a foreign language. Four raters who had received different academic training from four distinctive disciplines applied a six-category rating scale to analytically rate essays on an argumentative topic and on a descriptive topic. FACETS, a Rasch computer program, was utilized to pinpoint bias patterns by analyzing the rater-topic, rater-category, and topic-category interactions. Results showed: argumentative essays were rated more severely than were descriptive essays; the linguistics-major rater was the most lenient rater, while the literature-major rater was the severest one; and the category of language use received the severest ratings, whereas content was given the most lenient ratings. The severity hierarchies for raters, essay topics, and rating categories suggested that raters' academic training and their perceptions of the importance of categories were associated with their bias patterns. Implications for rater training are discussed.

  16. Multi-faceted case management: reducing compensation costs of musculoskeletal work injuries in Australia.

    Iles, Ross Anthony; Wyatt, M; Pransky, G

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a multi-faceted model of management of work related musculoskeletal disorders reduced compensation claim costs and days of compensation for injured workers. An intervention including early reporting, employee centred case management and removal of barriers to return to work was instituted in 16 selected companies with a combined remuneration over $337 million. Outcomes were evaluated by an administrative dataset from the Victorian WorkCover Authority database. A 'quasi experimental' pre-post design was employed with 492 matched companies without the intervention used as a control group and an average of 21 months of post-intervention follow-up. Primary outcomes were average number of days of compensation and average cost of claims. Secondary outcomes were total medical costs and weekly benefits paid. Information on 3,312 claims was analysed. In companies where the intervention was introduced the average cost of claims was reduced from $6,019 to $3,913 (estimated difference $2,329, 95 % CI $1,318-$3,340) and the number of days of compensation decreased from 33.5 to 14.1 (HR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.88). Medical costs and weekly benefits costs were also lower after the intervention (p costs were noted across industry types, injury location and most employer sizes. The model of claims management investigated was effective in reducing the number of days of compensation, total claim costs, total medical costs and the amount paid in weekly benefits. Further research should investigate whether the intervention improves non-financial outcomes in the return to work process.

  17. Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a Multi-Faceted Nickel Catalyst

    Blaylock, D. Wayne

    2011-08-20

    A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using planewave, periodic boundary condition density functional theory is presented. The multi-faceted model consists of a Ni(111) surface, a Ni(100) surface, and nickel step edge sites that are modeled as a Ni(211) surface. Flux and sensitivity analysis are combined to gain an increased understanding of the important reactions, intermediates, and surface facets in SMR. Statistical thermodynamics are applied to allow for the investigation of SMR under industrially-relevant conditions (e.g., temperatures in excess of 500 °C and pressures in excess of 1 bar). The most important surface reactions are found to occur at the under-coordinated step edge sites modeled using the Ni(211) surface as well as on the Ni(100) surface. The primary reforming pathway is predicted to be through C*+ O*→ CO*at high temperatures; however, hydrogen-mediated reactions such as C*+ OH*→ COH*and C.H.*+ O*→ CHO*are predicted to become more important at low temperatures. The rate-limiting reactions are predicted to be dissociative chemisorption of methane in addition to the aforementioned C-O addition reactions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Dust in fusion devices-a multi-faceted problem connecting high- and low-temperature plasma physics

    Winter, J

    2004-01-01

    Small particles with sizes between a few nanometers and a few 10 μm (dust) are formed in fusion devices by plasma-surface interaction processes. Though it is not a major problem today, dust is considered a problem that could arise in future long pulse fusion devices. This is primarily due to its radioactivity and due to its very high chemical reactivity. Dust formation is particularly pronounced when carbonaceous wall materials are used. Dust particles can be transported in the tokamak over significant distances. Radioactivity leads to electrical charging of dust and to its interaction with plasmas and electric fields. This may cause interference with the discharge but may also result in options for particle removal. This paper discusses some of the multi-faceted problems using information both from fusion research and from low-temperature dusty plasma work

  19. Globalization: A Multi-Faceted Terrain | Jotia | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    This paper registers that globalization is a multifaceted phenomenon that can be viewed from the socio-economic, political and cultural perspectives. The paper explore the globalization theory which calls for the unification of one global village and also looks at forces driving globalization such as international free trade and ...

  20. The multi-faceted role of allergen exposure to the local airway mucosa

    Golebski, K.; Röschmann, K. I. L.; Toppila-Salmi, S.; Hammad, H.; Lambrecht, B. N.; Renkonen, R.; Fokkens, W. J.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the first to encounter aeroallergens and therefore have recently become an interesting target of many studies investigating their involvement in the modulation of allergic inflammatory responses. Disruption of a passive structural barrier composed of epithelial cells by

  1. THE SECURITY OF CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE AGE OF MULTIPLE ATTACK VECTORS: NATO’S MULTI-FACETED APPROACH

    Sorin Dumitru Ducaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current NATO threat landscape is characterized by a combination or “hybrid blend” of unconventional emerging challenges (like cyber and terrorist attacks and re-emerging conventional ones (like Russia’s recent military resurgence and assertiveness, that led to the illegal annexation of Crimea and destabilization in Eastern Ukraine. While the resurgence of the Russian military activity pushed the Alliance in the direction of re-discovering its deterrence and collective defence role, the new, not-traditional, trans-national and essentially non-military treats that generate effects below the threshold of an armed attack require a new paradigm shift with a focus on resilience although the protection of critical energy infrastructure is first and foremost a national responsibility, NATO can contribute to meeting the infrastructure protection challenge on many levels. Given the fact that its core deterrence and defence mandate relies in a great measure on the security of Allies’ energy infrastructure NATO’s role and actions in reducing the vulnerabilities and strengthening the resilience of such infrastructure can only increase. A multi-faceted, multi-stakeholder and networked approach is needed to be able to strengthen defences and resilience of critical infrastructure such as energy. Understanding and defending against cyber or terrorist threat vectors, increased situational awareness, education, training, exercises, trusted partnerships as well as increasing strategic security dialogue and cooperation are key for such a comprehensive/network approach to the challenge.

  2. Analyzing the field of bioinformatics with the multi-faceted topic modeling technique.

    Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young; Song, Min; Lee, Jeong-Hoon

    2017-05-31

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of molecular biology and computing technology. To characterize the field as convergent domain, researchers have used bibliometrics, augmented with text-mining techniques for content analysis. In previous studies, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) was the most representative topic modeling technique for identifying topic structure of subject areas. However, as opposed to revealing the topic structure in relation to metadata such as authors, publication date, and journals, LDA only displays the simple topic structure. In this paper, we adopt the Tang et al.'s Author-Conference-Topic (ACT) model to study the field of bioinformatics from the perspective of keyphrases, authors, and journals. The ACT model is capable of incorporating the paper, author, and conference into the topic distribution simultaneously. To obtain more meaningful results, we use journals and keyphrases instead of conferences and bag-of-words.. For analysis, we use PubMed to collected forty-six bioinformatics journals from the MEDLINE database. We conducted time series topic analysis over four periods from 1996 to 2015 to further examine the interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics. We analyze the ACT Model results in each period. Additionally, for further integrated analysis, we conduct a time series analysis among the top-ranked keyphrases, journals, and authors according to their frequency. We also examine the patterns in the top journals by simultaneously identifying the topical probability in each period, as well as the top authors and keyphrases. The results indicate that in recent years diversified topics have become more prevalent and convergent topics have become more clearly represented. The results of our analysis implies that overtime the field of bioinformatics becomes more interdisciplinary where there is a steady increase in peripheral fields such as conceptual, mathematical, and system biology. These results are

  3. The multi-faceted assessment of independence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: preliminary validation from the ATTAIN study.

    Hassett, Afton L; Li, Tracy; Buyske, Steven; Savage, Shantal V; Gignac, Monique A M

    2008-05-01

    To consider the feasibility of assessing multiple facets of independence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a measure developed from existing items and examining its face validity, construct validity and responsiveness to change. The ATTAIN (Abatacept Trial in Treatment of Anti-tumor necrosis factor [TNF] Inadequate responders) database was used. Patients with RA were randomized 2:1, abatacept (n = 258) and placebo (n = 133). A multi-faceted scale to measure physical and psychosocial independence was constructed using items from the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Questions assessing activity limitations and need for outside caregiver help were also examined. Interviews with 20 RA patients assessed face validity. Item Response Theory analysis yielded two traits - 'Psychosocial Independence', derived from the number of days with activity limitations plus the Role Emotional, Social Functioning and Role Physical subscale items from the SF-36; and 'Physical Independence', derived from 15 HAQ items assessing need for help from another. The two traits showed no significant differential item functioning for age or gender and demonstrated good face validity. Changes over 169 days on Psychosocial Independence were greater (mean 0.46 units, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.75) for the abatacept group than for placebo (p = 0.002). Changes in Physical Independence were greater (mean 0.59 units, 95% CI: 0.35-0.82) for the abatacept group than for placebo (p anti-TNF therapy. However, we caution against an interpretation that these data suggest that abatacept improves independence because the component parts of this assessment came from instruments used in the ATTAIN trial where data had been previously analyzed.

  4. A multi-faceted knowledge translation approach to support persons with stroke and cognitive impairment: evaluation protocol.

    McEwen, Sara E; Donald, Michelle; Dawson, Deirdre; Egan, Mary Y; Hunt, Anne; Quant, Sylvia; Runions, Sharron; Linkewich, Elizabeth

    2015-11-05

    Patients with cognitive impairments following a stroke are often denied access to inpatient rehabilitation. The few patients with cognitive impairment admitted to rehabilitation generally receive services based on outdated impairment-reduction models, rather than recommended function-based approaches. Both reduced access to rehabilitation and the knowledge-to-practice gap stem from a reported lack of skills and knowledge regarding cognitive rehabilitation on the part of inpatient rehabilitation team members. To address these issues, a multi-faceted knowledge translation (KT) initiative will be implemented and evaluated. It will be targeted specifically at the inter-professional application of the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). CO-OP training combined with KT support is called CO-OP KT. The long-term objective of CO-OP KT is to optimize functional outcomes for individuals with stroke and cognitive impairments. Three research questions are posed: 1. Is the implementation of CO-OP KT associated with a change in the proportion of patients with cognitive impairment following a stroke accepted to inpatient rehabilitation? 2. Is the implementation of CO-OP KT associated with a change in rehabilitation clinicians' practice, knowledge, and self-efficacy related to implementing the CO-OP approach, immediately following and 1 year later? 3. Is CO-OP KT associated with changes in activity, participation, and self-efficacy to perform daily activities in patients with cognitive impairment following stroke at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups? Three interrelated studies will be conducted. Study 1 will be a quasi-experimental, interrupted time series design measuring monthly summaries of stroke unit level data. Study 2, which relates to changes in health care professional practice and self-efficacy, will be a single group pre-post evaluation design incorporating chart audits and a self-report survey

  5. Fuel cells - a perspective

    Biegler, T.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, fuel cell publicity conveys expectations and hopes that are often based on uncritical interpretations of the underlying science. The aim here is to use that science to analyse how the technology has developed and what can realistically be delivered by fuel cells. There have been great achievements in fuel cell technology over the past decade, with most types reaching an advanced stage of engineering development. But there has been some muddled thinking about one critical aspect, fuel cell energy efficiency. The 'Carnot cycle' argument, that fuel cells must be much more efficient than heat engines, is a red herring, of no help in predicting real efficiencies. In practice, fuel cells are not always particularly efficient and there are good scientific reasons for this. Cost reduction is a big issue for fuel cells. They are not in principle especially simple devices. Better engineering and mass production will presumably bring costs down, but because of their inherent complexity there is no reason to expect them to be cheap. It is fair to conclude that predictions of fuel cells as commonplace components of energy systems (including a hydrogen economy) need to be treated with caution, at least until major improvements eventuate. However, one type, the direct methanol fuel cell, is aimed at a clear existing market in consumer electronics

  6. Multi-faceted implementation strategy to increase use of a clinical guideline for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis in primary care.

    Kingma, Anna E C; van Stel, Henk F; Oudega, Ruud; Moons, Karel G M; Geersing, Geert-Jan

    2017-08-01

    A clinical decision rule (CDR), combined with a negative D-dimer test, can safely rule out deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in primary care. This strategy is recommended by guidelines, yet uptake by GPs is low. To evaluate a multi-faceted implementation strategy aimed at increased use of the guideline recommended CDR plus D-dimer test in primary care patients with suspected DVT. This multi-faceted implementation strategy consisted of educational outreach visits, financial reimbursements and periodical newsletters. 217 Dutch GPs (implementation group) received this strategy and included patients. Effectiveness was measured through the following patient-level outcomes: (i) proportion of non-referred patients, (ii) proportion of missed DVT cases within this group and (iii) the proportion of patients in whom the guideline was applied incorrectly. Implementation outcomes ('acceptability', 'feasibility', 'fidelity' and 'sustainability') were assessed with an online questionnaire. Patient-level outcomes were compared with those of patients included by 450 GPs, uninformed about the study's purposes providing information about usual care. 336 (54%) of 619 analyzable implementation group patients were not referred, missing 6 [1.8% (95% confidence interval 0.7% to 3.9%)] DVT cases. Incorrect guideline use was observed in 199 patients (32%). Self-reported acceptability, feasibility and expected sustainability were high. Guideline use increased from 42% to an expected continuation of use of 91%. Only 32 usual care GPs included 62 patients, making formal comparison unreliable. This multi-faceted implementation strategy safely reduced patient referral to secondary care, despite frequently incorrect application of the guideline and resulted in high acceptability, feasibility and expected sustainability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Youth Empowered for Success Program: A Multi-faceted Approach to Youth Leadership Development and School Culture Change in Southern Arizona

    Pam Parrish; Mari Wilhelm; Yvette Florez-Urcadez; Daniel A. Jeffrey; James Roebuck; Bill B. Burnett

    2008-01-01

    Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI) program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007). The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1) teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization), (2) training them in community development fo...

  8. The Youth Empowered for Success Program: A Multi-faceted Approach to Youth Leadership Development and School Culture Change in Southern Arizona

    Pam Parrish

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007. The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1 teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization, (2 training them in community development for school culture change and (3 helping them develop meaningful partnerships with adults. YES also expands upon the TI model by providing staff support for community development throughout the academic year. It is hypothesized that these efforts ultimately will increase overall well-being and reduce the incidence of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (ATOD as well as depression and suicide among youth.

  9. The construction of the Øresund link between Denmark and Sweden: the effect of a multi-faceted safety campaign

    Kines, Peter; Spangenberg, S.; Mikkelsen, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a safety campaign implemented midway during the construction of the railway and road link across the Sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The safety campaign was multi-faceted and aimed both at promoting positive attitudes...... of type of work before and after the campaign was taken into account. The modest effect of the safety campaign might be explained by the fact that the site, like any construction site, was a temporary workplace, where several contractors' had short-term project assignments. Apparently, the contractors...... working routines were not sufficiently affected by the safety campaign. Other factors, that might affect a safety campaign at a construction site, are discussed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Prevention of low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides in elderly care: a stepped-wedge multi-faceted cluster-randomized controlled trial

    2013-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of low back pain has persisted over the years despite extensive primary prevention initiatives among nurses’ aides. Many single-faceted interventions addressing just one aspect of low back pain have been carried out at workplaces, but with low success rate. This may be due to the multi-factorial origin of low back pain. Participatory ergonomics, cognitive behavioral training and physical training have previously shown promising effects on prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine whether a multi-faceted workplace intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training can prevent low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides. External resources for the participating workplace and a strong commitment from the management and the organization support the intervention. Methods/design To overcome implementation barriers within usual randomized controlled trial designed workplace interventions, this study uses a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial design with 4 groups. The intervention is delivered to the groups at random along four successive time periods three months apart. The intervention lasts three months and integrates participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training tailored to the target group. Local physiotherapists and occupational therapists conduct the intervention after having received standardized training. Primary outcomes are low back pain and its consequences measured monthly by text messages up to three months after initiation of the intervention. Discussion Intervention effectiveness trials for preventing low back pain and its consequences in workplaces with physically demanding work are few, primarily single-faceted, with strict adherence to a traditional randomized controlled trial design that may hamper implementation and compliance, and have mostly been

  11. A multi-faceted tailored strategy to implement an electronic clinical decision support system for pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: a two-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Beeckman, Dimitri; Clays, Els; Van Hecke, Ann; Vanderwee, Katrien; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2013-04-01

    Frail older people admitted to nursing homes are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including pressure ulcers. Clinical decision support systems are believed to have the potential to improve care and to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals. To determine whether a multi-faceted tailored strategy to implement an electronic clinical decision support system for pressure ulcer prevention improves adherence to recommendations for pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes. Two-armed randomized controlled trial in a nursing home setting in Belgium. The trial consisted of a 16-week implementation intervention between February and June 2010, including one baseline, four intermediate, and one post-testing measurement. Primary outcome was the adherence to guideline-based care recommendations (in terms of allocating adequate pressure ulcer prevention in residents at risk). Secondary outcomes were the change in resident outcomes (pressure ulcer prevalence) and intermediate outcomes (knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals). Random sample of 11 wards (6 experimental; 5 control) in a convenience sample of 4 nursing homes in Belgium. In total, 464 nursing home residents and 118 healthcare professionals participated. The experimental arm was involved in a multi-faceted tailored implementation intervention of a clinical decision support system, including interactive education, reminders, monitoring, feedback and leadership. The control arm received a hard-copy of the pressure ulcer prevention protocol, supported by standardized 30 min group lecture. Patients in the intervention arm were significantly more likely to receive fully adequate pressure ulcer prevention when seated in a chair (F=16.4, P=0.003). No significant improvement was observed on pressure ulcer prevalence and knowledge of the professionals. While baseline attitude scores were comparable between both groups [exp. 74.3% vs. contr. 74.5% (P=0.92)], the mean score after the intervention was

  12. Targeted Therapy of Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Multi-faceted Anti-Tumor Modalities

    Malini Olivo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has emerged as one of the important therapeutic options in the management of cancer and other diseases. PDT involves a tumor-localized photosensitizer (PS, which when appropriately illuminated by visible light converts oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS, that attack key structural entities within the targeted cells, ultimately resulting in necrosis or apoptosis. Though PDT is a selective modality, it can be further enhanced by combining other targeted therapeutic strategies that include the use of synthetic peptides and nanoparticles for selective delivery of photosensitizers. Another potentially promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Vascular disrupting agents that eradicate tumor vasculature during PDT and anti-angiogenic agents that targets specific molecular pathways and prevent the formation of new blood vessels are novel therapeutic approaches that have been shown to improve treatment outcome. In addition to the well-documented mechanisms of direct cell killing and damage to the tumor vasculature, PDT can also activate the body’s immune response against tumors. Numerous pre-clinical studies and clinical observations have demonstrated the immuno-stimulatory capability of PDT. Herein, we aim to integrate the most important findings with regard to the combination of PDT and other novel targeted therapy approaches, detailing its potential in cancer photomedicine.

  13. Evaluating Patient Activation Measure (PAM) Scores and Readmission Rates Following Implementation of a Nurse-Initiated Multi-Faceted Strategy for Patients on a U.S. Navy Inpatient Oncology Unit: A Quality Improvement Project

    2016-06-30

    5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A of a Nurse-Initiated Multi-Faceted Strategy for Patients on a U.S. Navy Inpatient Oncology Unit: A Quality...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES N/A 14. ABSTRACT Background: Chronically ill patients often experience multiple hospitalizations. Oncology patients...have been shown to have more readmissions to the hospital than non- oncology patients. Recent reports estimate a $17.4 billion cost burden is

  14. [Embryonic stem cells. Future perspectives].

    Groebner, M; David, R; Franz, W M

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are able to differentiate into any cell type, and therefore represent an excellent source for cellular replacement therapies in the case of widespread diseases, for example heart failure, diabetes, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. A major prerequisite for their efficient and safe clinical application is the availability of pure populations for direct cell transplantation or tissue engineering as well as the immunological compatibility of the transplanted cells. The expression of human surface markers under the control of cell type specific promoters represents a promising approach for the selection of cardiomyocytes and other cell types for therapeutic applications. The first human clinical trial using ES cells will start in the United States this year.

  15. Effect of a multi-faceted quality improvement intervention on inappropriate antibiotic use in children with non-bloody diarrhoea admitted to district hospitals in Kenya

    Opondo Charles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports of interventions to reduce the common but irrational use of antibiotics for acute non-bloody diarrhoea amongst hospitalised children in low-income settings. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from an intervention comprising training of health workers, facilitation, supervision and face-to-face feedback, to assess whether it reduced inappropriate use of antibiotics in children with non-bloody diarrhoea and no co-morbidities requiring antibiotics, compared to a partial intervention comprising didactic training and written feedback only. This outcome was not a pre-specified end-point of the main trial. Methods Repeated cross-sectional survey data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve management of common childhood illnesses in Kenya were used to describe the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic use in a 7-day period in children aged 2-59 months with acute non-bloody diarrhoea. Logistic regression models with random effects for hospital were then used to identify patient and clinician level factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic use and to assess the effect of the intervention. Results 9, 459 admission records of children were reviewed for this outcome. Of these, 4, 232 (44.7% were diagnosed with diarrhoea, with 130 of these being bloody (dysentery therefore requiring antibiotics. 1, 160 children had non-bloody diarrhoea and no co-morbidities requiring antibiotics-these were the focus of the analysis. 750 (64.7% of them received antibiotics inappropriately, 313 of these being in the intervention hospitals vs. 437 in the controls. The adjusted logistic regression model showed the baseline-adjusted odds of inappropriate antibiotic prescription to children admitted to the intervention hospitals was 0.30 times that in the control hospitals (95%CI 0.09-1.02. Conclusion We found some evidence that the multi-faceted, sustained intervention described in this

  16. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies.

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S P; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, T(reg) cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance T(reg) cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human T(reg) cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 at different levels, hampered such an approach. Recent identification of the orphan receptor glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) as T(reg) cell-specific key molecule that dominantly controls FOXP3 via a positive feedback loop opens up new perspectives for molecular and cellular therapies. This brief review focuses on the role of GARP as a safeguard of a complex regulatory network of human T(reg) cells and its implications for regulatory T cell therapies in autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease.

  17. Stem cells and bone: a historical perspective.

    Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Bone physiology and stem cells were tightly intertwined with one another, both conceptually and experimentally, long before the current explosion of interest in stem cells and so-called regenerative medicine. Bone is home to the two best known and best characterized systems of postnatal stem cells, and it is the only organ in which two stem cells and their dependent lineages coordinate the overall adaptive responses of two major physiological systems. All along, the nature and the evolutionary significance of the interplay of bone and hematopoiesis have remained a major scientific challenge, but also allowed for some of the most spectacular developments in cell biology-based medicine, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This question recurs in novel forms at multiple turning points over time: today, it finds in the biology of the "niche" its popular phrasing. Entirely new avenues of investigation emerge as a new view of bone in physiology and medicine is progressively established. Looking at bone and stem cells in a historical perspective provides a unique case study to highlight the general evolution of science in biomedicine since the end of World War II to the present day. A paradigm shift in science and in its relation to society and policies occurred in the second half of the XXth century, with major implications thereof for health, industry, drug development, market and society. Current interest in stem cells in bone as in other fields is intertwined with that shift. New opportunities and also new challenges arise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem cells and bone". Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Nanoparticle-Cell Interaction: A Cell Mechanics Perspective.

    Septiadi, Dedy; Crippa, Federica; Moore, Thomas Lee; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the field of nanoparticles has enabled the rapid development of multiple products and technologies; however, some nanoparticles can pose both a threat to the environment and human health. To enable their safe implementation, a comprehensive knowledge of nanoparticles and their biological interactions is needed. In vitro and in vivo toxicity tests have been considered the gold standard to evaluate nanoparticle safety, but it is becoming necessary to understand the impact of nanosystems on cell mechanics. Here, the interaction between particles and cells, from the point of view of cell mechanics (i.e., bionanomechanics), is highlighted and put in perspective. Specifically, the ability of intracellular and extracellular nanoparticles to impair cell adhesion, cytoskeletal organization, stiffness, and migration are discussed. Furthermore, the development of cutting-edge, nanotechnology-driven tools based on the use of particles allowing the determination of cell mechanics is emphasized. These include traction force microscopy, colloidal probe atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, magnetic manipulation, and particle tracking microrheology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  20. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective.

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M

    2014-04-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal

  1. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective. PMID:29312339

  2. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective.

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective.

  3. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Amrendra Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo perspective.

  4. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S.P.; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, Treg cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance Treg cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human Treg cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 ...

  5. A multi-faceted workplace intervention targeting low back pain was effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence: Stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ørberg, Anders; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to test whether a multi-faceted intervention effective for low back pain was effective for physical capacity, work demands, maladaptive pain behaviours, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain. A stepped wedge cluster randomised, controlled trial with 594 nurses' aides was conducted. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (two sessions) and participatory ergonomics (five sessions). Occupational lifting, fear avoidance, physical exertion, muscle strength, support from management, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain were measured every 3 months. Before and after the intervention we measured physical capacity, kinesiophobia and need for recovery. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline values of the outcome were used to estimate the effect. Significant reduction in occupational lifting (-0.35 (95% confidence interval -0.61 to -0.08)), and improvement in two measures of fear avoidance ((-0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.05 to -0.45) and -0.45 (95% confidence interval -0.80 to -0.11)) were found for the intervention group compared to the control. There were no significant effects on physical exertion, muscle strength, support from management, work ability or sickness absence due to low back pain. After the intervention, significant increased physical capacity and improvements in kinesiophobia were found, but no change in need for recovery. CONCLUSIONS THE INTERVENTION WAS SIGNIFICANTLY EFFECTIVE FOR PHYSICAL WORK DEMANDS AND MALADAPTIVE PAIN BEHAVIOURS, BUT NOT FOR WORK ABILITY AND SICKNESS ABSENCE DUE TO LOW BACK PAIN TO IMPROVE WORK ABILITY OR REDUCE SICKNESS ABSENCE DUE TO LOW BACK PAIN MORE SPECIFIC INTERVENTIONS SHOULD PROBABLY BE DEVELOPED. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    2012-01-01

    Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores. PMID:23237274

  7. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  8. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering.

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiäinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itämies, Juhani; Vähä, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelä, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-12-13

    A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  9. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  10. Causality, Randomness, Intelligibility, and the Epistemology of the Cell

    Dougherty, Edward R; Bittner, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Because the basic unit of biology is the cell, biological knowledge is rooted in the epistemology of the cell, and because life is the salient characteristic of the cell, its epistemology must be centered on its livingness, not its constituent components. The organization and regulation of these components in the pursuit of life constitute the fundamental nature of the cell. Thus, regulation sits at the heart of biological knowledge of the cell and the extraordinary complexity of this regulation conditions the kind of knowledge that can be obtained, in particular, the representation and intelligibility of that knowledge. This paper is essentially split into two parts. The first part discusses the inadequacy of everyday intelligibility and intuition in science and the consequent need for scientific theories to be expressed mathematically without appeal to commonsense categories of understanding, such as causality. Having set the backdrop, the second part addresses biological knowledge. It briefly reviews modern scientific epistemology from a general perspective and then turns to the epistemology of the cell. In analogy with a multi-faceted factory, the cell utilizes a highly parallel distributed control system to maintain its organization and regulate its dynamical operation in the face of both internal and external changes. Hence, scientific knowledge is constituted by the mathematics of stochastic dynamical systems, which model the overall relational structure of the cell and how these structures evolve over time, stochasticity being a consequence of the need to ignore a large number of factors while modeling relatively few in an extremely complex environment. PMID:21119887

  11. MOOCs: A multi-faceted phenomenon

    Ruth Kerr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on George Siemens’ recent criticism of educational technology, we propose some reflections on the positioning of the EMMA project, European Multiple MOOC Aggregator, with respect to the future of Higher Education in Europe.

  12. The Multi-Faceted Concept of Transparency

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Transparency has become a catchword and in the economic-political debate is often seen as a universal remedy for all sorts of problems. In this paper, we analyze and discuss the meaning and use of the concept of transparency in economic research. We look for common denominators across different areas where the concept is used, and find that transparency in essence is about reductions in information asymmetries, and therefore entails the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver. Tra...

  13. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  14. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  15. Limbal stem cell transplantation: current perspectives

    Atallah MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marwan Raymond Atallah, Sotiria Palioura, Victor L Perez, Guillermo Amescua Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Regeneration of the corneal surface after an epithelial insult involves division, migration, and maturation of a specialized group of stem cells located in the limbus. Several insults, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can precipitate destruction of the delicate microenvironment of these cells, resulting in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. In such cases, reepithelialization fails and conjunctival epithelium extends across the limbus, leading to vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, and chronic inflammation. In partial LSCD, conjunctival epitheliectomy, coupled with amniotic membrane transplantation, could be sufficient to restore a healthy surface. In more severe cases and in total LSCD, stem cell transplantation is currently the best curative option. Before any attempts are considered to perform a limbal stem cell transplantation procedure, the ocular surface must be optimized by controlling causative factors and comorbid conditions. These factors include adequate eyelid function or exposure, control of the ocular surface inflammatory status, and a well-lubricated ocular surface. In cases of unilateral LSCD, stem cells can be obtained from the contralateral eye. Newer techniques aim at expanding cells in vitro or in vivo in order to decrease the need for large limbal resection that may jeopardize the “healthy” eye. Patients with bilateral disease can be treated using allogeneic tissue in combination with systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Another emerging option for this subset of patients is the use of noncorneal cells such as mucosal grafts. Finally, the use of keratoprosthesis is reserved for patients who are not candidates for any of the aforementioned options, wherein the choice of the type of keratoprosthesis depends on

  16. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    Bütof, Rebecca; Baumann, Michael; Dubrovska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  17. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafrenière, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area.

  18. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HLA-D: The T Cell Perspective

    1985-01-01

    offspring of consanguineous marriage, in which case the cells are almost always homosygous for all HLA-region products; in other cases, HTCs are...story. Certain relationships exist between the class II serologically defined (I&) and T lymphocyte defined (Dw/LD) specificities. One speaks of one...DRwI4 specificities; in addition, certain of the DRI-DRwl4 specificities are supertypic to the various Dw specificities. The relationships of these

  20. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    Ahmadi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  1. Mammary Stem Cells: Premise, Properties, and Perspectives.

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Harris, Olivia B; Watson, Christine J; Davis, Felicity M

    2017-08-01

    Adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) drive postnatal organogenesis and remodeling in the mammary gland, and their longevity and potential have important implications for breast cancer. However, despite intense investigation the identity, location, and differentiation potential of MaSCs remain subject to deliberation. The application of genetic lineage-tracing models, combined with quantitative 3D imaging and biophysical methods, has provided new insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy that challenge classical definitions of MaSC potency and behaviors. We review here recent advances - discussing fundamental unresolved properties of MaSC potency, dynamics, and plasticity - and point to evolving technologies that promise to shed new light on this intractable debate. Elucidation of the physiological mammary differentiation hierarchy is paramount to understanding the complex heterogeneous breast cancer landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific Cell (Re-)Programming: Approaches and Perspectives.

    Hausburg, Frauke; Jung, Julia Jeannine; David, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Moreover, ethical concerns and legal restrictions regarding the generation and use of ESCs still exist. The establishment of direct reprogramming protocols for various therapeutically valuable somatic cell types has overcome some of these limitations. Meanwhile, new perspectives for safe and efficient generation of different specified somatic cell types have emerged from numerous approaches relying on exogenous expression of lineage-specific transcription factors, coding and noncoding RNAs, and chemical compounds.It should be of highest priority to develop protocols for the production of mature and physiologically functional cells with properties ideally matching those of their endogenous counterparts. Their availability can bring together basic research, drug screening, safety testing, and ultimately clinical trials. Here, we highlight the remarkable successes in cellular (re-)programming, which have greatly advanced the field of regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, we review recent progress on the generation of cardiomyocyte subtypes, with a focus on cardiac pacemaker cells. Graphical Abstract.

  3. Chromosome replication, cell growth, division and shape: a personal perspective

    Arieh eZaritsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The origins of Molecular Biology and Bacterial Physiology are reviewed, from our personal standpoints, emphasizing the coupling between bacterial growth, chromosome replication and cell division, dimensions and shape. Current knowledge is discussed with historical perspective, summarizing past and present achievements and enlightening ideas for future studies. An interactive simulation program of the Bacterial Cell Division Cycle (BCD, described as The Central Dogma in Bacteriology, is briefly represented. The coupled process of transcription/translation of genes encoding membrane proteins and insertion into the membrane (so-called transertion is invoked as the functional relationship between the only two unique macromolecules in the cell, DNA and peptidoglycan embodying the nucleoid and the sacculus respectively. We envision that nucleoid complexity, defined as the weighted-mean DNA content associated with the replication terminus, is directly related to cell shape through the transertion process. Accordingly, the primary signal for cell division transmitted by DNA dynamics (replication, transcription and segregation to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery is of a physico-chemical nature, eg stress in the plasma membrane, relieving nucleoid occlusion in the cell's center hence enabling the divisome to assemble and function between segregated daughter nucleoids.

  4. Priapism in Sickle Cell Disease: A Hematologist’s Perspective

    Kato, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Priapism is a familiar problem to hematologists, well known for its association with sickle cell disease. It also occurs in a variety of other hematological illnesses, nearly all forms of congenital hemolytic anemia, including other hemoglobinopathies and red blood cell membranopathies and enzymopathies. Aim Provide urologists with a comprehensive review of priapism in sickle cell disease, with an emphasis on the perspective of a practicing hematologist. Methods Medline searches through July 2010 were conducted using the terms priapism, erectile dysfunction, and sickle cell. Main Outcome Measure Expert opinion was based on review of the medical literature related to this subject matter. Results In men with sickle cell disease, large epidemiological studies have linked the risk of priapism to clinical markers of the severity of intravascular hemolysis. Extracellular hemoglobin and arginase released during hemolysis has been implicated in reducing nitric oxide bioavailability, although the relevance of hemolysis to vascular dysfunction has been challenged by some scientists. Consistent with the role of impairment of the nitric oxide axis, mice genetically deficient in nitric oxide production have also been shown to develop priapic activity. Provocative new data indicates that hemolysis-linked dysregulation of adenosine signaling in the penis contributes to priapism in sickle cell mice. Serious questions have arisen regarding the efficacy of mainstays of textbook dogma for treatment of acute severe priapism, including intravenous fluids, alkalinization and exchange transfusion, and there is increasing acceptance for early aspiration and irrigation of the corpus cavernosum. Conclusions For sickle cell patients with recurrent priapism, there is very limited evidence for a medical prophylaxis role for hydroxyurea, etilefrine, pseudoephedrine, leuprolide, sildenafil, and other agents. Recent publications have highlighted nitric oxide and adenosine signal

  5. A life-cycle perspective on automotive fuel cells

    Simons, Andrew; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Individual inventories for each fuel cell system component, current and future. • Environmental and human health burdens from fuel cell production and end-of-life. • Comparison passenger transport in fuel cell and conventional vehicles. • Fuel cell can be more critical to overall burdens than hydrogen production. • Fuel cell developments require radical but possible changes to reduce burdens. - Abstract: The production and end-of-life (EoL) processes for current and future proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems for road passenger vehicle applications were analysed and quantified in the form of life cycle inventories. The current PEMFC technology is characterised by highly sensitive operating conditions and a high system mass. For each core component of PEMFC there are a range of materials under development and the research aimed to identify those considered realistic for a 2020 future scenario and according to commercial goals of achieving higher performance, increased power density, greater stability and a marked reduction of costs. End-of-life scenarios were developed in consideration of the materials at the focus of recovery efforts. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) addressed the production and EoL of the fuel cell systems with inclusion of a sensitivity analysis to assess influences on the results from the key fuel cell parameters. The second part to the LCIA assessed the environmental and human health burdens from passenger transport in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) with comparison between the 2012 and 2020 fuel cell scenarios and referenced to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) of Euro5 emission standard. It was seen that whilst the drivetrain (and therefore the fuel cell system) is a major contributor to the emissions in all the indicators shown, the hydrogen use (and therefore the efficiency of the fuel cell system and the method of hydrogen production) can have a far greater influence on the environmental

  6. Perspectives for computational modeling of cell replacement for neurological disorders

    James B Aimone

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks has provided significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. A logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects.

  7. From embryonic stem cells to functioning germ cells: science, clinical and ethical perspectives.

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.

  8. General Perspective

    ways with other axes of inequality, like class, race, and sexuality. Gender is understood as multi-faceted .... society makes it impossible for us to move through our lives in a non gendered way and impossible not to ... of the Women's Movement began in the late. 1960s and early 1970s. Languages are just as complex as ...

  9. From "ES-like" cells to induced pluripotent stem cells: a historical perspective in domestic animals.

    Koh, Sehwon; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great potential as cell sources for gene editing to generate genetically modified animals, as well as in the field of regenerative medicine. Stable, long-term ESCs have been established in laboratory mouse and rat; however, isolation of true pluripotent ESCs in domesticated animals such as pigs and dogs have been less successful. Initially, domesticated animal pluripotent cell lines were referred to as "embryonic stem-like" cells owing to their similar morphologic characteristics to mouse ESCs, but accompanied by a limited ability to proliferate in vitro in an undifferentiated state. That is, they shared some but not all the characteristics of true ESCs. More recently, advances in reprogramming using exogenous transcription factors, combined with the utilization of small chemical inhibitors of key biochemical pathways, have led to the isolation of iPSCs. In this review, we provide a historical perspective of the isolation of various types of pluripotent stem cells in domesticated animals. In addition, we summarize the latest progress and limitations in the derivation and application of iPSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal conductivity and stability of nano size carbon black filled PDMS: Fuel cell perspective

    Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was considered as a prospective bipolar plate material candidate for a Fuel Cell. In this perspective, thermal conductivity and stability of the composites were investigated. Samples with filler weight...

  11. Patient Perspectives on Gene Transfer Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease.

    Strong, Heather; Mitchell, Monica J; Goldstein-Leever, Alana; Shook, Lisa; Malik, Punam; Crosby, Lori E

    2017-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic genetic disease with high morbidity and early mortality; it affects nearly 100,000 individuals in the USA. Bone marrow transplantation, the only curative treatment, is available to less than 20% of patients because of a number of access barriers. Gene transfer therapy (GTT) has been shown to be curative in animal models and is approved for use in humans for early-phase studies at a few centers. GTT would offer a more accessible treatment option available to all patients. It is important to understand patient perspectives on GTT to help ensure human clinical trial success. Two focus groups were conducted with younger (18-30 years) and older (31 years and older) adults with SCD to obtain data on patient knowledge and beliefs about GTT. Data from these two focus groups was used to develop a GTT educational brochure. A third focus group was conducted to obtain participant feedback on acceptability and feasibility of education and the brochure. Most adults, especially young adults, had little knowledge about GTT and expressed fear and uncertainty about the side effects of chemotherapy (e.g., hair loss, infertility), use of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived viral vector, and potential for cancer risk. Participants wanted full transparency in educational materials, but advised researchers not to share the vector's relation to HIV because of cultural stigma and no HIV virus is used for the GTT vector. Older adults had more desire to participate in human clinical GTT trials than younger participants. When recruiting for trials, researchers should develop GTT educational materials that address participant lack of trust in the healthcare system, cultural beliefs, fears related to side effects, and include visual illustrations. Use of such materials will provide adults with SCD the information they need to fully evaluate GTT.

  12. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy for malignant cancers: Summary and perspective

    Aaron J. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will summarize the data obtained primarily from the last decade of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell immunotherapy. It will do so in a manner that provides an overview needed to set the foundation for perspective on the state of research associated with CAR T cell therapy. The topics covered will include the construction of engineered CAR T cells from the standpoint of the different generations, the mode in which autologous T cells are transfected, the various biomarkers that have been used in CAR T cell immunotherapy, and setbacks associated with engineered T cells. Perspective on priorities of CAR T cell immunotherapy will also be addressed as they are related to safety and efficacy.

  13. A Perspective on the Müller Cell-Neuron Metabolic Partnership in the Inner Retina

    Toft-Kehler, A K; Skytt, D M; Kolko, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    between the vessels and neurons, Müller cells are responsible for the functional and metabolic support of the surrounding neurons. As a consequence of major energy demands in the retina, high levels of glucose are consumed and processed by Müller cells. The present review provides a perspective...

  14. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  15. Parietal cells?new perspectives in glomerular disease

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman?s capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertain...

  16. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  17. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  18. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the DG, and the so-called “mossy cells.” The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the DG network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease. PMID:23420672

  19. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

    Helen E Scharfman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuitry of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the dentate gyrus, and the so-called ‘mossy cells.’ The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the dentate gyrus network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease.

  20. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease

    Miesen, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Smeets, B.

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and

  1. Historical Perspectives and Current Challenges in Cell Microencapsulation

    de Vos, Paul; Opara, Emmanuel C.

