Sample records for cells behavior analysis

  1. Envisioning migration: mathematics in both experimental analysis and modeling of cell behavior. (United States)

    Zhang, Elizabeth R; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J


    The complex nature of cell migration highlights the power and challenges of applying mathematics to biological studies. Mathematics may be used to create model equations that recapitulate migration, which can predict phenomena not easily uncovered by experiments or intuition alone. Alternatively, mathematics may be applied to interpreting complex data sets with better resolution--potentially empowering scientists to discern subtle patterns amid the noise and heterogeneity typical of migrating cells. Iteration between these two methods is necessary in order to reveal connections within the cell migration signaling network, as well as to understand the behavior that arises from those connections. Here, we review recent quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling approaches to the cell migration problem.

  2. Analysis of the coupling behavior of PEM fuel cells and DC-DC converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groetsch, M.; Mangold, M.; Kienle, A. [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Process Synthesis and Process Dynamics Group, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Kienle, A. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Lehrstuhl fuer Automatisierungstechnik / Modellbildung, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)


    The connection between PEM fuel cells and common DC-DC converters is examined. The analysis is model-based and done for boost, buck and buck-boost converters. In a first step, the effect of the converter ripples upon the PEM fuel cell is shown. They introduce oscillations in the fuel cell. Their appearance is explained, discussed and possibilities for their suppression are given. After that, the overall behaviors of the coupled fuel cell-converter systems are analyzed. It is shown, that neither stationary multiplicities nor oscillations can be introduced by the couplings and therefore separate control approaches for both the PEMFC and the DC-DC converters are applicable. (author)

  3. Analysis of the Coupling Behavior of PEM Fuel Cells and DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Kienle


    Full Text Available The connection between PEM fuel cells and common DC-DC converters is examined. The analysis is model-based and done for boost, buck and buck-boost converters. In a first step, the effect of the converter ripples upon the PEM fuel cell is shown. They introduce oscillations in the fuel cell. Their appearance is explained, discussed and possibilities for their suppression are given. After that, the overall behaviors of the coupled fuel cell-converter systems are analyzed. It is shown, that neither stationary multiplicities nor oscillations can be introduced by the couplings and therefore separate control approaches for both the PEMFC and the DC-DC converters are applicable.

  4. Analysis and simulation for tensile behavior of anisotropic open-cell elastic foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢子兴; 刘强; 陈鑫


    Based on the elongated Kelvin model, a simplified periodic structural cell is obtained to investigate the tensile behavior of anisotropic open-cell elastic foams due to Kelvin model’s periodicity and symmetry in the whole space. The half-strut element and elastic deflection theory are used to analyze the tensile response as done in the previous studies. This study produces theoretical expressions for the tensile stress-strain curve in the rise and transverse directions. In addition, the theoretical results are examined with finite element simulation using an existing formula. The results indicate that the theoretical analysis agrees with the finite element simulation when the strain is not too high, and the present model is better. At the same time, the anisotropy ratio has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of foams. As the anisotropy ratio increases, the tensile stress is improved in the rising direction but drops in the transverse direction under the same strain.

  5. Analysis of behavior and trafficking of dendritic cells within the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis. (United States)

    John, Beena; Ricart, Brendon; Tait Wojno, Elia D; Harris, Tajie H; Randall, Louise M; Christian, David A; Gregg, Beth; De Almeida, Daniel Manzoni; Weninger, Wolfgang; Hammer, Daniel A; Hunter, Christopher A


    Under normal conditions the immune system has limited access to the brain; however, during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), large numbers of T cells and APCs accumulate within this site. A combination of real time imaging, transgenic reporter mice, and recombinant parasites allowed a comprehensive analysis of CD11c+ cells during TE. These studies reveal that the CNS CD11c+ cells consist of a mixture of microglia and dendritic cells (DCs) with distinct behavior associated with their ability to interact with parasites or effector T cells. The CNS DCs upregulated several chemokine receptors during TE, but none of these individual receptors tested was required for migration of DCs into the brain. However, this process was pertussis toxin sensitive and dependent on the integrin LFA-1, suggesting that the synergistic effect of signaling through multiple chemokine receptors, possibly leading to changes in the affinity of LFA-1, is involved in the recruitment/retention of DCs to the CNS and thus provides new insights into how the immune system accesses this unique site.

  6. Screening and analysis of differentially expressed genes of dermal papillae cells with aggregative behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志强; 郝飞; 杨卫兵; 王继文; 邹锋


    Objective: To screen and clone differentially expressed genes of dermal papillae cells (DPC) with aggregative behavior, and to explore the molecular mechanism of their aggregation. Methods: Total RNAs were extracted from DPC with and without aggregative behavior and double strand cDNAs were synthesized by using SMART cDNA synthesis, respectively. The cDNA fragments of differentially expressed genes in DPCs with aggregative behavior were isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization. Positive clones were screened by PCR method and verified by cDNA dot blot, Northern blot and then analyzed through homologous retrieving. Results: A subtractive cDNA library of DPC with aggregative behavior has been successfully constructed. The result of screening and cloning of the library showed that, DPC with aggregative behavior could expresse genes related to homologous aggregation, proliferation and cycle control, including known genes (capping protein, paladin, vascular endothelial growth factor), hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) related clone (HSPC011 and HSPC016) and a new gene. Conclusion: The construction of subtracted library of DPC lays solid foundation for screening and cloning new and specific genes related to aggregative behavior of DPC. Several genes might be cooperatively involved in the homologous aggregation, proliferation and cycle control of DPC. Among these genes, capping protein and palladin might be closely related to the aggregative behavior of dermal papilla cells, and VEGF and HSPC related clone would be responsible for the status of higher proliferation of dermal papilla cells.

  7. Analysis of Vero cell growth behavior on microcarrier by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Manjun(邵曼君); JIANG; Lei(姜蕾); CONG; Wei(丛威); OUYANG; Fan(欧阳藩)


    By using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes of Vero cells attached to and grown on the microcarrier Cytodex-3 were observed, and their behavior of adhesion, spreading and proliferation was analyzed. The effect of exogenous fibronectin/ laminin on adhesion and spreading of MCC/Vero cell was studied. The images of ESEM showed that expansion of cell growth was directed toward vacancy space. The growth curve and cell concentration change during the whole culture process were obtained from the statistical counting method based on ESEM images and the crystal violet method. The growth rate of Vero cells increases with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation, that is, the specific growth rate increases quickly with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation. When serum concentration in medium #199 ranged from 5% to 10%, experimental results indicated that serum concentration is one of the important factors influencing cell growth, particularly in the cell adhesion and spreading stage.

  8. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  9. Computational Analysis of Behavior. (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin


    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  10. Zen and Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Bass, Roger


    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  11. Analysis of the Hysteresis Behavior of Perovskite Solar Cells with Interfacial Fullerene Self-Assembled Monolayers. (United States)

    Valles-Pelarda, Marta; Hames, Bruno Clasen; García-Benito, Inés; Almora, Osbel; Molina-Ontoria, Agustin; Sánchez, Rafael S; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Martín, Nazario; Mora-Sero, Ivan


    The use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of fullerene derivatives reduces the hysteresis of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We have investigated three different fullerene derivatives observing a decrease on hysteresis for all the cases. Several processes can contribute to the hysteresis behavior on PSCs. We have determined that the reduced hysteresis observed for devices with SAMs is produced by a decrease of the capacitive hysteresis. In addition, with an appropriated functionalization, SAMs can increase photocurrent even when no electron selective contact (ESC) is present and a SAM is deposited just on top of the transparent conductive oxide. Appropriated functionalization of the fullerene derivative, as introducing -CN groups, can enhance cell performance and reduce hysteresis. This work paves the way for a future enhancement of PSCs by a tailored design of the fullerene molecules that could actuate as an ESC by themselves.

  12. Modeling the Non-Linear Behavior of Library Cells for an Accurate Static Noise Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Forzan, Cristiano


    In signal integrity analysis, the joint effect of propagated noise through library cells, and of the noise injected on a quiet net by neighboring switching nets through coupling capacitances, must be considered in order to accurately estimate the overall noise impact on design functionality and performances. In this work the impact of the cell non-linearity on the noise glitch waveform is analyzed in detail, and a new macromodel that allows to accurately and efficiently modeling the non-linear effects of the victim driver in noise analysis is presented. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, and confirm that existing noise analysis approaches based on linear superposition of the propagated and crosstalk-injected noise can be highly inaccurate, thus impairing the sign-off functional verification phase.