    2017-01-01

    The principle of immunoisolation of cells is based on encapsulation of cells in immunoprotective but semipermeable membranes that protect cells from hazardous effects of the host immune system but allows ingress of nutrients and outgress of therapeutic molecules. The technology was introduced in

  2. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  3. Perspective

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  4. Neoplastic stem cells: current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Schulenburg, Axel; Brämswig, Kira; Herrmann, Harald; Karlic, Heidrun; Mirkina, Irina; Hubmann, Rainer; Laffer, Sylvia; Marian, Brigitte; Shehata, Medhat; Krepler, Clemens; Pehamberger, Hubert; Grunt, Thomas; Jäger, Ulrich; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Neoplastic stem cells have initially been characterized in myeloid leukemias where NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating progenitors supposedly reside within a CD34+/Lin- subset of the malignant clone. These progenitors are considered to be self-renewing cells responsible for the in vivo long-term growth of neoplastic cells in leukemic patients. Therefore, these cells represent an attractive target of therapy. In some lymphoid leukemias, NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating cells were also reported to reside within the CD34+/Lin- subfraction of the clone. More recently, several attempts have been made to transfer the cancer stem cell concept to solid tumors and other non-hematopoietic neoplasms. In several of these tumors, the cell surface antigens AC133 (CD133) and CD44 are considered to indicate the potential of a cell to initiate permanent tumor formation in vivo. However, several questions concerning the phenotype, self-renewal capacity, stroma-dependence, and other properties of cancer- or leukemia-initiating cells remain to be solved. The current article provides a summary of our current knowledge on neoplastic (cancer) stem cells, with special emphasis on clinical implications and therapeutic options as well as a discussion about conceptual and technical limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspectives for Cell-homing Approaches to Engineer Dental Pulp.

    Galler, Kerstin M; Widbiller, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient proof is available today to demonstrate that dental pulp tissue engineering is possible. The body of evidence was generated mainly on cell transplantation; however, because of several severe problems afflicted with this approach, it might not be feasible for a clinical setting in the near future. More recently, cell homing has been proposed as a viable alternative. We suggest a modification of the tissue engineering paradigm, where resident cells are attracted by endogenous, dentin-derived growth factors that further induce cell proliferation and differentiation and a bioactive scaffold material laden with these growth factors that serves as a template for tissue formation. This article highlights the latest developments regarding scaffold materials, stem cells, and dentin-derived growth factors specifically for a cell-homing approach to engineer dental pulp and summarizes new ideas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perspectives of stem cell use in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery

    Mikhail G. Semyonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of stem cells is one of the greatest achievements of molecular and cell biology, and associated research has confirmed the possibility of self-renewal and differentiation into specialized tissue stem cells. The use of cellular technologies is an important trend in modern medicine. The aim of this article is to briefly review current findings on the use of stem cells in cardiology, endocrinology, neurology, traumatology, and maxillofacial surgery. All data were retrieved from experimental and clinical studies using various cell technologies. The material is part of ongoing maxillofacial surgery research to investigate the possible use of stem cells in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery for jaw bone pathologies in children. Present tissue engineering methods provide some opportunities for solving difficult clinical problems in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Despite some international achievements of effective application of IC in various diseases, clinical use in reconstructive surgery requires further investigation.

  7. Current perspectives in Set7 mediated stem cell differentiation

    Nazanin Karimnia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Set7 is a key regulatory enzyme involved in the methylation of lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. This lysine methyltransferase is induced during stem cell differentiation and regulates lineage specific gene transcription and cell fate. In this article we discuss recent experimental evidence identifying regulatory targets under the control of Set7 as well as emerging evidence of regulation in stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the function of non-coding RNAs regulated by Set7 implicated in cell plasticity.

  8. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  9. Prospects of poisoning – a multi facet study

    Pradeep K. Mishra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to find out demographic profile, clinical characteristics and analysis of poison in clinical set up. The study carried out in Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Total 75 cases of poisoning were studied for demographic profile, vitals (BP, pulse, heart rate, pupils, etc., clinical features (such as vomiting, salivation, consciousness, etc., type of poison and its analysis. Results : Poisoning was more common in cases between 15 and 25 years of age, in males than in females and in Hindu religion. Poisoning cases were predominantly from rural areas and in married people. Majority of cases were discharged after proper treatment and counseling. Altered vitals and clinical features were found in most of the cases. Organophosphate and aluminum phosphide compound were evaluated in most of the cases. Conclusions : Preventive measures should be applied through educating people, proper counseling, promoting poison information centers, and introducing separate toxicological units in hospitals.

  10. Inclusive Education Is a Multi-Faceted Concept

    Mitchell, David

    2015-01-01

    With the impetus of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, inclusive education is an idea whose time has arrived around the world. Its scope goes far beyond learners with disabilities and has now been extended to cover all learners with special educational needs, whatever their origins. It also extends beyond the mere…

  11. Multi-faceted data gathering and analyzing system

    Gustavson, D.B.; Rich, K.

    1977-10-01

    A low-cost general purpose data gathering and analyzing system based on a microprocessor, an interface to CAMAC, and a phone link to a time-sharing system was implemented. The parts cost for the microprocessor system was about $6000. The microprocessor buffers the data such that the variable response of the time-sharing system is acceptable for performing real-time data acquisition. The full power and flexibility of the time-sharing system excels at the task of on-line data analysis once this buffering problem is solved. 4 figures

  12. The study of dykes has multi-faceted importance

    They can be geochemically fingerprinted such that swarms of different age can be distinguished and their chemistry reflects the composition of subcontinental lithosphere rather the effects of crustal contamination.

  13. Rethinking the Eurocentric Library Workplace: A Multi-faceted Process.

    Jolivet, Linda C.; Knowles, Em Claire

    1996-01-01

    Defining and expanding diversity in the workplace may involve reassessment of the dominant workplace culture in libraries, in order to foster better understanding and more effective management, retention, and promotion of librarians of color. Highlights include a selected bibliography and a survey instrument that analyzes the dominant culture of a…

  14. A multi-faceted approach to research development (I) : Addressing ...

    In the second article, we discuss: management and support; mentoring; engagement with post-graduate programmes; incentives; resources; and creating research initiatives. The article is directed at novel researchers, senior staff engaged in post-graduate supervision, mentoring and research development, and HE ...

  15. A multi-faceted approach to research development (II): Supporting ...

    This article discusses a number of critical areas of research development that have been identified: addressing perceptions and myths about research; management and support; mentoring; engagement with postgraduate programmes; incentives; resources; and creating research initiatives. For each of these critical areas, ...

  16. Beyond OCR : Multi-faceted understanding of handwritten document characteristics

    He, Sheng; Schomaker, Lambert

    Handwritten document understanding is a fundamental research problem in pattern recognition and it relies on the effective features. In this paper, we propose a joint feature distribution (JFD) principle to design novel discriminative features which could be the joint distribution of features on

  17. Multi-Faceted Discipline Strategies of Chinese Parenting

    Fung, Heidi; Li, Jin; Lam, Chi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Parental disciplining of their misbehaving children continues to draw much research attention. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles has been frequently used to classify Chinese parenting as more authoritarian. Although influential, research tends predominantly to focus on abstract characterization. Yet, parenting is a practice informed by…

  18. Multi-faceted evaluation for nuclear fuel cycles with transmutation

    Nishihara, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Environment impact, economy and proliferation resistance were estimated for nuclear fuel cycles involving transmutation by fast reactor and accelerator-driven system in equilibrium state. As a result, the transmutation scenario using only fast reactor was superior to the scenarios combined with accelerator-driven system in all estimation, but the differences were insignificant. (author)

  19. Biogas industry, multi-faceted and essential for the future

    Talpin, Juliette; Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Dejeu, Mathieu; Petitot, Pauline; Le Clech, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In France, biogas industry will play a key role is the coming energy transition, both in terms of activity and employment. According to the white book of the Biogas Club of the Energy-Environment Technical Association (ATEE), which synthesizes the present-day situation and the recommendations of professionals concerning the future of projects - in particular the methanation ones, this role is going to occupy a strategic position. Projects will have various sizes and several studies have analysed the conditions of their technical optimization and profitability. Whatever biogas origin, a proper exploitation is of prime importance to reach efficiency. This dossier presents in 10 articles an overview of the development of biogas industry in France, from the regulatory aspects to some examples of methanation facilities and the use of methane in cogeneration units and transportation systems

  20. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Sikorski, J.

    2009-12-01

    In order to fully attain the benefits of inquiry-based learning, instructors who typically employ the traditional lecture format need to make several adjustments to their approach. This change in styles can be intimidating and logistically difficult to overcome. A stepwise approach to this transformation is likely to be more manageable for individual faculty or departments. In this session, we will describe several features that we are implementing in our introductory geology course with the ultimate goal of converting to an entirely inquiry-based approach. Our project is part of the Miami University initiative in the top 25 enrolled courses to move towards the “student as scholar” model for engaged learning. Some of the features we developed for our course include: student learning outcomes, student development outcomes, out-of-class content quizzes, in-class conceptests, pre-/post-course assessment, reflective knowledge surveys, and daily group activities.

  1. Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target.

    Kaur, Rimplejeet; Ambwani, Sneha R; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions. Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Tourette's syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system. Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008. Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that act selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted. Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids. In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as "protective" and "disease inducing substance", time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.

  2. CELL-SELEX: Novel Perspectives of Aptamer-Based Therapeutics

    Hans P. Wendel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, single stranded DNA or RNA molecules, generated by a method called SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment have been widely used in various biomedical applications. The newly developed Cell-SELEX (cell based-SELEX targeting whole living cells has raised great expectations for cancer biology, -therapy and regenerative medicine. Combining nanobiotechnology with aptamers, this technology opens the way to more sophisticated applications in molecular diagnosis. This paper gives a review of recent developments in SELEX technologies and new applications of aptamers.

  3. Challenges and future perspectives of T cell immunotherapy in cancer

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P; Malhotra, Anshu; Mishra, Manoj K; Shanker, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Since the formulation of the tumour immunosurveillance theory, considerable focus has been on enhancing the effectiveness of host antitumour immunity, particularly with respect to T cells. A cancer evades or alters the host immune response by various ways to ensure its development and survival. These include modifications of the immune cell metabolism and T cell signaling. An inhibitory cytokine milieu in the tumour microenvironment also leads to immune suppression and tumour progression within a host. This review traces the development in the field and attempts to summarize the hurdles that the approach of adoptive T cell immunotherapy against cancer faces, and discusses the conditions that must be improved to allow effective eradication of cancer. PMID:26096822

  4. Grafting of human epidermal cells, presence and perspectives

    Smetana, Karel; Dvořánková, B.; Labský, Jiří; Vacík, Jiří; Holíková, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2001), s. 1-6 ISSN 0036-5327 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1310; GA AV ČR IBS4050005; GA MZd ND6340; GA MŠk LN00A065; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cell therapy-keratinocyte-epidermal stem cell * skin defect Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. A drug development perspective on targeting tumor-associated myeloid cells.

    Majety, Meher; Runza, Valeria; Lehmann, Christian; Hoves, Sabine; Ries, Carola H

    2018-02-01

    Despite decades of research, cancer remains a devastating disease and new treatment options are needed. Today cancer is acknowledged as a multifactorial disease not only comprising of aberrant tumor cells but also the associated stroma including tumor vasculature, fibrotic plaques, and immune cells that interact in a complex heterotypic interplay. Myeloid cells represent one of the most abundant immune cell population within the tumor stroma and are equipped with a broad functional repertoire that promotes tumor growth by suppressing cytotoxic T cell activity, stimulating neoangiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Therefore, myeloid cells have become an attractive target for pharmacological intervention. In this review, we summarize the pharmacological approaches to therapeutically target tumor-associated myeloid cells with a focus on advanced programs that are clinically evaluated. In addition, for each therapeutic strategy, the preclinical rationale as well as advantages and challenges from a drug development perspective are discussed. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    Mark Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are a common cause of morbidity and a significant health burden on society. Tendons are structural tissues connecting muscle to bone and are prone to tearing and tendinopathy, an overuse or degenerative condition that is characterized by failed healing and cellular depletion. Current treatments, for tendon tear are conservative, surgical repair or surgical scaffold reconstruction. Tendinopathy is treated by exercises, injection therapies, shock wave treatments or surgical tendon debridement. However, tendons usually heal with fibrosis and scar tissue, which has suboptimal tensile strength and is prone to reinjury, resulting in lifestyle changes with activity restriction. Preclinical studies show that cell therapies have the potential to regenerate rather than repair tendon tissue, a process termed tenogenesis. A number of different cell lines, with varying degrees of differentiation, have being evaluated including stem cells, tendon derived cells and dermal fibroblasts. Even though cellular therapies offer some potential in treating tendon disorders, there have been few published clinical trials to determine the ideal cell source, the number of cells to administer, or the optimal bioscaffold for clinical use.

  7. Cancer cell metastasis; perspectives from the focal adhesion

    Lefteris C Zacharia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In almost all cancers, most patients die from metastatic disease and not from the actual primary tumor. That is why addressing the problem of metastasis is of utmost importance for the successful treatment and improved survival of cancer patients. Metastasis is a complex process that ultimately leads to cancer cells spreading from the tumor to distant sites of the body. During this process, cancer cells tend to lose contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM and neighboring cells within the primary tumor, and are thus able to invade surrounding tissues. Hence, ECM, and the ECM-associated adhesion proteins play a critical role in the metastatic process. This review will focus on recent literature regarding interesting and novel molecules at the cell-ECM adhesion sites, namely migfilin, mitogen-inducible gene-2 (Mig-2 and Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1, that are also critically involved in cancer cell metastasis, emphasizing on data from experiments performed in vitro in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines as well as human breast cancer tissue samples.

  8. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  9. Perspectives on the Use of Stem Cells for Autism Treatment

    Dario Siniscalco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. ASDs are clinically defined by deficits in communication, social skills, and repetitive and/or restrictive interests and behaviours. With the prevalence rates for ASDs rapidly increasing, the need for effective therapies for autism is a priority for biomedical research. Currently available medications do not target the core symptoms, can have markedly adverse side-effects, and are mainly palliative for negative behaviours. The development of molecular and regenerative interventions is progressing rapidly, and medicine holds great expectations for stem cell therapies. Cells could be designed to target the observed molecular mechanisms of ASDs, that is, abnormal neurotransmitter regulation, activated microglia, mitochondrial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruptions, and chronic intestinal inflammation. Presently, the paracrine, secretome, and immunomodulatory effects of stem cells would appear to be the likely mechanisms of application for ASD therapeutics. This review will focus on the potential use of the various types of stem cells: embryonic, induced pluripotential, fetal, and adult stem cells as targets for ASD therapeutics.

  10. Turning Perspective in Photoelectrocatalytic Cells for Solar Fuels.

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-02-19

    The development of new devices for the use and storage of solar energy is a key step to enable a new sustainable energy scenario. The route for direct solar-to-chemical energy transformation, especially to produce liquid fuels, represents a necessary element to realize transition from the actual energy infrastructure. Photoelectrocatalytic (PECa) devices for the production of solar fuels are a key element to enable this sustainable scenario. The development of PECa devices and related materials is of increasing scientific and applied interest. This concept paper introduces the need to turn the viewpoint of research in terms of PECa cell design and related materials with respect to mainstream activities in the field of artificial photosynthesis and leaves. As an example of a new possible direction, the concept of electrolyte-less cell design for PECa cells to produce solar fuels by reduction of CO2 is presented. The fundamental and applied development of new materials and electrodes for these cells should proceed fully integrated with PECa cell design and systematic analysis. A new possible approach to develop semiconductors with improved performances by using visible light is also shortly presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Concise review: carbon nanotechnology: perspectives in stem cell research.

    Pryzhkova, Marina V

    2013-05-01

    Carbon nanotechnology has developed rapidly during the last decade, and carbon allotropes, especially graphene and carbon nanotubes, have already found a wide variety of applications in industry, high-tech fields, biomedicine, and basic science. Electroconductive nanomaterials have attracted great attention from tissue engineers in the design of remotely controlled cell-substrate interfaces. Carbon nanoconstructs are also under extensive investigation by clinical scientists as potential agents in anticancer therapies. Despite the recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. However, acquired experience with and knowledge of carbon nanomaterials may be efficiently used in the development of future personalized medicine and in tissue engineering.

  12. Building the hydrogen/fuel cell industry: an EDC perspective

    FitzGerald, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canada has world-leading expertise in a number of hydrogen and fuel cell research segments. However, there are no guarantees that a strong research position necessarily translates into a large industry sector. The challenge facing Canada is to remain a leader in the coming years and decades as this hub of research activity evolves into an actual business sector. Many other countries are actively investing in hydrogen and fuel cell research. If these countries and their national governments are more committed than Canada to this commercial pursuit, then we will be left behind. Mr. Stothart's presentation will highlight a number of observations and recommendations regarding what is needed to build a successful hydrogen and fuel cell sector in Canada. (author)

  13. Systems biology perspectives on minimal and simpler cells.

    Xavier, Joana C; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Rocha, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  15. Perspectives

    Unknown

    Heart muscle was a favorite source of this reagent. ... was a freezing microtome, the gadget used for making the frozen ... covered the linear relationship between the growth rate ..... dency on medium and temperature of cell size and chemical.

  16. Thin film solar cells: research in an industrial perspective.

    Edoff, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) and Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) as the sunlight-absorbing layer.

  17. Progress, challenges and perspectives in flexible perovskite solar cells

    Di Giacomo, F.; Fakharuddin, A.; Jose, R.; Brown, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous interest since their discovery only a few years ago because they are able to combine the benefits of high efficiency and remarkable ease of processing over large areas. Whereas most of research has been carried out on glass, perovskite deposition and

  18. Spectral perspective on the electromagnetic activity of cells

    Kučera, Ondřej; Červinková, Kateřina; Nerudová, Michaela; Cifra, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2015), s. 513-522 ISSN 1568-0266 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29294S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic activity of cells * Bioelectromagnetism * Molecular vibrations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.900, year: 2015

  19. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease.

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-07-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively. For PECs, no specific function other than a structural one has been known until recently. Possible important functions for PECs in the fate of the glomerulus in glomerular disease have now become apparent: (1) PECs may be involved in the replacement of lost podocytes; (2) PECs form the basis of extracapillary proliferative lesions and subsequent sclerosis in glomerular disease. In addition to the acknowledgement that PECs are crucial in glomerular disease, knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular processes driving the phenotypic changes and behavior of PECs. Understanding these molecular processes is important for the development of specific therapeutic approaches aimed at either stimulation of the regenerative function of PECs or inhibition of the pro-sclerotic action of PECs. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to the role of PECs in glomerular regeneration and disease and address the major molecular processes involved.

  20. [Perspectives of cell therapy in sequelae from cerebrovascular accidents].

    Otero, Laura; Zurita, Mercedes; Bonilla, Celia; Aguayo, Concepción; Rico, Miguel Angel; Vaquero, Jesús

    2012-09-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with mortality between 40 and 50% of cases. Among the survivors, only 10% are independent after one month, there is no effective treatment of sequelae, except for the limited possibilities providing for rehabilitation. We review the current experience with intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow as a potential treatment of neurological sequelae occurring after experimental ICH. We describe the model of ICH by intracerebral administration of collagenaseIV at basal ganglia level in Wistar rats. Neurological deficits caused by ICH can be quantified through a variety of functional assessment test (NMSS, Rota-rod, VTB-test). 5×10allogeneic MSCs in 10μl of saline were administered intracerebrally in 10 animals, 2 months after ICH. In another 10 animals (controls) the same volume of saline was administered. Changes in the functional deficits were assessed during the next 6 months in both experimental groups. The results suggested therapeutic efficacy of MSCs transplantation and showed that transplanted stem cells can survive in the injured brain, transforming into neurons and glial cells. This form of cell therapy induces reactivation of endogenous neurogenesis at the subventricular zone (SVZ) and achieves antiapoptotic protective effect in the injured brain. Cell therapy represents an important field of research with potential clinical application to treatment of neurological sequels, currently considered irreversible. Neurosurgeons should become involved in the development of these new techniques that are likely to shape the future of this specialty. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. What is materialism? Testing two dominant perspectives on materialism in the marketing literature

    Manchiraju Srikant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Materialism is defined as the importance an individual attaches to worldly possessions, which has been considered as an important construct in consumer behavior and marketing literature. There are two dominant perspectives on individual materialism in the marketing literature that focus on (1 personality traits or (2 individual personal values. However, several scholars have questioned the aforementioned materialism conceptualizations. Therefore, the present study directly compares the constructs of personality materialism and value materialism. Structural equation modeling was employed to address the following issues: (1 what are the key conceptual dimensions of materialism, (2 how much do they overlap, and (3 what is their discriminant validity in predicting outcomes linked to materialism. We suggest these two dominant perspectives on individual materialism are two distinct constructs, as they shared only 21 percent of common variance. Furthermore, we stress the multi-faceted nature of materialism, with an emphasis on future research directions related to materialism in marketing.

  2. Social Pedagogy and Social Work: An analysis of their Relationship from a Socio-pedagogical Perspective

    Ewa Marynowicz-Hetka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for the relationship between social pedagogy and social work will be made in this manuscript. It is assumed that social work is a certain type of practice cultivated by representatives of the social professions. Social pedagogy can provide an analysis of the field of social work, helping to orient activities within the field and to determine the proper selection of ways of conduct, a kind of a meta-theory. Such an approach enables interaction and cooperation between representatives of multiple disciplines within the humanities and social sciences who are engaged in social work. It also has consequences for the acceptance of multi-faceted and multi-dimensional approaches to activities in the field of social work, which is recognized as an important field for social pedagogues, allowing them to carry out social actions from various perspectives, socio-pedagogical among them. The socio-pedagogical perspective on social work will be analyzed in this article.

  3. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  4. Non-Small Cell Carcinoma Biomarker Testing: The Pathologist's Perspective.

    Elisa eBrega

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker testing has become standard of care for patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. Although it can be successfully performed in circulating tu-mor cells, at present, the vast majority of investigations are carried out using di-rect tumor sampling, either through aspiration methods, which render most often isolated cells, or tissue sampling, that could range from minute biopsies to large resections. Consequently, pathologists play a central role in this process. Recent evidence suggests that refining NSCLC diagnosis might be clinically signifi-cant, particularly in cases of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC, which in turn, has prompted a new proposal for the histologic classification of such pulmonary neo-plasms. These changes, in conjunction with the mandatory incorporation of biomarker testing in routine NSCLC tissue processing, have directly affected the pathologist’s role in lung cancer work-up. This new role pathologists must play is complex and demanding, and requires a close interaction with surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and molecular pathologists. Pathologists often find themselves as the central figure in the coordination of a process, that involves assuring that the tumor samples are properly fixed, but without disruption of the DNA structure, obtaining the proper diagnosis with a minimum of tissue waste, providing pre-analytical evaluation of tumor samples selected for biomarker testing, which includes assessment of the proportion of tumor to normal tissues, as well as cell viability, and assuring that this entire pro-cess happens in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is part of the pathologist’s respon-sibilities to assure that the samples received in their laboratories, be processed in a manner that allows for optimal biomarker testing. This article goal is to discuss the essential role pathologists must play NSCLC bi-omarker testing, as well as to provide a summarized review of the main NSCLC bi-omarkers of

  5. Perspective role of stem cells application in neuropsychiatric research

    Syková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2003), s. 148 ISSN 0924-977X. [Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology /16./. Prague, 20.09.2003-24.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA ČR GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111300004 Keywords : stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.842, year: 2003

  6. Mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells: general insights and clinical perspectives

    Zomer HD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Helena D Zomer,1 Atanásio S Vidane,1 Natalia N Gonçalves,1 Carlos E Ambrósio2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells have awakened a great deal of interest in regenerative medicine due to their plasticity, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. They are high-yield and can be acquired through noninvasive methods from adult tissues. Moreover, they are nontumorigenic and are the most widely studied. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be derived directly from adult cells through gene reprogramming. The new iPS technology avoids the embryo destruction or manipulation to generate pluripotent cells, therefore, are exempt from ethical implication surrounding embryonic stem cell use. The pre-differentiation of iPS cells ensures the safety of future approaches. Both mesenchymal stem cells and iPS cells can be used for autologous cell transplantations without the risk of immune rejection and represent a great opportunity for future alternative therapies. In this review we discussed the therapeutic perspectives using mesenchymal and iPS cells. Keywords: cell transplantation, cell therapy, iPS, MSC

  7. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  8. Perspectives

    Unknown

    kinetics, and on the other of electrophysiology in cell membranes, seldom ... Consider the effects that would arise from spatially coupling such ... electrical potential to make it a partial differential equa- tion. ... tended to two dimensions, then to three dimensions after ..... Some of these other conjectures stem from observation.

  9. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  10. Perspectives on the Trypanosoma cruzi–host cell receptor interactions

    Villalta, Fernando; Scharfstein, Julio; Ashton, Anthony W.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Guan, Fangxia; Mukherjee, Shankar; Lima, Maria F.; Alvarez, Sandra; Weiss, Louis M.; Huang, Huan; Machado, Fabiana S.

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The critical initial event is the interaction of the trypomastigote form of the parasite with host receptors. This review highlights recent observations concerning these interactions. Some of the key receptors considered are those for thromboxane, bradykinin, and for the nerve growth factor TrKA. Other important receptors such as galectin-3, thrombospondin, and laminin are also discussed. Investigation into the molecular biology and cell biology of host receptors for T. cruzi may provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:19283409

  11. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation.

    Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J; Rebo, Justin

    2015-10-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a "silver bullet" putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are "beyond parabiosis" for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging.

  12. Modern Perspectives on Numerical Modeling of Cardiac Pacemaker Cell

    Maltsev, Victor A.; Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Anna V.; Stern, Michael D.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac pacemaking is a complex phenomenon that is still not completely understood. Together with experimental studies, numerical modeling has been traditionally used to acquire mechanistic insights in this research area. This review summarizes the present state of numerical modeling of the cardiac pacemaker, including approaches to resolve present paradoxes and controversies. Specifically we discuss the requirement for realistic modeling to consider symmetrical importance of both intracellular and cell membrane processes (within a recent “coupled-clock” theory). Promising future developments of the complex pacemaker system models include the introduction of local calcium control, mitochondria function, and biochemical regulation of protein phosphorylation and cAMP production. Modern numerical and theoretical methods such as multi-parameter sensitivity analyses within extended populations of models and bifurcation analyses are also important for the definition of the most realistic parameters that describe a robust, yet simultaneously flexible operation of the coupled-clock pacemaker cell system. The systems approach to exploring cardiac pacemaker function will guide development of new therapies, such as biological pacemakers for treating insufficient cardiac pacemaker function that becomes especially prevalent with advancing age. PMID:24748434

  13. Programmed cell death in periodontitis: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Song, B; Zhou, T; Yang, W L; Liu, J; Shao, L Q

    2017-07-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens, while other risk factors including smoking, stress, and systemic diseases aggravate its progression. Periodontitis affects many people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens and risk factors destroy the periodontium are unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), different from necrosis, is an active cell death mediated by a cascade of gene expression events and can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Although PCD is involved in many inflammatory diseases, its correlation with periodontitis is unclear. After reviewing the relevant published articles, we found that apoptosis has indeed been reported to play a role in periodontitis. However, the role of autophagy in periodontitis needs further verification. Additionally, implication of necroptosis or pyroptosis in periodontitis remains unknown. Therefore, we recommend future studies, which will unravel the pivotal role of PCD in periodontitis, allowing us to prevent, diagnose, and treat the disease, as well as predict its outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV (2014), "7129-1"-"7129-11" ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell death * non-thermal plasma * therapeutic perspectives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; FH - Neurology (UEM-P); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  15. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.

  16. Fanconi anemia and the cell cycle: new perspectives on aneuploidy

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a complex heterogenic disorder of genomic instability, bone marrow failure, cancer predisposition, and congenital malformations. The FA signaling network orchestrates the DNA damage recognition and repair in interphase as well as proper execution of mitosis. Loss of FA signaling causes chromosome instability by weakening the spindle assembly checkpoint, disrupting centrosome maintenance, disturbing resolution of ultrafine anaphase bridges, and dysregulating cytokinesis. Thus, the FA genes function as guardians of genome stability throughout the cell cycle. This review discusses recent advances in diagnosis and clinical management of Fanconi anemia and presents the new insights into the origins of genomic instability in FA. These new discoveries may facilitate the development of rational therapeutic strategies for FA and for FA-deficient malignancies in the general population. PMID:24765528

  17. Advances in Merkel cell carcinoma from a pathologist's perspective.

    Barksdale, Sarah Kay

    2017-10-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rarely made but potentially devastating diagnosis. While local disease might be cured by surgery and radiotherapy, advanced disease is usually rapidly progressive and fatal. Until very recently, the only approach to metastatic MCC was cytotoxic chemotherapy with results so disappointing that current treatment guidelines discourage its use and recommend clinical trial as a more viable treatment option. Fortunately, recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this tumour have produced a wide variety of experimental treatments for MCC, some of which are quite promising. The most current information regarding the diagnosis, staging, management of this tumour is briefly presented as well as new insights into the molecular basis of MCC and therapeutic approaches to MCC. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perspectives for induced pluripotent stem cell technology: new insights into human physiology involved in somatic mosaicism.

    Nagata, Naoki; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-31

    Induced pluripotent stem cell technology makes in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells from individuals with various genetic backgrounds possible. By applying this technology, it is possible to produce pluripotent stem cells from biopsy samples of arbitrarily selected individuals with various genetic backgrounds and to subsequently maintain, expand, and stock these cells. From these induced pluripotent stem cells, target cells and tissues can be generated after certain differentiation processes. These target cells/tissues are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology testing, and proof-of-concept studies in drug development. Therefore, the number of publications concerning induced pluripotent stem cells has recently been increasing rapidly, demonstrating that this technology has begun to infiltrate many aspects of stem cell biology and medical applications. In this review, we discuss the perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cell technology for modeling human diseases. In particular, we focus on the cloning event occurring through the reprogramming process and its ability to let us analyze the development of complex disease-harboring somatic mosaicism.

  19. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  20. Modeling microenvironmental regulation of glioblastoma stem cells: a biomaterials perspective

    Heffernan, John M.; Sirianni, Rachael W.

    2018-02-01

    Following diagnosis of a glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor, surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation together yield a median patient survival of only 15 months. Importantly, standard treatments fail to address the dynamic regulation of the brain tumor microenvironment that actively supports tumor progression and treatment resistance. It is becoming increasingly recognized that specialized niches within the tumor microenvironment maintain a population of highly malignant glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSCs are resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that they may be responsible for the near universal rates of tumor recurrence and associated morbidity in GBM. Thus, disrupting microenvironmental support for GSCs could be critical to developing more effective GBM therapies. Three-dimensional (3D) culture models of the tumor microenvironment are powerful tools for identifying key biochemical and biophysical inputs that impact malignant behaviors. Such systems have been used effectively to identify conditions that regulate GSC proliferation, invasion, stem-specific phenotypes, and treatment resistance. Considering the significant role that GSC microenvironments play in regulating this tumorigenic sub-population, these models may be essential for uncovering mechanisms that limit GSCs malignancy.

  1. Perspective on Cancer Therapeutics Utilizing Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Keun-Yeong Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are available for cancer screening, and the methods are performed depending on the origin site of cancer. Among these methods, biopsy followed by medical imaging is the most common. After cancer progression is determined, an optimal treatment—such as surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy—is selected. A new assay has been developed that detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs. Tracking changes in CTCs may reveal important tumoral sensitivity information or resistance patterns to specific regimens and prompt changes in therapy on a personalized basis. Characterization of CTCs at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels is important for gaining insight for clinical applications. A small number of CTCs can be analyzed to obtain genome information such as the progression of cancer including metastasis, even in a single cluster. Although many clinical studies, particularly CTC enumeration and detection of specific oncogene expression, have increased the success rate of diagnosis and predicting prognosis, there is no consensus regarding the technical approaches and various aspects of the methodology, making it difficult to standardize optimal methods for CTC analysis. However, ongoing technological advances are currently being achieved and large-scale clinical studies are being conducted. Applying CTC analysis in the clinic would be very useful for advancing diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and therapeutics.

  2. Perspectives on research and development of microbial fuel cells

    Ortega-Martinez, A.; Vazquez Larios, A.L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hectorpoggi2001@gmail.com; rareli@hotmail.com

    2009-09-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC), is an anoxic electrochemical bioreactor where bacteria grow in the absence of oxygen in a chamber containing an anode which it may be covered by a biofilm. Microorganisms anoxically oxidize the organic substrate and electrons generated are released to the anode. Released protons are transferred to the cathode. Natural or forced aeration of the cathode supplies the oxygen for the final reaction 2H{sup +} + 2e{sup -} + (1/2) O{sub 2} = H{sub 2}O. In this work, we present a critical review on MFC focused on subjects that are receiving a growing interest from the research and technological communities: (i) types of MFC, their relative advantages and disadvantages and ranges of application; (ii) development of biocathodes; (iii) enrichment procedures of microbial communities in MFC. Recent research shows that one-chamber fitted with cathode aerated by natural aeration, and other special types of high performance MFC, have displaced the historical two-chamber MFC. Recent studies showed that electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) can be successfully enriched in MFC. The cost and eventual poisoning of the platinum catalyst used at the cathode is a major limitation to MFC application and economic viability. Researchers have started working on the concept of biocathodes that would use bacteria instead of platinum as a biocatalyst. Microbial enrichment of inocula seeded to MFC may provide a way to enrich the consortium with EAB, thus substantially increasing the transfer of electrons to the anode. Bioaugmentation of consortia in MFC with strains EAB, could contribute to the same goal. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible microbianas (CCM) son un biorrector anoxico donde las bacterias crecen en ausencia de oxigeno en una camara que contiene un anodo que puede cubrirse con una biopelicula. Los microorganismos oxidan onoxicamente el sustrato organico y los electrones generados se liberan al anodo. Los protones liberados se transfieren al catodo. La

  3. Age-old wisdom concerning cell-based therapies with added knowledge in the stem cell era: our perspectives

    Preethy S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senthilkumar Preethy,1,2 Sudhakar John,1 Jegatheesan Saravana Ganesh,1 Thangavelu Srinivasan,1 Hiroshi Terunuma,3 Masaru Iwasaki,4 Samuel J Abraham1,4 1Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine, 2Hope Foundation Trust, Chennai, India; 3Biotherapy Institute of Japan, Tokyo, 4Yamanashi University School of Medicine, Chuo, Japan Abstract: Among the various strategies providing a cure for illness, cell-based therapies have caught the attention of the world with the advent of the "stem cell" era. Our inherent understanding indicates that stem cells have been in existence since the birth of multicellular organisms. However, the formal discovery of stem cells in the last century, followed by their intricate and extensive analysis, has led to clinical and translational efforts with the aim of using them in the treatment of conditions which don't have a definitive therapeutic strategy, has fueled our interest and expectations. Technological advances in our ability to study their cellular components in depth, along with surface markers and other finer constituents, that were unknown until last century, have improved our understanding, leading to several novel applications. This has created a need to establish guidelines, and in that process, there are expressed understandings and views which describe cell therapy along lines similar to that of biologic products, drugs, and devices. However, the age-old wisdom of using cells as tools for curing illness should not be misled by recent knowledge, to make cell therapy using highly complex stem cells equal to factory-synthesized and reproducible chemical compounds, drugs, or devices. This article analyses the differences between these two entities from various perspectives. Keywords: cell transplantation, drugs, regenerative medicine, stem cells

  4. ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius –A reconstitution perspective

    Tobias eHärtel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Synthetic Biology, it has become an intriguing question what would be the minimal representation of cell division machinery. Thus, it seems appropriate to compare how cell division is realized in different microorganisms. In particular, the cell division system of Crenarchaeota lacks certain proteins found in most bacteria and Euryarchaeota, such as FtsZ, MreB or the Min system. The Sulfolobaceae family encodes functional homologs of the eukaryotic proteins Vps4 and ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III is essential for several eukaryotic pathways, e.g. budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs, or cytokinesis, whereas Vps4 dissociates the ESCRT-III complex from the membrane. CdvA (Cell Division A is required for the recruitment of crenarchaeal ESCRT-III proteins to the membrane at mid-cell. The proteins polymerize and form a smaller structure during constriction. Thus, ESCRT-III mediated cell division in S. acidocaldarius shows functional analogies to the Z ring observed in prokaryotes like E. coli, which has recently begun to be reconstituted in vitro. In this short perspective, we discuss the possibility of building such an in vitro cell division system on basis of archaeal ESCRT-III.

  5. Advances in stem cells and regenerative medicine: single-cell dynamics, new models and translational perspectives.

    Twigger, Alecia-Jane; Scheel, Christina H

    2017-09-01

    An international cohort of over 300 stem cell biologists came together in Heidelberg, Germany in May 2017 as delegates of the 'Advances in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine' conference run through the European Molecular Biology Organization. This Meeting Review highlights the novel insights into stem cell regulation, new technologies aiding in discovery and exciting breakthroughs in the field of regenerative medicine that emerged from the meeting. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Autophagy in Stem Cell Biology: A Perspective on Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation

    Xihang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process that degrades modified, surplus, or harmful cytoplasmic components by sequestering them in autophagosomes which then fuses with the lysosome for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis, as well as for remodeling during normal development. Impairment of this process has been implicated in various diseases, in the pathogenic response to bacterial and viral infections, and in aging. Pluripotent stem cells, with their ability to self-replicate and to give rise to any specialized cell type, are very valuable resources for cell-based medical therapies and open a number of promising avenues for studying human development and disease. It has been suggested that autophagy is vital for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in stem cells, and subsequently more in-depth knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in stem cell biology has been acquired recently. In this review, we describe the most significant advances in the understanding of autophagy regulation in hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as in induced pluripotent stem cells. In particular, we highlight the roles of various autophagy activities in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of these stem cells.

  7. New perspectives in cell delivery systems for tissue regeneration: natural-derived injectable hydrogels.

    Munarin, Fabiola; Petrini, Paola; Bozzini, Sabrina; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-09-27

    Natural polymers, because of their biocompatibility, availability, and physico-chemical properties have been the materials of choice for the fabrication of injectable hydrogels for regenerative medicine. In particular, they are appealing materials for delivery systems and provide sustained and controlled release of drugs, proteins, gene, cells, and other active biomolecules immobilized.In this work, the use of hydrogels obtained from natural source polymers as cell delivery systems is discussed. These materials were investigated for the repair of cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, intervertebral disc, neural, and cardiac tissue. Papers from the last ten years were considered, with a particular focus on the advances of the last five years. A critical discussion is centered on new perspectives and challenges in the regeneration of specific tissues, with the aim of highlighting the limits of current systems and possible future advancements.

  8. Compound polycrystalline solar cells. Recent progress and Y2K perspective

    Birkmire, R.W. [Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, DE 19716 Newark (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A historical perspective on the development of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} is presented, and recent progress of these thin-film technologies is discussed. Impressive improvements in the efficiency of laboratory scale devices has not been easy to translate to the manufacturing environment, principally due to our lack of understanding of the basic science and engineering of these materials and devices. 'Next-generation' high-performance thin-film solar cells utilizing multijunction device configurations should achieve efficiencies of more than 25% within ten years. However, our cost-effective manufacturing of these more complex devices will be problematic unless the science and engineering issues associated with processing of thin-film PV devices are addressed.

  9. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric to Adult Care Transition: Perspectives of Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Porter, Jerlym S; Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi S; Rupff, Rebecca J; Hankins, Jane S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components. Adult provider relationships and negative medical experiences emerged as salient factors. YAs ranked choosing an adult provider, seeking emergency care, understanding medications/medication adherence, knowing SCD complications, and being aware of the impact of health behaviors as the most important topics to include in transition programming. The unique perspectives of YAs can inform the development and evaluation of SCD transition programming by incorporating the identified themes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Perspective on the prospects of a carrier multiplication nanocrystal solar cell.

    Nair, Gautham; Chang, Liang-Yi; Geyer, Scott M; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2011-05-11

    This article presents a perspective on the experimental and theoretical work to date on the efficiency of carrier multiplication (CM) in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Early reports on CM in NCs suggested large CM efficiency enhancements. However, recent experiments have shown that CM in nanocrystalline samples is not significantly stronger, and often is weaker, than in the parent bulk when compared on an absolute photon energy basis. This finding is supported by theoretical consideration of the CM process and the competing intraband relaxation. We discuss the experimental artifacts that may have led to the apparently strong CM estimated in early reports. The finding of bulklike CM in NCs suggests that the main promise of quantum confinement is to boost the photovoltage at which carriers can be extracted. With this in mind, we discuss research directions that may result in effective use of CM in a solar cell.

  12. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  13. Involvement of Programmed Cell Death in Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Song, Bin; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Jia; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-11-01

    The widespread application of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP-based products has increased the risk of exposure to NPs in humans. The brain is an important organ that is more susceptible to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, any impairment to the brain is irreversible. Recently, several in vivo studies have found that metallic NPs can be absorbed into the animal body and then translocated into the brain, mainly through the blood-brain barrier and olfactory pathway after systemic administration. Furthermore, metallic NPs can cross the placental barrier to accumulate in the fetal brain, causing developmental neurotoxicity on exposure during pregnancy. Therefore, metallic NPs become a big threat to the brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs remain unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), which is different from necrosis, is defined as active cell death and is regulated by certain genes. PCD can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. It is involved in brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and brain injury. Given the pivotal role of PCD in neurological functions, we reviewed relevant articles and tried to summarize the recent advances and future perspectives of PCD involvement in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, with the purpose of comprehensively understanding the neurotoxic mechanisms of NPs.