  13. Behavior analysis in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Todorov


    Full Text Available The history of behavior analysis in Brazil began with the visit of Fred S. Keller as a FulbrightScholar to the University of São Paulo in 1961. Keller introduced Skinner works to the Brazilianpsychologists. His first assistant was Carolina Martuscelli Bori, then a social psychologistinfluenced by the work of Kurt Lewin. Initially guided by Keller, Carolina Bori was the majorforce in the diffusion of Behavior Analysis in Brazil, beginning with the psychology course ofthe University of Brasília, where the first course on Experimental Analysis of Behavior beganin August of 1964. Most of behavior analysts in Brazil today were students, directly or indirectly,of Carolina Bori. Several graduate programs throughout the country offer courses in behavioranalysis.

  14. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.


    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  15. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.


    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  16. Universal quantifier derived from AFM analysis links cellular mechanical properties and cell-surface integration forces with microbial deposition and transport behavior. (United States)

    Li, Yueyun; Wang, Xin; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Wan, Kai-tak; Gu, April Z


    In this study, we employed AFM analysis combined with mathematical modeling for quantifying cell-surface contact mechanics and magnitude and range of cell-surface interaction forces for seven bacterial strains with a wide range of cell morphology, dimension, and surface characteristics. Comprehensive cell-surface characterization including surface charge, extracellular polymeric substance content, hydrophobicity, and cell-cell aggregation analyses were performed. Flow-through column tests were employed to determine the attachment efficiency and deposition-transport behavior of these bacterial strains. No statistically significant correlation between attachment efficiency and any single-cell surface property was identified. Single-cell characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM) yielded the mechanical deformation and elastic modulus, penetration resistance to AFM probe penetration by cellular surface substances (CSS), range and magnitude of the repulsive-attractive intersurface forces, and geometry of each strain. We proposed and derived a universal dimensionless modified Tabor's parameter to integrate all these properties that account for their collective behavior. Results showed that the Tabor parameter derived from AFM analysis correlated well with experimentally determined attachment efficiency (α), which therefore is able to link microscale cell-surface properties with macroscale bacterial transport behavior. Results suggested that the AFM tests performed between a single cell and a surface captured the key quantities of the interactions between the cell and the surface that dictate overall cell attachment behavior. Tabor's parameter therefore can be potentially incorporated into the microbial transport model.

  17. Social Behavior in Medulloblastoma: Functional Analysis of Tumor-Supporting Glial Cells (United States)


    University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, January 10, 2014 • Invited speaker. UC Santa Cruz, Department of Molecular , Cell , and Developmental Biology, Santa...the purification and culture of rodent astrocytes. Neuron 71(5):799-811. 2. Fellmann C, et al. (2011) Functional identification of optimized RNAi triggers using a massively parallel sensor assay. Molecular cell 41(6):733-746.

  18. Social Behavior in Medulloblastoma: Functional Analysis of Tumor-Supporting Glial Cells (United States)


    proliferation of tumor GNPs. These findings highlight a self-building supportive network within medulloblastoma. Our finding resonates with recent reports in...pieces was transferred to a 50 mL conical tube and liquid aspirated leaving tissue pieces. Enzyme neutralization was achieved by adding 3 ml of Low Ovo...tissue pieces settle, collect supernatant into a new 50 mL conical (these are all tumor cells). Repeat trituration with 5 mL Low Ovo and collect

  19. Patient-specific modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of individual sickle red blood cells under hypoxic conditions (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George


    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous morphology and abnormal dynamics under hypoxic conditions. We developed a time-dependent cell model that is able to simulate the dynamic processes of repeated sickling and unsickling of red blood cells (RBCs) under physiological conditions. By using the kinetic cell model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the dynamic behavior of individual sickle RBCs flowing in a microfluidic channel with multiple microgates. We investigate how individual sickle RBCs behave differently from healthy ones in channel flow, and analyze the alteration of cellular behavior and response to single-cell capillary obstruction induced by cell rheologic rigidification and morphological change due to cell sickling under hypoxic conditions. We also simulate the flow dynamics of sickle RBCs treated with hydroxyurea (HU) and quantify the relative enhancement of hemodynamic performance of HU. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant U01HL114476.

  20. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus


    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  1. Histopathological Analysis from Gallic Acid Administration on Hippocampal Cell Density, Depression, and Anxiety Related Behaviors in A Trimethyltin Intoxication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Moghadas


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the effects of gallic acid (GA administration on trimethyltin chloride (TMT induced anxiety, depression, and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of TMT (8 mg/kg. The animals received either GA (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg or saline as the vehicle for 14 consecutive days. We measured depression and anxiety levels of the rats by conducting the behavioral tail suspension (TST, elevatedplusmaze (EPM, and novelty suppressed feeding (NSF tests. Histological analyses were then used to determine the cell densities of different hippocampal subdivisions. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: GA administration ameliorated anxiety and depression in the behavioral tests. The cell densities in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG hippocampal subdivisionsfrom GA-treated rats were higher than saline treated rats. Conclusion: GA treatment against TMT-induced hippocampal degeneration altered cellular loss in the hippocampus and ameliorated the depression-anxiety state in rats.

  2. Direct measurements of IPTG enable analysis of the induction behavior of E. coli in high cell density cultures

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    Fernández-Castané Alfred


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E. coli lac operon and its components have been studied for decades, and lac-derived systems are widely used for recombinant protein production. However, lac operon dynamics and induction behavior remain the paradigm of gene regulation. Recently, an HPLC-MS-based method to quantify IPTG in the medium and inside the biomass has been established, and this tool may be useful to uncover the lack of knowledge and allow optimization of biotechnological processes. Results The results obtained from the study of IPTG distribution profiles in fed-batch, high cell density cultures allowed discrimination between two different depletion patterns of an inducer from the medium to the biomass in E. coli-expressing rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA. Moreover, we could demonstrate that active transport mediates the uptake of this gratuitous inducer. Additionally, we could study the induction behaviors of this expression system by taking into account the biomass concentration at the induction time. Conclusions In the bistable range, partial induction occurred, which led to intermediate levels of RhuA activity. There was a direct relationship between the initial inducer concentrations and the initial inducer transport rate together with the specific activity. A majority of the inducer remains in the medium to reach equilibrium with the intracellular level. The intracellular inducer accumulation was a further evidence of bistability of the lac operon.

  3. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft (United States)

    Brady, J. V.


    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  4. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng


    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  5. Integrated analysis of genetic, behavioral, and biochemical data implicates neural stem cell-induced changes in immunity, neurotransmission and mitochondrial function in Dementia with Lewy Body mice. (United States)

    Lakatos, Anita; Goldberg, Natalie R S; Blurton-Jones, Mathew


    We previously demonstrated that transplantation of murine neural stem cells (NSCs) can improve motor and cognitive function in a transgenic model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). These benefits occurred without changes in human α-synuclein pathology and were mediated in part by stem cell-induced elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, instrastriatal NSC transplantation likely alters the brain microenvironment via multiple mechanisms that may synergize to promote cognitive and motor recovery. The underlying neurobiology that mediates such restoration no doubt involves numerous genes acting in concert to modulate signaling within and between host brain cells and transplanted NSCs. In order to identify functionally connected gene networks and additional mechanisms that may contribute to stem cell-induced benefits, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on striatal tissue isolated from NSC- and vehicle-injected wild-type and DLB mice. Combining continuous behavioral and biochemical data with genome wide expression via network analysis proved to be a powerful approach; revealing significant alterations in immune response, neurotransmission, and mitochondria function. Taken together, these data shed further light on the gene network and biological processes that underlie the therapeutic effects of NSC transplantation on α-synuclein induced cognitive and motor impairments, thereby highlighting additional therapeutic targets for synucleinopathies.

  6. Rhabdoid differentiation is associated with aggressive behavior in renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 76 cases with clinical follow-up. (United States)

    Przybycin, Christopher G; McKenney, Jesse K; Reynolds, Jordan P; Campbell, Steven; Zhou, Ming; Karafa, Matthew T; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina


    Rhabdoid differentiation has been associated with aggressive behavior in carcinomas from different organ systems. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP), in addition to proposing a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to replace the Fuhrman system, recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation in RCC and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP grade 4. Although it has been shown that rhabdoid differentiation is associated with increased grade and stage of RCC, it has not been fully demonstrated whether it has an adverse effect independent of this association with increased grade and stage. We provide the largest clinicopathologic analysis of RCC with rhabdoid differentiation to date (76 cases), including characterization of metastatic disease. In addition, by constructing a multivariable model including tumor grade, stage, necrosis, and distant metastasis to compare a series of 49 clear cell RCC with rhabdoid differentiation with a cohort of 41 clear cell RCCs without rhabdoid differentiation, we demonstrate that the presence of rhabdoid differentiation in clear cell RCC confers an increased risk of death (hazard ratio=5.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-14.3) independent of these other adverse prognostic factors. These findings underscore the significance of rhabdoid differentiation in RCC as an adverse prognostic factor and support the recent reporting and grading recommendations of the ISUP.