  14. Challenges and perspectives to enhance cattle production via in vitro techniques: focus on epigenetics and cell-secreted vesicles

    Fabiana Fernandes Bressan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aim to present some clinical problems found in IVP-derived animals focusing on NT procedures and to discuss the possible role of epigenetics in such process. Also, as cell-secreted vesicles have been reported as possible regulators of important physiological reproductive processes such as folliculogenesis and fertilization, it is also presented herein a new perspective of manipulating the pre-implantation period trough effector molecules contained in such vesicles.

  15. Perspectives on stem cell therapy for cardiac regeneration. Advances and challenges.

    Choi, Sung Hyun; Jung, Seok Yun; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Baek, Sang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) accelerates cardiomyocyte loss, but the developing stem cell research could be useful for regenerating a variety of tissue cells, including cardiomyocytes. Diverse sources of stem cells for IHD have been reported, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, skeletal myoblasts, bone marrow-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cardiac stem cells. However, stem cells have unique advantages and disadvantages for cardiac tissue regeneration, which are important considerations in determining the specific cells for improving cell survival and long-term engraftment after transplantation. Additionally, the dosage and administration method of stem cells need to be standardized to increase stability and efficacy for clinical applications. Accordingly, this review presents a summary of the stem cell therapies that have been studied for cardiac regeneration thus far, and discusses the direction of future cardiac regeneration research for stem cells.

  16. Present and future perspectives on immunotherapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Going to the core or beating around the bush?

    Hidenori Kawashima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic lesions of renal cell carcinoma (RCC occasionally regress spontaneously after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Although this is an exceptionally rare occurrence, RCC has thus been postulated to be immunogenic. Immunotherapies, including cytokine therapy, peptide-based vaccines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have therefore been used to treat patients with advanced, metastatic RCC. We review the history, trends, and recent progress in immunotherapy for advanced RCC and discuss future perspectives, with consideration of our experimental work on galectin 9 and PINCH as promising specific immunotherapy targets. 

  17. Future perspective of induced pluripotent stem cells for diagnosis, drug screening and treatment of human diseases.

    Lian, Qizhou; Chow, Yenyen; Esteban, Miguel Angel; Pei, Duanqing; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in stem cell biology have transformed the understanding of cell physiology and developmental biology such that it can now play a more prominent role in the clinical application of stem cell and regenerative medicine. Success in the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) as well as related emerging technology on the iPS platform provide great promise in the development of regenerative medicine. Human iPS cells show almost identical properties to human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in pluripotency, but avoid many of their limitations of use. In addition, investigations into reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells facilitate a deeper understanding of human stem cell biology. The iPS cell technology has offered a unique platform for studying the pathogenesis of human disease, pharmacological and toxicological testing, and cell-based therapy. Nevertheless, significant challenges remain to be overcome before the promise of human iPS cell technology can be realised.

  18. Gestão Democrática: Abertura para a Acessibilidade do Sujeito de Identidade Surda Múltipla e Multifacetada nas Instituições de Ensino. Democratic Management: Opening accessibility for subject of deaf identity multiple and multi-faceted in the regular education

    Santos, Sheila Batista Maia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo refletimos sobre Gestão Democrática, Projeto Político Pedagógico e Currículo na interface das representações linguísticas e sócio-antropológicas dos Sujeitos de Identidades Surdas Múltiplas e Multifacetadas no processo de inclusão. Para isto foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico com autores que referendam as temáticas: coordenação pedagógica, educação e surdez - na perspectiva das identidades culturais na pós-modernidade -, Lei 10.436/2002 e do Decreto 5626/2005. Assim, as implementações apontadas fundamentam-se nas idiossincrasias destes sujeitos: língua materna - Língua de Sinais -, historicidade, cultura, identidade, pedagogia surda, e Língua Portuguesa como segunda língua.In this article we reflect on Democratic Management, Political Pedagogical Project and Curriculum at the interface representations and socio-anthropological Subjects’ Identity Deaf multiple and multifaceted process of inclusion. To this was done a literature with authors who endorse the following themes: education supervision, education and deafness - from the perspective of cultural identities in post-modernity, of Decree Law 10436/2002 and 5626/2005. Thus, the implementations identified based upon the idiosyncrasies of these subjects: native language - sign language - history, culture, identity, pedagogy deaf, and Portuguese as a second language.

  19. Regulatory perspective on in vitro potency assays for human mesenchymal stromal cells used in immunotherapy

    de Wolf, Charlotte; van de Bovenkamp, Marja; Hoefnagel, Marcel C

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells derived from various tissues that can differentiate into several cell types. MSCs are able to modulate the response of immune cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Because of these multimodal properties, the potential use of MSCs for

  20. Boosting Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapy with Anticancer Drugs: a Perspective.

    Cifaldi, Loredana; Locatelli, Franco; Marasco, Emiliano; Moretta, Lorenzo; Pistoia, Vito

    2017-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells efficiently recognize and kill tumor cells through several mechanisms including the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors on target cells. Different clinical trials indicate that NK cell-based immunotherapy represents a promising antitumor treatment. However, tumors develop immune-evasion strategies, including downregulation of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors, that can negatively affect antitumor activity of NK cells, which either reside endogenously, or are adoptively transferred. Thus, restoration of the expression of NK cell-activating ligands on tumor cells represents a strategic therapeutic goal. As discussed here, various anticancer drugs can fulfill this task via different mechanisms. We envision that the combination of selected chemotherapeutic agents with NK cell adoptive transfer may represent a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cells and personalized medicine: current progress and future perspectives

    Chun, Yong Soon; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2011-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. iPSCs can self-renew and can differentiate into many cell types, offering a potentially unlimited source of cells for targeted differentiation into somatic effector cells. Hence, iPSCs are likely to be invaluable for therapeutic applications and disease-related research. In this review, we summar...

  2. Harnessing Invariant NKT Cells to Improve Influenza Vaccines: A Pig Perspective

    Guan Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are an “innate-like” T cell lineage that recognize glycolipid rather than peptide antigens by their semi-invariant T cell receptors. Because iNKT cells can stimulate an extensive array of immune responses, there is considerable interest in targeting these cells to enhance human vaccines against a wide range of microbial pathogens. However, long overlooked is the potential to harness iNKT cell antigens as vaccine adjuvants for domestic animal species that express the iNKT cell–CD1d system. In this review, we discuss the prospect of targeting porcine iNKT cells as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of swine influenza vaccines. In addition, we compare the phenotype and tissue distribution of porcine iNKT cells. Finally, we discuss the challenges that must be overcome before iNKT cell agonists can be contemplated for veterinary use in livestock.

  3. Gender Perspectives in Language | Nelson | Science, Technology ...

    Gender is multi-faceted, always changing, but often contested. It is embedded in our institutions, our actions, our beliefs, and our desires, that it appears to us to be completely natural. Gender is, after all, a system of meaning -- a way of construing notions of male and female – and language is the primary means through ...

  4. Perspectives from Global Feminist Theology

    Vuola, Elina

    2017-01-01

    This article pays critical attention to the ways in which academic feminism has regarded religion. Issues related to religion and gender have by and large either been ignored or treated quite stereotypically. I have called this phenomenon a simultaneous under- and overestimation of religion. The phenomenon is not global. Feminists of the global south tend to pay much more and more multi-faceted attention to religion than scholars from the global north. I will illustrate this problem through a...

  5. PRX1 knockdown potentiates vitamin K3 toxicity in cancer cells: a potential new therapeutic perspective for an old drug.

    He, Tiantian; Hatem, Elie; Vernis, Laurence; Lei, Ming; Huang, Meng-Er

    2015-12-21

    significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2, which was partially responsible for vitK3-induced ROS accumulation and consequent cell death. Our data suggest that PRX1 inactivation could represent an interesting strategy to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to vitK3, providing a potential new therapeutic perspective for this old molecule. Conceptually, a combination of drugs that modulate intracellular redox states and drugs that operate through the generation of ROS could be a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

  6. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cell Normal Cellular Counterpart: Clues From a Functional Perspective.

    Darwiche, Walaa; Gubler, Brigitte; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Ghamlouch, Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease. Immunophenotypic and molecular approaches (including immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutational status, transcriptional and epigenetic profiling) comparing the normal B-cell subset and CLL B-cells provide some new insights into the normal cellular counterpart. Functional characteristics (including activation requirements and propensity for plasma cell differentiation) of CLL B-cells have now been investigated for 50 years. B-cell subsets differ substantially in terms of their functional features. Analysis of shared functional characteristics may reveal similarities between normal B-cell subsets and CLL B-cells, allowing speculative assignment of a normal cellular counterpart for CLL B-cells. In this review, we summarize current data regarding peripheral B-cell differentiation and human B-cell subsets and suggest possibilities for a normal cellular counterpart based on the functional characteristics of CLL B-cells. However, a definitive normal cellular counterpart cannot be attributed on the basis of the available data. We discuss the functional characteristics required for a cell to be logically considered to be the normal counterpart of CLL B-cells.

  7. Cell Fusion in the War on Cancer: A Perspective on the Inception of Malignancy

    Jeffrey L. Platt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell fusion occurs in development and in physiology and rarely in those settings is it associated with malignancy. However, deliberate fusion of cells and possibly untoward fusion of cells not suitably poised can eventuate in aneuploidy, DNA damage and malignant transformation. How often cell fusion may initiate malignancy is unknown. However, cell fusion could explain the high frequency of cancers in tissues with low underlying rates of cell proliferation and mutation. On the other hand, cell fusion might also engage innate and adaptive immune surveillance, thus helping to eliminate or retard malignancies. Here we consider whether and how cell fusion might weigh on the overall burden of cancer in modern societies.

  8. Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective.

    Huang, George T-J; Al-Habib, Mey; Gauthier, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell-based and cell-free. The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. Studies in small and large animals have demonstrated that pulp/dentin-like tissues can be regenerated partially or completely in the root canal space with apical openings of 0.7-3.0 mm using dental pulp stem cells, including stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and subpopulations of pulp stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) have also been shown to regenerate pulp-like tissue. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration. However, one crucial concept has not been considered nor defined in the field of pulp/dentin regeneration and that is the critical size defect of dentin and pulp. Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. By reasoning, cell-free therapy is unlikely to regenerate an organ/tissue after total loss. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp, it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration. Although stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration has shown great promise, clinical trials are difficult to launch at present. This article will address several issues that challenge and hinder the clinical applications of pulp/dentin regeneration which need to be overcome before stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration can occur in the clinic.

  9. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion, Benefits, and Barriers

    Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…

  10. Pluripotent cells in farm animals: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Niemann, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ cells and embryonic carcinoma cells are a unique type of cell because they remain undifferentiated indefinitely in in vitro culture, show self-renewal and possess the ability to differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers. These capabilities make them a unique in vitro model for studying development, differentiation and for targeted modification of the genome. True pluripotent ESCs have only been described in the laboratory mouse and rat. However, rodent physiology and anatomy differ substantially from that of humans, detracting from the value of the rodent model for studies of human diseases and the development of cellular therapies in regenerative medicine. Recently, progress in the isolation of pluripotent cells in farm animals has been made and new technologies for reprogramming of somatic cells into a pluripotent state have been developed. Prior to clinical application of therapeutic cells differentiated from pluripotent stem cells in human patients, their survival and the absence of tumourigenic potential must be assessed in suitable preclinical large animal models. The establishment of pluripotent cell lines in farm animals may provide new opportunities for the production of transgenic animals, would facilitate development and validation of large animal models for evaluating ESC-based therapies and would thus contribute to the improvement of human and animal health. This review summarises the recent progress in the derivation of pluripotent and reprogrammed cells from farm animals. We refer to our recent review on this area, to which this article is complementary.

  11. Cell-biomaterial mechanical interaction in the framework of tissue engineering: insights, computational modeling and perspectives.

    Sanz-Herrera, Jose A; Reina-Romo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research which combines the use of cell-seeded biomaterials both in vitro and/or in vivo with the aim of promoting new tissue formation or regeneration. In this context, how cells colonize and interact with the biomaterial is critical in order to get a functional tissue engineering product. Cell-biomaterial interaction is referred to here as the phenomenon involved in adherent cells attachment to the biomaterial surface, and their related cell functions such as growth, differentiation, migration or apoptosis. This process is inherently complex in nature involving many physico-chemical events which take place at different scales ranging from molecular to cell body (organelle) levels. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the mechanical environment at the cell-biomaterial location may play an important role in the subsequent cell function, which remains to be elucidated. In this paper, the state-of-the-art research in the physics and mechanics of cell-biomaterial interaction is reviewed with an emphasis on focal adhesions. The paper is focused on the different models developed at different scales available to simulate certain features of cell-biomaterial interaction. A proper understanding of cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the development of predictive models in this sense, may add some light in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields.

  12. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapy - a perspective on cell biological mechanisms.

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2017-10-26

    Recent clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation have demonstrated procedural safety and clinical proof of principle with a modest indication of benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While replacement therapy remained unrealistic, the clinical efficacy of this therapeutic option could be potentially enhanced if we could better decipher the mechanisms underlying some of the beneficial effects of transplanted cells, and work toward augmenting or combining these in a strategic manner. Novel ways whereby MSCs could act in modifying disease progression should also be explored. In this review, I discuss the known, emerging and postulated mechanisms of action underlying effects that transplanted MSCs may exert to promote motor neuron survival and/or to encourage regeneration in ALS. I shall also speculate on how transplanted cells may alter the diseased environment so as to minimize non-neuron cell autonomous damages by immune cells and astrocytes.

  13. Therapeutic Potential, Challenges and Future Perspective of Cancer Stem Cells in Translational Oncology: A Critical Review.

    Shukla, Gaurav; Khera, Harvinder Kour; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Khare, Piush; Patidar, Rahul; Saxena, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell research is a rapidly developing field that offers effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell is a regenerative medicine associated with the replacement, repair, and restoration of injured tissue. Stem cell research is a promising field having maximum therapeutic potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cells within the tumor that posses capacity of selfrenewal and have a root cause for the failure of traditional therapies leading to re-occurrence of cancer. CSCs have been identified in blood, breast, brain, and colon cancer. Traditional therapies target only fast growing tumor mass, but not slow-dividing cancer stem cells. It has been shown that embryonic pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch, control self-renewal capacity and involved in cancer stem cell maintenance. Targeting of these pathways may be effective in eradicating cancer stem cells and preventing chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Targeting CSCs has become one of the most effective approaches to improve the cancer survival by eradicating the main root cause of cancer. The present review will address, in brief, the importance of cancer stem cells in targeting cancer as better and effective treatment along with a concluding outlook on the scope and challenges in the implication of cancer stem cells in translational oncology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Retroviral infection of non-dividing cells: Old and new perspectives

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Emerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of retroviral replication on cell proliferation was described as early as 1958, although different classes of retroviruses are able to infect non-dividing cells with different efficiencies. For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other lentiviruses infect most non-dividing cells nearly as well as dividing cells, while the gammaretroviruses such as the murine leukemia virus (MLV) cannot infect non-dividing cells, and other retroviruses have intermediate phenotypes. One exception to the ability of HIV to infect non-dividing cells involves resting CD4+ T cells in vitro where there are multiple restrictions. However, recent data show that there is massive infection of non-activated CD4+ T cell during acute infection which suggests that the situation is different in vivo. Finally, much work trying to explain the difference between HIV and MLV in non-dividing cells has focused on describing the ability of HIV to enter the nucleus during interphase. However, we suggest that events in the viral lifecycle other than nuclear import may be more important in determining the ability of a given retrovirus to infect non-dividing cells

  15. Intact mammalian cell function on semi-conductor nanowire arrays: new perspectives for cell-based biosensing

    Berthing, Trine; Bonde, Sara; Sørensen, Claus Birger

    2011-01-01

    . A selection of critical cell functions and pathways are shown not to be impaired, including cell adhesion, membrane integrity, intracellular enzyme activity, DNA uptake, cytosolic and membrane protein expression, and the neuronal maturation pathway. The results demonstrate the low invasiveness of InAs NW......Nanowires (NWs) are attracting more and more interest due to their potential cellular applications, such as delivery of compounds or sensing platforms. Arrays of vertical indium-arsenide (InAs) NWs are interfaced with human embryonic kidney cells and rat embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons...

  16. Perspective: Hybrid solar cells: How to get the polymer to cooperate?

    Jonas Weickert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, a lot of attention has been paid to metal oxide-organic hybrid solar cells. In these devices, conjugated polymers replace the typically transparent hole transporter as usually used in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells in order to maximize the photon absorption efficiency. However, to unleash the full potential of hybrid solar cells it is imperative to push the photocurrent contribution of the absorbing polymer.

  17. Perspectives of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Age-Related Retinal Degenerative Diseases.

    Holan, Vladimir; Hermankova, Barbora; Kossl, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases, which include age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, mostly affect the elderly population and are the most common cause of decreased quality of vision or even blindness. So far, there is no satisfactory treatment protocol to prevent, stop, or cure these disorders. A great hope and promise for patients suffering from retinal diseases is represented by stem cell-based therapy that could replace diseased or missing retinal cells and support regeneration. In this respect, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained from the particular patient and used as autologous cells have turned out to be a promising stem cell type for treatment. Here we show that MSCs can differentiate into cells expressing markers of retinal cells, inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by retinal tissue, and produce a number of growth and neuroprotective factors for retinal regeneration. All of these properties make MSCs a prospective cell type for cell-based therapy of age-related retinal degenerative diseases.

  18. Perspectives of purinergic signaling in stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration.

    Glaser, Talita; Cappellari, Angélica Regina; Pillat, Micheli Mainardi; Iser, Isabele Cristiana; Wink, Márcia Rosângela; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Ulrich, Henning

    2012-09-01

    Replacement of lost or dysfunctional tissues by stem cells has recently raised many investigations on therapeutic applications. Purinergic signaling has been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and successful engraftment of stem cells originated from diverse origins. Adenosine triphosphate release occurs in a controlled way by exocytosis, transporters, and lysosomes or in large amounts from damaged cells, which is then subsequently degraded into adenosine. Paracrine and autocrine mechanisms induced by immune responses present critical factors for the success of stem cell therapy. While P1 receptors generally exert beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory activity, P2 receptor-mediated actions depend on the subtype of stimulated receptors and localization of tissue repair. Pro-inflammatory actions and excitatory tissue damages mainly result from P2X7 receptor activation, while other purinergic receptor subtypes participate in proliferation and differentiation, thereby providing adequate niches for stem cell engraftment and novel mechanisms for cell therapy and endogenous tissue repair. Therapeutic applications based on regulation of purinergic signaling are foreseen for kidney and heart muscle regeneration, Clara-like cell replacement for pulmonary and bronchial epithelial cells as well as for induction of neurogenesis in case of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Breast Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutics, Multiple Strategies Versus Using Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Notch Inhibitory Properties: Possibilities and Perspectives.

    Bose, Bipasha; Sen, Utsav; Shenoy P, Sudheer

    2018-01-01

    Relapse cases of cancers are more vigorous and difficult to control due to the preponderance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such CSCs that had been otherwise dormant during the first incidence of cancer gradually appear as radiochemoresistant cancer cells. Hence, cancer therapeutics aimed at CSCs would be an effective strategy for mitigating the cancers during relapse. Alternatively, CSC therapy can also be proposed as an adjuvant therapy, along-with the conventional therapies. As regenerative stem cells (RSCs) are known for their trophic effects, anti-tumorogenicity, and better migration toward an injury site, this review aims to address the use of adult stem cells such as dental pulp derived; cord blood derived pure populations of regenerative stem cells for targeting CSCs. Indeed, pro-tumorogenicity of RSCs is of concern and hence has also been dealt with in relation to breast CSC therapeutics. Furthermore, as notch signaling pathways are upregulated in breast cancers, and anti-notch antibody based and sh-RNA based therapies are already in the market, this review focuses the possibilities of engineering RSCs to express notch inhibitory proteins for breast CSC therapeutics. Also, we have drawn a comparison among various possibilities of breast CSC therapeutics, about, notch1 inhibition. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 141-149, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hypoxia is no hype: Perspectives across Phylogeny, Stem Cell differentiation & Geochemistry

    Editorial

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influence of atmospheric gases in the eco systems on the habituating living organisms, an area of focus of the geochemists and astro-biologists, have been known for eons. Though the modus operandi of the implication varies between unicellular and multi-system centered organisms up in the ladder of phylogeny, their significance though known, the intricacies to the fullest extent have not been thoroughly understood to enable us to exploit them to our best in bringing solutions to address various problems. In this issue, Ito et al have reported a simple hypoxic culture system [1] with a built-in deoxidizing agent capable of promoting stem cell proliferation, repressing cell senescence without aggravating the stem cell viability. Studying hypoxia gains significance because oxygen exerts a profound influence on life on earth. Oxygen requirements differ across cells, tissues, organisms and phylogeny. The primitive life forms on earth which formed nearly four billion years ago were able to thrive without oxygen, which became a life influencing factor only two billion years ago during when its levels in the atmosphere were actually toxic to the organisms which evolved ways to detoxify them and over time these organisms became dependant on oxygen [2]. Among cellular processes, the low energy supply during a hypoxic metabolic state allows only DNA replication or basic cell reproduction functions which are essential for a cell’s survival suppressing the specialised functions like differentiation [2]. Thus, stemness is preserved more efficiently under hypoxia and it is suggested that in vitro stem cells should ideally be maintained at oxygen concentrations lower than 1% and approaching zero which recapitulate the atmospheric oxygen concentrations that existed on earth 2-3 billion years ago, as stem cells are believed to reflect an early evolutionary stage compared to other cells [2]. Hypoxia has shown to promote stemness in various kinds of stem cells

  1. A Perspective on the Interplay of Ultraviolet-Radiation, Skin Microbiome and Skin Resident Memory TCRαβ+ Cells

    VijayKumar Patra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human skin is known to be inhabited by diverse microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and mites. This microbiome exerts a protective role against infections by promoting immune development and inhibiting pathogenic microbes to colonize skin. One of the factors having an intense effect on the skin and its resident microbes is ultraviolet-radiation (UV-R. UV-R can promote or inhibit the growth of microbes on the skin and modulate the immune system which can be either favorable or harmful. Among potential UV-R targets, skin resident memory T cells (TRM stand as well positioned immune cells at the forefront within the skin. Both CD4+ or CD8+ αβ TRM cells residing permanently in peripheral tissues have been shown to play prominent roles in providing accelerated and long-lived specific immunity, tissue homeostasis, wound repair. Nevertheless, their response upon UV-R exposure or signals from microbiome are poorly understood compared to resident TCRγδ cells. Skin TRM survive for long periods of time and are exposed to innumerable antigens during lifetime. The interplay of TRM with skin residing microbes may be crucial in pathophysiology of various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and polymorphic light eruption. In this article, we share our perspective about how UV-R may directly shape the persistence, phenotype, specificity, and function of skin TRM; and moreover, whether UV-R alters barrier function, leading to microbial-specific skin TRM, disrupting the healthy balance between skin microbiome and skin immune cells, and resulting in chronic inflammation and diseased skin.

  2. Toward genome-scale models of the Chinese hamster ovary cells: incentives, status and perspectives

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocessing of the important Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines used for the production of biopharmaceuticals stands at the brink of several redefining events. In 2011, the field entered the genomics era, which has accelerated omics-based phenotyping of the cell lines. In this review we...

  3. Stem cells and regenerative medicine in domestic and companion animals: a multispecies perspective.

    Gonçalves, N N; Ambrósio, C E; Piedrahita, J A

    2014-10-01

    Since their original isolation, the majority of the work on embryonic stem cells (ESC) has been carried out in mice. While the mouse is an outstanding model for basic research, it also has considerable limitations for translational work, especially in the area of regenerative medicine. This is due to a combination of factors that include physiological and size differences when compared to humans. In contrast, domestic animal species, such as swine, and companion animal species, such as dogs, provide unique opportunities to develop regenerative medicine protocols that can then be utilized in humans. Unfortunately, at present, the state of knowledge related to, and availability of, ESC from domestic animals vary among species such as pig, horse, dog and cat, and without exception lags significantly behind the mouse and human. It is clear that much still needs to be discovered. The 'stem cell-like' cell lines being reported are still not satisfactorily used in regenerative medicine, due to reasons such as heterogeneity and chromosomal instability. As a result, investigators have searched for alternate source of cells that can be used for regenerative medicine. This approach has uncovered a range of adult stem cells and adult progenitor cells that have utility in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we review a range of stem cells, from ESC to induced pluripotent stem cells, and discuss their potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Noncompliance and Dissent with Cell Phone Policies: A Psychological Reactance Theoretical Perspective

    Tatum, Nicholas T.; Olson, Michele K.; Frey, T. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study employed Brehm's psychological reactance theory (PRT) to understand why students do or do not choose to follow classroom cell phone policies. Results (N = 750) from this study demonstrate that when instructors discourage cell phone use for noninstructional reasons, students feel their autonomy has been threatened. These perceptions of…

  5. Use of the TEM Cell for Compliance Testing of Emissions and Immunity, an IEC Perspective

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    The current work of the IEC on preparing a standard for the use of TEM cells for compliance testing of emissions and immunity is reviewed. The requirements of TEM cells are related to the established procedures: “open area test site” and “shielded enclosure with area of uniform field”, respective...

  6. The art of CHO cell engineering: A comprehensive retrospect and future perspectives.

    Fischer, Simon; Handrick, René; Otte, Kerstin

    2015-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells represent the most frequently applied host cell system for industrial manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics. CHO cells are capable of producing high quality biologics exhibiting human-like post-translational modifications in gram quantities. However, production processes for biopharmaceuticals using mammalian cells still suffer from cellular limitations such as limited growth, low productivity and stress resistance as well as higher expenses compared to bacterial or yeast based expression systems. Besides bioprocess, media and vector optimizations, advances in host cell engineering technologies comprising introduction, knock-out or post-transcriptional silencing of engineering genes have paved the way for remarkable achievements in CHO cell line development. Furthermore, thorough analysis of cellular pathways and mechanisms important for bioprocessing steadily unravels novel target molecules which might be addressed by functional genomic tools in order to establish superior production cell factories. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most fundamental achievements in CHO cell engineering over the past three decades. Finally, the authors discuss the potential of novel and innovative methodologies that might contribute to further enhancement of existing CHO based production platforms for biopharmaceutical manufacturing in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Of mice and women: a comparative tissue biology perspective of breast stem cells and differentiation.

    Dontu, Gabriela; Ince, Tan A

    2015-06-01

    Tissue based research requires a background in human and veterinary pathology, developmental biology, anatomy, as well as molecular and cellular biology. This type of comparative tissue biology (CTB) expertise is necessary to tackle some of the conceptual challenges in human breast stem cell research. It is our opinion that the scarcity of CTB expertise contributed to some erroneous interpretations in tissue based research, some of which are reviewed here in the context of breast stem cells. In this article we examine the dissimilarities between mouse and human mammary tissue and suggest how these may impact stem cell studies. In addition, we consider the differences between breast ducts vs. lobules and clarify how these affect the interpretation of results in stem cell research. Lastly, we introduce a new elaboration of normal epithelial cell types in human breast and discuss how this provides a clinically useful basis for breast cancer classification.

  8. Bone marrow micrometastases and circulating tumor cells: current aspects and future perspectives

    Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Early tumor cell dissemination at the single-cell level can be revealed in patients with breast cancer by using sensitive immunocytochemical and molecular assays. Recent clinical studies involving more than 4000 breast cancer patients demonstrated that the presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow at primary diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor. In addition, various assays for the detection of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood have recently been developed and some studies also suggest a potential clinical relevance of this measure. These findings provide the basis for the potential use of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow or blood as markers for the early assessment of therapeutic response in prospective clinical trials

  9. At the cutting edge: applications and perspectives of laser nanosurgery in cell biology.

    Ronchi, Paolo; Terjung, Stefan; Pepperkok, Rainer

    2012-04-01

    Laser-mediated nanosurgery has become popular in the last decade because of the previously unexplored possibility of ablating biological material inside living cells with sub-micrometer precision. A number of publications have shown the potential applications of this technique, ranging from the dissection of sub-cellular structures to surgical ablations of whole cells or tissues in model systems such as Drosophila melanogaster or Danio rerio . In parallel, the recent development of micropatterning techniques has given cell biologists the possibility to shape cells and reproducibly organize the intracellular space. The integration of these two techniques has only recently started yet their combination has proven to be very interesting. The aim of this review is to present recent applications of laser nanosurgery in cell biology and to discuss the possible developments of this approach, particularly in combination with micropattern-mediated endomembrane organization.

  10. Regeneration of articular cartilage by adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: perspectives from stem cell biology and molecular medicine.

    Wu, Ling; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Shu; Karperien, Marcel; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been discovered for more than a decade. Due to the large numbers of cells that can be harvested with relatively little donor morbidity, they are considered to be an attractive alternative to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, isolation and differentiation of ASCs draw great attention in the research of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Cartilage defects cause big therapeutic problems because of their low self-repair capacity. Application of ASCs in cartilage regeneration gives hope to treat cartilage defects with autologous stem cells. In recent years, a lot of studies have been performed to test the possibility of using ASCs to re-construct damaged cartilage tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the most up-to-date articles utilizing ASCs for cartilage regeneration in basic and translational research. Our topic covers differentiation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, increased cartilage formation by co-culture of ASCs with chondrocytes and enhancing chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs by gene manipulation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Novel perspectives of neural stem cell differentiation: from neurotransmitters to therapeutics.

    Trujillo, Cleber A; Schwindt, Telma T; Martins, Antonio H; Alves, Janaína M; Mello, Luiz Eugênio; Ulrich, Henning

    2009-01-01

    In the past years, many reports have described the existence of neural progenitor and stem cells in the adult central nervous system capable of generating new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This discovery has overturned the central assumption in the neuroscience field, of no new neurons being originated in the brain after birth and provided the fundaments to understand the molecular basis of neural differentiation and to develop new therapies for neural tissue repair. Although the mechanisms underlying cell fate during neural development are not yet understood, the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and of an appropriate microenvironment is well known. In this context, emerging evidence strongly suggests that glial cells play a key role in controlling multiple steps of neurogenesis. Those cells, of particular radial glia, are important for migration, cell specification, and integration of neurons into a functional neural network. This review aims to present an update in the neurogenesis area and highlight the modulation of neural stem cell differentiation by neurotransmitters, growth factors, and their receptors, with possible applications for cell therapy strategies of neurological disorders.

  12. Stem cell transplantation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: therapeutic potential and perspectives on clinical translation.

    Faravelli, Irene; Riboldi, Giulietta; Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Zanetta, Chiara; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. There are currently no clinically impactful treatments for this disorder. Death occurs 3-5 years after diagnosis, usually due to respiratory failure. ALS pathogenesis seems to involve several pathological mechanisms (i.e., oxidative stress, inflammation, and loss of the glial neurotrophic support, glutamate toxicity) with different contributions from environmental and genetic factors. This multifaceted combination highlights the concept that an effective therapeutic approach should counteract simultaneously different aspects: stem cell therapies are able to maintain or rescue motor neuron function and modulate toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) at the same time, eventually representing the most comprehensive therapeutic approach for ALS. To achieve an effective cell-mediated therapy suitable for clinical applications, several issues must be addressed, including the identification of the most performing cell source, a feasible administration protocol, and the definition of therapeutic mechanisms. The method of cell delivery represents a major issue in developing cell-mediated approaches since the cells, to be effective, need to be spread across the CNS, targeting both lower and upper motor neurons. On the other hand, there is the need to define a strategy that could provide a whole distribution without being too invasive or burdened by side effects. Here, we review the recent advances regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for ALS with a focus on the minimally invasive strategies that could facilitate an extensive translation to their clinical application.

  13. Interplay between Natural Killer Cells and Anti-HER2 Antibodies: Perspectives for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Aura Muntasell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 defines a subgroup of breast tumors with aggressive behavior. The addition of HER2-targeted antibodies (i.e., trastuzumab, pertuzumab to chemotherapy significantly improves relapse-free and overall survival in patients with early-stage and advanced disease. Nonetheless, considerable proportions of patients develop resistance to treatment, highlighting the need for additional and co-adjuvant therapeutic strategies. HER2-specific antibodies can trigger natural killer (NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and indirectly enhance the development of tumor-specific T cell immunity; both mechanisms contributing to their antitumor efficacy in preclinical models. Antibody-dependent NK cell activation results in the release of cytotoxic granules as well as the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IFNγ and TNFα and chemokines. Hence, NK cell tumor suppressive functions include direct cytolytic killing of tumor cells as well as the regulation of subsequent antitumor adaptive immunity. Albeit tumors with gene expression signatures associated to the presence of cytotoxic lymphocyte infiltrates benefit from trastuzumab-based treatment, NK cell-related biomarkers of response/resistance to HER2-specific therapeutic antibodies in breast cancer patients remain elusive. Several variables, including (i the configuration of the patient NK cell repertoire; (ii tumor molecular features (i.e., estrogen receptor expression; (iii concomitant therapeutic regimens (i.e., chemotherapeutic agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors; and (iv evasion mechanisms developed by progressive breast tumors, have been shown to quantitatively and qualitatively influence antibody-triggered NK cell responses. In this review, we discuss possible interventions for restoring/enhancing the therapeutic activity of HER2 therapeutic antibodies by harnessing NK cell antitumor potential through

  14. Modeling bistable cell-fate choices in the Drosophila eye: qualitative and quantitative perspectives

    Graham, Thomas G. W.; Tabei, S. M. Ali; Dinner, Aaron R.; Rebay, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of developmental biology is to understand the molecular mechanisms whereby genetic signaling networks establish and maintain distinct cell types within multicellular organisms. Here, we review cell-fate decisions in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster and the experimental results that have revealed the topology of the underlying signaling circuitries. We then propose that switch-like network motifs based on positive feedback play a central role in cell-fate choice, and discuss how mathematical modeling can be used to understand and predict the bistable or multistable behavior of such networks. PMID:20570936

  15. Perspective for special Gurdon issue for differentiation: can cell fusion inform nuclear reprogramming?

    Burns, David; Blau, Helen M

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear reprogramming was first shown to be possible by Sir John Gurdon over a half century ago. The process has been revolutionized by the production of induced pluripotent cells by overexpression of the four transcription factors discovered by Shinya Yamanaka, which now enables mammalian applications. Yet, reprogramming by a few transcription factors remains incomplete and inefficient, whether to pluripotent or differentiated cells. We propose that a better understanding of mechanistic insights based on developmental principles gained from heterokaryon studies may inform the process of directing cell fate, fundamentally and clinically. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms.

  17. Key Success Factors and Future Perspective of Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    S. Binetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, after more than 70 years of continued progress on silicon technology, about 85% of cumulative installed photovolatic (PV modules are based on crystalline silicon (c-Si. PV devices based on silicon are the most common solar cells currently being produced, and it is mainly due to silicon technology that the PV has grown by 40% per year over the last decade. An additional step in the silicon solar cell development is ongoing, and it is related to a further efficiency improvement through defect control, device optimization, surface modification, and nanotechnology approaches. This paper attempts to briefly review the most important advances and current technologies used to produce crystalline silicon solar devices and in the meantime the most challenging and promising strategies acting to increase the efficiency to cost/ratio of silicon solar cells. Eventually, the impact and the potentiality of using a nanotechnology approach in a silicon-based solar cell are also described.

  18. RNAi Technique in Stem Cell Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Zou, Gang-Ming

    2017-01-01

    RNAi is a mechanism displayed by most eukaryotic cells to rid themselves of foreign double-strand RNA molecules. In the 18 years since the initial report, RNAi has now been demonstrated to function in mammalian cells to alter gene expression and has been used as a means for genetic discovery as well as a possible strategy for genetic correction and genetic therapy in cancer and other disease. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of how RNAi suppresses gene expression and to examine some published RNAi approaches that have resulted in changes in stem cell function and suggest the possible clinical relevance of this work in cancer therapy through targeting cancer stem cells.

  19. Bone Marrow Stem Cell Derived Paracrine Factors for Regenerative Medicine: Current Perspectives and Therapeutic Potential

    Tom J. Burdon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years, there has been intense research in the field of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC therapy to facilitate its translation into clinical setting. Although a lot has been accomplished, plenty of challenges lie ahead. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence showing that administration of BMSC-derived conditioned media (BMSC-CM can recapitulate the beneficial effects observed after stem cell therapy. BMSCs produce a wide range of cytokines and chemokines that have, until now, shown extensive therapeutic potential. These paracrine mechanisms could be as diverse as stimulating receptor-mediated survival pathways, inducing stem cell homing and differentiation or regulating the anti-inflammatory effects in wounded areas. The current review reflects the rapid shift of interest from BMSC to BMSC-CM to alleviate many logistical and technical issues regarding cell therapy and evaluates its future potential as an effective regenerative therapy.

  20. Fetal Cell Based Prenatal Diagnosis: Perspectives on the Present and Future

    Morris Fiddler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to capture and analyze fetal cells from maternal circulation or other sources during pregnancy has been a goal of prenatal diagnostics for over thirty years. The vision of replacing invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures with the prospect of having the entire fetal genome in hand non-invasively for chromosomal and molecular studies for both clinical and research use has brought many investigators and innovations into the effort. While the object of this desire, however, has remained elusive, the aspiration for this approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis remains and the inquiry has continued. With the advent of screening by cell-free DNA analysis, the standards for fetal cell based prenatal diagnostics have been sharpened. Relevant aspects of the history and the current status of investigations to meet the goal of having an accessible and reliable strategy for capturing and analyzing fetal cells during pregnancy are reviewed.

  1. Perspectives of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Age-Related Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    Holáň, Vladimír; Heřmánková, Barbora; Kössl, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 9 (2017), s. 1538-1541 ISSN 0963-6897 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04800S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : age-related retinal degenerative diseases * mesenchymal stem cells * stem cell therapy Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry OBOR OECD: Ophthalmology Impact factor: 3.006, year: 2016

  2. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    2011-01-01

    Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%). Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007). They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001). More physicians (79.7%) would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%). However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001). There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039). Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number. PMID:21426591

  3. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Freud Tamar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  4. T helper 17.1 cells associate with multiple sclerosis disease activity: perspectives for early intervention.

    van Langelaar, Jamie; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Janssen, Malou; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; Spilt, Isis M; Siepman, Theodora A; Dankers, Wendy; Verjans, Georges M G M; de Vries, Helga E; Lubberts, Erik; Hintzen, Rogier Q; van Luijn, Marvin M

    2018-05-01

    Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. T helper memory populations single- and double-positive for C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) were functionally assessed in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid from a total of 59 patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 35 untreated patients and 24 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and nine patients with end-stage multiple sclerosis. Within the clinically isolated syndrome group, 23 patients had a second attack within 1 year and 26 patients did not experience subsequent attacks during a follow-up of >5 years. Low frequencies of T helper 1 (Th1)-like Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3+), and not Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3-) effector memory populations in blood strongly associated with a rapid diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. In cerebrospinal fluid of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, Th1-like Th17 effector memory cells were abundant and showed increased production of interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to paired CCR6+ and CCR6-CD8+ T cell populations and their blood equivalents after short-term culturing. Their local enrichment was confirmed ex vivo using cerebrospinal fluid and brain single-cell suspensions. Across all pro-inflammatory T helper cells analysed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis blood, Th1-like Th17 subpopulation T helper 17.1 (Th17.1; CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4

  5. Molecular features of renal cell carcinoma: early diagnostics and perspectives for therapy

    O. V. Kovaleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma is one of the major problems of modern urological oncology. In Russia renal cell carcinoma accountsfor 4.3 % of all cancers. The global incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased over the past two decades. Worldwide renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3.6 % of all cancers and is 10th frequent malignancy. For some malignancies, for instance tumours of prostate, there are markers known that allowed improved early diagnostics. Kidney cancer, however, remains to be hard to diagnose and to treat, since the symptoms can be detected on advanced stages of the disease. In Russia 75.4 % of renal cell carcinoma cases detected at the stage of local and locally advanced disease. Though there are various target drugs on the market aimed to treat this disease, the results of renal cell carcinoma treatment did not reach any substantial success. Most of existing target drugs for kidney cancer treatment include inhibitors of a single signalingpathway regulated by VHL1, which expression is lost in the vast majority of renal-cell carcinomas. Till now existing drugs did not reach sufficient efficacy. Therefore, it is highly important to search for new signaling pathways, regulating such cellular processes as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Further, prognostic markers and therapy targets identified so far are not sufficient and poorly specific. Therefore identification and validation of new markers, and especially new specific targets for the treatment of kindey oncopathologies is highly important and timely task.