  7. Behavioral cusps: a developmental and pragmatic concept for behavior analysis.


    Rosales-Ruiz, J; Baer, D M


    Most concepts of development explain certain behavior changes as products or markers of the invariable succession of emerging periods, stages, refinements, or achievements that define and order much of an individual's life. A different but comparable concept can be derived from the most basic mechanisms of behavior analysis, which are its environmental contingencies, and from its most basic strategy, which is to study behavior as its subject matter. From a behavior-analytic perspective, the m...

  8. Behavioral modeling and analysis of galvanic devices (United States)

    Xia, Lei


    A new hybrid modeling approach was developed for galvanic devices including batteries and fuel cells. The new approach reduces the complexity of the First Principles method and adds a physical basis to the empirical methods. The resulting general model includes all the processes that affect the terminal behavior of the galvanic devices. The first step of the new model development was to build a physics-based structure or framework that reflects the important physiochemical processes and mechanisms of a galvanic device. Thermodynamics, electrode kinetics, mass transport and electrode interfacial structure of an electrochemical cell were considered and included in the model. Each process of the cell is represented by a clearly-defined and familiar electrical component, resulting in an equivalent circuit model for the galvanic device. The second step was to develop a parameter identification procedure that correlates the device response data to the parameters of the components in the model. This procedure eliminates the need for hard-to-find data on the electrochemical properties of the cell and specific device design parameters. Thus, the model is chemistry and structure independent. Implementation issues of the new modeling approach were presented. The validity of the new model over a wide range of operating conditions was verified with experimental data from actual devices. The new model was used in studying the characteristics of galvanic devices. Both the steady-state and dynamic behavior of batteries and fuel cells was studied using the impedance analysis techniques. The results were used to explain some experimental results of galvanic devices such as charging and pulsed discharge. The knowledge gained from the device analysis was also used in devising new solutions to application problems such as determining the state of charge of a battery or the maximum power output of a fuel cell. With the new model, a system can be designed that utilizes a galvanic device

  9. Improving Public Perception of Behavior Analysis. (United States)

    Freedman, David H


    The potential impact of behavior analysis is limited by the public's dim awareness of the field. The mass media rarely cover behavior analysis, other than to echo inaccurate negative stereotypes about control and punishment. The media instead play up appealing but less-evidence-based approaches to problems, a key example being the touting of dubious diets over behavioral approaches to losing excess weight. These sorts of claims distort or skirt scientific evidence, undercutting the fidelity of behavior analysis to scientific rigor. Strategies for better connecting behavior analysis with the public might include reframing the field's techniques and principles in friendlier, more resonant form; pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals in simple terms; and playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis.

  10. Cell signaling underlying epileptic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri eBozzi


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a complex disease, characterized by the repeated occurrence of bursts of electrical activity (seizures in specific brain areas. The behavioral outcome of seizure events strongly depends on the brain regions that are affected by overactivity. Here we review the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the generation of seizures in epileptogenic areas. Pathways activated by modulatory neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, involving the activation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs and the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs will be first discussed in relation to the occurrence of acute seizure events. Activation of immediate early genes has been proposed to lead to long-term molecular and behavioral responses induced by acute seizures. We also review deleterious consequences of seizure activity, focusing on the contribution of apoptosis-associated signaling pathways to the progression of the disease. A deep understanding of signaling pathways involved in both acute and long-term responses to seizures continues to be crucial to unravel the origins of epileptic behaviors and ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for the cure of epilepsy.

  11. Osteoblastic cell behavior on nanostructured metal implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guehennec, L Le; Martin, F.; Lopez-Heredia, M.A.; Louarn, G.; Amouriq, Y.; Cousty, J.; Layrolle, P.


    AIMS: Surface modifications at the nanometric scale may promote protein adsorption, cell adhesion and thus favor the osseointegration of metal implants. The behavior of osteoblastic cells was studied on mirror-polished (Smooth-SS) and nanostructured (Nano-SS) stainless steel surfaces. MATERIALS & ME

  12. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior


    Shimp, Charles P.