  6. Cell-based therapeutics from an economic perspective: primed for a commercial success or a research sinkhole?

    McAllister, Todd N; Dusserre, Nathalie; Maruszewski, Marcin; L'heureux, Nicolas

    2008-11-01

    Despite widespread hype and significant investment through the late 1980s and 1990s, cell-based therapeutics have largely failed from both a clinical and financial perspective. While the early pioneers were able to create clinically efficacious products, small margins coupled with small initial indications made it impossible to produce a reasonable return on the huge initial investments that had been made to support widespread research activities. Even as US FDA clearance opened up larger markets, investor interest waned, and the crown jewels of cell-based therapeutics went bankrupt or were rescued by corporate bailout. Despite the hard lessons learned from these pioneering companies, many of today's regenerative medicine companies are supporting nearly identical strategies. It remains to be seen whether or not our proposed tenets for investment and commercialization strategy yield an economic success or whether the original model can produce a return on investment sufficient to justify the large up-front investments. Irrespective of which approach yields a success, it is critically important that more of the second-generation products establish profitability if the field is to enjoy continued investment from both public and private sectors.

  7. A quantum-chemical perspective into low optical-gap polymers for highly-efficient organic solar cells

    Risko, Chad

    2011-03-15

    The recent and rapid enhancement in power conversion efficiencies of organic-based, bulk heterojunction solar cells has been a consequence of both improved materials design and better understanding of the underlying physical processes involved in photocurrent generation. In this Perspective, we first present an overview of the application of quantum-chemical techniques to study the intrinsic material properties and molecular- and nano-scale processes involved in device operation. In the second part, these quantum-chemical tools are applied to an oligomer-based study on a collection of donor-acceptor copolymers that have been used in the highest-efficiency solar cell devices reported to date. The quantum-chemical results are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data related to the electronic and optical properties. In particular, they provide insight into the natures of the electronic excitations responsible for the near-infrared/visible absorption profiles, as well as into the energetics of the low-lying singlet and triplet states. These results lead to a better understanding of the inherent differences among the materials, and highlight the usefulness of quantum chemistry as an instrument for material design. Importantly, the results also point to the need to continue the development of integrated, multi scale modeling approaches to provide a thorough understanding of the materials properties. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  8. Present status and perspectives of heavy ion studies on cells and organisms

    Yang, T.C.; Craise, L.M.; Mei Mantong.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical research of heavy ion radiation has been an unique and highly active field in past two decades. Through these intensive research efforts, significant amount of quantitative and qualitative data, which provide insights into biological effects, have been obtained. RBE and LET relationship has been well established for cell inactivation, somatic mutation, and cancer induction. In addition, the effects of oxygen and cell cycle on radiosensitivity of mammalian cells, exposed to heavy ions, have been examined. In spite of such large quantitative information, there is only very limited understanding of the mechanisms of these effects of heavy ions. It remains to be discovered how heavy ions cause various biological effects and why heavy ions can be so effective in producing these effects. As the understanding of molecular effects of heavy ion increases, the potential use of heavy ions in probing molecular mechanism(s) of mutation and neoplastic cell transformation becomes more evident. The exciting progress of heavy ion research in past decades only leads to more challenging questions. Answers for these interesting questions can be obtained by developing new heavy ion facilities for single particle irradiation, by further studies with modern molecular biology techniques, and by innovative approaches. Knowledge from biomedical heavy ion research will not only enhance our basic understanding of fundamental biological processes, such as repair, cell growth control, differentiation, etc., but also help in assessing health risk of space radiation and in improving animal and plant breeding. Research in heavy ion radiobiology is gradually growing from infant to mature stage. (author)

  9. Neural Conversion and Patterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Developmental Perspective.

    Zirra, Alexandra; Wiethoff, Sarah; Patani, Rickie

    2016-01-01

    Since the reprogramming of adult human terminally differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) became a reality in 2007, only eight years have passed. Yet over this relatively short period, myriad experiments have revolutionized previous stem cell dogmata. The tremendous promise of hiPSC technology for regenerative medicine has fuelled rising expectations from both the public and scientific communities alike. In order to effectively harness hiPSCs to uncover fundamental mechanisms of disease, it is imperative to first understand the developmental neurobiology underpinning their lineage restriction choices in order to predictably manipulate cell fate to desired derivatives. Significant progress in developmental biology provides an invaluable resource for rationalising directed differentiation of hiPSCs to cellular derivatives of the nervous system. In this paper we begin by reviewing core developmental concepts underlying neural induction in order to provide context for how such insights have guided reductionist in vitro models of neural conversion from hiPSCs. We then discuss early factors relevant in neural patterning, again drawing upon crucial knowledge gained from developmental neurobiological studies. We conclude by discussing open questions relating to these concepts and how their resolution might serve to strengthen the promise of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine.

  10. Neural Conversion and Patterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Developmental Perspective

    Alexandra Zirra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reprogramming of adult human terminally differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs became a reality in 2007, only eight years have passed. Yet over this relatively short period, myriad experiments have revolutionized previous stem cell dogmata. The tremendous promise of hiPSC technology for regenerative medicine has fuelled rising expectations from both the public and scientific communities alike. In order to effectively harness hiPSCs to uncover fundamental mechanisms of disease, it is imperative to first understand the developmental neurobiology underpinning their lineage restriction choices in order to predictably manipulate cell fate to desired derivatives. Significant progress in developmental biology provides an invaluable resource for rationalising directed differentiation of hiPSCs to cellular derivatives of the nervous system. In this paper we begin by reviewing core developmental concepts underlying neural induction in order to provide context for how such insights have guided reductionist in vitro models of neural conversion from hiPSCs. We then discuss early factors relevant in neural patterning, again drawing upon crucial knowledge gained from developmental neurobiological studies. We conclude by discussing open questions relating to these concepts and how their resolution might serve to strengthen the promise of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine.

  11. MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS AS A THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES

    M. M. Zafranskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC to influence the regulatory/suppressive effect in the autoimmune process and promote remyelination allows to consider them a new method of multiple sclerosis (MS therapy, by means of modifying the disease activity. Genetic stability, proliferative potential, ability to migrate into the damaged tissue areas and agreed protocols for isolation and culture are the main advantages for successful autologous, as well as allogeneic MSC therapy. Preliminary results from clinical studies using MSC application in MS patients show efficiency and safety of this therapeutic approach. Nevertheless, successful demonstration of the cell therapy in MS is only possible after detailed analysis and understanding of MSC biology and mechanisms of appropriate intercellular interactions. The article reviews general experience in usage of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties of MSС in MS, and highlights the issues of validity in cell-based therapy taking into account both in vitro и in vivo studies.

  12. Clinical potential of regulatory T cell therapy in liver diseases: An overview and current perspectives

    Hannah Claire Jeffery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes, that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg. The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients.Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases, chronic rejection and post-transplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases (GVHD and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the autoimmune liver diseases for more than three decades; thus the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients.

  13. Solution and vapour deposited lead perovskite solar cells: Ecotoxicity from a life cycle assessment perspective

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Urbina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    the inventory for all the components employed for the two different device architectures that resemble respectively a traditional dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and an inverted polymer solar cell (OPV). We analyse the impacts from generation of 1 kWh of electricity and assume a lifetime of 1 year...... in the analysis and further present a sensitivity analysis with the operational lifetime as a basis. We find that the major impact comes from the preparation of the perovskite absorber layer due to the electrical energy required in the manufacture and also make the striking observation that the impact of toxic...

  14. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Approaches, status, and perspectives

    This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters...... of and motivated extensive research activity in the field. The last 11 chapters summarize the state-of-the-art of technological development of high temperature-PEMFCs based on acid doped PBI membranes including catalysts, electrodes, MEAs, bipolar plates, modelling, stacking, diagnostics and applications....

  15. Combining theories to reach multi-faceted insights into learning opportunities in doctoral supervision

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate how theories can be combined to explore opportunities for learning in doctoral supervision. While our earlier research into learning dynamics in doctoral supervision in life science research (Kobayashi, 2014) has focused on illustrating learning opportunitie...

  16. Multi-facetted Metadata - Describing datasets with different metadata schemas at the same time

    Ulbricht, Damian; Klump, Jens; Bertelmann, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Inspired by the wish to re-use research data a lot of work is done to bring data systems of the earth sciences together. Discovery metadata is disseminated to data portals to allow building of customized indexes of catalogued dataset items. Data that were once acquired in the context of a scientific project are open for reappraisal and can now be used by scientists that were not part of the original research team. To make data re-use easier, measurement methods and measurement parameters must be documented in an application metadata schema and described in a written publication. Linking datasets to publications - as DataCite [1] does - requires again a specific metadata schema and every new use context of the measured data may require yet another metadata schema sharing only a subset of information with the meta information already present. To cope with the problem of metadata schema diversity in our common data repository at GFZ Potsdam we established a solution to store file-based research data and describe these with an arbitrary number of metadata schemas. Core component of the data repository is an eSciDoc infrastructure that provides versioned container objects, called eSciDoc [2] "items". The eSciDoc content model allows assigning files to "items" and adding any number of metadata records to these "items". The eSciDoc items can be submitted, revised, and finally published, which makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. GFZ Potsdam uses eSciDoc to support its scientific publishing workflow, including mechanisms for data review in peer review processes by providing temporary web links for external reviewers that do not have credentials to access the data. Based on the eSciDoc API, panMetaDocs [3] provides a web portal for data management in research projects. PanMetaDocs, which is based on panMetaWorks [4], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based schema. It uses the eSciDoc infrastructures REST-interface to store versioned dataset files and metadata in a XML-format. The software is able to administrate more than one eSciDoc metadata record per item and thus allows the description of a dataset according to its context. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and, at the same time, make use of contextual information available in a project setting. Access rights can be adjusted to set visibility of datasets to the required degree of openness. Metadata from separate instances of panMetaDocs can be syndicated to portals through RSS and OAI-PMH interfaces. The application architecture presented here allows storing file-based datasets and describe these datasets with any number of metadata schemas, depending on the intended use case. Data and metadata are stored in the same entity (eSciDoc items) and are managed by a software tool through the eSciDoc REST interface - in this case the application is panMetaDocs. Other software may re-use the produced items and modify the appropriate metadata records by accessing the web API of the eSciDoc data infrastructure. For presentation of the datasets in a web browser we are not bound to panMetaDocs. This is done by stylesheet transformation of the eSciDoc-item. [1] http://www.datacite.org [2] http://www.escidoc.org , eSciDoc, FIZ Karlruhe, Germany [3] http://panmetadocs.sf.net , panMetaDocs, GFZ Potsdam, Germany [4] http://metaworks.pangaea.de , panMetaWorks, Dr. R. Huber, MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany

  17. Ethics Programs and Ethical Cultures: A Next Step in Unraveling their Multi-Faceted Relationship

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of an ethics program is to improve the ethical culture of an organization. To date, empirical research treats at least one of these concepts as a one-dimensional construct. This paper demonstrates that by conceptualizing both constructs as multi-dimensional, a better

  18. A Multi-Faceted Debris-Flood Hazard Assessment for Cougar Creek, Alberta, Canada

    Matthias Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A destructive debris flood occurred between 19 and 21 June 2013 on Cougar Creek, located in Canmore, Alberta. Cougar Creek fan is likely the most densely developed alluvial fan in Canada. While no lives were lost, the event resulted in approximately $40 M of damage and closed both the Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway line for a period of several days. The debris flood triggered a comprehensive hazard assessment which is the focus of this paper. Debris-flood frequencies and magnitudes are determined by combining several quantitative methods including photogrammetry, dendrochronology, radiometric dating, test pit logging, empirical relationships between rainfall volumes and sediment volumes, and landslide dam outburst flood modeling. The data analysis suggests that three distinct process types act in the watershed. The most frequent process is normal or “clearwater” floods. Less frequent but more damaging are debris floods during which excessive amounts of bedload are transported on the fan, typically associated with rapid and extensive bank erosion and channel infilling and widening. The third and most destructive process is interpreted to be landslide dam outbreak floods. This event type is estimated to occur at return periods exceeding 300 years. Using a cumulative magnitude frequency technique, the data for conventional debris floods were plotted up to the 100–300s year return period. A peak-over-threshold approach was used for landslide dam outbreak floods occurring at return periods exceeding 300 years, as not all such events were identified during test trenching. Hydrographs for 6 return period classes were approximated by using the estimated peak discharges and fitting the hydrograph shape to integrate to the debris flood volumes as determined from the frequency-magnitude relationship. The fan volume was calculated and compared with the integrated frequency-magnitude curve to check of the validity of the latter. A reasonable match was accomplished, verifying the overall relationship. The findings from this work were later used as input to a risk assessment seeking to quantify risk to loss of life and economic losses. The risk assessment then formed the basis for design of debris-flood mitigation structures.

  19. Responding to nuclear terrorism. Chapter 3. Combating radiological terrorism - A multi-faceted challenge

    Wolf, A.; Yaar, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the twentieth century, radioactive sources have become extensively used in everyday life. These sources, in the hand of terror organizations, can become a threat to the security of civilized nations, causing severe disruption to normal life. On of the main challenges of the civilized world is to keep ahead of the terrorist organizations and take appropriate preventive measures in order to prevent and reduce to minimum the impact of their actions. In order to succeed, a joint and comprehensive effort has to be undertaken to address the scientific, technological, organizational, sociological, psychological and educational aspects of the radiological terrorism threat. In this paper, some of the main activities required for preventing radiological terror events, and the way in which a modular response plan can be prepared are discussed

  20. The multi-facets of sustainable nanotechnology – Lessons from a nanosafety symposium

    George, Saji; Ho, Shirley S.; Wong, Esther S. P.; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Verma, Navin Kumar; Aitken, Robert J.; Riediker, Michael; Cummings, Christopher; Yu, Liya; Wang, Zheng Ming; Zink, Daniele; Ng, Zhihan; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Ng, Kee Woei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An international symposium for nanosafety was held recently at the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. Topics relating to understanding nanomaterial properties, tools, and infrastructure required for predicting hazardous outcomes, measuring nanomaterial exposure levels, systems approach for risk assessment and public’s perception of nanotechnology were covered. The need for a multidisciplinary approach, across both natural and social sciences, for developing sustainable nanotechnology solutions was heavily emphasized. This commentary highlights the major issues discussed and the commitment of the nanosafety research community in Singapore to contribute collectively to realise the vision of sustainable nanotechnology. PMID:25976321

  1. The Multi-Faceted Experience of Empathy in Intellectual Disability Settings: An IPA Study

    Renton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This research thesis explored the concept of empathy. The specific purpose was to further understand the idea of empathy in relation to the experience of male support workers who provide residential care to adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour. The thesis aimed to provide some insights into how support workers develop and extract meaning from their experiences of relationships with clients and the impact of this on their own self-care, namely, self-compassion. ...

  2. A multi-faceted nature of „detachment” within the employment relationship

    Nicolae ROMANDAȘ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors distinguished some ways through which the detachment is implemented under the Republic of Moldova labor law in public and private sectors. So, the basic rule on detachment within the legal employment is the written consent of the employee to be sent temporarily (usually up to one year but not more than 5 years by his employer (legal entity to another employer (also a legal entity to carry out certain activities, with the guarantee of keeping a salary not lower than the one received on the main job, as well as the costs of travel, accommodation etc. If in private sector, private labor relations, the refuse to be detached does not constitute grounds for dismissal, then in the public labor relations, the civil servants are forced by the law, in most cases, to accept detachment („on duty” to another public authority, under the legal threat of dismissal. While analyzing different special laws, there were established a variety of forms of detachment: besides the typical form of detachment from Labor Code, the law provides a complex form called „transfer detachment”, an employment relationship specific for diplomatic missions. The authors provide, through lege ferenda, that it would be appropriate that such employment relationship to be regulated also in private sector.

  3. The multi-faceted development of the athlete-student in the South ...

    The aim of this paper is to explore the social worlds of African athletes who participated at the 7th All Africa Games in Johannesburg, South Africa. By reporting and interpreting data collected from 410 athletes from 22 African counties, of whom 343 completed questionnaires and 67 were interviewed, insight is created into ...

  4. Secular painting in the Ionian islands and Italian art: Aspects of a multi-faceted relationship

    Aphrodite Kouria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Italian art, especially Venetian, was decisive to the secularisation of art in the Ionian Islands and the shaping of the so-called Ionian School, in the context of a broader Western influence affecting all aspects of life and culture, especially on the islands of Zakynthos and Corfu. Italian influences, mainly of Renaissance, Mannerism and Baroque art, can be identified both on the iconographic and the stylistic level of artworks, with theoretical support. This article explores facets of the dialogue of secular painting in the Ionian with Italian art in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, focussing on works and artists that highlight significant aspects of this multilayered phenomenon and also through secondary channels that expand the horizon of analysis. Procession paintings, with their various connotations, and portraiture, which flourished in secular Ionian art, offer the most interesting material as regards the selection, reception and management of Italian models and points of reference.

  5. A Multi-Faceted View of GPM GV in the Post-Launch Era

    Petersen, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities in the early post-launch era have focused on: a) intercomparison of early version satellite products to GV data originating from NOAA Q3, WSR-88D, and Tier-1 research ground radar (GR) and instrument networks; b) continued physical validation of GPM algorithms using recent field campaign and site-specific datasets (warm and cold season); and c) development and use of rainfall products for hydrologic validation and bridging-validation of Level II and Level III satellite products (IMERG). Intercomparisons of GPM products with Q3 rainfall and WSR-88D ground-radar (GR) data over CONUS exhibit reasonable agreement. For example, DPR radar reflectivities geo-matched to reflectivity profiles from ~60 GRs generally differ by 2 dB or less. Occasional low-biases do appear in the rainwater portion of DPR Ku-Band convective reflectivity profiles. In stratiform precipitation, DPR-diagnosed reflectivity and rain drop size distributions are frequently very similar to those retrieved from GR products. DPR and Combined algorithm rainrate products compare reasonably well to each other and to Q3 at CONUS scales. GPROF2014 radiometer-based rain rates compare well to Q3 in a spatial sense (correlations of ~0.6); but, GMI estimates appear to be slightly low-biased relative to Q3 and to DPR and Combined algorithm products. The last NASA GPM GV-led field effort, OLYMPEX, will occur in Nov 2015 to Jan 2016. OLYMPEX is designed to study cold-season precipitation processes and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. In addition to occasional field campaigns like OLYMPEX, continuous field measurements using multi-parameter radar and instrument networks targeted to direct validation and specific problems in physical validation (e.g., path-integrated attenuation and the impacts of drop size distribution, non-uniform beam filling and multiple scattering) are also being collected under coincident GPM core overpasses at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility and several participating national and international instrument sites. This presentation will summarize a spectrum of NASA GPM GV results, placing focus on evaluation of year-1 post-launch GPM satellite datasets from Level II-orbit to merged Level III satellite products such as IMERG.

  6. A multi-faceted pandemic: a review of the state of knowledge on the Zika virus.

    Depoux, Anneliese; Philibert, Aline; Rabier, Serge; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Fontanet, Arnaud; Flahault, Antoine

    2018-01-01

    While until recently the small and isolated Zika outbreaks in Eastern Asia and Pacific islands had been overlooked, the large-scale outbreak that started in Brazil in 2015 and the increase of microcephaly cases in the same place and time made media headlines. Considered as harmless until recently, Zika has given rise to an important global crisis that poses not only health challenges but also environmental, economical, social, and ethical challenges for states and people around the world. The main objective of this paper is to review the recent Zika outbreak by covering a broad range of disciplines and their interactions. This paper synthetises experts' interviews and reactions conducted during a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) entitled "In the footsteps of Zika…approaching the unknown." It reviews knowledge and uncertainties around epidemiology, geographical dispersion of the virus and its vectors through globalization and climate change, and also its modes of transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment of the disease. The resulting societal and ethical issues in pregnancy and women of reproductive age were also addressed as well as the global outbreak alert and response network in international organizations and social media. This paper attempted to combine each piece of the jigsaw puzzle of the Zika phenomenon to complete the best realistic picture, while keeping in mind the balance between the interdisciplinary nature and international context of Zika and its unique characteristics.

  7. The UNEP Risø Centre – multi-faceted sustainability

    Rasmussen, M.A.; Trærup, S.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of debate, researchers and politicians worldwide are now acknowledging the fact that the climate is changing as a result of human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gasses from energy production.......After many years of debate, researchers and politicians worldwide are now acknowledging the fact that the climate is changing as a result of human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gasses from energy production....

  8. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae: a re-emerging, multi-faceted, pandemic pathogen.

    Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Petriccione, Milena; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis). A recent, sudden, re-emerging wave of this disease has occurred, almost contemporaneously, in all of the main areas of kiwifruit production in the world, suggesting that it can be considered as a pandemic disease. Recent in-depth genetic studies performed on P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains have revealed that this pathovar is composed of four genetically different populations which, to different extents, can infect crops of the genus Actinidia worldwide. Genome comparisons of these strains have revealed that this pathovar can gain and lose the phaseolotoxin gene cluster, as well as mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and putative prophages, and that it can modify the repertoire of the effector gene arrays. In addition, the strains currently causing worldwide severe economic losses display an extensive set of genes related to the ecological fitness of the bacterium in planta, such as copper and antibiotic resistance genes, multiple siderophore genes and genes involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives and other phenolics. This pathogen can therefore easily colonize hosts throughout the year. Bacteria; Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision; Order Pseudomonadales; Family Pseudomonadaceae; Genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas syringae species complex, genomospecies 8; Pathovar actinidiae. Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, polar flagella, oxidase-negative, arginine dihydrolase-negative, DNA 58.5-58.8 mol.% GC, elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves. Primarily studied as the causal agent of bacterial canker of green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), it has also been isolated from yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis). In both species, it causes severe economic losses worldwide. It has also been isolated from wild A. arguta and A. kolomikta. In green-fleshed and yellow-fleshed kiwifruits, the symptoms include brown-black leaf spots often surrounded by a chlorotic margin, blossom necrosis, extensive twig die-back, reddening of the lenticels, extensive cankers along the main trunk and leader, and bleeding cankers on the trunk and the leader with a whitish to orange ooze. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae can effectively colonize its host plants throughout the year. Bacterial exudates can disperse a large amount of inoculum within and between orchards. In the spring, temperatures ranging from 12 to 18 °C, together with humid conditions, can greatly favour the multiplication of the bacterium, allowing it to systemically move from the leaf to the young shoots. During the summer, very high temperatures can reduce the multiplication and dispersal of the bacterium. Some agronomical techniques, as well as frost, wind, rain and hail storms, can contribute to further spreading. An integrated approach that takes into consideration precise scheduled spray treatments with effective and environmentally friendly bactericides and equilibrated plant nutrition, coupled with preventive measures aimed at drastically reducing the bacterial inoculum, currently seems to be the possible best solution for coexistence with the disease. The development of resistant cultivars and pollinators, effective biocontrol agents, including bacteriophages, and compounds that induce the systemic activation of plant defence mechanisms is in progress. Up-to-date information on bacterial canker research progress and on the spread of the disease in New Zealand can be found at: http://www.kvh.org.nz. Daily information on the spread of the disease and on the research being performed worldwide can be found at: http://www.freshplaza.it. © 2012 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2012 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. 40 years of multi-faceted change in the Dutch Tax and Customs Administration

    Rukanova, Boriana; Stijn, Eveline van; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2006-01-01

    perceived as key components of a solution. Thus, we see that many ICT-driven change efforts have taken and continue to take place under the header of eGovernment. These changes are not always successful, however, and not yet wellunderstood. In this article, we provide an interpretive longitudinal account...... of the strategic IS efforts at the Dutch Tax and Customs Administration (DTCA). Instead of focusing on IS that supports the government itself or the relations between governments and citizens, we seek to contribute to the sparse literature that is specifically directed at the interactions between EU initiatives...

  10. A Multi-Faceted Workplace Intervention For Prevention Of Low Back Pain

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard

    til forebyggelse af ondt i ryggen samt for forebyggelse af konsekvenser af ondt i ryggen. For at udvikle indsatsen anvendte vi en systematisk tilgang (intervention mapping), som involverer arbejdspladsen i udvikling og i planlægning af indsatsen. Fra november 2012 til maj 2014 gennemførte vi et...

  11. The Multi-faceted Implementation of Telepractice to Service Individuals with Autism

    Michelle Boisvert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telepractice is a method of service delivery in which professionals provide intervention, assessment and consultation services to individuals through the use of telecommunication technologies.  In response to the nationwide school-based shortage of speech-language pathologists, telepractice has emerged as a viable way to reach underserved clients. Telepractice has the potential to extend to populations in need of services, including those diagnosed with autism.  This paper examines an evidence-based clinical model for the delivery of telepractice services and describes the policies and procedures required for assessing individual need, confidentiality, technology, training and documentation within a telepractice program.  Two clinical case studies involving individuals diagnosed with autism are described and provide initial evidence for the use of telepractice as a practical method for direct and consultative service delivery. Results indicated that both the student receiving direct services, and the treating clinician receiving consultative services via telepractice, demonstrated an increased skill level in target domains.

  12. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Classen, Sherrilene; Lopez, Ellen DS; Winter, Sandra; Awadzi, Kezia D; Ferree, Nita; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2007-01-01

    The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research), and views (qualitative research) of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long-term outcomes. After completing the detailed plan we will test the effectiveness of this intervention on multiple levels. PMID:18225470

  13. Religion, Intersectionality, and Epistemic Habits of Academic Feminism. Perspectives from Global Feminist Theology

    Elina Vuola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article pays critical attention to the ways in which academic feminism has regarded religion. Issues related to religion and gender have by and large either been ignored or treated quite stereotypically. I have called this phenomenon a simultaneous under- and overestimation of religion. The phenomenon is not global. Feminists of the global south tend to pay much more and more multi-faceted attention to religion than scholars from the global north. I will illustrate this problem through a close reading of intersectionality in feminist research in religion, especially feminist theology. My argument – which can be supported by evidence from historical records – is that what has been called intersectionality since Kimberlé Crenshaw, has in fact been explicitly present in early feminist theology (1970s-. The reason why feminist liberation theologians stressed the interstructuring of gender, class, and race/ethnicity lies in their practical and theoretical cooperation with liberation and feminist theologians from the global south, for example through the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT. My article is a critical re-reading of the history of feminist theorizing from the perspective of religious feminists, academic feminist theologians and liberation theologians from both the global north and south (including black and womanist theologians from the USA, Latin America and Africa. My aim is to correct a long-held understanding of the history of feminist theorizing as purely “secular”.

  14. Editorial perspective--advances in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Hagenbeek, A.; Bischof Delaloye, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents an exciting new therapeutic option for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), emerging at a time when significant advances have been made in NHL classification, molecular genetics and treatment. Despite recent treatment advances, including the use

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Secretory Responses: Senescence Messaging Secretome and Immunomodulation Perspective

    Victoria V. Lunyak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC have been tested in a significant number of clinical trials, where they exhibit regenerative and repair properties directly through their differentiation into the cells of the mesenchymal origin or by modulation of the tissue/organ microenvironment. Despite various clinical effects upon transplantation, the functional properties of these cells in natural settings and their role in tissue regeneration in vivo is not yet fully understood. The omnipresence of MSC throughout vascularized organs equates to a reservoir of potentially therapeutic regenerative depots throughout the body. However, these reservoirs could be subjected to cellular senescence. In this review, we will discuss current progress and challenges in the understanding of different biological pathways leading to senescence. We set out to highlight the seemingly paradoxical property of cellular senescence: its beneficial role in the development and tissue repair and detrimental impact of this process on tissue homeostasis in aging and disease. Taking into account the lessons from the different cell systems, this review elucidates how autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent MSC might impose an additional layer of complexity on the regulation of the immune system in development and disease. New findings that have emerged in the last few years could shed light on sometimes seemingly controversial results obtained from MSC therapeutic applications.

  16. Customising chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: daily practice and perspectives

    Vilmar, A C; Sorensen, J B

    2011-01-01

    Treating patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a daunting task but during recent years new options have emerged. By tailoring treatment using either information on histological subtypes of NSCLC or biomarkers it is now possible to improve outcome and maintain stable quality...

  17. Organic-inorganic halide perovskites: perspectives for silicon-based tandem solar cells

    Löper, P.; Niesen, B.; Moon, S.J.; Martin de Nicolas, S.; Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; Ledinský, Martin; Haug, F.J.; Yum, J. H.; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6 (2014), s. 1545-1551 ISSN 2156-3381 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : perovskite * tandem solar cells * optical absorption * photothermal deflection spectroscopy * degradation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.165, year: 2014

  18. Testicular germ cell cancer incidence in an immigration perspective, Denmark, 1978 to 2003

    Schmiedel, Sven; Schüz, Joachim; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of testicular germ cell cancer in Denmark increased up to the 1990s to become among the highest in the world. Since recently rate stabilization was suggested, we determined whether it is due to an increasing number of immigrants at lower risk for this cancer....

  19. Endocrine and paracrine regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis : The Sertoli cell perspective

    Schulz, R. W.; Nóbrega, R. H.; Vidal de Souza Morais, Roberto Daltro; De Waal, P. P.; França, L. R.; Bogerd, J.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) either self-renew or differentiate into spermatogonia that further develop into spermatozoa. Self-renewal occurs when residing in a specific micro-environment (niche) while displacement from the niche would tip the signalling balance towards differentiation.

  20. Bet-hedging in bacteriocin producing Escherichia coli populations: the single cell perspective

    Bayramoglu, Bihter; Toubiana, David; van Vliet, Simon; Inglis, R. Fredrik; Shnerb, Nadav; Gillor, Osnat

    2017-02-01

    Production of public goods in biological systems is often a collaborative effort that may be detrimental to the producers. It is therefore sustainable only if a small fraction of the population shoulders the cost while the majority reap the benefits. We modelled this scenario using Escherichia coli populations producing colicins, an antibiotic that kills producer cells’ close relatives. Colicin expression is a costly trait, and it has been proposed that only a small fraction of the population actively expresses the antibiotic. Colicinogenic populations were followed at the single-cell level using time-lapse microscopy, and showed two distinct, albeit dynamic, subpopulations: the majority silenced colicin expression, while a small fraction of elongated, slow-growing cells formed colicin-expressing hotspots, placing a significant burden on expressers. Moreover, monitoring lineages of individual colicinogenic cells showed stochastic switching between expressers and non-expressers. Hence, colicin expressers may be engaged in risk-reducing strategies—or bet-hedging—as they balance the cost of colicin production with the need to repel competitors. To test the bet-hedging strategy in colicin-mediated interactions, competitions between colicin-sensitive and producer cells were simulated using a numerical model, demonstrating a finely balanced expression range that is essential to sustaining the colicinogenic population.

  1. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  2. Animal cell cultures: recent achievements and perspectives in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

    Butler, Michael

    2005-08-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number and demand for approved biopharmaceuticals produced from animal cell culture processes over the last few years. In part, this has been due to the efficacy of several humanized monoclonal antibodies that are required at large doses for therapeutic use. There have also been several identifiable advances in animal cell technology that has enabled efficient biomanufacture of these products. Gene vector systems allow high specific protein expression and some minimize the undesirable process of gene silencing that may occur in prolonged culture. Characterization of cellular metabolism and physiology has enabled the design of fed-batch and perfusion bioreactor processes that has allowed a significant improvement in product yield, some of which are now approaching 5 g/L. Many of these processes are now being designed in serum-free and animal-component-free media to ensure that products are not contaminated with the adventitious agents found in bovine serum. There are several areas that can be identified that could lead to further improvement in cell culture systems. This includes the down-regulation of apoptosis to enable prolonged cell survival under potentially adverse conditions. The characterization of the critical parameters of glycosylation should enable process control to reduce the heterogeneity of glycoforms so that production processes are consistent. Further improvement may also be made by the identification of glycoforms with enhanced biological activity to enhance clinical efficacy. The ability to produce the ever-increasing number of biopharmaceuticals by animal cell culture is dependent on sufficient bioreactor capacity in the industry. A recent shortfall in available worldwide culture capacity has encouraged commercial activity in contract manufacturing operations. However, some analysts indicate that this still may not be enough and that future manufacturing demand may exceed production capacity as the number

  3. Electrical Stimulation Elicit Neural Stem Cells Activation:New Perspectives in CNS Repair

    Ratrel eHuang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are enthusiastically concerned about neural stem cell (NSC therapy in a wide array of diseases, including stroke, neurodegenerative disease, spinal cord injury (SCI and depression. Although enormous evidences have demonstrated that neurobehavioral improvement may benefit from NSC-supporting regeneration in animal models, approaches to endogenous and transplanted NSCs are blocked by hurdles of migration, proliferation, maturation and integration of NSCs. Electrical stimulation (ES may be a selective nondrug approach for mobilizing NSCs in the central nervous system (CNS. This technique is suitable for clinic application, because it is well established and its potential complications are manageable. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the emerging positive role of different electrical cues in regulating NSC biology in vitro and in vivo, as well as biomaterial-based and chemical stimulation of NSCs. In the future, ES combined with stem cell therapy or other cues probably becomes an approach for promoting brain repair.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of CHO cell factories: application and perspectives

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Lewis, Nathan E.

    2015-01-01

    repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system enables rapid,easy and efficient engineering of mammalian genomes. It has a wide range of applications frommodification of individual genes to genome-wide screening or regulation of genes. Facile genomeediting using CRISPR/Cas9 empowers...... researchers in the CHO community to elucidate the mechanisticbasis behind high level production of proteins and product quality attributes of interest. Inthis review, we describe the basis of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and its applicationfor development of next generation CHO cell factories while...... highlighting both future perspectivesand challenges. As one of the main drivers for the CHO systems biology era, genome engineeringwith CRISPR/Cas9 will pave the way for rational design of CHO cell factories....

  5. A Conceptual Analysis of Perspective Taking in Support of Socioscientific Reasoning

    Kahn, Sami

    Scientific literacy is concerned with the informed citizens' ability to negotiate scientifically-related societal issues. The suite of skills necessary to negotiate these complex issues is referred to as Socioscientific Reasoning (SSR). SSR requires, among other things, perspective-taking abilities in order to consider the multi-faceted nature of these open-ended, debatable socioscientific issues (SSI). Developing interventions and instruments to foster and measure perspective taking in support of SSR is therefore critical to the promotion of functional scientific literacy through both research and practice. Although widely studied in many disciplines, perspective taking is a particularly tangled construct that has been used to describe a range of activities representing different psychological domains and applied interchangeably with related constructs such as role taking, empathy, and theory of mind. This ambiguity makes it difficult to ensure construct validity and prevents science education researchers from honing in on the precise skills they wish to study and promote. To clarify the construct of perspective taking, this study undertook a conceptual analysis to operationalize perspective taking, drawing comparisons and distinctions between it and related constructs. Further, by applying a method known as conception development, perspective taking was positioned in the context of SSR, particularly as it relates to moral development, in order to devise a more precise construct relating perspective taking to SSR called socioscientific perspective taking (SSPT). It is asserted that SSPT requires engagement with others or their circumstances, an etic/emic shift, and a moral context comprised of reflective and reflexive judgment. Finally, in order to identify promising interventions for promoting SSPT in the science classroom, the newly-developed SSPT construct was applied to a series of extensively researched curricular frameworks that promote perspective taking in

  6. Proven and potential clinical benefits of washing red blood cells before transfusion: current perspectives

    Schmidt AE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Schmidt, Majed A Refaai, Scott A Kirkley, Neil Blumberg Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Red blood cells (RBCs are washed for a variety of reasons such as to remove excess potassium, cytokines, and other allergen proteins from the supernatant and/or to mitigate the effects of the storage lesion. The storage lesion is a product of RBC aging and include leakage of potassium and chloride from the RBCs, depletion of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate, loss of phospholipids and cholesterol, exposure of phosphatidylserine, elaboration of lipid mediators, loss of glutathione, autoxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin contributing to decreased blood flow viscosity and adherence to endothelial cells, increased microparticle formation, and disruption of NO-mediated vasodilation. A storage lesion is thought to be caused in part by oxidative stress, which is characterized by functional and structural changes to the RBCs. The effects of the RBC storage lesion on patient morbidity and mortality have been studied intensively with mixed results. Here, we will summarize the potential benefits of RBC washing. Notably, all patient-based studies on washed RBCs are single-center, small randomized studies or observational data, which await replication and tests of generalizability. Some of the most promising preliminary data suggest that washed transfusions of red cells and platelets reduce mortality in low risk, younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia, mitigate lung injury, and substantially reduce mortality in cardiac surgery. Larger randomized trials to replicate or refute these findings are urgently needed and, most importantly, have the potential to strikingly improve clinical outcomes following transfusion. Keywords: washed blood, transfusion, immunomodulation, red blood cell

  7. Umbilical cord blood banking in the worldwide hematopoietic stem cell transplantation system: perspectives for Ukraine.

    Kalynychenko, T O

    2017-09-01

    Significant progress in the promotion of procedural technologies associated with the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells caused a rapid increase in activity. The exchange of hematopoietic stem cells for unrelated donor transplantations is now much easier due to the relevant international professional structures and organizations established to support cooperation and standard setting, as well as rules for the functioning of both national donor registries and cord blood banks. These processes are increasing every year and are contributing to the outpacing rates of development in this area. Products within their country should be regulated by the competent government authorities. This study analyzes the work of international and national levels of support for transplantation activity in the field of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the standardization order of technologies, as well as data that justify the need to create a network of donated umbilical cord blood banks in Ukraine as a factor in the development of allogeneic transplantation. This will promote the accessibility of international standards for the treatment of serious diseases for Ukrainian citizens.

  8. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products

    Ana Rita Caseiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells’ secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest.

  9. Stem cell treatment for avascular necrosis of the femoral head: current perspectives

    Houdek MT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew T Houdek,1 Cody C Wyles,2 John R Martin,1 Rafael J Sierra11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 2School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is a progressive disease that predominantly affects younger patients. Although the exact pathophysiology of AVN has yet to be elucidated, the disease is characterized by a vascular insult to the blood supply of the femoral head, which can lead to collapse of the femoral head and subsequent degenerative changes. If AVN is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, it may be possible to attempt surgical procedures which preserve the hip joint, including decompression of the femoral head augmented with concentrated bone marrow. The use of autologous stem cells has shown promise in halting the progression of AVN of the femoral head, and subsequently preventing young patients from undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to review the current use of stem cells for the treatment of AVN of the femoral head.Keywords: avascular necrosis, femoral head, osteonecrosis, stem cells, concentrated bone marrow

  10. Particulate metal bioaccessibility in physiological fluids and cell culture media: Toxicological perspectives.

    Leclercq, Bérénice; Alleman, Laurent Yves; Perdrix, Esperanza; Riffault, Véronique; Happillon, Mélanie; Strecker, Alain; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Garçon, Guillaume; Coddeville, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    According to the literature, tiny amounts of transition metals in airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) may induce proinflammatory cell response through reactive oxygen species production. The solubility of particle-bound metals in physiological fluids, i.e. the metal bioaccessibility is driven by factors such as the solution chemical composition, the contact time with the particles, and the solid-to-liquid phase ratio (S/L). In this work, PM 2.5 -bound metal bioaccessibility was assessed in various physiological-like solutions including cell culture media in order to evidence the potential impact on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) when studying the cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PM 2.5 towards the target bronchial compartment. Different fluids (H 2 O, PBS, LHC-9 culture medium, Gamble and human respiratory mucus collected from COPD patients), various S/L conditions (from 1/6000 to 1/100,000) and exposure times (6, 24 and 72h) were tested on urban PM 2.5 samples. In addition, metals' total, soluble and insoluble fractions from PM 2.5 in LHC-9 were deposited on NHBE cells (BEAS-2B) to measure their cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential (i.e., G6PDH activity, secretion of IL-6 and IL-8). The bioaccessibility is solution-dependent. A higher salinity or organic content may increase or inhibit the bioaccessibiliy according to the element, as observed in the complex mucus matrix. Decreasing the S/L ratio also affect the bioaccessibility depending on the solution tested while the exposure time appears less critical. The LHC-9 culture medium appears to be a good physiological proxy as it induces metal bioaccessibilities close to the mucus values and is little affected by S/L ratios or exposure time. Only the insoluble fraction can be linked to the PM 2.5 -induced cytotoxicity. By contrast, both soluble and insoluble fractions can be related to the secretion of cytokines. The metal bioaccessibility in LHC-9 of the total, soluble, and insoluble

  11. Integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for cell mechanics and mechanobiology: a materials perspective.

    Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping

    2014-03-12

    The rapid development of micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials in the last two decades has empowered materials scientists and bioengineers to precisely control different aspects of the in vitro cell microenvironment. Following a philosophy of reductionism, many studies using synthetic functional biomaterials have revealed instructive roles of individual extracellular biophysical and biochemical cues in regulating cellular behaviors. Development of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials to study complex and emergent biological phenomena has also thrived rapidly in recent years, revealing adaptive and integrated cellular behaviors closely relevant to human physiological and pathological conditions. Working at the interface between materials science and engineering, biology, and medicine, we are now at the beginning of a great exploration using micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for both fundamental biology study and clinical and biomedical applications such as regenerative medicine and drug screening. In this review, an overview of state of the art micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials that can control precisely individual aspects of cell-microenvironment interactions is presented and they are highlighted them as well-controlled platforms for mechanistic studies of mechano-sensitive and -responsive cellular behaviors and integrative biology research. The recent exciting trend where micro/nanoengineered biomaterials are integrated into miniaturized biological and biomimetic systems for dynamic multiparametric microenvironmental control of emergent and integrated cellular behaviors is also discussed. The impact of integrated micro/nanoengineered functional biomaterials for future in vitro studies of regenerative medicine, cell biology, as well as human development and disease models are discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    Goldberg José

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. Methods A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin, SFN (stratifin, RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6 domain family 1, had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group. A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. Results CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Conclusion Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of

  13. IFN-induced modulation of histocompatibility antigens on human cells. Background, mechanisms and perspectives

    Hokland, M; Basse, P; Justesen, J

    1989-01-01

    IFN proteins are a family of lymphokines with anti-viral effects. Several other effects of IFNs have also been described, including enhancement of natural killer (NK) cell activity, enhancement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity, and enhancement of the expression of major histocompatibility compl...... to the classical anti-viral mechanism. This concept proposes that the MHC-enhancing effect of IFNs is a vital part of the immunological defense against virus infections and an integral part of the anti-viral effects of IFN proteins. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-Nov...

  14. Historical Perspective on the Current Renaissance for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy.

    Kohn, Donald B

    2017-10-01

    Gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has developed over the past 3 decades, with progressive improvements in the efficacy and safety. Autologous transplantation of HSC modified with murine gammaretroviral vectors first showed clinical benefits for patients with several primary immune deficiencies, but some of these patients suffered complications from vector-related genotoxicity. Lentiviral vectors have been used recently for gene addition to HSC and have yielded clinical benefits for primary immune deficiencies, metabolic diseases, and hemoglobinopathies, without vector-related complications. Gene editing using site-specific endonucleases is emerging as a promising technology for gene therapy and is moving into clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction Project Leadership from the Perspective of Islam

    MUHAMAD ROSDI SENAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry is continuously being accused with common issues such as low performance, corruptions, spillages, bad practices in addition to common project failures despite advances in project management tools and techniques. This further adds to the existing and increasing complex and multi-facets business environment in construction projects that has resulted in the increasing pressure and challenges faced by project leaders and project managers today. Researchers in project management literature calls for more project leadership research as leadership now is increasingly recognised as project success factor. Ethical dilemma and leadership crisis facing the project managers and business organisations reveals the shortcomings and inadequacies of the conventional non-Islamic leadership that is believed to be or that has not fully considered the religious, spiritual, moral and ethical dimensions. Examples of these theories of leadership are authentic leadership, servant leadership and ethical leadership. Therefore, recent trend from literature has implicitly suggested a new form of leadership for construction project manager which is spiritual, moral, values and ethical form of leadership. The uniqueness of Islam is that it does not separate religion and other aspects of human life activities. Construction and project activities are part of the whole economic and social transactions of a nation and thus it is part of Islam. Project management in particular leadership awaits divine intervention that is tied to God consciousness and accords with values and principles prescribed in the Quran and Sunnah. This research is intended to overcome the spiritual and religious shortcomings of the present leadership models by proposing an Islamic perspective of leadership for construction project manager.

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation—50 Years of Evolution and Future Perspectives

    Israel Henig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a highly specialized and unique medical procedure. Autologous transplantation allows the administration of high-dose chemotherapy without prolonged bone marrow aplasia. In allogeneic transplantation, donor-derived stem cells provide alloimmunity that enables a graft-versus-tumor effect to eradicate residual disease and prevent relapse. The first allogeneic transplantation was performed by E. Donnall Thomas in 1957. Since then the field has evolved and expanded worldwide. New indications beside acute leukemia and aplastic anemia have been constantly explored and now include congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease. The use of matched unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, and partially matched related donors has dramatically extended the availability of allogeneic transplantation. Transplant-related mortality has decreased due to improved supportive care, including better strategies to prevent severe infections and with the incorporation of reduced-intensity conditioning protocols that lowered the toxicity and allowed for transplantation in older patients. However, disease relapse and graft-versus-host disease remain the two major causes of mortality with unsatisfactory progress. Intense research aiming to improve adoptive immunotherapy and increase graft-versus-leukemia response while decreasing graft-versus-host response might bring the next breakthrough in allogeneic transplantation. Strategies of graft manipulation, tumor-associated antigen vaccinations, monoclonal antibodies, and adoptive cellular immunotherapy have already proved clinically efficient. In the following years, allogeneic transplantation is likely to become more complex, more individualized, and more efficient.

  17. Dopant-Free and Carrier-Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; He, Jian; Yu, Jing; Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Juye; Ge, Ziyi; Ye, Jichun

    2018-03-01

    By combining the most successful heterojunctions (HJ) with interdigitated back contacts, crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells (SCs) have recently demonstrated a record efficiency of 26.6%. However, such SCs still introduce optical/electrical losses and technological issues due to parasitic absorption/Auger recombination inherent to the doped films and the complex process of integrating discrete p + - and n + -HJ contacts. These issues have motivated the search for alternative new functional materials and simplified deposition technologies, whereby carrier-selective contacts (CSCs) can be formed directly with c-Si substrates, and thereafter form IBC cells, via a dopant-free method. Screening and modifying CSC materials in a wider context is beneficial for building dopant-free HJ contacts with better performance, shedding new light on the relatively mature Si photovoltaic field. In this review, a significant number of achievements in two representative dopant-free hole-selective CSCs, i.e . , poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si and transition metal oxides/Si, have been systemically presented and surveyed. The focus herein is on the latest advances in hole-selective materials modification, interfacial passivation, contact resistivity, light-trapping structure and device architecture design, etc. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of hole-selective materials and assessing their electrical transport properties, promising functional materials as well as important design concepts for such CSCs toward high-performance SCs have been highlighted.

  18. Dopant‐Free and Carrier‐Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    Yang, Zhenhai; He, Jian; Yu, Jing; Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Juye; Ge, Ziyi; Ye, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract By combining the most successful heterojunctions (HJ) with interdigitated back contacts, crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cells (SCs) have recently demonstrated a record efficiency of 26.6%. However, such SCs still introduce optical/electrical losses and technological issues due to parasitic absorption/Auger recombination inherent to the doped films and the complex process of integrating discrete p+‐ and n+‐HJ contacts. These issues have motivated the search for alternative new functional materials and simplified deposition technologies, whereby carrier‐selective contacts (CSCs) can be formed directly with c‐Si substrates, and thereafter form IBC cells, via a dopant‐free method. Screening and modifying CSC materials in a wider context is beneficial for building dopant‐free HJ contacts with better performance, shedding new light on the relatively mature Si photovoltaic field. In this review, a significant number of achievements in two representative dopant‐free hole‐selective CSCs, i.e., poly(3,4‐ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si and transition metal oxides/Si, have been systemically presented and surveyed. The focus herein is on the latest advances in hole‐selective materials modification, interfacial passivation, contact resistivity, light‐trapping structure and device architecture design, etc. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of hole‐selective materials and assessing their electrical transport properties, promising functional materials as well as important design concepts for such CSCs toward high‐performance SCs have been highlighted. PMID:29593956

  19. Motivations, experiences, and perspectives of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Garcia, Maria C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Shaw, Peter J; Gottlieb, David J; Ralph, Angelique; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2013-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation using bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells is a lifesaving treatment for patients with leukemia or other blood disorders. However, donors face the risk of physical and psychosocial complications. We aimed to synthesize qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of HSC donors. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant articles to November 13, 2012. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. Thirty studies involving 1552 donors were included. The decision to donate included themes of saving life, family loyalty, building a positive identity, religious conviction, fear of invasive procedures, and social pressure and obligation. Five themes about the donation experience were identified: mental preparedness (pervasive pain, intense disappointment over recipient death, exceeding expectations, and valuing positive recipient gains), burden of responsibility (striving to be a quality donor, unresolved guilt, and exacerbated grief), feeling neglected (medical dismissiveness and family inattention), strengthened relationships (stronger family ties, establishing blood bonds), and personal sense of achievement (satisfaction and pride, personal development, hero status, and social recognition). Although HSC donation was appreciated as an opportunity to save life, some donors felt anxious and unduly compelled to donate. HSC donors became emotionally invested and felt responsible for their recipient's outcomes and were profoundly grieved and disappointed if the transplantation was unsuccessful. To maximize donor satisfaction and mitigate the psychosocial risks for HSC donors, strategies to address the emotional challenges of anxiety, sense of coercion, guilt, and grief in donors are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Favaro, Francine P; Camargo, João Lauro V; Oliveira, Maria Luiza CS; Goldberg, José; Rainho, Cláudia A; Salvadori, Daisy MF

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  1. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: patient selection and perspectives

    Somasundaram A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading killer of both men and women in the US, and the 5-year survival remains poor. However, the approval of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has shifted the treatment paradigm and provides hope for improved survival. The ability of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC to evade the host immune system can be overcome by agents such as pembrolizumab (MK-3475/lambrolizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1 receptor. In early studies, treatment with pembrolizumab led to dramatic and durable responses in select patients (PD-L1+ tumors. This remarkable efficacy lead to approval of pembrolizumab in the second-line setting as response rates were almost doubled compared to standard of care (SOC chemotherapy. Most recently, data in the first-line setting from the KEYNOTE-024 study have redefined the SOC therapy for a selected subset of patients. In patients with ≥50% PD-L1+ tumors, pembrolizumab had a clear progression-free survival and overall survival benefit. Toxicity was mostly immune related and similar to checkpoint blockade toxicities observed in previous studies. The initial approval and subsequent studies of pembrolizumab required and utilized a companion diagnostic test, Dako’s IHC 22C3, to assess PD-L1 status of patients. The evaluation and scoring system of this assay has been used by other companies as a reference to develop their own assays, which may complicate selection of patients. Finally, the impact of pembrolizumab in NSCLC is growing as evidenced by the numerous, ongoing trials open for combinations with chemotherapy, chemoradiation, other immunotherapeutics, immunomodulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, hypomethylating agents, and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Further studies

  2. A libertarian perspective on the stem cell debate: compromising the uncompromisible.

    Block, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The present paper attempts to forge a compromise between those who maintain that stem cell research is out-and-out murder of young helpless human beings and those who favor this practice. The compromise is predicated upon the libertarian theory of private property rights. Starting out with the premise that not only the fetus but even the fertilized egg is a human being, with all rights thereto, it offers a competition between those who fertilize eggs for research and those who wish to adopt them. If and only if the former win this competition will they be allowed to use these very young human beings for the purposes they have constructed them. This is justified on grounds of avoiding child abuse.

  3. Functional studies of microRNAs in neural stem cells: problems and perspectives.

    Malin eÅkerblom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, neural stem cells (NSCs are found in two niches of the brain; the subventricular zone at the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Neurogenesis is a complex process that is tightly controlled on a molecular level. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated to play a central role in the regulation of NCSs. miRNAs are small, endogenously expressed RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, functional studies of miRNAs are complicated due to current technical limitations. In this review we describe recent findings about miRNAs in NSCs looking closely at miR-124, miR-9 and let-7. We also highlight technical strategies used to investigate miRNA function, accentuating limitations and potentials.

  4. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  5. Les piles à combustible. Bilan des travaux de recherches. Perspectives Fuel Cells. Review of Research. Outlook

    Breelle Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point, sous forme résumée, des travaux de recherches et de développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP depuis vingt ans dans le domaine des piles à combustible : sélection des filières directes conduisant au choix de la pile hydrogène-air basse température à électrolyte basique, mise au point des générateurs à hydrogène alimentés en méthanol. On présente les résultats obtenus et les conclusions des enquêtes effectués dans le domaine des groupes électrogènes et des applications spéciales, dans celui de la traction automobile et dans celui de la production massive d'électricité. This article reviews and sums up the research and development done by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP in the last 20 years in the field of fuel cells, including the selection of direct methods leading to the choice of low-temperature basic-electrolyte hydrogen/air cells and the development of methanol-powered hydrogen generators. The results obtained are desceibed along with the conclusions of surveys made in the field of electric generators and special applications in the fields of automotive traction and massive electricity production.

  6. The Role of Stress Proteins in Cell Stabilization: A Perspective from an Extremophile

    Trent, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    The existence of organisms that live at near boiling temperatures is living proof that all of the complex biochemical machinery of life can be adapted to function under these harsh conditions. The purpose of our research is to elucidate the role of a group of proteins known as heat shock proteins or HSP60s in this adaptation to high temperatures. HSP60s are found in all organisms and they are among the most highly conserved proteins known. We are investigating HSP60s in an organism growing at 80 C and pH 2.0 (Sulfolobus shibatae). This organism produces three closely-related HSP60 proteins, referred to as HSP60 alpha, beta, and gamma. Our DOE-funded research during the last two years has focused on clarifying the role of FiSP60 alpha and beta. These are among the two most abundant proteins in S. shibatae grown at high temperatures and significantly increase in abundance when the cells are exposed to near-lethal temperatures. We have demonstrated that these proteins protect the cells from lethal temperatures by stabilizing their membranes. During this last year we have been studying gamma, which was discovered by genome sequence analysis but nothing was known about its function. We have determined that gamma is only expressed at low temperatures. that it interacts with alpha and beta, and that it influences their ability to form higher-order structures critical to their function. We propose that gamma modulates HSP60 function at low temperatures.

  7. Clinical profile, treatment and survival outcomes of peadiatric germ cell tumours: A Pakistani perspective.

    Islam Nasir, Irfan Ul; Ashraf, Muhammad Ijaz; Ahmed, Nouman; Shah, Muhammad Fahd; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi; Syed, Amir Ali; Qazi, Abid Quddus

    2016-10-01

    Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) are rare tumours. Generally 80% are benign and 20% malignant with a bimodal age distribution. The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised all paediatric patients below 18 years of age who received treatment for histology-proven GCT from 2006 to 2014. Of the 207 patients, 98(42.3%) were males and 109(52.7%) were females. The most common GCT was yolk sac tumour in 90(43.5%) children followed by mixed GCT in 40(19.3%) and dysgerminoma in 34(16.4%). Gonads were most commonly involved in 165(79.7%) patients with metastasis in 24(11.6%) at presentation and recurrence in 26(12.5%) patients. Overall, 133(64.3%) patients are well and followed up at regular intervals and 55(26.5%) have been lost to follow-up with an expected overall 5-year median survival of 45%. Despite the distinct clinical profile of paediatric GCT, survival can be improved by early diagnosis, regimented treatment according to set guidelines, protocols and by improving follow-up.

  8. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  9. The species translation challenge—A systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to ‘translate’ the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies. PMID:25977767

  10. New insights into hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a 2015 perspective.

    McClanahan, Fabienne; Gribben, John

    2015-09-01

    A considerable body of evidence demonstrates that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the only potentially curative treatment option for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, this approach is suitable for only a minority of CLL patients, owing to its significant treatment-related mortality and morbidity. Until recently, internationally accepted guidelines suggested that HSCT should be considered in physically fit CLL patients who carry poor-risk features, such as TP53 abnormalities, or who had a short response to previous immunochemotherapy. However, several new agents and alternative treatment strategies are available that demonstrate impressive and durable responses, even in CLL patients who previously might have been candidates for transplant. The decision about which patients merit HSCT therefore remains important, and HSCT must now be considered in light of other less toxic therapies. Until data on the long-term efficacy of novel treatment approaches mature, the choice of HSCT vs alternative strategies must be assessed on a patient-by-patient basis, and treatment in the setting of randomized clinical trials should be pursued whenever possible.

  11. Cumulus Cell Expansion, Its Role in Oocyte Biology and Perspectives of Measurement: A Review

    Nevoral J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulus expansion of the cumulus-oocyte complex is necessary for meiotic maturation and acquiring developmental competence. Cumulus expansion is based on extracellular matrix synthesis by cumulus cells. Hyaluronic acid is the most abundant component of this extracellular matrix. Cumulus expansion takes place during meiotic oocyte maturation under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Quantification and measurement of cumulus expansion intensity is one possible method of determining oocyte quality and optimizing conditions for in vitro cultivation. Currently, subjective methods of expanded area and more exact cumulus expansion measurement by hyaluronic acid assessment are available. Among the methods of hyaluronic acid measurement is the use of radioactively labelled synthesis precursors. Alternatively, immunological and analytical methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in UV light, could be utilized. The high sensitivity of these methods could provide a precise analysis of cumulus expansion without the use of radioisotopes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize and compare available approaches of cumulus expansion measurement, respecting special biological features of expanded cumuli, and to suggest possible solutions for exact cumulus expansion analysis.

  12. Perspectives in Surgery of Oligometastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Fabio Villa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 20-50% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC have synchronous metastases. This dramatically affects survival and traditionally excludes patients from the spectrum of curative therapies. Nonetheless, studies have been performed to assess the role of surgery in Stage 4 NSCLC with metastases circumscribed to a single or limited number of organs, proposing the definition of oligometastatic NSCLC to enlarge the possibility of curative resection. Aggressive treatments have shown promising results; however, the great heterogeneity of survival outcomes implies the bias of selection of patients who can benefit from surgery. The new molecular-targeted systemic therapies, cytotoxic regimens, and radiant treatments can complement surgery in metastatic NSCLC, leading to optimal control of the disease. Retrospective series can help us to design prospective trials, selecting patients with positive prognostic determinants to undergo intensive resective and pharmacologic treatments. Molecular and gene profiling will probably be the most accurate method to elect candidates to sanative therapy in Stage 4 NSCLC.

  13. Microbial electricity generation in rice paddy fields: recent advances and perspectives in rhizosphere microbial fuel cells.

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use living microbes for the conversion of organic matter into electricity. MFC systems can be applied to the generation of electricity at water/sediment interfaces in the environment, such as bay areas, wetlands, and rice paddy fields. Using these systems, electricity generation in paddy fields as high as ∼80 mW m(-2) (based on the projected anode area) has been demonstrated, and evidence suggests that rhizosphere microbes preferentially utilize organic exudates from rice roots for generating electricity. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses have been conducted to identify the microbial species and catabolic pathways that are involved in the conversion of root exudates into electricity, suggesting the importance of syntrophic interactions. In parallel, pot cultures of rice and other aquatic plants have been used for rhizosphere MFC experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. The findings from these studies have demonstrated the potential of electricity generation for mitigating methane emission from the rhizosphere. Notably, however, the presence of large amounts of organics in the rhizosphere drastically reduces the effect of electricity generation on methane production. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential of these systems for mitigating methane emission from rice paddy fields. We suggest that paddy-field MFCs represent a promising approach for harvesting latent energy of the natural world.

  14. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer: Clinical management and future perspectives.

    Tomasello, Chiara; Baldessari, Cinzia; Napolitano, Martina; Orsi, Giulia; Grizzi, Giulia; Bertolini, Federica; Barbieri, Fausto; Cascinu, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    In the last few years, the development of targeted therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) expressing oncogenic driver mutations (e.g. EGFR) has changed the clinical management and the survival outcomes of this specific minority of patients. Several phase III trials demonstrated the superiority of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) over chemotherapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. However, in the vast majority of cases EGFR TKIs lose their clinical activity within 8-12 months. Many genetic aberrations have been described as possible mechanisms of EGFR TKIs acquired resistance and can be clustered in four main sub-groups: 1. Development of secondary EGFR mutations; 2. Activation of parallel signaling pathways; 3. Histological transformation; 4. Activation of downstream signaling pathways. In this review we will describe the molecular alterations underlying each of these EGFR TKIs resistance mechanisms, focusing on the currently available and future therapeutic strategies to overcome these phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parent Perspectives on Pain Management in Preschool-Age Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Smith, Kelsey; Reinman, Laura; Schatz, Jeffrey; Roberts, Carla W

    Pain episodes occur for many preschoolers with sickle cell disease (SCD), but little is known about parent perceptions of managing pain episodes in young children. We surveyed parents of young children with SCD who had managed pain episodes in the past year to assess their management and satisfaction with their strategies, challenges of pain management, and interest in additional education. Parents were recruited from health maintenance visits at a SCD specialty clinic. Forty-two of 51 parents (82%) of 2- to-6-year-olds reported managing pain over the past year. Parents who had managed pain primarily reported using medications. These parents reported at least moderate satisfaction with current management strategies and resources. At least one-third of parents found each facet of pain management queried as at least somewhat challenging. Identifying when their child was in pain, encouraging functional activities, and managing irritable behavior were reported as most challenging. Parents of young children with SCD reported interest in additional pain management education, which could promote better parent and child coping skills.

  16. Caregiver Perspectives of Stigma Associated With Sickle Cell Disease in Adolescents.

    Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi; Carroll, Yvonne; Porter, Jerlym S

    2016-01-01

    Patients and families affected by various medical conditions report experiencing health-related stigma, which contributes to detrimental physical, psychological, and social outcomes. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that affects 89,000 individuals in the United States and is often associated with negative stereotypes and incorrect assumptions. The present study explored the perception of stigma as reported by caregivers of adolescents with SCD. Focus groups were conducted with 20 caregivers of patients with SCD. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were coded independently by two authors, and then reviewed conjointly until consensus was reached. Caregivers reported the perception of stigma in academic, medical, community, and family settings. They also reported internalized stigma including negative feelings toward having a child with SCD, feeling upset with others, and seeing negative emotions in their child due to SCD. Caregivers reported a general lack of knowledge about SCD across settings. These results demonstrated that stigma may affect individuals with SCD across multiple settings. These results also highlighted areas for intervention, with a focus on increasing communication and education toward medical providers, schools, and communities. Interventions can utilize technology, social media, and advertisement campaigns. Additionally, support groups for patients with SCD may help decrease stigma and validate patients' experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  18. The human CTC1/STN1/TEN1 complex regulates telomere maintenance in ALT cancer cells

    Huang, Chenhui; Jia, Pingping; Chastain, Megan; Shiva, Olga; Chai, Weihang, E-mail: wchai@wsu.edu

    2017-06-15

    Maintaining functional telomeres is important for long-term proliferation of cells. About 15% of cancer cells are telomerase-negative and activate the alternative-lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to maintain their telomeres. Recent studies have shown that the human CTC1/STN1/TEN1 complex (CST) plays a multi-faceted role in telomere maintenance in telomerase-expressing cancer cells. However, the role of CST in telomere maintenance in ALT cells is unclear. Here, we report that human CST forms a functional complex localizing in the ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) in ALT cells throughout the cell cycle. Suppression of CST induces telomere instabilities including telomere fragility and elevates telomeric DNA recombination, leading to telomere dysfunction. In addition, CST deficiency significantly diminishes the abundance of extrachromosomal circular telomere DNA known as C-circles and t-circles. Suppression of CST also results in multinucleation in ALT cells and impairs cell proliferation. Our findings imply that the CST complex plays an important role in regulating telomere maintenance in ALT cells. - Highlights: • CST localizes at telomeres and ALT-associated PML bodies in ALT cells throughout the cell cycle. • CST is important for promoting telomeric DNA replication in ALT cells. • CST deficiency decreases ECTR formation and increases T-SCE. • CST deficiency impairs ALT cell proliferation and results in multinucleation.

  19. Terapia celular em doenças pulmonares: existem perspectivas? Cell therapy in pulmonary diseases: are there perspectives?

    João T. Ribeiro-Paes

    2009-05-01

    cells in the treatment of diseases. Although the number of scientific reports involving lung and cell therapy in humans is not expressive, there are consistent data, both in humans and animal models. Experiments show the migration of bone marrow stem cells to the lung, in different situations. These results provide the experimental basis for the use of stem cells in the regeneration of the lung tissue in animal models. In our laboratory, several projects have been conducted aiming to evaluate the pulmonary response (morphological and functional to treatment with adult stem cells in mice with experimentally induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results obtained, together with those from other research groups, allow us to consider the possibility of application, in the near future, of cell therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. For another disease, cystic fibrosis, cell therapy shows particular aspects in relation to other chronic degenerative pulmonary diseases. In this pathology, there are interesting and promising advances, however, the results are incipient and, thus, it must be said that the association between genetic and cell therapy appears to be a possibility, but still far from being consolidated and incorporated as a safe and effective therapeutic alternative in cystic fibrosis. On the other hand, based on the results obtained in experimental models, it is possible to postulate that cell therapy with hematopoietic stem cells (or from other sources brings consistent application perspectives in several other human pulmonary diseases, especially in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Economic Analyses in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Review of the Literature From a Clinical Perspective

    Souza, Jonas A. de, E-mail: jdesouza@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu [The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Santana, Iuri A.; Castro, Gilberto de [Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lima Lopes, Gilberto de [Johns Hopkins Singapore International Medical Centre (Singapore); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe cost-effectiveness and cost analysis studies across treatment modalities for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), while placing their results in context of the current clinical practice. We performed a literature search in PubMed for English-language studies addressing economic analyses of treatment modalities for SCCHN published from January 2000 to March 2013. We also performed an additional search for related studies published by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom. Identified articles were classified into 3 clinical approaches (organ preservation, radiation therapy modalities, and chemotherapy regimens) and into 2 types of economic studies (cost analysis and cost-effectiveness/cost-utility studies). All cost estimates were normalized to US dollars, year 2013 values. Our search yielded 23 articles: 13 related to organ preservation approaches, 5 to radiation therapy modalities, and 5 to chemotherapy regimens. In general, studies analyzed different questions and modalities, making it difficult to reach a conclusion. Even when restricted to comparisons of modalities within the same clinical approach, studies often yielded conflicting findings. The heterogeneity across economic studies of SCCHN should be carefully understood in light of the modeling assumptions and limitations of each study and placed in context with relevant settings of clinical practices and study perspectives. Furthermore, the scarcity of comparative effectiveness and quality-of-life data poses unique challenges for conducting economic analyses for a resource-intensive disease, such as SCCHN, that requires a multimodal care. Future research is needed to better understand how to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of different modalities for SCCHN.

  1. Regulation of T Cell Homeostasis and Responses by Pten

    Ryan H. Newton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of lipid products catalyzed by PI3K is critical for normal T cell homeostasis and a productive immune response. PI3K can be activated in response to antigen receptor, costimulatory, cytokine and chemokine signals. Moreover, dysregulation of this pathway frequently occurs in T cell lymphomas and is implicated in lymphoproliferative autoimmune disease. Akt acts as a central mediator of PI3K signals, downstream of which is the mTOR pathway, controlling cell growth and metabolism. Members of the Foxo family of transcription factors are also regulated by Akt, thus linking control over homing and migration of T cells, as well cell cycle entry, apoptosis, and DNA damage and oxidative stress responses, to PI3K signaling. PTEN, first identified as a tumor suppressor gene, encodes a lipid phosphatase that, by catalyzing the reverse of the PI3K reaction, directly opposes PI3K signaling. However, PTEN may have other functions as well, and recent reports have suggested roles for PTEN as a tumor suppressor independent of its effects on PI3K signaling. Through the use of models in which Pten is deleted specifically in T cells, it is becoming increasingly clear that control over autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis by PTEN involves multi-faceted functions of this molecule at multiple stages of T cell development.

  2. A quantum-chemical perspective into low optical-gap polymers for highly-efficient organic solar cells

    Risko, Chad; McGehee, Michael D.; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    in photocurrent generation. In this Perspective, we first present an overview of the application of quantum-chemical techniques to study the intrinsic material properties and molecular- and nano-scale processes involved in device operation. In the second part

  3. Reflections on the United States National Institutes of Health draft guidelines for research involving human pluripotent stem cells--theological perspective.

    Sotis, J J

    2000-01-01

    Since the human embryonic stem cell research involves destruction of human embryos and, therefore, hinges on the fundamental question of the status of the embryo, it is essential to examine this status carefully in order to establish fitting guidelines for research. The US National Institutes of Health has proposed its own guidelines on the matter recently (1999). The document, rooted in current pluralistic perspectives in moral philosophy (or bioethics), is criticised in this paper as morally inadequate. The argumentation of the criticism stems from the theological perspective on human personhood, which focuses on a continuity of personal identity from embryos to adult human beings. An additional concern for the author is the moral complicity in which the research dependent upon the destruction of human embryonic life is sanctioned.

  4. The use of mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells for treatment of degenerative diseases: current status and future perspectives

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Human bone marrow derived-mesenchymal (skeletal) stem (MSC) cells are a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells residing in the perivascular niches in bone marrow. These cells have the capacity to differentiate mainly into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes and pos...

  5. TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Dedifferentiated fat cells: Potential and perspectives for their use in clinical and animal science purpose.

    Duarte, M S; Bueno, R; Silva, W; Campos, C F; Gionbelli, M P; Guimarães, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S; Hausman, G J; Dodson, M V

    2017-05-01

    An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. Additionally, recent studies showed the ability of isolated mature adipocytes to dedifferentiate in vivo and the capacity of the progeny cells to redifferentiate into mature adipocytes, contributing to the increase of body fatness. These findings shed light on the potential for use of DFAT cells, not only for clinical purposes but also within the animal science field, because increasing intramuscular fat without excessive increase in other fat depots is a challenge in livestock production. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of DFAT cells will allow the development of strategies for their use for clinical and animal science purposes. In this review, we highlight several aspects of DFAT cells, their potential for clinical purposes, and their contribution to adipose tissue mass in livestock.

  6. Sociological Perspectives.

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  7. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Sherrilene Classen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sherrilene Classen1,2, Ellen DS Lopez3, Sandra Winter2, Kezia D Awadzi4, Nita Ferree5, Cynthia W Garvan61Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions (CPHHP, University of Florida (UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2PhD Program in Rehabilitation Science, CPHHP, UF Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Health Science Center Libraries, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, UF, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research, and views (qualitative research of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long

  8. An outsider's perspective--ecotaxis revisited: an integrative review of cancer environment, iron and immune system cells.

    de Sousa, Maria

    2011-04-01

    Lymphoid cell and tumor cell migration share similarities: 1. migration to specific microenvironments; 2. increased microvasculature with increased growth; 3. cell division. At the same time, contrasting aspects between the two merit attention: 1. failure of tumors to return to microvasculature quiescence; 2. failure of malignant cells to stop dividing; 3. failure of tumor cells to re-enter the circulation after returning to a non-activated phenotype. Analysis of these contrasting aspects leads to the reviewing of unexpected roles of immune cells in the tumor environment, recent work on ferroportin expression with lack of iron export by tumor cells, iron export by M2 macrophages, and deficient dendritic cells (DCs) in the tumor environment. DCs in lymph nodes have recently been found to bring lymph node vasculature to quiescence after antigen stimulation. Contrary to current dogma, the evidence is that some immune system cells in the tumor environment may be favoring regulators instead of diminishing tumor growth. In addition, recent data herein reviewed will make it difficult not to consider iron and iron gene expression as relevant components of the tumor environment. Finally, I conclude with wondering how much longer what I call the 'Hunter Paradigm' will dominate cancer research and immunology and how timely it is to acknowledge in the first decade of a new century, Mina Bissell as a pioneer in the change of that paradigm in Cancer Research. "Suppose he'd listened to the erudite committee; He would have only found where not to look" WH Auden.

  9. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  10. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England.

    Busby, Helen

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public 'cord blood bank', for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with high expectations for future applications of stem cells. Given this dynamic, a concern arises that the complex and multiple uses of tissues and related data might be oversimplified in the consent process. In conclusion, the positive finding of a commitment to mutuality in cord blood banking among these women is underlined, and its implications for the wider debate on cord blood banking are discussed.

  11. A multi-perspective review of microbial fuel-cells for wastewater treatment: Bio-electro-chemical, microbiologic and modeling aspects

    Capodaglio, Andrea G., E-mail: capo@unipv.it; Molognoni, Daniele [DICAr, University of Pavia (Italy); Pons, Anna Vilajeliu [LEQUIA, University of Girona (Spain)

    2016-07-25

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) represent a still novel technology for the recovery of energy and resources through wastewater treatment. Although the technology is quite appealing, due its potential benefits, its practical application is still hampered by several drawbacks, such as systems instability (especially when attempting to scale-up reactors from laboratory prototype), internally competing microbial reactions, and limited power generation. This paper is an attempt to address several of the operational issues related to MFCs application to wastewater treatment, in particular when dealing with simultaneous organic matter and nitrogen pollution control. Reactor configuration, operational schemes, electrochemical and microbiological characterization, optimization methods and modelling strategies are reviewed and discussed with a multidisciplinary, multi-perspective approach. The conclusions drawn herein can be of practical interest for all MFC researchers dealing with domestic or industrial wastewater treatment..

  12. Bioreactor-Based Online Recovery of Human Progenitor Cells with Uncompromised Regenerative Potential: A Bone Tissue Engineering Perspective.

    Maarten Sonnaert

    Full Text Available The use of a 3D perfusion culture environment for stem cell expansion has been shown to be beneficial for maintenance of the original cell functionality but due to several system inherent characteristics such as the presence of extracellular matrix, the continued development and implementation of 3D perfusion bioreactor technologies is hampered. Therefore, this study developed a methodology for harvesting a progenitor cell population from a 3D open porous culture surface after expansion in a perfusion bioreactor and performed a functional characterization of the expanded cells. An initial screening showed collagenase to be the most interesting reagent to release the cells from the 3D culture surface as it resulted in high yields without compromising cell viability. Subsequently a Design of Experiment approach was used to obtain optimized 3D harvest conditions by assessing the interplay of flow rate, collagenase concentration and incubation time on the harvest efficiency, viability and single cell fraction. Cells that were recovered with the optimized harvest protocol, by perfusing a 880 U/ml collagenase solution for 7 hours at a flow rate of 4 ml/min, were thereafter functionally analyzed for their characteristics as expanded progenitor cell population. As both the in vitro tri-lineage differentiation capacity and the in vivo bone forming potential were maintained after 3D perfusion bioreactor expansion we concluded that the developed seeding, culture and harvest processes did not significantly compromise the viability and potency of the cells and can contribute to the future development of integrated bioprocesses for stem cell expansion.

  13. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in its first and the second decade: sussesses, setbacks, paradoxes and perspectives

    Vajta, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    The present review gives a subjective outline of the past and future of somatic cell nuclear trensfer (SCNT). The first decade was full of contradictions: amazing successes were followed by frustrating fiascos. Although the possibility of reversing somatic cell differentiation completely is a more...

  14. Self-organization of yeast cells on modified polymer surfaces after dewetting: new perspectives in cellular patterning

    Carnazza, S [Department of Microbiological, Genetic and Molecular Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Satriano, S [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Guglielmino, S [Department of Microbiological, Genetic and Molecular Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy)

    2006-08-23

    In recent years, biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (commonly referred to as BioMEMS) have found widespread use, becoming increasingly prevalent in diagnostics and therapeutics. Cell-based sensors are nowadays gaining increasing attention, due to cellular built-in natural selectivity and physiologically relevant response to biologically active chemicals. On the other hand, surrogate microbial systems, including yeast models, have become a useful alternative to animal and mammalian cell systems for high-throughput screening for the identification of new pharmacological agents. A main obstacle in biosensor device fabrication is the need for localized geometric confinement of cells, without losing cell viability and sensing capability. Here we illustrate a new approach for cellular patterning using dewetting processes to control cell adhesion and spatial confinement on modified surfaces. By the control of simple system parameters, a rich variety of morphologies, ranging through hexagonal arrays, polygonal networks, bicontinuous structures, and elongated fingers, can be obtained.

  15. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Ievskaya, Yulia; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Brandt, Riley E.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Heffernan, Shane; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemically deposited Cu 2 O solar cells are receiving growing attention owing to a recent doubling in efficiency. This was enabled by the controlled chemical environment used in depositing doped ZnO layers by atomic layer deposition, which is not well suited to large-scale industrial production. While open air fabrication with atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition overcomes this limitation, we find that this approach is limited by an inability to remove the detrimental CuO layer that forms on the Cu 2 O surface. Herein, we propose strategies for achieving efficiencies in atmospherically processed cells that are equivalent to the high values achieved in vacuum processed cells

  16. Construction Project Leadership from the Perspective of Islam

    MUHAMAD ROSDI SENAM; KHAIRUDDIN ABDUL RASHID; AZILA AHMAD SARKAWI; RAPIAH MOHD. ZAINI

    2014-01-01

    Construction industry is continuously being accused with common issues such as low performance, corruptions, spillages, bad practices in addition to common project failures despite advances in project management tools and techniques. This further adds to the existing and increasing complex and multi-facets business environment in construction projects that has resulted in the increasing pressure and challenges faced by project leaders and project managers today. Researchers in project managem...

  17. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques.

    Baskin, Denis G

    2015-08-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Induction of CTGF by TGF-β1 in normal and radiation enteritis human smooth muscle cells: Smad/Rho balance and therapeutic perspectives

    Haydont, Valerie; Mathe, Denis; Bourgier, Celine; Abdelali, Jalil; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream effector Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2), are well known fibrogenic activators and we previously showed that the Rho/ROCK pathway controls CTGF expression in intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated from patients with delayed radiation enteritis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the balance between Smad and Rho signalling pathways in the TGF-β1 CTGF induction and modulation of radiation-induced fibrogenic differentiation after addition of pravastatin, an inhibitor of Rho isoprenylation. Patients and methods: Primary human smooth muscle cells isolated from normal (N-SMC) or radiation enteritis (RE-SMC) biopsies were incubated with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml). Induction of CTGF, as well as nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of phospho-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Smad4 were analysed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Smad DNA binding was assessed by EMSA and Rho activation was measured by pull-down assay. Results: After TGF-β1 addition, Smads were translocated to the nucleus in both cell types. Nuclear accumulation of Smad as well as their DNA-binding activity were higher in N-SMC than in RE-SMC, whereas the opposite was observed for Rho activation, suggesting a main involvement of Rho pathway in sustained fibrogenic differentiation. This hypothesis was further supported by the antifibrotic effect observed in vitro after cell treatment with pravastatin (i.e. decreased expression of CTGF, TGF-β1 and Collagen Iα2). Conclusions: Our results suggest that TGF-β1-induced CTGF transactivation mainly depends on the Smad pathway in N-SMC, whereas in RE-SMC, Smad and Rho pathways are involved. Inhibition of Rho activity by pravastatin alters fibrogenic differentiation in vitro which opens up new therapeutic perspectives

  19. Cell-Free Systems Based on CHO Cell Lysates: Optimization Strategies, Synthesis of "Difficult-to-Express" Proteins and Future Perspectives.

    Lena Thoring

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biotechnological processes play a pivotal role in target protein production. In this context, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells are one of the most prominent cell lines for the expression of recombinant proteins and revealed as a safe host for nearly 40 years. Nevertheless, the major bottleneck of common in vivo protein expression platforms becomes obvious when looking at the production of so called "difficult-to-express" proteins. This class of proteins comprises in particular several ion channels and multipass membrane proteins as well as cytotoxic proteins. To enhance the production of "difficult-to-express" proteins, alternative technologies were developed, mainly based on translationally active cell lysates. These so called "cell-free" protein synthesis systems enable an efficient production of different classes of proteins. Eukaryotic cell-free systems harboring endogenous microsomal structures for the synthesis of functional membrane proteins and posttranslationally modified proteins are of particular interest for future applications. Therefore, we present current developments in cell-free protein synthesis based on translationally active CHO cell extracts, underlining the high potential of this platform. We present novel results highlighting the optimization of protein yields, the synthesis of various "difficult-to-express" proteins and the cotranslational incorporation of non-standard amino acids, which was exemplarily demonstrated by residue specific labeling of the glycoprotein Erythropoietin and the multimeric membrane protein KCSA.

  20. Development of a Photosynthetic Microbial Electrochemical Cell (PMEC Reactor Coupled with Dark Fermentation of Organic Wastes: Medium Term Perspectives

    Samir Bensaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept, the materials and the exploitation potential of a photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell for the production of hydrogen driven by solar power are investigated. In a photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell, which is based on photosynthetic microorganisms confined to an anode and heterotrophic bacteria confined to a cathode, water is split by bacteria hosted in the anode bioactive film. The generated electrons are conveyed through external “bio-appendages” developed by the bacteria to transparent nano-pillars made of indium tin oxide (ITO, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO or other conducting materials, and then transferred to the cathode. On the other hand, the generated protons diffuse to the cathode via a polymer electrolyte membrane, where they are reduced by the electrons by heterotrophic bacteria growing attached to a similar pillared structure as that envisaged for the anode and supplemented with a specific low cost substrate (e.g., organic waste, anaerobic digestion outlet. The generated oxygen is released to the atmosphere or stored, while the produced pure hydrogen leaves the electrode through the porous layers. In addition, the integration of the photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell system with dark fermentation as acidogenic step of anaerobic digester, which is able to produce additional H2, and the use of microbial fuel cell, feed with the residues of dark fermentation (mainly volatile fatty acids, to produce the necessary extra-bias for the photosynthetic microbial electrochemical cell is here analyzed to reveal the potential benefits to this novel integrated technology.

  1. Novel Regenerative Therapies Based on Regionally Induced Multipotent Stem Cells in Post-Stroke Brains: Their Origin, Characterization, and Perspective.

    Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakuma, Rika; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    Brain injuries such as ischemic stroke cause severe neural loss. Until recently, it was believed that post-ischemic areas mainly contain necrotic tissue and inflammatory cells. However, using a mouse model of cerebral infarction, we demonstrated that stem cells develop within ischemic areas. Ischemia-induced stem cells can function as neural progenitors; thus, we initially named them injury/ischemia-induced neural stem/progenitor cells (iNSPCs). However, because they differentiate into more than neural lineages, we now refer to them as ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs). Very recently, we showed that putative iNSPCs/iSCs are present within post-stroke areas in human brains. Because iNSPCs/iSCs isolated from mouse and human ischemic tissues can differentiate into neuronal lineages in vitro, it is possible that a clearer understanding of iNSPC/iSC profiles and the molecules that regulate iNSPC/iSC fate (e.g., proliferation, differentiation, and survival) would make it possible to perform neural regeneration/repair in patients following stroke. In this article, we introduce the origin and traits of iNSPCs/iSCs based on our reports and recent viewpoints. We also discuss their possible contribution to neurogenesis through endogenous and exogenous iNSPC/iSC therapies following ischemic stroke.

  2. High-risk human papilloma virus associated oropharynx squamous cells carcinomas: Clinical, biological implications and therapeutical perspectives

    Guihard, S.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The infection of the head and neck epithelium by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a risk factor for cancer onset and development. The incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is currently increasing. These lesions display distinct clinical features. HPV positive patients are often younger and have a smaller history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, but have a history of virus-transmitting sex practices. HPV-related tumours are mainly found in the oropharynx, are more associated to a local lymph node invasion and display a poorly differentiated morphology. Despite these more aggressive features, HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas correlate with an improved local control, disease-free and global survival. It is thought that HPV-driven specific biologic abnormalities underlie higher tumour sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiations. The expression of the HPV E6 and E7 onco-proteins induce cell transformation by interfering with cell signalling pathways involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, angiogenesis and induce the overexpression of the CDKN2A gene. Therefore, alternative treatments based on therapies targeting these pathways in combination with radiation dose de-escalation could be proposed to HPV-positive patients, if they are properly and reliably identified. (authors)

  3. A Novel View of the Adult Stem Cell Compartment From the Perspective of a Quiescent Population of Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells.

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Ratajczak, Janina; Suszynska, Malwina; Miller, Donald M; Kucia, Magda; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2017-01-06

    Evidence has accumulated that adult hematopoietic tissues and other organs contain a population of dormant stem cells (SCs) that are more primitive than other, already restricted, monopotent tissue-committed SCs (TCSCs). These observations raise several questions, such as the developmental origin of these cells, their true pluripotent or multipotent nature, which surface markers they express, how they can be efficiently isolated from adult tissues, and what role they play in the adult organism. The phenotype of these cells and expression of some genes characteristic of embryonic SCs, epiblast SCs, and primordial germ cells suggests their early-embryonic deposition in developing tissues as precursors of adult SCs. In this review, we will critically discuss all these questions and the concept that small dormant SCs related to migratory primordial germ cells, described as very small embryonic-like SCs, are deposited during embryogenesis in bone marrow and other organs as a backup population for adult tissue-committed SCs and are involved in several processes related to tissue or organ rejuvenation, aging, and cancerogenesis. The most recent results on successful ex vivo expansion of human very small embryonic-like SC in chemically defined media free from feeder-layer cells open up new and exciting possibilities for their application in regenerative medicine. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    Hoye, Robert L. Z., E-mail: rlzh2@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Ievskaya, Yulia; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L., E-mail: rlzh2@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Brandt, Riley E.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Heffernan, Shane [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Musselman, Kevin P. [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    Electrochemically deposited Cu{sub 2}O solar cells are receiving growing attention owing to a recent doubling in efficiency. This was enabled by the controlled chemical environment used in depositing doped ZnO layers by atomic layer deposition, which is not well suited to large-scale industrial production. While open air fabrication with atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition overcomes this limitation, we find that this approach is limited by an inability to remove the detrimental CuO layer that forms on the Cu{sub 2}O surface. Herein, we propose strategies for achieving efficiencies in atmospherically processed cells that are equivalent to the high values achieved in vacuum processed cells.

  5. New perspective for GdNCT. Gd-DTPA reaches the nucleus of glioblastoma cells in culture and in vivo

    Stasio, G. de; Gilbert, B.; Frazer, B.H.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the prospects of gadolinium as a neutron capture therapy agent by combining three independent techniques to study the uptake of Gd-DTPA in vitro, in cultured glioblastoma cells, and in vivo, in the glioblastoma tissue sections after injection of Gd-DTPA and tumor extraction. We show that gadolinium not only penetrates the plasma membrane of glioblastoma cells grown in culture, but we also observe a statistically significant higher concentration of Gd in the nucleus relative to the cytoplasm. For the in vivo experiments, Gd-DTPA was administered to 6 glioblastoma patients before neurosurgery. The extracted bioptic tissue was then analyzed with spectromictroscopy, showing Gd localized in the nuclei of glioblastoma cells in 5 patients out of the 6 analyzed. (author)

  6. University Student's Perspectives on Using Cell Phones in Classrooms--Are They Dialing up Disaster?

    Fernandez, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones are one of the fastest growing technologies in this century all over the world and these devices are extremely influencing the adolescents. The present study was sought to establish students' views on cell phones usage in university classrooms in an educational district in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study employed…

  7. A patient perspective on shared decision making in stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a mixed methods study

    Hopmans, W.; Damman, O.C.; Senan, S.; Hartemink, K.J.; Smit, E.F.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) are both curative treatment options for patients with a stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consequently, there is growing interest in studying the role of patients in treatment decision making. We studied how patients with

  8. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as first-line treatment in myeloma: a global perspective of current concepts and future possibilities

    Catriona Elizabeth Mactier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation forms an integral part of the treatment for multiple myeloma. This paper reviews the current role of transplantation and the progress that has been made in order to optimize the success of this therapy. Effective induction chemotherapy is important and a combination regimen incorporating the novel agent bortezomib is now favorable. Adequate induction is a crucial adjunct to stem cell transplantation and in some cases may potentially postpone the need for transplant. Different conditioning agents prior to transplantation have been explored: high-dose melphalan is most commonly used and bortezomib is a promising additional agent. There is no well-defined superior transplantation protocol but single or tandem autologous stem cell transplantations are those most commonly used, with allogeneic transplantation only used in clinical trials. The appropriate timing of transplantation in the treatment plan is a matter of debate. Consolidation and maintenance chemotherapies, particularly thalidomide and bortezomib, aim to improve and prolong disease response to transplantation and delay recurrence. Prognostic factors for the outcome of stem cell transplant in myeloma have been highlighted. Despite good responses to chemotherapy and transplantation, the problem of disease recurrence persists. Thus, there is still much room for improvement. Treatments which harness the graft-versus-myeloma effect may offer a potential cure for this disease. Trials of novel agents are underway, including targeted therapies for specific antigens such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.

  9. Targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer: biology, rationale, and preclinical results from a radiation oncology perspective

    Raben, David; Helfrich, Barb; Bunn, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This presents an opportune target for new treatment strategies designed to selectively interfere with the cancer cell growth cycle. Recent investigations into the biology of the EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways have reminded us of the complexity of cancer cell communications from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Multiple pathways are activated with stimulation of the autocrine and paracrine EGFR loop, from the ras-raf-MEK activation of ERK 1/2 to the P13K-Akt pathway, each playing an important role in cancer cell survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that molecules targeting the EGFR, either through extracellular blockade or intracellular interference with the EGFR-associated tyrosine kinase, reversibly or irreversibly, inhibit cancer cell growth. Potent antitumor effects have been observed in human tumor xenograft models. Preclinical studies have also demonstrated cooperative effects when anti-EGFR agents are combined with radiation or chemotherapy. Many of these agents have now entered into advanced human clinical trials with modest dose-related toxicity despite chronic administration. Encouraging response rates with single-agent targeted therapy have been reported in heavily pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC. In addition, agents targeting the angiogenic pathway, which plays a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis, may play an important role in enhancing the efficacy of anti-EGFR agents. This article will focus on the biology, rationale, and preclinical studies with targeted anti-EGFR and antiangiogenic therapies for the management of NSCLC

  10. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    2012-01-01

    Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%). Ninety-three (46.5%) responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5%) would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5%) who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6%) said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7%) said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7%) were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow of clinical practice

  11. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Peleg Roni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow

  12. Focus on early-career GPs: qualitative evaluation of a multi-faceted educational intervention to improve antibiotic prescribing.

    Deckx, Laura; Anthierens, Sibyl; Magin, Parker J; Morgan, Simon; McArthur, Lawrie; Yardley, Lucy; Dallas, Anthea; Little, Paul; van Driel, Mieke L

    2018-01-16

    We conducted an educational intervention emphasizing rational antibiotic prescribing in early-career General Practitioners (GP) in vocational training (trainees). The intervention consisted of an online introduction module, an online communication training module, face-to-face workshops, and cases to be discussed one-on-one by the trainee-supervisor dyad during regular scheduled education sessions. To explore the participants' experiences with the intervention. A qualitative study of 14 GP trainees and supervisors. Interviews followed a semi-structured interview guide, were transcribed and analysed using concurrent thematic analysis. Overall, the intervention was well received. Resources were not often used in practice, but GP trainees used the information in communicating with patients. The intervention improved trainees' confidence and provided new communication strategies, e.g. explicitly asking about patients' expectations and talking patients through the examination to form an overall clinical picture. Trainees seemed eager to learn and adapt their practice, whereas GP supervisors rather commented that the intervention was reinforcing. None of the participants reported prescribing conflicts between trainee and supervisor. However, most participants identified conflicts within the GP practice or with specialists: other doctors who prescribe more antibiotics perpetuate patients' ideas that antibiotics will fix everything, which in turn causes conflict with the patient and undermines attempts to improve antibiotic prescribing. The educational intervention was received positively. Early-career GPs thought it influenced their prescribing behaviour and improved their confidence in non-prescribing. Interventions that target teams (e.g. entire practice) could minimize conflict, ensure consistency of messages and support overall antibiotic stewardship in primary care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. ETHNICITY-BASED RELIGIOSITY: Multi-Faceted Islam in Miami, USA, in the Age of War on Terrorism

    Ahmad Muttaqin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Minoritas Muslim seringkali menunjukkan perilaku yang ambigu. Satu sisi mereka mendambakan pengakuan dan perlakukan yang tidak diskriminatif dari kalangan mayoritas-non Muslim, namun di sisi lain ada “keengganan” untuk berbaur dengan kelompok mayoritas. Tulisan ini menguraikan dua tipe minoritas Muslim di Miami, Florida, Amerika Serikat, Muslim imigran dan Muslim kelahiran Amerika, serta menjelaskan berbagai faktor keengganan mereka dalam berbaur dengan mayoritas non Muslim. Di antara faktor keengganan tersebut adalah kesulitan mereka mencari rujukan ajaran Islam yang melegitimitasi “etika proaktif ” minoritas terhadap mayoritas, segmentasi etnis, kebangsaan dan faham keagamaan minoritas Muslim, serta beban psikis mereka yang merasa belum sepenuhnya menjadi warga negara Amerika Serikat. Dibandingkan kaum Muslim imigran yang sebagian besar berasal dari Timur Tengah dan Pakistan, kaum Muslim keturunan Afrika yang lahir di Amerika cenderung lebih terbuka dan aktif berbaur dengan kelompok mayoritas non-Muslim. Sikap ini ternyata berkorelasi positif dengan perlakukan yang mereka peroleh pasca tragedy 9/11. Kelompok pertama merasa selalu menjadi target operasi anti teror pemerintah Amerika, sedangkan kelompok kedua justru menekankan bahwa mereka adalah korban dari terorisme tersebut.

  14. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  15. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  16. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  17. Can we improve tendon healing in the horse? A multi-angle study of a multi-facet problem

    Cadby, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Tendon problems are frequent among horses and humans as both species face athletic challenges. Repetitive exercise often leads to overuse injuries in tendons and the number of reported cases of tendon injuries has increased enormously during the last decades, due to changes in demographics and

  18. Through the Looking Glass: Examining the Practice of Science Classroom Dissection with a Multi-Faceted Lens

    Witte, Melissa Marie

    2014-01-01

    Dissection of lab specimens is a common procedure in science classrooms, yet there are many unasked and unexamined questions relating to this practice. In addition to ethical considerations, there are personal and environmental health impacts of using conventional dissection, which has historically included animals and animal organs embalmed in…

  19. Multi-faceted tourist travel decisions : a constraint-based conceptual framework to describe tourists' sequential choices of travel components

    Dellaert, Benedict; Ettema, D.F.; Lindh, Christer

    This paper introduces a first step towards analyzing tourist travel choice in situations where tourists may: (i) temporally separate their choice of different components of the travel package, e.g. tourists may choose travel destination before accommodation, and (ii) face a structure of constraints

  20. A multi-faceted approach of a nursing led education in response to MERS-CoV infection

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV resulted in multiple healthcare associated outbreaks. In response, we developed a nurse-led program to screen and triage patients with MERS-CoV infection. Methods: A formal educational program was implemented to ensure a standardized approach to care planning and delivery. The essential skills that were included were the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE including gown, gloves, head cover and N95 mask, hand hygiene, the practice of donning and doffing and the collection of MERS-CoV nasopharyngeal specimens. Results: A core group of nurses were identified from high-risk units. The education program consisted of four skill-days. Nurses were assigned a pre-course work from Mosby’s Nursing Skills, an online skill module, donning and doffing of PPE, and the process for obtaining a nasopharyngeal swab. The skill lab incorporated multiple methods such group discussion, watching an on-line video, and a simulated demonstration and practice on a mannequin. In total, 450 nurses attended the Nasopharyngeal Skills Day and 1000 nurses received training. Donning and doffing PPE and N95 mask fit testing has become an annual mandatory competency requirement for staff in nursing and clinical services. Conclusion: The application of specified protocols minimizes the risks of cross infection, placing emphasis on patient and staff safety as well as expediting the patient to definitive treatment. Nurse educators have an instrumental role in training nurses and other healthcare providers on the specifics needed to identify, contain and manage patient presenting with MERS-CoV. Keywords: Coronavirus, Education, MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome, Saudi Arabia, Outbreak preparedness, Hospital care

  1. A multi-faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial.

    O'Farrell, Anne

    2017-08-07

    Alcohol misuse and harm are more prevalent amongst sports people than non-sports people. Few studies have trialled interventions to address alcohol misuse for this group. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms amongst amateur sports people in Ireland.

  2. Adoption of workplaces and reach of employees for a multi-faceted intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    and work environment intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides in elderly care. METHODS: Percentage of adopters was calculated among eligible workplaces and differences between adopters and non-adopters were evaluated through workplace registrations and manager questionnaires from all...... physical exertion during work compared to non-consenters. CONCLUSIONS: Our recruitment effort yielded a population of consenters that was representative of the target population of nurses' aides with respect to demographic factors, and health. Moreover more consenters had problems like pain and high...

  3. The Multi-Facets of Cyber Sex-Trafficking: A Call for Action and Reform from Society

    Rodas, Ericka

    2014-01-01

    In the year 2014, human trafficking is still prevalent. Traffickers around the world abuse vulnerable individuals and rob them of their freedom to be safe from harm despite the international and national laws that are in place. In particular, sex trafficking, a subset of human trafficking is a form of discrimination in which people in power, typically men, take advantage of the vulnerabilities of women and children— though men are also victims—to exploit them for their services, whether for l...

  4. Effects of travel time delay on multi-faceted activity scheduling under space-time constraints : a simulation study

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study, which simulates the effects of travel time delay on adaptations of planned activity-travel schedules. The activity generation and scheduling engine of the Albatross model system is applied to a fraction of the synthetic population of the Rotterdam region,

  5. Entrepreneurial networking: A blessing or a curse?: Differential effects for low, medium and high performing franchisees

    Croonen, Evelien; Brand, Maryse; Leenders, R.T.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have called for a better understanding of the link between networking and entrepreneurial performance. We provide such understanding in three ways: by focusing on a specific entrepreneurial context (franchise systems), by developing a multi-faceted theoretical framework and by highlighting a contingency that may affect the networking-performance link. We combine knowledge and learning perspectives with a networking perspective to develop and test a multi-faceted framework on th...

  6. From stem cells to human development: a distinctly human perspective on early embryology, cellular differentiation and translational research.

    Craft, April M; Johnson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Over 100 scientists with common interests in human development, disease and regeneration gathered in late September 2016 for The Company of Biologists' second 'From Stem Cells to Human Development' meeting held in historic Southbridge. In this Meeting Review, we highlight some of the exciting new findings that were presented, and discuss emerging themes and convergences in human development and disease that arose during these discussions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Trends in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma – critical evaluation and perspectives on vorinostat

    Zhang CL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sophia Rangwala, Madeleine Duvic, Chunlei ZhangDepartment of Dermatology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USAAbstract: Epigenetic modification with small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors has been a promising new anti-neoplastic approach for various solid and hematological malignancies, particularly cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL. Oral vorinostat was the first histone deacetylase inhibitor approved to enter the clinical oncology market for treating CTCL patients who have progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease after failing two systemic therapies. In two phase II clinical trials, oral vorinostat was found to be safe and effective at a dose of 400 mg/day, with an overall response rate of 24%–30% in heavily pretreated patients with advanced CTCL, including those with large-cell transformed mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. About half of CTCL patients receiving vorinostat also experienced substantial relief in pruritus and thus a marked improvement in quality of life. A subsequent follow-up study reported long-term safety and clinical benefits of vorinostat in patients with refractory CTCL, regardless of previous treatment failures. The most frequent side effects of vorinostat include gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, and thrombocytopenia. These adverse reactions are dose-related and reversible upon cessation of therapy. Preclinical studies have supported the therapeutic potential of vorinostat by demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities against CTCL, including selective induction of apoptosis in malignant T cells, inhibition of angiogenesis, suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Identification of biomarkers of response and resistance will help select CTCL patients most likely to benefit from treatment and guide the design of effective combination therapies.Keywords: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

  8. Multidisciplinary perspectives for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: hydrogels for protein delivery and cell-based drug delivery as therapeutic strategies.

    Giordano, Carmen; Albani, Diego; Gloria, Antonio; Tunesi, Marta; Batelli, Sara; Russo, Teresa; Forloni, Gianluigi; Ambrosio, Luigi; Cigada, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    This review presents two intriguing multidisciplinary strategies that might make the difference in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The first proposed strategy is based on the controlled delivery of recombinant proteins known to play a key role in these neurodegenerative disorders that are released in situ by optimized polymer-based systems. The second strategy is the use of engineered cells, encapsulated and delivered in situ by suitable polymer-based systems, that act as drug reservoirs and allow the delivery of selected molecules to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In both these scenarios, the design and development of optimized polymer-based drug delivery and cell housing systems for central nervous system applications represent a key requirement. Materials science provides suitable hydrogel-based tools to be optimized together with suitably designed recombinant proteins or drug delivering-cells that, once in situ, can provide an effective treatment for these neurodegenerative disorders. In this scenario, only interdisciplinary research that fully integrates biology, biochemistry, medicine and materials science can provide a springboard for the development of suitable therapeutic tools, not only for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also, prospectively, for a wide range of severe neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective

    Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W.; Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R.; Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells based on Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) absorbers were fabricated successfully by solid-state reaction in H 2 S atmosphere of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These ternary alloys were deposited in one step from a cyanide-free alkaline electrolyte containing Cu(II), Zn (II) and Sn (IV) metal salts on Mo-coated glass substrates. The solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer and a sputtered i-ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer. The best solar cell performance was obtained with Cu-poor samples. A total area (0.5 cm 2 ) efficiency of 3.4% is achieved (V oc = 563 mV, j sc = 14.8 mA/cm 2 , FF = 41%) with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 80%. The estimated band-gap energy from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements is about 1.54 eV. Electron backscatter-diffraction maps of cross-section samples revealed CZTS grain sizes of up to 10 μm. Elemental distribution maps of the CZTS absorber show Zn-rich precipitates, probably ZnS, and a Zn-poor region, presumably Cu 2 SnS 3 , close to the interface Mo/CZTS

  10. New insights in oncology: Epi-genetics and cancer stem cells; Nouvelles perspectives en oncologie: epigenetique et cellules souches cancereuses

    Krutovskikh, V.; Partensky, C. [Centre international de recherche sur le cancer, 150, cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon cedex 08 (France)

    2011-12-15

    Cancer is a multi-etiologic, multistage disease with a prevalent genetic component, which happens when a large number of genes, critical for cell growth, death, differentiation, migration, and metabolic plasticity are altered irreversibly, so as to either 'gain' (oncogenes) or 'lose' (tumour suppressors) their function. Recent discoveries have revealed the previously underestimated etiologic importance of multiple epigenetic, that is to say, reversible factors (histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA) involved in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of proteins, indispensable for the control of cancerous phenotype. Stable alterations of epigenetic machinery ('epi-mutations') turn out to play a critical role at different steps of carcinogenesis. In addition, due to substantial recent progress in stem cell biology, the new concept of cancer stem cells has emerged. This, along with newly discovered epigenetic cancer mechanisms, gives rise to a hope to overcome radio- and chemo-resistance and to eradicate otherwise incurable neoplasms. (authors)

  11. Perspective use of direct human blood as an energy source in air-breathing hybrid microfluidic fuel cells

    Dector, A.; Escalona-Villalpando, R. A.; Dector, D.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Chávez-Ramírez, A. U.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a flexible and light air-breathing hybrid microfluidic fuel cell (HμFC) operated under biological conditions. A mixture of glucose oxidase, glutaraldehyde, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and vulcan carbon (GOx/VC-MWCNT-GA) was used as the bioanode. Meanwhile, integrating an air-exposed electrode (Pt/C) as the cathode enabled direct oxygen delivery from air. The microfluidic fuel cell performance was evaluated using glucose obtained from three different sources as the fuel: 5 mM glucose in phosphate buffer, human serum and human blood. For the last fuel, an open circuit voltage and maximum power density of 0.52 V and 0.20 mW cm-2 (at 0.38 V) were obtained respectively; meanwhile the maximum current density was 1.1 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the stability of the device was measured in terms of recovery after several polarization curves, showing excellent results. Although this air-breathing HμFC requires technological improvements before being tested in a biomedical device, it represents the best performance to date for a microfluidic fuel cell using human blood as glucose source.

  12. Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells and Central Tolerance in Autoimmune Hepatitis Development: Novel Perspective from a New Mouse Model

    Konstantina Alexandropoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is an immune-mediated disorder that affects the liver parenchyma. Diagnosis usually occurs at the later stages of the disease, complicating efforts towards understanding the causes of disease development. While animal models are useful for studying the etiology of autoimmune disorders, most of the existing animal models of AIH do not recapitulate the chronic course of the human condition. In addition, approaches to mimic AIH-associated liver inflammation have instead led to liver tolerance, consistent with the high tolerogenic capacity of the liver. Recently, we described a new mouse model that exhibited spontaneous and chronic liver inflammation that recapitulated the known histopathological and immunological parameters of AIH. The approach involved liver-extrinsic genetic engineering that interfered with the induction of T-cell tolerance in the thymus, the very process thought to inhibit AIH induction by liver-specific expression of exogenous antigens. The mutation led to depletion of specialized thymic epithelial cells that present self-antigens and eliminate autoreactive T-cells before they exit the thymus. Based on our findings, which are summarized below, we believe that this mouse model represents a relevant experimental tool towards elucidating the cellular and molecular aspects of AIH development and developing novel therapeutic strategies for treating this disease.

  13. A Different Perspective: How Much Innovation Is Really Needed for Monoclonal Antibody Production Using Mammalian Cell Technology?

    Kelley, Brian; Kiss, Robert; Laird, Michael

    2018-05-03

    As biopharmaceutical companies have optimized cell line and production culture process development, titers of recombinant antibodies have risen steadily to 3-8 g/L for fed-batch mammalian cultures at production scales of 10 kL or larger. Most new antibody products are produced from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, and there are relatively few alternative production hosts under active evaluation. Many companies have adopted a strategy of using the same production cell line for early clinical phases as well as commercial production, which reduces the risk of product comparability issues during the development lifecycle. Product quality and consistency expectations rest on the platform knowledge of the CHO host cell line and processes used for the production of many licensed antibodies. The lack of impact of low-level product variants common to this platform on product safety and efficacy also builds on the established commercial history of recombinant antibodies, which dates back to 1997.Efforts to increase titers further will likely yield diminishing returns. Very few products would benefit significantly from a titer greater than 8 g/L; in many cases, a downstream processing bottleneck would preclude full recovery from production-scale bioreactors for high titer processes. The benefits of a process platform based on standard fed-batch production culture include predictable scale-up, process transfer, and production within a company's manufacturing network or at a contract manufacturing organization. Furthermore, the confidence in an established platform provides key support towards regulatory flexibility (e.g., design space) for license applications following a quality-by-design strategy.These factors suggest that novel technologies for antibody production may not provide a substantial return on investment. What, then, should be the focus of future process development efforts for companies that choose to launch antibody products using their current

  14. Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation for Central Nervous System Disorders – Recent Progress and Perspective for Clinical Application

    Kuroda S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the transplanted BMSC significantly promote functional recovery after CNS damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with CNS disorders. In this review, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy as the scientifically proven entity in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose. The BMSC have the ability to alter their gene expression profile and phenotype in response to the surrounding circumstances and to protect the neurons by producing some neurotrophic factors. They also promote neurite extension and rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. The BMSC can be expanded in vitro using the animal serum-free medium. Pharmacological modulation may accelerate the in vitro proliferation of the BMSC. Using in vivo optical imaging technique, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation in order to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in the future.

  15. Células-tronco hematopoéticas: utilidades e perspectivas Hematopoietic stem cells: uses and perspectives

    Francisco C. da Silva Junior

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As células-tronco hematopoéticas (CTH são células que possuem a capacidade de se autorrenovar e se diferenciar em células especializadas do tecido sanguíneo e do sistema imune. Na medicina, sua importância pode ser evidenciada por seu uso rotineiro do tratamento de doenças onco-hematológicas e imunológicas. A dificuldade de se encontrarem doadores compatíveis de medula óssea tem estimulado a busca por fontes alternativas de CTH, notadamente o sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário (SCUP e o sangue periférico. O número de unidades de SCUP armazenadas no mundo tem sido crescente desde a década de 1990. Em 2004 foi criada a rede BrasilCord, estabelecendo uma rede nacional de bancos de SCUP com o objetivo de aumentar as chances de localização de doadores e ampliar o número de bancos de SCUP no país. A despeito do baixo volume coletado e do maior tempo necessário para regenerar o tecido hematopoético, as CTH de SCUP vêm em alta concentração sanguínea, sua utilização como fonte de CTH para transplante apresenta menor risco de causar doença enxerto versus hospedeiro e possuem maior facilidade de obtenção do que as CTH provenientes de medula óssea.Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC are cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into specialized blood tissue and immune system cells. In medicine, their importance is evidenced by their routine use in the treatment of onco-hematological and immunologic diseases. The difficulty of finding compatible bone marrow donors has motivated the search for alternative sources of HSC, notably placental/umbilical cord blood (PUCB. The number of PUCB units stored worldwide has been increasing since 1990. In 2004, the BrasilCord network was created, establishing a national network of PUCB banks with the aim of increasing the chances of finding donors and expanding the number of PUCB banks in the country. Despite the small volume collected and the greater amount of time required for the

  16. Learning from the failures of drug discovery in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and perspectives for the future: chronic lymphocytic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma as two ends of a spectrum in drug development.

    Kubuschok, Boris; Trepel, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Despite substantial recent advances, there is still an unmet need for better therapies in B-cell non Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL), especially in relapsed or refractory disease. Many novel targeted drugs have been developed based on a better molecular understanding of B-NHL. Areas covered: This article focuses on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as a representative for indolent lymphomas and paradigmatic for the tremendous progress in treating B-NHL on the one hand and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a representative for aggressive lymphomas and paradigmatic for many unsolved problems in lymphoma treatment or the other hand. We highlight salient points in current therapies targeting genetic, epigenetic, immunological and microenvironmental alterations. Possible reasons for drug failure in clinical trials like tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and drug resistance mechanisms are discussed. Based thereon, some perspectives for further drug discovery are given. Expert opinion: In view of the pathogenetic complexity of lymphomas, therapies targeting exclusively a single alteration may fail because resistance mechanisms are present either initially or evolve during treatment. Therefore, future therapies in B-NHL may have to target the greatest possible number of genetic, immunological or epigenetic alterations still allowing tolerability and to monitor these alterations during therapy.

  17. Sepiolite as a New Nanocarrier for DNA Transfer into Mammalian Cells: Proof of Concept, Issues and Perspectives.

    Piétrement, Olivier; Castro-Smirnov, Fidel Antonio; Le Cam, Eric; Aranda, Pilar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo; Lopez, Bernard S

    2017-12-29

    Sepiolite is a nanofibrous natural silicate that can be used as a nanocarrier for DNA transfer thanks to its strong interaction with DNA molecules and its ability to be naturally internalized into mammalian cells through both non-endocytic and endocytic pathways. Sepiolite, due to its ability to bind various biomolecules, could be a good candidate for use as a nanocarrier for the simultaneous vectorization of diverse biological molecules. In this paper, we review our recent work, issued from a starting collaboration with Prof. Ruiz-Hitzky, that includes diverse aspects on the characterization and main features of sepiolite/DNA nanohybrids, and we present an outlook for the further development of sepiolite for DNA transfer. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Scope and perspectives of industrial hydrogen production and infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in North Rhine-Westphalia

    Pastowski, Andreas; Grube, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A promising candidate that may follow conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines combines hydrogen from regenerative sources of energy, fuel cells and an electric drive train. For early fleets introduced the refuelling infrastructure needs to be in place at least to the extent of the vehicles operational reach. The question arises which strategies may help to keep initial hydrogen and infrastructure cost low? Industrial production, distribution and use of hydrogen is well-established and the volumes handled are substantial. Even though today's industrial hydrogen is not in tune with the long-term sustainable vision, hydrogen production and infrastructure already in place might serve as a nucleus for putting that vision into practice. This contribution takes stock of industrial production and use of hydrogen in North Rhine-Westphalia based on a recently finalized project. It demonstrates to which extent industrial hydrogen could be used for a growing number of vehicles and at which time additional capacity might need to be installed.

  19. Child-rearing practices of primary caregivers of children with sickle cell disease: the perspective of professionals and caregivers.

    Noll, R B; McKellop, J M; Vannatta, K; Kalinyak, K

    1998-04-01

    To obtain caregiver and medical professional opinions regarding the child-rearing practices of caregivers of children with sickle cell diseases (SCD). We obtained self-reports of parenting practices from 48 caregivers of children with SCD and 48 caregivers of matched classroom comparison peers using the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). CRPR ratings were also obtained from 12 experts in pediatric SCD regarding their predictions of how a parent of a child with SCD would respond. The experts predicted differences in protectiveness, discipline, and excessive worry. Objective interim and lifetime illness severity scores were obtained for the children with SCD. Caregivers showed similarity between the two groups, disagreement with the experts, and minimal relationship to illness severity. Experts who work with children with chronic illnesses such as SCD seem to have stereotyped ideas that do not correspond with parental reports of their child-rearing practices, suggesting the need for careful clinical evaluations.

  20. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao, E-mail: yaoyao@fudan.edu.cn; Wu, Chang-Qin, E-mail: cqw@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  1. A perspective on complementary/alternative medicine use among survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Benefits and uncertainties.

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; Savani, Bipin N; Litzow, Mark; Mohty, Mohamad; Hashmi, Shahrukh

    2015-07-15

    The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer survivors is well known despite a paucity of scientific evidence to support its use. The number of survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) is growing rapidly and HCT clinicians are aware that many of their patients use CAM therapies consistently. However, due to a paucity of data regarding the benefits and harms of CAM therapies in these survivors, clinicians are reluctant to provide specific recommendations for or against particular CAM therapies. A systematic literature review was conducted with a search using PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Ovid online for each CAM therapy as defined by the National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The search generated 462 references, of which 26 articles were deemed to be relevant for the review. Due to extensive heterogeneity in data and limited randomized trials, a meta-analysis could not be performed but a comprehensive systematic review was conducted with specified outcomes for each CAM therapy. In randomized controlled trials, certain mind and body interventions such as relaxation were observed to be effective in alleviating psychological symptoms in patients undergoing HCT, whereas the majority of the other CAM treatments were found to have mixed results. CAM use is an understudied area in HCT survivorship and clinicians should convey the benefits and uncertainties concerning the role of CAM therapies to their patients. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  2. An Evo-Devo perspective on ever-growing teeth in mammals and dental stem cell maintenance

    Elodie eRenvoisé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for current evolutionary and developmental biology research is to understand the evolution of morphogenesis and the mechanisms involved. Teeth are well suited for the investigation of developmental processes. In addition, since teeth are composed of hard-mineralized tissues, primarily apatite, that are readily preserved, the evolution of mammals is well documented through their teeth in the fossil record. Hypsodonty, high crowned teeth with shallow roots, and hypselodonty, ever-growing teeth, are convergent innovations that have appeared multiple times since the mammalian radiation 65 million years ago, in all tooth categories (incisors, canines, premolars and molars. A shift to hypsodonty, or hypselodonty, during mammalian evolution is often, but not necessarily, associated with increasingly abrasive diet during important environmental change events. Although the evolution of hypsodonty and hypselodonty is considered to be the result of heterochrony of development, little has been known about the exact developmental mechanisms at the origin of these morphological traits. Developmental biologists have been intrigued by the mechanism of hypselodonty since it requires the maintenance of continuous crown formation during development via stem cell niche activity. Understanding this mechanism may allow bioengineered tooth formation in humans. Hypsodonty and hypselodonty are thus examples of phenotypic features of teeth that have both impacts in understanding the evolution of mammals and holds promise for human tooth bioengineering.

  3. Perspectives on the co-treatment with GnRHa in female patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Luminita Nicoleta Cima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT for patients with both malignant and nonmalignant diseases have improved significantly in recent years. However, the endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage by the high-dose chemotherapy and/or irradiation used in the conditioning regimen before HSCT. Ovarian failure and subsequent infertility are frequent complications that long-term HSCT survivors and their partners face with a negative impact on their QoL. Several meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa administration in advance of starting standard chemotherapy decreases the risk of gonadal dysfunction and infertility in cancer patients, but GnRHa use for ovarian protection in HSCT patients is not fully determined. In this review, we are discussing the potential preservation of ovarian function and fertility in pubertal girls/premenopausal women who undergo HSCT using GnRHa in parallel with conditioning chemotherapy, focusing on the current data available and making some special remarks regarding the use of GnRHa.

  4. A patient perspective on shared decision making in stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a mixed methods study.

    Hopmans, Wendy; Damman, Olga C; Senan, Suresh; Hartemink, Koen J; Smit, Egbert F; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2015-12-16

    Surgery and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) are both curative treatment options for patients with a stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consequently, there is growing interest in studying the role of patients in treatment decision making. We studied how patients with stage I NSCLC perceived shared decision making (SDM) in general, and how they viewed different aspects of SDM. A sequential mixed methods design was used, consisting of qualitative interviews (N=11), as well as a survey study (N=76) focusing on different SDM-related aspects. Participants were interviewed to understand their own experience with treatment decision making. In the survey study, patients rated the importance of 20 aspects of shared decision making that were identified during interviews. Descriptive analysis and explorative factor analysis were performed. We assessed six qualitative themes covering SDM aspects that were determined by patients to be important. The survey identified four SDM-related factors with sufficient internal consistency, namely (1) 'guidance by clinician' (α=.741), (2) 'conduct of clinician' (α=.774); (3) 'preparation for treatment decision making' (α=.864); and (4) 'active role of patient in treatment decision making' (α=.782). Of these, clinician guidance was rated as most important by patients (M=3.61; SD=.44). Only 28.9% of patients in the survey study reported that both treatment options were discussed with them. Patients with a stage I NSCLC found clinician guidance to be important when making treatment decisions. Nevertheless, the majority of patients reported not being offered both treatment options, which might have influenced this finding.

  5. A Comparative Pan-Genome Perspective of Niche-Adaptable Cell-Surface Protein Phenotypes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Kant, Ravi; Sigvart-Mattila, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Saarela, Maria; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a ubiquitously adaptable Gram-positive bacterium and as a typical commensal can be recovered from various microbe-accessible bodily orifices and cavities. Then again, other isolates are food-borne, with some of these having been long associated with naturally fermented cheeses and yogurts. Additionally, because of perceived health benefits to humans and animals, numerous L. rhamnosus strains have been selected for use as so-called probiotics and are often taken in the form of dietary supplements and functional foods. At the genome level, it is anticipated that certain genetic variances will have provided the niche-related phenotypes that augment the flexible adaptiveness of this species, thus enabling its strains to grow and survive in their respective host environments. For this present study, we considered it functionally informative to examine and catalogue the genotype-phenotype variation existing at the cell surface between different L. rhamnosus strains, with the presumption that this might be relatable to habitat preferences and ecological adaptability. Here, we conducted a pan-genomic study involving 13 genomes from L. rhamnosus isolates with various origins. In using a benchmark strain (gut-adapted L. rhamnosus GG) for our pan-genome comparison, we had focused our efforts on a detailed examination and description of gene products for certain functionally relevant surface-exposed proteins, each of which in effect might also play a part in niche adaptability among the other strains. Perhaps most significantly of the surface protein loci we had analyzed, it would appear that the spaCBA operon (known to encode SpaCBA-called pili having a mucoadhesive phenotype) is a genomic rarity and an uncommon occurrence in L. rhamnosus. However, for any of the so-piliated L. rhamnosus strains, they will likely possess an increased niche-specific fitness, which functionally might presumably be manifested by a protracted transient colonization of

  6. FAA Perspective

    Bond, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Federal Aviation Administration's perspective on improvements on aircraft icing. The most important areas that are discussed include: 1) Improvements in SLD engineering tools to meet concerns about means of compliance (MOC); and 2) 3-D iced aerodynamics.

  7. Comparative perspectives

    IT

    Ideology, policy and implementation: Comparative perspectives from two ... how both political as well as particular language ideologies play a major role in influencing and ..... attitudes as a field of research, many scholars still draw on the concept of .... The data for this study were collected through the use of questionnaires ...

  8. Aging Perspectives

    Theodore D Cosco; David Brehme; Nora Grigoruta; Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann; Liis Lemsalu; Ruth Meex; Angela Schuurmans; Neslihan Sener

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven lan...

  9. Critical Perspective on Situational Leadership Theory. Leadership Readiness for Flexibility and Mobility. The 4th Dimensions on Situational Leadership Styles in Educational Settings

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    In educational settings, leadership flexibility and mobility is essential factor for leadership readiness. This incorporates both factors concerning the situational needs and followership situational readiness. Leadership in education require multi facet dimensional approaches that enables the educational leaders to fill in the gaps and reduces…

  10. O transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas na infância: situação atual e perspectivas Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood: current status and perspectives

    Adriana Seber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH é uma opção terapêutica para um grande número de crianças com doenças malignas e não malignas. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a situação atual dos TCTH em pediatria para o tratamento de doenças hematológicas malignas, incluindo dados de nosso país e perspectivas futuras.Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a treatment option for a large number of children with malignant and non-malignant diseases. The objective of this article is to present the current status of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of malignant hematological diseases in pediatrics, including results in Brazil, and future perspectives.

  11. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  12. Aging Perspectives

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  13. [Prostate cancer. Part 1: Review of cell kinetics over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L

    2016-02-01

    Using tritium-labeled thymidine histoautoradiography, the AgNOR staining technique and Ki67-MIB-1 immunohistochemistry to study cell kinetics, prostate cancer can be subdivided into slowly, moderately and rapidly proliferating tumors. These are important supplementary methods and prerequisites for a grading as low, intermediate and high-grade in addition to classical histology and cytology. Cytometry of DNA can confirm the cell kinetics of prostate cancer by detection of a predominance of diploid or aneuploid cell nuclei but should only be evaluated together with histological investigations. All histology-based analyses of cell kinetics encompass the classical highly and poorly differentiated glandular and cribriform patterns as well as solid undifferentiated structures and the various subcategories. The malignancy grading of prostate cancer can result from the summation of histological grading and cell kinetic analyses, as long as the named investigations are included. The future perspectives of individualized therapy options, including active surveillance in early low-grade and also for high-grade prostate cancer and new antihormonal treatment in advanced disease, may increasingly rely on tissue biomarkers and advanced technologies for whole genome analysis including next generation sequencing.

  14. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-02-01

    of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.

  15. The Patient Perspective on the Impact of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors on Daily Living: Crowdsourcing Study on Physical Function and Quality of Life.

    Mastboom, Monique Josephine; Planje, Rosa; van de Sande, Michiel Adreanus

    2018-02-23

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a rare, benign lesion affecting the synovial lining of joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is generally characterized as a locally aggressive and often recurring tumor. A distinction is made between localized- and diffuse-type. The impact of TGCT on daily living is currently ill-described. The aim of this crowdsourcing study was to evaluate the impact of TGCT on physical function, daily activities, societal participation (work, sports, and hobbies), and overall quality of life from a patient perspective. The secondary aim was to define risk factors for deteriorated outcome in TGCT. Members of the largest known TGCT Facebook community, PVNS is Pants!!, were invited to an e-survey, partially consisting of validated questionnaires, for 6 months. To confirm disease presence and TGCT-type, patients were requested to share histological or radiological proof of TGCT. Unpaired t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare groups with and without proof and to define risk factors for deteriorated outcome. Three hundred thirty-seven questionnaires, originating from 30 countries, were completed. Median age at diagnosis was 33 (interquartile range [IQR]=25-42) years, majority was female (79.8% [269/337]), diffuse TGCT (70.3% [237/337]), and affected lower extremities (knee 70.9% [239/337] and hip 9.5% [32/337]). In 299 lower-extremity TGCT patients (32.4% [97/299]) with disease confirmation, recurrence rate was 36% and 69.5% in localized and diffuse type, respectively. For both types, pain and swelling decreased after treatment; in contrast, stiffness and range of motion worsened. Patients were limited in their employment (localized 13% [8/61]; diffuse 11.0% [21/191]) and sport-activities (localized 58% [40/69]; diffuse 63.9% [147/230]). Compared with general US population, all patients showed lower Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurements Information System-Physical Function (PROMIS-PF), Short Form-12 (SF-12), and EuroQoL 5

  16. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases human hepatic stellate cell activation

    Harvey, Wendy A.; Jurgensen, Kimberly; Pu, Xinzhu; Lamb, Cheri L.; Cornell, Kenneth A.; Clark, Reilly J.; Klocke, Carolyn; Mitchell, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon that elicits toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the liver, gross markers of TCDD toxicity are attributed to AhR activation in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, less is known regarding the consequences of TCDD treatment on non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are non-parenchymal cells that store vitamin A when quiescent. Upon liver injury, activated HSCs lose this storage ability and instead function in the development and maintenance of inflammation and fibrosis through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and collagen type I. Reports that TCDD exposure disrupts hepatic retinoid homeostasis and dysregulates extracellular matrix remodeling in the liver led us to speculate that TCDD treatment may disrupt HSC activity. The human HSC line LX-2 was used to test the hypothesis that TCDD treatment directly activates HSCs. Results indicate that exposure to 10 nM TCDD almost Completely inhibited lipid droplet storage in LX-2 cells cultured with retinol and palmitic acid. TCDD treatment also increased LX-2 cell proliferation, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all of which are characteristics of activated HSCs. However, TCDD treatment had no effect on Col1a1 mRNA levels in LX-2 cells stimulated with the potent profibrogenic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. The TCDD-mediated increase in LX-2 cell proliferation, but not MCP-1 production, was abolished when phosphoinositide 3-kinase was inhibited. These results indicate that HSCs are susceptible to direct modulation by TCDD and that TCDD likely increases HSC activation through a multi-faceted mechanism.

  17. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England

    Busby, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public ‘cord blood bank’, for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with ...

  18. Future perspectives

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  19. Cosmic Perspectives

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  20. Inverse perspective

    Dolinsky, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    This paper will discuss the potentiality towards a methodology for creating perceptual shifts in virtual reality (VR) environments. A perceptual shift is a cognitive recognition of having experienced something extra-marginal, on the boundaries of normal awareness, outside of conditioned attenuation. Definitions of perceptual shifts demonstrate a historical tradition for the wonder of devices as well as analyze various categories of sensory and optical illusions. Neuroscience and cognitive science attempt to explain perceptual shifts through biological and perceptual mechanisms using the sciences. This paper explores perspective, illusion and projections to situate an artistic process in terms of perceptual shifts. Most VR environments rely on a single perceptual shift while there remains enormous potential for perceptual shifts in VR. Examples of artwork and VR environments develop and present this idea.

  1. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...

  2. International perspective

    2003-01-01

    The workshop dealt with two distinct cases: - In Port Hope - an existing situation impacting a set of communities affected by the nuclear fuel industry since the 1930's. This situation concerns the remediation of soil 'tainted' by a low level of radioactivity resulting from the processing of uranium. The facility that produced those wastes is still in town but it has changed ownership and it no longer stores or disposes of the waste in the area. - The issuance and upcoming implementation of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NWF Act) charting a path towards the identification of a national, long-term management solution for nuclear fuel (high level) waste in Canada. The NWF Act restarts a process that was interrupted a few years ago, after the Seaborn Environmental Assessment Panel concluded that the solution proposed by proponent Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. had not been demonstrated to have broad public support. From an international perspective, numerous observations can be made and lessons can be drawn both from the individual and the combined cases. Some of the most prominent observations, in the view of the NEA Secretariat, are presented hereafter. (author)

  3. Historical perspective

    Davis, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  4. Une perspective interactionniste

    Joëlle Morrissette

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à montrer l’intérêt de puiser à la sociologie pour conduire des recherches dans le domaine de l’éducation. Plus précisément, il sera question de la contribution d’une perspective interactionniste pour appréhender un objet attaché à l’évaluation des apprentissages des élèves. Comme on le verra, s’inspirer en particulier d’auteurs attachés à la tradition de l’interactionnisme symbolique amène à se situer en marge des manières de dire et de faire habituelles des investigations portant sur cet objet, de la phase de problématisation à celle de l’analyse, au profit d’un point de vue (resocialisant et contextualisant. Pour illustrer le propos, je prendrai appui sur le format d’une recherche ayant documenté le savoir-faire d’un groupe d’enseignantes du primaire en matière d’évaluation formative, et ayant adopté une perspective interactionniste comme posture générale de recherche.An Interactionist PerspectiveAn Alternative Approach to Learning AssessmentThis article aims to show the usefulness of drawing from sociology to conduct research in the field of education. Specifically, it discusses the contribution of an interactionist perspective in understanding the objects attached to student learning assessment. As we shall see, drawing especially from authors working in the tradition of Symbolic Interactionism leads us outside the usual ways of thinking and doing in investigations related to assessment objects, from problematization to analysis, in favour of a (resocializing and contextualizing perspective. To illustrate this point, I will examine the format of a study documenting the expertise of a group of elementary school teachers with regard to formative assessment, and having an interactionist perspective as its basis of research.Una perspectiva interaccionista: otro punto de vista sobre la evaluación del aprendizajeEste artículo tiene como objetivo el demostrar el interés de

  5. Perspective: Understanding of ripening growth model for minimum residual PbI2 and its limitation in the planar perovskite solar cells

    Se-Yun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The power conversion efficiency of lead halide perovskite solar cells recently surpassed 22.1%. In this study, we suggest the perovskite absorber growth mechanism of the two-step process could be explained by an Ostwald ripening growth model for planar-structure perovskite solar cells. We attempt to find out the source of two main problems such as unreacted PbI2 and non-uniformed morphology by the proposed ripening growth mechanism and experimental results. This growth mechanism opens the way toward understanding a key aspect of the photovoltaic operation of high-efficiency, two-step perovskite solar cells.

  6. Landscape of current and emerging cell therapy clinical trials in the UK: current status, comparison to global trends and future perspectives.

    Bisson, Isabelle; Green, Emma; Sharpe, Michaela; Herbert, Chris; Hyllner, Johan; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Cell Therapy Clinical Trial and Preclinical Research databases have been established by the Cell Therapy Catapult to document current and future cell therapy clinical trials in the UK. We identified 41 ongoing trials in April 2014, an increase of seven trials from April 2013. In addition, we identified 45 late-stage preclinical research projects. The majority of the clinical trials are early phase, primarily led by academic groups. The leading therapeutic areas are cancer, cardiology and neurology. The trends in the UK are also seen globally. As the field matures, more later phase and commercial studies will emerge and the challenges will likely evolve into how to manufacture sufficient cell quantities, manage complex logistics for multi-center trials and control cost.

  7. Perspectives on testicular sex cord-stromal tumors and those composed of both germ cells and sex cord-stromal derivatives with a comparison to corresponding ovarian neoplasms.

    Roth, Lawrence M; Lyu, Bingjian; Cheng, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) are the second most frequent category of testicular neoplasms, accounting for approximately 2% to 5% of cases. Both genetic and epigenetic factors account for the differences in frequency and histologic composition between testicular and ovarian SCSTs. For example, large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia occur in the testis but have not been described in the ovary. In this article, we discuss recently described diagnostic entities as well as inconsistencies in nomenclature used in the recent World Health Organization classifications of SCSTs in the testis and ovary. We also thoroughly review the topic of neoplasms composed of both germ cells and sex cord derivatives with an emphasis on controversial aspects. These include "dissecting gonadoblastoma" and testicular mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST). The former is a recently described variant of gonadoblastoma that sometimes is an immediate precursor of germinoma in the dysgenetic gonads of patients with a disorder of sex development. Although the relationship of dissecting gonadoblastoma to the previously described undifferentiated gonadal tissue is complex and not entirely resolved, we believe that it is preferable to continue to use the term undifferentiated gonadal tissue for those cases that are not neoplastic and are considered to be the precursor of classical gonadoblastoma. Although the existence of testicular MGC-SCST has been challenged, the most recent evidence supports its existence; however, testicular MGC-SCST differs significantly from ovarian examples due to both genetic and epigenetic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conference on researches and industrial outlooks on fuel cell and hydrogen; Recherches et perspectives industrielles sur la pile a combustible et l'hydrogene

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference aimed at presenting a panorama concerning the research and development of fuel cells and hydrogen and the associated regulation landscape. The first sessions concerned the industrial offer: the strategic advantages as a vehicle fuel, the equipment and the technology, the micro-cell. The second part of the conference concerned the society demand, the difficulties and the research and development programs: the parliamentary offer for the scientific and technological choices evaluation, the energy vector choice, the experiments in particular in Germany, the regulations. (A.L.B.)

  9. Toxicities of systemic agents in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN); A new perspective in the era of immunotherapy

    Saba, N.F.; Mody, M.D.; Tan, E.S.; Gill, H.S.; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Strojan, P.; Hartl, D.M.; Vermorken, J.B.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Ferlito, A.

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a difficult to treat malignancy and represents the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Systemic therapy has a critical role in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic disease. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been primarily used

  10. Are You Listening to Me? Space, Context and Perspective in the Regulation of Mp3 Players and Cell Phones in Secondary School

    Domitrek, Julie; Raby, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been much media coverage about cell phone and personal music player usage in schools, including in the Toronto and Whitton regions. However, there is little literature on how students and teachers view rules on the use of such electronic devices. Using data gathered from focus groups with students in Toronto and Whitton and…

  11. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  12. Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.

    Persson, Ingrid A L; Persson, Karin; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson, Rolf G G

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo.

  13. The contribution of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to central nervous system repair in multiple sclerosis: perspectives for remyelination therapeutic strategies

    Adriana Octaviana Dulamea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligodencrocytes (OLs are the main glial cells of the central nervous system involved in myelination of axons. In multiple sclerosis (MS, there is an imbalance between demyelination and remyelination processes, the last one performed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs and OLs, resulting into a permanent demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal loss. In MS lesions, astrocytes and microglias play an important part in permeabilization of blood-brain barrier and initiation of OPCs proliferation. Migration and differentiation of OPCs are influenced by various factors and the process is finalized by insufficient acummulation of OLs into the MS lesion. In relation to all these processes, the author will discuss the potential targets for remyelination strategies.

  14. Membrane-lipid therapy: A historical perspective of membrane-targeted therapies - From lipid bilayer structure to the pathophysiological regulation of cells.

    Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-09-01

    Our current understanding of membrane lipid composition, structure and functions has led to the investigation of their role in cell signaling, both in healthy and pathological cells. As a consequence, therapies based on the regulation of membrane lipid composition and structure have been recently developed. This novel field, known as Membrane Lipid Therapy, is growing and evolving rapidly, providing treatments that are now in use or that are being studied for their application to oncological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetes, obesity, and neuropathic pain. This field has arisen from relevant discoveries on the behavior of membranes in recent decades, and it paves the way to adopt new approaches in modern pharmacology and nutrition. This innovative area will promote further investigation into membranes and the development of new therapies with molecules that target the cell membrane. Due to the prominent roles of membranes in the cells' physiology and the paucity of therapeutic approaches based on the regulation of the lipids they contain, it is expected that membrane lipid therapy will provide new treatments for numerous pathologies. The first on-purpose rationally designed molecule in this field, minerval, is currently being tested in clinical trials and it is expected to enter the market around 2020. However, it seems feasible that during the next few decades other membrane regulators will also be marketed for the treatment of human pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective

    Ennaoui, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: ennaoui@helmholtz-berlin.de; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstr. 20, D-10553 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-02

    Thin-film solar cells based on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) absorbers were fabricated successfully by solid-state reaction in H{sub 2}S atmosphere of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These ternary alloys were deposited in one step from a cyanide-free alkaline electrolyte containing Cu(II), Zn (II) and Sn (IV) metal salts on Mo-coated glass substrates. The solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer and a sputtered i-ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer. The best solar cell performance was obtained with Cu-poor samples. A total area (0.5 cm{sup 2}) efficiency of 3.4% is achieved (V{sub oc} = 563 mV, j{sub sc} = 14.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 41%) with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 80%. The estimated band-gap energy from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements is about 1.54 eV. Electron backscatter-diffraction maps of cross-section samples revealed CZTS grain sizes of up to 10 {mu}m. Elemental distribution maps of the CZTS absorber show Zn-rich precipitates, probably ZnS, and a Zn-poor region, presumably Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3}, close to the interface Mo/CZTS.

  16. ALS Patient Stem Cells for Unveiling Disease Signatures of Motoneuron Susceptibility: Perspectives on the Deadly Mitochondria, ER Stress and Calcium Triad

    Kaus, Anjoscha; Sareen, Dhruv

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a largely sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs) whose specific etiology is incompletely understood. Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP/TDP-43) and C9orf72, have been identified in subsets of familial and sporadic patients. Key associated molecular and neuropathological features include ubiquitinated TDP-43 inclusions, stress granules, aggregated dipeptide proteins from mutant C9orf72 transcripts, altered mitochondrial ultrastructure, dysregulated calcium homeostasis, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and an unfolded protein response (UPR). Such impairments have been documented in ALS animal models; however, whether these mechanisms are initiating factors or later consequential events leading to MN vulnerability in ALS patients is debatable. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a valuable tool that could resolve this “chicken or egg” causality dilemma. Relevant systems for probing pathophysiologically affected cells from large numbers of ALS patients and discovering phenotypic disease signatures of early MN susceptibility are described. Performing unbiased ‘OMICS and high-throughput screening in relevant neural cells from a cohort of ALS patient iPSCs, and rescuing mitochondrial and ER stress impairments, can identify targeted therapeutics for increasing MN longevity in ALS. PMID:26635528

  17. Effects of a 12-month multi-faceted mentoring intervention on knowledge, quality, and usage of spirometry in primary care: a before-and-after study.

    Gupta, Samir; Moosa, Dilshad; MacPherson, Ana; Allen, Christopher; Tamari, Itamar E

    2016-04-21

    Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in adults. International guidelines have emphasized the importance of regular spirometry for asthma control evaluation. However, spirometry use in primary care remains low across jurisdictions. We sought to design and evaluate a knowledge translation intervention to address both the poor quality of spirometry and the underuse of spirometry in primary care. We designed a 1-year intervention consisting of initial interactive education and hands-on training followed by unstructured peer expert mentoring (through an online portal, email, telephone, videoconference, fax, and/or in-person). We recruited physician and allied health mentees from across primary care sites in Ontario, Canada. We compared spirometry-related knowledge immediately before and after the 1-year intervention period and the quality of spirometry testing and the usage of spirometry in patients with asthma in the year before and the year of the intervention. Seven of 10 (70 %) invited sites participated, including 25/90 (28 %) invited allied health mentees and 23/68 (34 %) invited physician mentees. We recruited 7 physician mentors and 4 allied health mentors to form 3 mentor-mentee pods. Spirometry knowledge scores increased from 21.4 +/- 3.1 pre- to 27.3 +/- 3.5 (out of 35) (p Spirometry acceptability and repeatability criteria were met by 59/191 (30.9 %) spirometries and 86/193 (44.6 %) spirometries [odds ratio 1.7 (1.0, 3.0)], in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. Spirometry was ordered in 75/512 (14.6 %) and 129/336 (38.4 %) respiratory visits (p spirometry in real world primary care settings. A future controlled study should assess the impact of this intervention on patient outcomes, its cost-effectiveness, and its sustainability.

  18. Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial.

    Christine L Mattson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs have confirmed that male circumcision (MC significantly reduces acquisition of HIV-1 infection among men. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, prospective evaluation of risk compensation, comparing circumcised versus uncircumcised controls in a sample of RCT participants.Between March 2004 and September 2005, we systematically recruited men enrolled in a RCT of MC in Kenya. Detailed sexual histories were taken using a modified Timeline Followback approach at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Participants provided permission to obtain circumcision status and laboratory results from the RCT. We evaluated circumcised and uncircumcised men's sexual behavior using an 18-item risk propensity score and acquisition of incident infections of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Of 1780 eligible RCT participants, 1319 enrolled (response rate = 74%. At the baseline RCT visit, men who enrolled in the sub-study reported the same sexual behaviors as men who did not. We found a significant reduction in sexual risk behavior among both circumcised and uncircumcised men from baseline to 6 (p<0.01 and 12 (p = 0.05 months post-enrollment. Longitudinal analyses indicated no statistically significant differences between sexual risk propensity scores or in incident infections of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis between circumcised and uncircumcised men. These results are based on the most comprehensive analysis of risk compensation yet done.In the context of a RCT, circumcision did not result in increased HIV risk behavior. Continued monitoring and evaluation of risk compensation associated with circumcision is needed as evidence supporting its' efficacy is disseminated and MC is widely promoted for HIV prevention.

  19. X-ray diffraction studies of selective area grown InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on multi-facet GaN ridges

    O' Malley, S.M.; Bonanno, P.L.; Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Wunderer, T.; Brueckner, P.; Neubert, B.; Scholz, F. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Ulm (Germany); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The structural properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW) were studied using synchrotron based high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). MQW structures were grown on the top and sidewall facets of triangular and trapezoidal shaped GaN ridges by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in the regime of selective area growth (SAG). Period and strain variations as a function of oxide mask width were determined for both the sidewall and the top facet growth. Oxide mask widths ranged between 2 and 20 {mu}m with openings between adjacent masks of 4 and 6 {mu}m. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction curves revealed a sidewall/vertical growth rate ratio of {proportional_to}0.3 through a comparison of the top to sidewall facet MQW periods. Masks orientated along the left angle 11-20 right angle crystallographic direction showed stronger growth enhancement along with large global strain for MQW growth on the top (0001) plane. Interpreting our results within the framework of vapour phase diffusion revealed that inter-facet migration of group-III species needs to be taken into account. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. An embedded longitudinal multi-faceted qualitative evaluation of a complex cluster randomized controlled trial aiming to reduce clinically important errors in medicines management in general practice

    Cresswell Kathrin M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to shed light on the pathways through which complex interventions mediate their effects in order to enable critical reflection on their transferability. We sought to explore and understand key stakeholder accounts of the acceptability, likely impact and strategies for optimizing and rolling-out a successful pharmacist-led information technology-enabled (PINCER intervention, which substantially reduced the risk of clinically important errors in medicines management in primary care. Methods Data were collected at two geographical locations in central England through a combination of one-to-one longitudinal semi-structured telephone interviews (one at the beginning of the trial and another when the trial was well underway, relevant documents, and focus group discussions following delivery of the PINCER intervention. Participants included PINCER pharmacists, general practice staff, researchers involved in the running of the trial, and primary care trust staff. PINCER pharmacists were interviewed at three different time-points during the delivery of the PINCER intervention. Analysis was thematic with diffusion of innovation theory providing a theoretical framework. Results We conducted 52 semi-structured telephone interviews and six focus group discussions with 30 additional participants. In addition, documentary data were collected from six pharmacist diaries, along with notes from four meetings of the PINCER pharmacists and feedback meetings from 34 practices. Key findings that helped to explain the success of the PINCER intervention included the perceived importance of focusing on prescribing errors to all stakeholders, and the credibility and appropriateness of a pharmacist-led intervention to address these shortcomings. Central to this was the face-to-face contact and relationship building between pharmacists and a range of practice staff, and pharmacists’ explicitly designated role as a change agent. However, important concerns were identified about the likely sustainability of this new model of delivering care, in the absence of an appropriate support network for pharmacists and career development pathways. Conclusions This embedded qualitative inquiry has helped to understand the complex organizational and social environment in which the trial was undertaken and the PINCER intervention was delivered. The longitudinal element has given insight into the dynamic changes and developments over time. Medication errors and ways to address these are high on stakeholders’ agendas. Our results further indicate that pharmacists were, because of their professional standing and skill-set, able to engage with the complex general practice environment and able to identify and manage many clinically important errors in medicines management. The transferability of the PINCER intervention approach, both in relation to other prescribing errors and to other practices, is likely to be high.

  1. A multi-faceted tailored strategy to implement an electronic clinical decision support system for pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: A two-armed randomized controlled trial

    Beeckman, D.; Clays, E.; Hecke, A. Van; Vanderwee, K.; Schoonhoven, L.; Verhaeghe, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frail older people admitted to nursing homes are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including pressure ulcers. Clinical decision support systems are believed to have the potential to improve care and to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVES: To determine

  2. Understanding how lake populations of arctic char are structured and function with special consideration of the potential effects of climate change: A multi-faceted approach.

    Budy, Phaedra; Luecke, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the effects of climate change on populations of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in two lakes. Both populations cycle dramatically between dominance by small (≤300 mm) and large (>300 mm) char. Apparent survival (Φ) and specific growth rates (SGR) were relatively high (40–96 %; SGR range 0.03–1.5 %) and comparable to those of conspecifics at lower latitudes. Climate change scenarios mimicked observed patterns of warming and resulted in temperatures closer to optimal for char growth (15.15 °C) and a longer growing season. An increase in consumption rates (28–34 %) under climate change scenarios led to much greater growth rates (23–34 %). Higher growth rates predicted under climate change resulted in an even greater predicted amplitude of cycles in population structure as well as an increase in reproductive output (Ro) and decrease in generation time (Go). Collectively, these results indicate arctic char populations (not just individuals) are extremely sensitive to small changes in the number of ice-free days. We hypothesize years with a longer growing season, predicted to occur more often under climate change, produce elevated growth rates of small char and act in a manner similar to a “resource pulse,” allowing a sub-set of small char to “break through,” thus setting the cycle in population structure.

  3. A multi-faceted workplace intervention targeting low back pain was effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    trial with 594 nurses' aides was conducted. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (two sessions) and participatory ergonomics (five sessions). Occupational lifting, fear avoidance, physical exertion, muscle strength, support...... to the control. There were no significant effects on physical exertion, muscle strength, support from management, work ability or sickness absence due to low back pain. After the intervention, significant increased physical capacity and improvements in kinesiophobia were found, but no change in need for recovery...

  4. Understanding how lake populations of arctic char are structured and function with special consideration of the potential effects of climate change: a multi-faceted approach.

    Budy, Phaedra; Luecke, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the effects of climate change on populations of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in two lakes. Both populations cycle dramatically between dominance by small (≤300 mm) and large (>300 mm) char. Apparent survival (Φ) and specific growth rates (SGR) were relatively high (40-96%; SGR range 0.03-1.5%) and comparable to those of conspecifics at lower latitudes. Climate change scenarios mimicked observed patterns of warming and resulted in temperatures closer to optimal for char growth (15.15 °C) and a longer growing season. An increase in consumption rates (28-34%) under climate change scenarios led to much greater growth rates (23-34%). Higher growth rates predicted under climate change resulted in an even greater predicted amplitude of cycles in population structure as well as an increase in reproductive output (Ro) and decrease in generation time (Go). Collectively, these results indicate arctic char populations (not just individuals) are extremely sensitive to small changes in the number of ice-free days. We hypothesize years with a longer growing season, predicted to occur more often under climate change, produce elevated growth rates of small char and act in a manner similar to a "resource pulse," allowing a sub-set of small char to "break through," thus setting the cycle in population structure.

  5. Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-11-01

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

  6. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.

  7. Identifying motivators and barriers to student completion of instructor evaluations: A multi-faceted, collaborative approach from four colleges of pharmacy.

    McAuley, James W; Backo, Jennifer Lynn; Sobota, Kristen Finley; Metzger, Anne H; Ulbrich, Timothy

    To identify motivators and barriers to pharmacy student completion of instructor evaluations, and to develop potential strategies to improve the evaluation process. Completed at four Ohio Colleges of Pharmacy, Phase I consisted of a student/faculty survey and Phase II consisted of joint student/faculty focus groups to discuss Phase I data and to problem solve. In Phase I, the top three student-identified and faculty-perceived motivators to completion of evaluations were to (1) make the course better, (2) earn bonus points, and (3) improve the instructor's teaching. The top three student-identified barriers to completion of evaluations were having to (1) evaluate multiple instructors, (2) complete several evaluations around the same time, and (3) complete lengthy evaluations. Phase II focus groups identified a number of potential ways to enhance the motivators and reduce barriers, including but not limited to making sure faculty convey to students that the feedback they provide is useful and to provide examples of how student feedback has been used to improve their teaching/the course. Students and faculty identified motivators and barriers to completing instructor evaluations and were willing to work together to improve the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a multi-faceted program to increase influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers in nursing homes : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    Looijmans-van den Akker, I.; van Delden, J.J.M.; Verheij, T.J.M.; van der Sande, M.A.B.; van Essen, G.A.; Riphagen-Dalhuisen, J.; Hulscher, M.E.; Hak, E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the recommendation of the Dutch association of nursing home physicians (NVVA) to be immunized against influenza, vaccine uptake among HCWs in nursing homes remains unacceptably low. Therefore we conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial among 33 Dutch nursing homes to assess the

  9. Improving pneumonia case-management in Benin: a randomized trial of a multi-faceted intervention to support health worker adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines

    Lama Marcel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy can improve the quality of care for pneumonia and other common illnesses in developing countries, but adherence to these guidelines could be improved. We evaluated an intervention in Benin to support health worker adherence to the guidelines after training, focusing on pneumonia case management. Methods We conducted a randomized trial. After a health facility survey in 1999 to assess health care quality before Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training, health workers received training plus either study supports (job aids, non-financial incentives and supervision of workers and supervisors or "usual" supports. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Outcomes were indicators of health care quality for Integrated Management-defined pneumonia. Further analyses included a graphical pathway analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling to identify factors influencing case-management quality. Results We observed 301 consultations of children with non-severe pneumonia that were performed by 128 health workers in 88 public and private health facilities. Although outcomes improved in both intervention and control groups, we found no statistically significant difference between groups. However, training proceeded slowly, and low-quality care from untrained health workers diluted intervention effects. Per-protocol analyses suggested that health workers with training plus study supports performed better than those with training plus usual supports (20.4 and 19.2 percentage-point improvements for recommended treatment [p = 0.08] and "recommended or adequate" treatment [p = 0.01], respectively. Both groups tended to perform better than untrained health workers. Analyses of treatment errors revealed that incomplete assessment and difficulties processing clinical findings led to missed pneumonia diagnoses, and missed diagnoses led to inadequate treatment. Increased supervision frequency was associated with better care (odds ratio for recommended treatment = 2.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.9] per additional supervisory visit. Conclusion Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training was useful, but insufficient, to achieve high-quality pneumonia case management. Our study supports led to additional improvements, although large gaps in performance still remained. A simple graphical pathway analysis can identify specific, common errors that health workers make in the case-management process; this information could be used to target quality improvement activities, such as supervision (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00510679.

  10. Hit-and-run, hit-and-stay, and commensal bacteria present different peptide content when viewed from the perspective of the T cell.

    He, Lu; De Groot, Anne S; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2015-11-27

    Different types of bacteria face different pressures from the immune system, with those that persist ("hit-and-stay") potentially having to adapt more in order to escape than those prone to short-lived infection ("hit-and-run"), and with commensal bacteria potentially different from both due to additional physical mechanisms for avoiding immune detection. The Janus Immunogenicity Score (JIS) was recently developed to assess the likelihood of T cell recognition of an antigen, using an analysis that considers both binding of a peptide within the antigen by major histocompatability complex (MHC) and recognition of the peptide:MHC complex by cognate T cell receptor (TCR). This score was shown to be predictive of T effector vs. T regulatory or null responses in experimental data, as well as to distinguish viruses representative of the hit-and-stay vs. hit-and-run phenotypes. Here, JIS-based analyses were conducted in order to characterize the extent to which the pressure to avoid T cell recognition is manifested in genomic differences among representative hit-and-run, hit-and-stay, and commensal bacteria. Overall, extracellular proteins were found to have different JIS profiles from cytoplasmic ones. Contrasting the bacterial groups, extracellular proteins were shown to be quite different across the groups, much more so than intracellular proteins. The differences were evident even at the level of corresponding peptides in homologous protein pairs from hit-and-run and hit-and-stay bacteria. The multi-level analysis of patterns of immunogenicity across different groups of bacteria provides a new way to approach questions of bacterial immune camouflage or escape, as well as to approach the selection and optimization of candidates for vaccine design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Porting the 3D Gyrokinetic Particle-in-cell Code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 Vector Architecture: Perspectives and Challenges

    Ethier, S.; Lin, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Several years of optimization on the super-scalar architecture has made it more difficult to port the current version of the 3D particle-in-cell code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 vector architecture. This paper explains the initial work that has been done to port this code to the SX-6 computer and to optimize the most time consuming parts. Early performance results are shown and compared to the same test done on the IBM SP Power 3 and Power 4 machines

  12. A Promising Tool in Retina Regeneration: Current Perspectives and Challenges When Using Mesenchymal Progenitor Stem Cells in Veterinary and Human Ophthalmological Applications.

    Cislo-Pakuluk, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 50(9), 4244, 2009; Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 49(8), 3449, 2008; Yu et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 344(4), 1071-1079, 2006; Na et al. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 247(4), 503-514, 2008). In previous studies, some of the stem cell variants used include human Muller SCs and bone marrow derived SCs. Some of the regenerative potential characteristics of mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MSCs) include their multilineage differentiation potential, their immunomodulatory effects, their high proliferative activity, they can be easily cultured in vitro, and finally their potential to synthesize and secrete membrane derived vesicles rich in growth factors, mRNA and miRNA which possibly aid in regulation of tissue damage regeneration. These facts alone, explain why MSCs are so widely used in clinical trials, 350 up to date (Switonski, Reproductive Biology, 14(1), 44-50, 2014). Animal studies have demonstrated that sub-retinal transplantation of MSCs delays retinal degeneration and preserves retinal function through trophic response (Inoue et al. Experimental Eye Research, 85(2), 234-241, 2007). Umbilical cord derived MSCs (UC/MSCs) have also been shown to contain

  13. Cogeneration, micro turbines and fuel cells: perspectives for distributed generation in Brazil; Cogeracao, microturbinas e celulas a combustivel: perspectivas para geracao distribuida no Brasil

    Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Brazil has a large potential to install distributed generation systems, using natural gas or renewable like solar, wind or biomass energy. Regarding urban centers, natural gas fired cogeneration and other distributed energy technologies find economical applications. Cogeneration is defined as the generation of two kinds of useful energy from a single energy source. Usually, electrical energy and thermal energy as steam or hot water are produced. By using the absorption refrigeration cycle, chilled water can also be produced to be used in air conditioned systems, often called tri generation, a good alternative to industries, commercial buildings, shopping centers, hospitals, schools and universities. Micro turbines find utilization whenever natural gas is available, but not electricity, like gas compression installations, unmanned platforms or remote production fields. Fuel cells are used in systems requiring high levels of reliability or wherever the non availability cost is high. This paper describe technical and economical data related to PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) 3,200 kW electric energy and 1,000 RT chilled water cogeneration system, 200 kW fuel cell and 30 kW and 60 kW microturbines. (author)

  14. Emerging role of nivolumab in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: current data and future perspectives

    Feld E

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Emily Feld, Leora Horn Department of Internal Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have become valuable therapies in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Recent clinical trials have shown promising results with regard to efficacy and toxicity profiles of these agents compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Nivolumab was one of the first immune-checkpoint inhibitors to demonstrate clinical activity in patients with NSCLC, and is currently approved in the US for treatment of patients with advanced squamous and nonsquamous NSCLC who have progressed on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. This review provides an update on nivolumab’s pharmacology, safety, and efficacy, as established by the CheckMate trials. We also discuss specific applications and strategies for the use of nivolumab in NSCLC patients, as well as predictive biomarkers and their role in treatment selection. Keywords: nivolumab, non-small-cell lung cancer, immune-checkpoint inhibitor, PD1 

  15. A Matter of Perspective

    2012-04-21

    can differ depending on whether a person is influenced by either an individualistic or collectivistic environment. Although perspective-taking...need for a deeper understanding and appreciation of others’ perspectives and cultures is relevant in a wide range of missions, and especially so in...perspective-taking a critical component in achieving cultural awareness and understanding, but it also is necessary for development of interpersonal

  16. Religious Architecture : Anthropological Perspectives

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...

  17. A network perspective on the processes of empowered organizations.

    Neal, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    Organizational empowerment is a multi-faceted concept that involves processes occurring both within and between organizations that facilitate achievement of their goals. This paper takes a closer look at three interorganizational processes that lead to empowered organizations: building alliances, getting the word out, and capturing others' attention. These processes are located within the broader nomological network of empowerment and organizational empowerment, and are linked to particular patterns of interorganizational relationships that facilitate organizations' ability to engage in them. A new network-based measure, γ-centrality, is introduced to capture the particular network structure associated with each process to be assessed. It is demonstrated first in a hypothetical organizational network, then applied to take a closer look at organizational empowerment in the context of a coordinating council composed of human service agencies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of relationships between these processes, and the potential for unintended consequences in the empowerment of organizations.

  18. Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

    Prasad, M. G.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics plays a very important multi-faceted role in Vedic Hinduism. Vedas, that is an infinitely large collection of chants (mantras) in ancient Sanskrit language, form the foundational literature of Vedic Hinduism. The Vedic chants have specific acoustical qualities and intonations. The Vedic literature describes the various aspects of acoustics, namely, philosophical, spiritual, and cultural. The use of sounds from conch-shell, bells, cymbal in addition to the Vedic chants in rituals shows the spiritual aspects. Vedic literature discusses the role of sound in the philosophical understanding of our world. Music, both vocal and instrumental, plays an important role in the cultural aspects of Vedic Hinduism. It can be seen that certain musical instruments such as ``mridangam,'' a percussion drum, reflect scientific principles underlying in their design. This paper presents an overview of the various important and interesting roles of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism.

  19. TAFRO syndrome: current perspectives.

    Sakashita, Kentaro; Murata, Kengo; Takamori, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), a distinct subtype of Castleman's disease, is a rare, nonneoplastic, lymphoproliferative disorder. Patients with MCD present with systemic symptoms and multiple lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy is necessary for the diagnosis of various histological MCD patterns including hyaline vascular, plasma cell, and mixed types. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection was identified as an important etiology of MCD among immunocompromised patients such as those positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Although HHV8-negative MCD was reported in immunocompetent patients, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Several experts speculate that MCD in immunocompetent patients might be due to proinflammatory hypercytokinemia because of infection by a virus other than HHV8, inflammation, or neoplastic disease. In 2010, a distinct variant of HHV8-negative MCD reported in Japan was characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly (TAFRO). Recent case reports and a systematic review suggest that TAFRO syndrome might have a unique pathogenesis among HHV8-negative MCD variants. This review introduces TAFRO syndrome as a subtype of HHV8-negative MCD and offers an overview of the current perspectives on this syndrome.

  20. Spotlight on crizotinib in the first-line treatment of ALK-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: patients selection and perspectives

    Giroux Leprieur E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Giroux Leprieur,1,2 Vincent Fallet,3,4 Jacques Cadranel,3,4 Marie Wislez3,4 1Respiratory Diseases and Thoracic Oncology Department, APHP-Ambroise Paré Hospital, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; 2EA4340 Laboratory, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, France; 3Respiratory Diseases Department, APHP – Tenon Hospital, Paris, France; 4Sorbonne University, GRC 04, UPMC Univ Paris 06, France Abstract: Around 4% of advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs have an ALK rearrangement at the time of diagnosis. This molecular feature is more frequent in young patients, with no/light smoking habit and with adenocarcinoma pathological subtype. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targeting ALK, ROS1, RON, and MET. The preclinical efficacy results led to a fast-track clinical development. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval was achieved after the Phase I clinical trial in 2011 in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC progressing after a first-line treatment. In 2013, the randomized Phase III trial PROFILE-1007 confirmed the efficacy of crizotinib in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, in second-line setting or more. In 2014, the PROFILE-1014 trial showed the superiority of crizotinib in the first-line setting compared to the pemetrexed platinum doublet chemotherapy. The response rate was 74%, and the progression-free survival was 10.9 months with crizotinib. Based on these results, crizotinib received approval from the FDA and European Medicines Agency for first-line treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The various molecular mechanisms at the time of the progression (ALK mutations or amplification, ALK-independent mechanisms encourage performing re-biopsy at the time of progression under crizotinib. The best treatment strategy at the progression (crizotinib continuation beyond progression, switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or cytotoxic chemotherapy depends on the phenotype of the progression, the

  1. Terapias celulares do miocárdio com células da medula óssea: critérios de qualidade e perspectivas Myocardial cell therapy with bone marrow cells: criteria for quality and future perspectives

    Maria Isabel D. Rossi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A terapia celular pode ser uma nova opção terapêutica para pacientes cardíacos, modificando o processo de remodelamento cardíaco e prevenindo a falência cardíaca pós-infarto. Estudos clínicos até o presente usaram células mononucleadas de medula óssea, isoladas por centrifugação em gradiente de densidade a partir de aspirados de medula óssea da crista ilíaca. Embora esta nova estratégia revolucionária pareça ser segura e melhorar a função cardíaca, resultados negativos surgiram desafiando o futuro de terapias baseadas em células para o reparo cardíaco. Aqui discutimos alguns resultados laboratoriais que podem explicar, pelo menos parcialmente, as diferenças obtidas em protocolos similares. Uma análise da correlação entre a composição celular da fração mononuclear do aspirado da medula óssea e o êxito clínico da terapia indicou que os linfócitos não favorecem o reparo do miocárdio. Uma seleção negativa eliminando as linhagens do sistema imunitário pode ser proposta para melhorar a terapia celular do miocárdio.Cell therapy may provide a novel therapeutic option for cardiac patients, modifying myocardium remodeling processes and preventing post-infarction heart failure. Currently clinical studies predominantly use bone marrow mononuclear cells isolated by density gradient centrifugation of iliac crest bone marrow aspirates. Although this revolutionary new strategy seems to be safe and to improve myocardial function, negative data have emerged challenging the future of cell-based therapy for heart repair. Here we discuss some laboratory data that might explain, at least in part, variations in outcomes using similar protocols. Analysis of the correlation between the cell composition of the mononuclear fraction of bone marrow aspirates and the clinical outcome of the therapy has indicated that cells of the lymphocyte lineage are not beneficial in myocardial regeneration. A proposal of selection to eliminate

  2. Erlotinib usage after prior treatment with gefitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A clinical perspective and review of published literature.

    Singh, Navneet; Jindal, Aditya; Behera, Digambar

    2014-12-10

    Erlotinib and gefitinib are among the most widely researched, used and available molecularly targeted therapies for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They are both tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the past decade, there have been reports on clinical benefit from use of erlotinib after gefitinib failure in NSCLC patients. A review of published literature on this focussed topic is provided herein. Pooled analysis of published literature shows that majority of patients were female (60.6%), non-smokers (64.5%), had adenocarcinoma histology (88.3%) and were of East Asian ethnicity (92.3%). Presence of sensitizing EGFR mutation was detected in 48.4% of subjects. Disease control rates with prior gefitinib therapy and with subsequent erlotinib treatment were 79.4% and 45.4% respectively. Based upon our review, the most important predictive factor for clinical benefit from erlotinib identified was previous response to gefitinib. The exact explanations for the potential benefit from erlotinib use in this patient population is still not known and further studies are required to determine the role of molecular mechanisms especially those related to resistance to initial EGFR TKI therapy.

  3. A Neuro-oncologist's Perspective on Management of Brain Metastases in Patients with EGFR Mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    McGranahan, Tresa; Nagpal, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BrM) has been revolutionized by identification of molecular subsets that have targetable oncogenes. Historically, survival for NSCLC with symptomatic BrM was weeks to months. Now, many patients are surviving years with limited data to guide treatment decisions. Tumors with activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRact+) have a higher incidence of BrM, but a longer overall survival. The high response rate of both systemic and BrM EGFRact+ NSCLC to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has led to the rapid incorporation of new therapies but is outpacing evidence-based decisions for BrM in NSCLC. While whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the foundation of management of BrM, extended survival raises concerns for the subacute and late effects radiotherapy. We favor the use of TKIs and delaying the use of WBRT when able. At inevitable disease progression, we consider alternative dosing schedules to increase CNS penetration (such as pulse dosing of erlotinib) or advance to next generation TKI if available. We utilize local control options of surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for symptomatic accessible lesions based on size and edema. At progression despite available TKIs, we use pemetrexed-based platinum doublet chemotherapy or immunotherapy if the tumor has high expression of PDL-1. We reserve the use of WBRT for patients with more than 10 BrM and progression despite TKI and conventional chemotherapy, if performance status is appropriate.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies introducing FDG-PET into the mediastinal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer from the French healthcare system perspective

    Alzahouri, K.; Lejeune, C.; Woronoff-Lemsi, M.-C.; Arveux, P.; Guillemin, F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most cost-effective strategy using PET for mediastinal staging of potentially operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Four decision strategies based on French NSCLC work-up practices for the selection of potential surgical candidates were compared, comprising CT only, PET for negative CT, PET for all with anatomical CT, and CT and PET for all cases. The medical literature was surveyed to obtain values for all variables of interest. Costs were assessed with reimbursements from the French healthcare insurance for the year 1999. Expected cost and life expectancy were calculated for all possible outcomes of each strategy. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing variables on the expected cost and life expectancy. RESULTS: Compared with the CT only strategy, CT and PET for all resulted in a relative reduction of 70% of surgery for persons with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. PET for all with anatomical CT was shown to be a cost-effective alternative to the CT only, with life expectancy increased by 0.10 years and expected cost savings of 61 euros. This strategy was more favourable than PET for negative CT. Overall, sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSION: The introduction of thoracic PET for NSCLC staging is potentially cost-effective in France. Further clinical investigation might help to validate this result

  5. Identification of the hot-spot areas for sickle cell disease using cord blood screening at a district hospital: an Indian perspective.

    Dixit, Sujata; Sahu, Pushpansu; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a genetic disorder often reported late, can be identified early in life, and hot-spot areas may be identified to conduct genetic epidemiology studies. This study was undertaken to estimate prevalence and to identify hot spot area for SCD in Kalahandi district, by screening cord blood of neonates delivered at the district hospital as first-hand information. Kalahandi District Hospital selected for the study is predominated by tribal population with higher prevalence of SCD as compared to other parts of Odisha. Cord blood screening of SCD was carried out on 761 newborn samples of which 13 were screened to be homozygous for SCD. Information on area of parent's residence was also collected. Madanpur Rampur area was found to be with the highest prevalence of SCD (10.52 %) and the gene distribution did not follow Hardy-Weinberg Equation indicating un-natural selection. The approach of conducting neonatal screening in a district hospital for identification of SCD is feasible and appropriate for prioritizing area for the implementation of large-scale screening and planning control measures thereof.

  6. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of patient-controlled analgesia in children with sickle cell anemia from the perspective of healthcare professionals and parents].

    Turaç, Ayşegül; Rumeli Atıcı, Şebnem

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) used by children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) based on the attitudes of parents and healthcare professionals. A total of 86 individuals were involved in the study: 54 parents of children with SCA who were receiving treatment and 32 healthcare providers (doctors, nurses). To evaluate the effectiveness of the PCA method, a questionnaire was prepared to determine the level of knowledge of the participants about the PCA method and their perception of its advantages and disadvantages. According to 65.6% (n=21) of the healthcare providers, PCA should be used during acute phase of pain. The great majority of the participants (93%; n=80) thought that pain was effectively controlled both during the day and at night. PCA reduced the fear of unavailability of analgesic drugs in 83.3% (n=45) of parents and in 87.5% (n=28) of healthcare providers. More parents (37%) reported a reduction in the fear of return of pain than healthcare providers (9.4%) (paddiction. Resolving machine alarms (48%; n=26) and the length of time required to refill the machine (48%; n=26) were reported as disadvantages of PCA method. In this study, parents and healthcare professionals found PCA to be effective in relieving pain in children with SCA; however, fears and biased knowledge of users about the analgesic drug are thought to inhibit reaching sufficient dosage. Educational courses for users about PCA and the drugs used may increase the effectiveness of PCA method.

  7. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  8. International critical perspectives

    Sambrook, S.A.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Problem Critical perspectives on human resource development (HRD) have emerged, across Europe and America, hailed as the future of the field. However, we note the paucity of critical perspectives globally, the problematic dominance of critical HRD activities in Western sites of theory and

  9. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration.

    Devon C Snow-Lisy

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2 and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36% in Cyr61OX (over-expressing vs Cyr61KD (knock-down groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically

  10. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration.

    Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Diaz, Edward C; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Hannick, Jessica H; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  11. Is FDG PET/CT cost-effective for pre-operation staging of potentially operative non-small cell lung cancer? – From Chinese healthcare system perspective

    Wang, Yu-ting; Huang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The remarkable morbidity and mortality of lung cancer in the large population address major economic challenges to Chinese healthcare system. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/CT for staging patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Methods: Management of potentially operative NSCLC was modeled on decision analysis employing data in China. The strategies compared were conventional CT staging (strategy A), additional PET/CT in all patients (strategy B) or only in patients with normal-sized lymph nodes on CT (strategy C). Published medical data for Chinese patients was extracted. The costs corresponded to reimbursement by Chinese public health provider in 2010. Uncertainly of employed parameters was calculated in sensitivity analysis. Results: Taking strategy A as baseline, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of strategy B was 23,800 RMB ($3500) per life year saved, which was acceptable in views of a developing country as China; while strategy C exhibited some loss of life years. Sensitivity analysis suggested the ICER (B–A) was raised more remarkably by a deterioration of PET specificity than by that of its sensitivity. The ICER was turned negative by PET specificity lower than 0.79. Economically, PET cost was proportional to the ICER (B–A), and decrease of palliative therapy cost could reduce both the ICER and overall cost. Conclusions: The PET/CT strategy is potentially cost-effective for management of NSCLC in China. Patients with nodal-positive CT results are not suggested to be excluded from further PET/CT. Furthermore, maintaining high specificity of PET in clinical scenarios is crucial. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results into policy making.

  12. Is FDG PET/CT cost-effective for pre-operation staging of potentially operative non-small cell lung cancer? - From Chinese healthcare system perspective

    Wang, Yu-ting, E-mail: wangyuting_330@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine (China); Huang, Gang, E-mail: huang2802@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine (China); Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM) and Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences - CAS (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: The remarkable morbidity and mortality of lung cancer in the large population address major economic challenges to Chinese healthcare system. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/CT for staging patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Methods: Management of potentially operative NSCLC was modeled on decision analysis employing data in China. The strategies compared were conventional CT staging (strategy A), additional PET/CT in all patients (strategy B) or only in patients with normal-sized lymph nodes on CT (strategy C). Published medical data for Chinese patients was extracted. The costs corresponded to reimbursement by Chinese public health provider in 2010. Uncertainly of employed parameters was calculated in sensitivity analysis. Results: Taking strategy A as baseline, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of strategy B was 23,800 RMB ($3500) per life year saved, which was acceptable in views of a developing country as China; while strategy C exhibited some loss of life years. Sensitivity analysis suggested the ICER (B-A) was raised more remarkably by a deterioration of PET specificity than by that of its sensitivity. The ICER was turned negative by PET specificity lower than 0.79. Economically, PET cost was proportional to the ICER (B-A), and decrease of palliative therapy cost could reduce both the ICER and overall cost. Conclusions: The PET/CT strategy is potentially cost-effective for management of NSCLC in China. Patients with nodal-positive CT results are not suggested to be excluded from further PET/CT. Furthermore, maintaining high specificity of PET in clinical scenarios is crucial. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results into policy making.

  13. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    Chen, Wan-Yu [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ruey-Long [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Fang [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping [Department of Otolaryngology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chong, Fok-Ching [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Wei, E-mail: cwwang@ntuh.gov.tw [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  14. Is FDG PET/CT cost-effective for pre-operation staging of potentially operative non-small cell lung cancer? - From Chinese healthcare system perspective.

    Wang, Yu-ting; Huang, Gang

    2012-08-01

    The remarkable morbidity and mortality of lung cancer in the large population address major economic challenges to Chinese healthcare system. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/CT for staging patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Management of potentially operative NSCLC was modeled on decision analysis employing data in China. The strategies compared were conventional CT staging (strategy A), additional PET/CT in all patients (strategy B) or only in patients with normal-sized lymph nodes on CT (strategy C). Published medical data for Chinese patients was extracted. The costs corresponded to reimbursement by Chinese public health provider in 2010. Uncertainly of employed parameters was calculated in sensitivity analysis. Taking strategy A as baseline, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of strategy B was 23,800RMB ($3500) per life year saved, which was acceptable in views of a developing country as China; while strategy C exhibited some loss of life years. Sensitivity analysis suggested the ICER (B-A) was raised more remarkably by a deterioration of PET specificity than by that of its sensitivity. The ICER was turned negative by PET specificity lower than 0.79. Economically, PET cost was proportional to the ICER (B-A), and decrease of palliative therapy cost could reduce both the ICER and overall cost. The PET/CT strategy is potentially cost-effective for management of NSCLC in China. Patients with nodal-positive CT results are not suggested to be excluded from further PET/CT. Furthermore, maintaining high specificity of PET in clinical scenarios is crucial. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results into policy making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chong, Fok-Ching; Wang, Chun-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6–33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  16. Inactivated human platelet lysate with psoralen: a new perspective for mesenchymal stromal cell production in Good Manufacturing Practice conditions.

    Castiglia, Sara; Mareschi, Katia; Labanca, Luciana; Lucania, Graziella; Leone, Marco; Sanavio, Fiorella; Castello, Laura; Rustichelli, Deborah; Signorino, Elena; Gunetti, Monica; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Bordiga, Anna Maria; Ferrero, Ivana; Fagioli, Franca

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. The use of xenogeneic protein-free Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant growth media is a prerequisite for clinical MSC isolation and expansion. Human platelet lysate (HPL) has been efficiently implemented into MSC clinical manufacturing as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS). Because the use of human-derived blood materials alleviates immunologic risks but not the transmission of blood-borne viruses, the aim of our study was to test an even safer alternative than HPL to FBS: HPL subjected to pathogen inactivation by psoralen (iHPL). Bone marrow samples were plated and expanded in α-minimum essential medium with 10% of three culture supplements: HPL, iHPL and FBS, at the same time. MSC morphology, growth and immunophenotype were analyzed at each passage. Karyotype, tumorigenicity and sterility were analyzed at the third passage. Statistical analyses were performed. The MSCs cultivated in the three different culture conditions showed no significant differences in terms of fibroblast colony-forming unit number, immunophenotype or in their multipotent capacity. Conversely, the HPL/iHPL-MSCs were smaller, more numerous, had a higher proliferative potential and showed a higher Oct-3/4 and NANOG protein expression than did FBS-MSCs. Although HPL/iHPL-MSCs exhibit characteristics that may be attributable to a higher primitive stemness than FBS-MSCs, no tumorigenic mutations or karyotype modifications were observed. We demonstrated that iHPL is safer than HPL and represents a good, Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant alternative to FBS for MSC clinical production that is even more advantageous in terms of cellular growth and stemness. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of PD-L1 on survival and value of the immune check point inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer; proposal, policies and perspective.

    Guirgis, Helmy M

    2018-02-20

    The impact of programmed death receptor-ligand1 (PD-L1) on costs and value of the immune check point inhibitors (ICPI) has received minimal attention. 1- Design a sliding scale to grade survival in 2nd-line non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 2- Compare costs and value of Nivolumab (Nivo), Atezolizumab (Atezo) and Pembrolizumab (Pembro) vs. Docetaxel (Doc). Previously reported median overall survival (OS) and prices posted by parent company were utilized. The OS gains over controls in days were graded (gr) from A+ to D. Docetaxel costs were calculated for 6-12 cycles and the ICPI for 1 year. Adverse events treatment costs (AEsTC) were reported separately. The cost/life-year gain (C/LYG) was computed as drug yearly-cost/OS gain over control in days × 360 days. The relative value of the ICPI were expressed as $100,000/C/LYG. Costs of Doc 6 cycles were $23,868, OS/gr 87/C, AEs gr ¾ > 20%, AEsTC $1978 and 6- 12 cycle C/LYG $98,764 -$197,528. Nivo, Atezo and Pembro gr ¾ were  10%. Atezolizumab OS/g were 87/B and C/LYG $551,407 improving in enriched PD-L1 to 162/A and $332,020 respectively. Pembrolizumab in PD-L1 > 1.0% demonstrated OS/g 57/C and C/LYG $659,059 improving in > 50% PD-L1 to 201/A and $186,897. PD-L1 enrichment increased RV of Nivo from 0.18 to 0.56, Atezo from 0.16 to 0.66 and Pembro from 0.15 to 0.53. Simplified methodology to grade OS and weigh value of anticancer drugs was proposed. In 2nd-line non-squamous NSCLC, value of Doc, Nivo, Atezo and Pembro regardless of PDL-1 expression were limited and modest. Enrichment of PD-L1 resulted in unprecedented OS, improved grades and enhanced value at seemingly justifiable costs.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of continuation maintenance pemetrexed after cisplatin and pemetrexed chemotherapy for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: estimates from the perspective of the Chinese health care system.

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Peng, Liubao; Li, Jianhe; Chen, Gannong; Tan, Chongqing; Wang, Siying; Wan, Xiaomin; Ouyang, Lihui; Zhao, Ziying

    2013-01-01

    Continuation maintenance treatment with pemetrexed is approved by current clinical guidelines as a category 2A recommendation after induction therapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed chemotherapy (CP strategy) for patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the cost-effectiveness of the treatment remains unclear. We completed a trial-based assessment, from the perspective of the Chinese health care system, of the cost-effectiveness of maintenance pemetrexed treatment after a CP strategy for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. A Markov model was developed to estimate costs and benefits. It was based on a clinical trial that compared continuation maintenance pemetrexed therapy plus best supportive care (BSC) versus placebo plus BSC after a CP strategy for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the stability of the model. The model base case analysis suggested that continuation maintenance pemetrexed therapy after a CP strategy would increase benefits in a 1-, 2-, 5-, or 10-year time horizon, with incremental costs of $183,589.06, $126,353.16, $124,766.68, and $124,793.12 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, respectively. The most sensitive influential variable in the cost-effectiveness analysis was the utility of the progression-free survival state, followed by proportion of patients with postdiscontinuation therapy in both arms, proportion of BSC costs for PFS versus progressed survival state, and cost of pemetrexed. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the cost-effective probability of adding continuation maintenance pemetrexed therapy to BSC was zero. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses revealed that the Markov model was robust. Continuation maintenance of pemetrexed after a CP strategy for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC is not cost-effective based on a recent clinical trial. Decreasing the price or adjusting the dosage of pemetrexed may be a better option

  19. Crizotinib for Untreated Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Morgan, Philip; Woolacott, Nerys; Biswas, Mousumi; Mebrahtu, Teumzghi; Harden, Melissa; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-09-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, the manufacturer of crizotinib submitted evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of crizotinib in untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib has previously been assessed by NICE for patients with previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC (TA 296). It was not approved in this previous appraisal, but had been made available through the cancer drugs fund. As part of this new appraisal, the company included a price discount patient access scheme (PAS). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company's submission and the ERG's review and summarises the resulting NICE guidance issued in August 2016. The main clinical-effectiveness data were derived from a multicentre randomised controlled trial-PROFILE 1014-that compared crizotinib with pemetrexed chemotherapy in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with untreated non-squamous ALK-positive NSCLC. In the trial, crizotinib demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The company's economic model was a three-state 'area under the curve' Markov model. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be greater than £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (excluding the PAS discount). The ERG assessment of the evidence submitted by the company raised a number of concerns. In terms of the clinical evidence, the OS benefit was highly uncertain due to the cross-over permitted in the trial and the immaturity of the data; only 26% of events had occurred by the data cut-off point. In the economic modelling, the most significant concerns related to the analysis

  20. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  1. Exploring Multiple Usability Perspectives

    Uldall-Espersen, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Industrial usability work often fails to produce the expected impact on software products even though significant resources have been used on uncovering problems and suggesting improvements. So, it seems that feedback from industrial usability work lacks persuasiveness, i.e. it fails to convince...... the key stakeholders that actions need to be taken. This study reports from interviews with 26 stakeholders in software development projects. Our data suggests that the interviewees address usability using different perspectives and based on our observations we describe five such perspectives. Further, we...... discuss how applying different usability perspectives might inform the persuasiveness of usability work....

  2. Ten perspectives on Nordic energy

    Tennbakk, Berit

    2006-10-15

    Summary: Perspective no. 1: Costly early learning from the EU ETS - Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Perspective no. 2: Market based support schemes - Do they work as intended? Perspective no. 3: New decade in the Nordic energy markets. Perspective no. 4: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and more renewables - Are we getting there or not? Perspective no. 5: Interpretation of financial requirements - An impediment to sound investments? Perspective no. 6: Who should invest in infrastructure - Public or private investors? Perspective no. 7: Re regulation is not the answer - Need for coordination calls for a visible hand? Perspective no. 8: Increased infrastructure investments - Due to EU ETS and support schemes for RES. Perspective no. 9: Energy, welfare and industry - Complex links make policy making difficult. Perspective no. 10 'Fuel' for an energy policy discussion - A Nordic energy policy agenda? (AG)

  3. Auditory Perspective Taking

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2006-01-01

    .... From this knowledge of another's auditory perspective, a conversational partner can then adapt his or her auditory output to overcome a variety of environmental challenges and insure that what is said is intelligible...

  4. Perspectives of System Informatics

    Bjørner, D

    1999-01-01

    The volume comprises extended abstracts of the papers selected for the presentation at the Third International Andrei Ershov Memorial Conference Perspectives of System Informatics, Akademgorodok (Novosibirsk, Russia), July 6-9, 1999...

  5. Accidents in perspective

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  6. Perspectives of employability skills

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  7. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  8. The Budget Impact of Including Necitumumab on the Formulary for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: U.S. Commercial Payer and Medicare Perspectives.

    Bly, Christopher A; Molife, Cliff; Brown, Jacqueline; Tawney, Mahesh K; Carter, Gebra Cuyun; Cinfio, Frank N; Klein, Robert W

    2018-06-01

    Necitumumab (Neci) was the first biologic approved by the FDA for use in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin (Neci + GCis) in first-line treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (msqNSCLC). The potential financial impact on a health plan of adding Neci + GCis to drug formularies may be important to value-based decision makers in the United States, given ever-tightening budget constraints. To estimate the budget impact of introducing Neci + GCis for first-line treatment of msqNSCLC from U.S. commercial and Medicare payer perspectives. The budget impact model estimates the costs of msqNSCLC before and after adoption of Neci + GCis in hypothetical U.S. commercial and Medicare health plans over a 3-year time horizon. The eligible patient population was estimated from U.S. epidemiology statistics. Clinical data were obtained from randomized clinical trials, U.S. prescribing information, and clinical guidelines. Market share projections were based on market research data. Cost data were obtained from online sources and published literature. The incremental aggregate annual health plan, per-patient-per-year (PPPY), and per-member-per-month (PMPM) costs were estimated in 2015 U.S. dollars. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect of model parameters on results. In a hypothetical 1,000,000-member commercial health plan with an estimated population of 30 msqNSCLC patients receiving first-line chemotherapy, the introduction of Neci + GCis at an initial market share of approximately 5% had an overall year 1 incremental budget impact of $88,394 ($3,177 PPPY, $0.007 PMPM), representing a 2.9% cost increase and reaching $304,079 ($10,397 PPPY, $0.025 PMPM) or a 7.4% cost increase at a market share of 14.7% in year 3. This increase in total costs was largely attributable to Neci drug costs and, in part, due to longer survival and treatment duration for patients treated with Neci+GCis. Overall, treatment costs increased by $81

  9. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  10. Transistor challenges - A DRAM perspective

    Faul, Juergen W.; Henke, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Key challenges of the transistor scaling from a DRAM perspective will be reviewed. Both, array transistors as well as DRAM support devices face challenges that differ essentially from high performance logic device scaling. As a major difference, retention time and standby current requirements characterize special boundary conditions in the DRAM device design. Array device scaling is determined by a chip size driven aggressive node scaling. To continue scaling, major innovations need to be introduced into state-of-the-art planar array transistors. Alternatively, non planar device concepts will have to be evaluated. Support device design for DRAMs is driven by today's market demand for increased chip performances at little to no extra cost. Major innovations are required to continue that path. Besides this strive for performance increase, special limitations for 'on pitch' circuits at the array edge will come up due to the aggressive cell size scaling

  11. Learning of Core Disciplinary Ideas: Efficacy Comparison of Two Contrasting Modes of Science Instruction

    Schuster, David; Cobern, William W.; Adams, Betty A. J.; Undreiu, Adriana; Pleasants, Brandy

    2018-01-01

    Science curricula and teaching methods vary greatly, depending in part on which facets of science are emphasized, e.g., core disciplinary ideas or science practices and process skills, and perspectives differ considerably on desirable pedagogies. Given the multi-faceted nature of science and the variety of teaching methods found in practice, it is…

  12. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess the p...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts......The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...

  13. Forest health from different perspectives

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  14. Cyanobacteria: an economic perspective

    Sharma, N.K.; Rai, A.K.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the

  15. Perspectives in Education: Submissions

    In addition to the Perspectives in Education, Volume 26(4), December 2008 conventional book review format, ... PiE invites short reports on any aspect of theory and practice in academia. ... Name(s) of the author(s), title(s), and affiliation(s) (should not be disclosed in the text). The user ... Unpublished theses or dissertations:.

  16. Biotechnology : A Dutch perspective

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  17. Perspectives on Energy Security

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Holmgren, Aake J.; Joensson, Thomas; Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-05-01

    A common notion of 'Energy Security' is that it includes access to energy resources without risking the the survival of the state. 'Security of supply' is most often the concept emphasized in the political discourse on energy security and it includes both production as well as secure and safe delivery of energy to the end consumers. Another aspect of energy security is the need for reducing energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. In this report, eight chapters covering these and other perspectives on energy security are presented. Six of the chapters deal with the supply perspective. Included topics cover power politics and geopolitical perspectives regarding large infrastructure projects and the ambitions of the EU in this regard. Further, methods and approaches for conducting risk analyses of electricity supply systems as well as for improving the security of digital control systems are discussed. As climate change will affect the supply and distribution of energy, one chapter presents an overview of this topic. The consumption perspective is discussed against the backdrop of research about household consumption practices and the role of climate change for future consumption levels. Finally, the role of armed forces as a large energy users is touched upon, as well as how so-called 'future studies' have dealt with energy as a topic

  18. Perspectives for Planning.

    Miner, Norris

    The operations of an institution can be viewed from three perspectives: (1) the "actual operating measurement" such as income and expenditures of a cost center at a point in time; (2) the "criterion" which reflects the established policy for a time period; and (3) the "efficiency level" wherein a balance between input and output is defined.…

  19. Koeberg - An industry perspective

    Birch, C P [Industrial Machinery Supplies (Pty) Ltd. (IMS), Wendywood (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    Many local organisations participated in the Koeberg power station project. This paper seeks to present a perspective of this from South African industry. It covers the extent of local participation, lessons learned and changes which should be considered for optimising local input into a similar project in the future. (author)

  20. Koeberg - An industry perspective

    Birch, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Many local organisations participated in the Koeberg power station project. This paper seeks to present a perspective of this from South African industry. It covers the extent of local participation, lessons learned and changes which should be considered for optimising local input into a similar project in the future. (author)

  1. Perspective on food irradiation

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  2. IRU Results and Perspectives

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the disciplines within USOBuilt Graduate School as organized in International Research and Design Units, the fora where research and design at a (post)doctorate level is performed and taught. A fixed template was used to self-assess results and perspectives, consisting of

  3. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  4. The Student Perspective.

    Oltmanns, Gail V.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the students' perspective of library employment. Discusses a study conducted at the University of Virginia (1987) on student attitudes and library employment practices, and provides 12 recommendations for better management. Also notes the implication of part-time work, the importance of using performance measures, and the benefits of…

  5. Perspectives in Education

    Perspectives in Education is a professional, peer-reviewed journal that encourages the submission of previously unpublished articles on contemporary educational issues. As a journal that represents a variety of cross-disciplinary interests, both theoretical and practical, it seeks to stimulate debate on a wide range of topics.

  6. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  7. Perspectives East and West

    Ken-ichi Sasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to elucidate the sense of space peculiar to Japanese sensibility. To accomplish this task I consult not only paintings but also waka, distinctively Japanese poetry. I also compare the structures of Japanese and Western perspective in order to highlight the distinctive features of the Japanese sense of space. In China and Japan, traditional landscape painting was called sansui painting, literally, painting of “mountains and waters,” unlike fūkei painting, which is a modern adaptation of the Western notion of landscape. Landscape as sansui is characterized by its vitalistic conception: the cosmic space is filled with ki, a vital and spiritual element. This view is reflected in the Japanese notion of keshiki (literally, color of ki, another word meaning landscape, to which I pay particular attention because it is a vernacular word and expresses the genuine Japanese sense of space, differentiated even from the Chinese perspective found in Sansui paintings. Such a space as keshiki was to be felt rather than seen. The notion of the picturesque was associated in Japan with a spatial extent. It is a concept closely related to a humid climate that produces much fog or haze. A typical description is found in the Tale of Genji. It is in waka, from the thirteenth century, that we find the first expression of Japanese perspective, which consists the combination of a tactile, sometimes auditory close range with the visual, distant range, yet without a middle range (which is obscured by fog. This is very different from Western geometrical perspective, which is essentially constituted by the middle range relating the close continuously to the distant. In painting, this Japanese perspective was realized for the first time in ukiyo-e, particularly in the work of Hokusai and Hiroshige. I assume that this composition was transplanted to the Western world during the fashion for “japonisme,” and now determines the basic

  8. Gas assessment and perspectives

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  9. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  10. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function. PMID:25408634

  11. INTRINSIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MAMMALIAN NEURONS AND CNS FUNCTION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

  12. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M.

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone),

  13. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  14. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  15. Euro crisis in perspective

    Francesco Bogliacino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the process of monetary integration in Europe, identifying the structural determinants and the dysfunctional elements in the institutions of the European Union. Secondly, we explain two prevailing discourses that fail in interpreting the events: on the one hand, a purely ideological position that see integration as a process of convergence that should not be interfered with; on the other hand, a purely idealist perspective, according to which the ideal of integration will prevail over any contradiction engendered by the institutional system. The combination of these two perspectives helped justify post crisis interventions (fiscal consolidation and the institutional design that followed, which eventually aggravated the macroeconomic instability in the area.

  16. Diachronic Perspective and Interaction

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    . An ongoing participatory inquiry is being conducted, to explore deeper forms of learning and communication for historical museums. Our hypothesis is that the diachronic perspective on historical processes, defined as social interaction within the environment through time, is a key missing element....... Although this interaction style may appeal to teachers, as it reminds of school teaching, it has several disadvantages: a dialogue never occurs between adults and children, who listen in silence, hence it becomes hard to evaluate what has being learnt and how deeply, and finally it is not very engaging....... Explorations of more interactive representations of the diachronic perspective, through play and tangible interaction, may foster a dialogue with young visitors. Therefore, a new interactive installation is being designed, intended as a tool to enrich learning, allowing children to experience historical...

  17. Investigative Journalism: global perspectives

    Price, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the work of nine members or associates of the Media Discourse Group. Investigative Journalism: Global Perspectives presents a theoretical and practical guide to contemporary international investigative journalism to outline principles of modern investigative work in the digital world. A diverse range of contributions from academics, journalists, and activists interrogate wide ranging issues such as state power, freedom of speech and social justice, as well as exploring...

  18. Perspectives of electricity supply

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  19. A portuguese perspective

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Commentary on the Nuffield Report from a Portuguese Perspective (Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2007). The forensic use of bioinformation: ethical issues. Cambridge (18 September) (retrieved from http://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/fileLibrary/pdf/ The_forensic_use_of_bioinformation_-_ethical_issues.pdf). This is a document which is of considerable interest to professionals working in the criminal justice system, to key stakeholders, and to scholars and students focused on the forensic ap...

  20. Social Perspective Taking

    2009-09-01

    groups” and engage in less stereotype-driven fear and hostility resulting in reduced impulsive and aggressive behavior (Richardson, Green , & Lago...and the physical world. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Towards a social-psychological answer...others. New York: The Guilford Press. Richardson, D. R., Green , L. R., & Lago, T. (1998). The relationship between perspective- taking and

  1. Perspectives of genetic engineering in radiobiology

    Khanson, K.P.; Zvonareva, N.B.; Evtushenko, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Present evidence on the use of genetic engineering methods in studying the molecular mechanism of radiation damage and repair of DNA, as well as radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis has been summarized. The new approach to radiobiological research has proved to be extremely fruitful. Some previously unknown types of structural disorders in DNA molecule have been discovered, some repair genes isolated and their primary structure established, some aspects of radiation mutagenesis elucidated, and research into disiphering the molecular bases of neoplastic transformations of exposed cells are being successfully investigated. The perspectives of using genetic engineering methods in radiobiology are discussed

  2. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  3. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  4. Organizational change, patient-focused care: an Australian perspective.

    Braithwaite, J

    1995-08-01

    Hospitals throughout the world are attempting to improve organizational performance through a variety of means. The focus in this paper is on a leading teaching hospital in Australia for a review of current management strategy. In a time of shrinking resources, management adopted a multi-faceted change management program including restructuring the organization, becoming more patient-focused via a product-line management approach and emphasising efficiency and cost-reduction measures. The next stage in management thinking is to place greater emphasis on patient-focused care. It is concluded this has the propensity to yield substantial further benefits, including improved financial and quality of care outcomes, in the Australian as well as the British and wider Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) context. 'Professionally, we have committed ourselves to creating caring environments that promote healing. We cannot meet this goal until we make a commitment to be patient-focused and give up being nurse-focused or facility-focused' (Kerfort and LeClair, 1991). 'In a customer-driven [organization], the distribution of roles is different. The organization is decentralized, with responsibility delegated to those who until now have comprised the order-obeying bottom level of the pyramid. The traditional, hierarchical corporate structure, in other words, is beginning to give way to a flattened, more horizontal structure' (Carlzon, 1987).

  5. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Children's pain perspectives.

    Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and

  7. Perspectives of construction robots

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  8. GTL: perspectives of development

    Maisonnier, G.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical way of transformation of natural gas into petroleum products will enter a new historical phase with several R and D developments and with the start-up in 2006 of a big production unit in Qatar. Therefore, a new way of natural gas valorization should progressively find its place in the worldwide energy market. This paper presents the gas-to-liquids Fisher Tropsch technology, its recent developments and main projects, its advantages and drawbacks (investment, profitability, environmental impacts) and its promising perspectives. (J.S.)

  9. Kolmogorov in perspective

    2006-01-01

    The editorial board for the History of Mathematics series has selected for this volume a series of translations from two Russian publications, Kolmogorov in Remembrance and Mathematics and its Historical Development. This book, Kolmogorov in Perspective, includes articles written by Kolmogorov's students and colleagues and his personal accounts of shared experiences and lifelong mathematical friendships. The articles combine to give an excellent personal and scientific biography of this important mathematician. There is also an extensive bibliography with the complete list of Kolmogorov's works-including the articles written for encyclopedias and newspapers. The book is illustrated with photographs and includes quotations from Kolmogorov's letters and conversations, uniquely reflecting his mathematical tastes and opinions.

  10. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub......-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems forregulatory oversight are de-scribed in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other...

  11. Perspectives on ontology learning

    Lehmann, J

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on Ontology Learning brings together researchers and practitioners from different communities − natural language processing, machine learning, and the semantic web − in order to give an interdisciplinary overview of recent advances in ontology learning.Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical foundations of ontology learning methods, the edited volume presents the state-of-the-start in automated knowledge acquisition and maintenance. It outlines future challenges in this area with a special focus on technologies suitable for pushing the boundaries beyond the c

  12. Perspectives on electronscattering

    Sick, I.

    1985-01-01

    In this lecture, the author puts into perspective the investigation of nuclei using electromagnetic probes. The electromagnetic probe is distinguished by the weakness of its interaction. It therefore preferably couples to individual nucleons, and preferably excites single-particle states. The author concludes that the major task for the electromagnetic probe is the elucidation of the quark structure of nuclei. The understanding of the role of nucleons, mesons and quarks for nuclear properties represents a major challenge for nuclear physics of the future. (Auth.)

  13. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  14. Department of Defense perspective

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  15. Perspective of meson science

    Yamazaki, T.; Nagamine, K.

    1992-01-01

    Unstable particles such as mesons and muons are now used in various research domains of physics, chemistry, engineering, and life sciences. This book is aimed at summarizing the present exploratory activities and giving future perspectives from a very broad scope. It contains 27 contributions in a wide range of subjects, such as μSR studies of superconductivities, magnetism, muon beam and μSr methodology, theoretical accounts of muon hyperfine interactions, muon catalyzed fusion processes, metastable exotic atoms, medical diagnostics, strangeness nuclear physics, mesons in nuclei, meson-related nuclear reactions and structure, and exotic decays of mesons

  16. Cold fusion in perspective

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  17. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  18. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Haskin, F.E.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course

  19. Four EIS Perspectives: A literature review

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Svejvig, Per

    A literature review of the Enterprise Information Systems literature reveals a number of recurring issues. We identify and detail four different perspectives that together categorizes the topics found. The first being a technical-rational perspective. The second being a social perspective....... The third being a more political and emergent perspective. Fourth, we identify a design-oriented perspective. We categorize the literature on EIS using these four perspectives, and for each perspective we identify core issues. Finally we discuss how the four perspectives complement each other....

  20. THREE PERSPECTIVES ON MANAGING FRONT END INNOVATION

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv

    2018-01-01

    as a complementary perspective. The paper combines a literature review with an empirical examination of the application of these multiple perspectives across three cases of front end of innovation (FEI) management in mature product developing companies. While the process models represent the dominant, albeit rather...... to represent an emergent approach in managing FEI where process models, knowledge strategies and objects become integrated elements in more advanced navigational strategies for key players.......This paper presents three complementary perspectives on the management of front end innovation: A process model perspective, a knowledge perspective and a translational perspective. While the first two perspectives are well established in literature, we offer the translation perspective...

  1. Action Research in European perspective

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  2. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  3. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  4. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  5. Putting nuclear in perspective

    Ekengren, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The film is made to create an open platform for discussion around energy and nuclear in specific. By bringing up many difficult issues in the film you broaden the perspective. The advantages and disadvantages of energy production is shown for the main energy sources and nuclear is more likely to be dealt with as any other industry activity with its benefits to society. When you have nuclear in a large picture the discussion or your point will be favoured by the more complete message. The industry is good at discussing nuclear from a defence perspective. We have more than 20 years of practice. It has been essential for us and the public to understand the negative effects from nuclear but the debate has been unbalanced for many years. There is a risk that we be routine start defending our self with out being asked to do so. The film is a tool to avoid us getting stuck in the old trenches. Many young people who don't have any experience from TMI and Chernobyl are not particularly interested in hearing us defend it. We are now an institutionalised part of the society with again, its advantages and disadvantages. If you are 15 years old you were not born by the time of Chernobyl. For young people in special it is essential to be open and inform. Not pushing ideas. If we like to be a part of the solution we must focus on how to use nuclear as a good part of the solution. (author)

  6. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  7. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  8. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  9. Meteorological data fields 'in perspective'

    Hasler, A. F.; Pierce, H.; Morris, K. R.; Dodge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perspective display techniques can be applied to meteorological data sets to aid in their interpretation. Examples of a perspective display procedure applied to satellite and aircraft visible and infrared image pairs and to stereo cloud-top height analyses are presented. The procedure uses a sophisticated shading algorithm that produces perspective images with greatly improved comprehensibility when compared with the wire-frame perspective displays that have been used in the past. By changing the 'eye-point' and 'view-point' inputs to the program in a systematic way, movie loops that give the impression of flying over or through the data field have been made. This paper gives examples that show how several kinds of meteorological data fields are more effectively illustrated using the perspective technique.

  10. Fuel cells: state of the art

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  11. Food and agricultural wastes as substrates for bioelectrochemical system (BES)

    ElMekawy, Ahmed; Srikanth, Sandipam; Bajracharya, Suman; Hegab, H.M.; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Singh, Anoop; Mohan, S.V.; Pant, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are one of the recent promising technologies developed for their multi-faceted applications such as bioenergy generation, wastewater treatment and synthesis of value added chemicals. Among these applications, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment

  12. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  13. A nuclear community's perspective

    1987-09-01

    This submission delineates a perspective derived from the experience of a community which has lived with the nuclear industry since its beginnings in Canada, 45 years ago. Much has been accomplished in both basic and applied research in that time, and the industry continues to be recognized worldwide as a leader in solving high-technology problems. However, recent funding cuts have seriously jeopardized the industry's ability to maintain this high standard. Current anti-nuclear attitudes among our elected and appointed officials respond more to today's political fashions than tomorrow's evident needs. The town of Deep River believes that the industry has demonstrated a superb safety record in the past. If common sense prevails in matters of safety, and if appropriate levels of funding are maintained, the nuclear industry will continue to be a source of pride for all concerned

  14. Quantum crystallography: A perspective.

    Massa, Lou; Matta, Chérif F

    2018-06-30

    Extraction of the complete quantum mechanics from X-ray scattering data is the ultimate goal of quantum crystallography. This article delivers a perspective for that possibility. It is desirable to have a method for the conversion of X-ray diffraction data into an electron density that reflects the antisymmetry of an N-electron wave function. A formalism for this was developed early on for the determination of a constrained idempotent one-body density matrix. The formalism ensures pure-state N-representability in the single determinant sense. Applications to crystals show that quantum mechanical density matrices of large molecules can be extracted from X-ray scattering data by implementing a fragmentation method termed the kernel energy method (KEM). It is shown how KEM can be used within the context of quantum crystallography to derive quantum mechanical properties of biological molecules (with low data-to-parameters ratio). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Plasma engineering: a perspective

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This review paper will present the authors perspective of the field of Plasma Engineering as it has evolved over the preceding five years. This embrionic discipline has grown in that period of time to the point where it is sufficiently mature to become part of the curriculum, and a speciality within, the discipline of Nuclear Engineering. Plasma Engineering can be distinguished from the underlying science of plasma physics in that in the pursuit of the latter, our goal is the understanding of the fundamental processes governing the behavior of plasmas while the former discipline seeks the embodiment of these concepts in useful devices. Consequent to this goal, the plasma engineer, of necessity, is concerned with the interfaces between a plasma configuration and the device by which it is produced and maintained. These interface problems, often referred to as kitchen physics are multidisciplinary in nature, and their solution requires careful attention to both plasma physics and machine engineering detail

  16. Perspectives on health.

    Huch, M H

    1991-01-01

    On May 12, 1989, in Pittsburgh, six nurse leaders participated in a panel discussion on health at Discovery International, Inc.'s Nurse Theorist Conference. The participants were Imogene King, Nola Pender, Betty Neuman, Martha E. Rogers, Afaf Meleis and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. The goal of the conferences was to present views on the meaning of health from different perspectives. The panel discussion provided the nurse leaders with an opportunity to engage in a dialogue about health. Five of the participants answered the questions posed and the conference keynote speaker Afaf Meleis responded. Four questions were posed to the panel relating to the meaning of health, the uniqueness of nursing, and nurse-person relationships. The dialogue of the panel discussion follows.

  17. Perspectives of antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Hoffmann, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Antiferromagnets are promising for future spintronic applications owing to their advantageous properties: They are magnetically ordered, but neighboring magnetic moments point in opposite directions, which results in zero net magnetization. This means antiferromagnets produce no stray fields and are insensitive to external magnetic field perturbations. Furthermore, they show intrinsic high frequency dynamics, exhibit considerable spin-orbit and magneto-transport effects. Over the past decade, it has been realized that antiferromagnets have more to offer than just being utilized as passive components in exchange bias applications. This development resulted in a paradigm shift, which opens the pathway to novel concepts using antiferromagnets for spin-based technologies and applications. This article gives a broad perspective on antiferromagnetic spintronics. In particular, the manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic states by spintronics effects, as well as spin transport and dynamics in antiferromagnetic materials will be discussed. We will also outline current challenges and future research directions in this emerging field.

  18. Perspectives in shape analysis

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  19. Perspectives in regenerative medicine

    Ray Banerjee, Ena

    2014-01-01

    The information given in this book tries to capture the essence of the sheer dynamicity of the cell along with useful tips on how to address critical rate limiting steps in the process of exploration and investigation of its capacity to regenerate, rebuild and replenish from within. The definitions of stem cells, stemness, and the niche concept continue to undergo revisions. In adult vertebrates, hematopoietic and some non-hematopoietic progenitors are synthesized within specialized niches of bone marrow. They migrate to designated tissues, and are either trans-differentiated or become quiescent and settle down. These form the stem cell niche reservoir in all tissues. Not only the primary hematopoietic tissue but all organs and tissues are also capable of generating progenitors which are either synthesized from these migrants or are direct recruits from other tissues. In the niches, the cells settle down and await their turn to either make more clones like themselves or differentiate and mobilize in an exigen...

  20. The Challenges in Communication A Perspective from the North-East

    The Challenges in Communication A Perspective from the North-East · Issues · Basic Services · Security Concerns · Reliance Cell Operator · Reliance (contd) · Reliance (contd) · CellOne Current Status · Unified Services · VSAT Services · PowerPoint Presentation · VSATs (contd) · Land Lines · Slide 14 · Internet Connectivity.