    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  13. Influence of temperature on the aging behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: A comprehensive approach combining electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis (United States)

    Friesen, Alex; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Börner, Markus; Haetge, Jan; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin


    The understanding of the aging behavior of lithium ion batteries in automotive and energy storage applications is essential for the acceptance of the technology. Therefore, aging experiments were conducted on commercial 18650-type state-of-the-art cells to determine the influence of the temperature during electrochemical cycling on the aging behavior of the different cell components. The cells, based on Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2 (NCM532)/graphite, were aged at 20 °C and 45 °C to different states of health. The electrochemical performance of the investigated cells shows remarkable differences depending on the cycling temperature. At contrast to the expected behavior, the cells cycled at 45 °C show a better electrochemical performance over lifetime than the cells cycled at 20 °C. Comprehensive post-mortem analyses revealed the main aging mechanisms, showing a complex interaction between electrodes and electrolyte. The main aging mechanisms of the cells cycled at 45 °C differ strongly at contrast to cells cycled at 20 °C. A strong correlation between the formed SEI, the electrolyte composition and the electrochemical performance over lifetime was observed.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and computational analysis of mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes: antiproliferative and in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A


    The gold(III) complexes of the type [(DACH)Au(en)]Cl3, 1,2-Diaminocyclohexane ethylenediamine gold(III) chloride [where 1,2-DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2diaminocyclohexane and en = ethylenediamine] have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra; and solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and ethylenediamine (en) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. Their electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also reported at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The coordination sphere of these complexes around gold(III) center adopts distorted square planar geometry. The computational study also demonstrates that trans- conformations is slightly more stable than the cis-conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 1 is the most effective antiproliferative agent among mixed ligand based gold(III) complexes 1-3. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1 and 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells are fairly better than that of cisplatin.

  15. Experimental and model analysis of the co-oxidative behavior of syngas feed in an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (United States)

    Donazzi, A.; Rahmanipour, M.; Maestri, M.; Groppi, G.; Bardini, L.; Pappacena, A.; Boaro, M.


    By means of model analysis, we show that, in the presence of syngas, the electro-oxidation of H2 and that of CO occur in parallel and contemporarily on Samaria-doped Ceria (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9, SDC) Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). The activation of a co-oxidative route is a most distinguishing feature of Ce-based cells, compared to traditional SOFCs. SDC electrolyte supported IT-SOFCs with Cu-Pd-CZ80 composite anodes and LSCF cathodes were tested under a wide range of operating conditions. Polarization and EIS measurements were collected at 600 °C and 650 °C with syngas mixtures (2.3-0.4H2/CO ratio), H2/N2 mixtures (from 97 to 30% H2 v/v) and CO/CO2 mixtures (from 97 to 50% CO v/v). A 1D, dynamic and heterogeneous model of the cell was applied to analyze the polarization and the EIS curves. The kinetics of the reactions of H2 electro-oxidation, CO electro-oxidation and O2 reduction were individually investigated and global power law rates were derived. The syngas experiments were simulated on a fully predictive basis and no parameter adjustment, confirming that the polarization behavior could be best reproduced exclusively by assuming the presence of the co-oxidative route. The IT-SOFCs were also exposed to biogas mixtures, revealing that the dry-reforming reaction was active.

  16. Behavior Analysis: A Student's Guide. (United States)

    Frankenberger, William

    This paper provides students with a brief outline of behavioral principles and behavior change techniques, and describes various means of behavior change including operant conditioning. Methods discussed include reinforcement, extinction, punishment, response cost, time-out, overcorrection, training, and data collection for taking a baseline.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available By this study has been taken into account understanding roles of personality and values in determining behaviors that work, it is subsequently explain the process of perception and the way in which this affects the work behaviors and identify the work attitudes affecting the work behavior. To understand how much better intellectual asset management has been taken into account definition of the concept of person, organization, the form and the manner in which they affect behaviors. At the end key list shall be bounded on the set of behaviors that counts for organizational performance, more exactly every person to be able to develop your skills and positive attitude

  18. Analysis of South Carolina hydrogen and fuel cell workers views and opinion leadership behavior: A waiting opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besley, John C. [School of Journalism and Mass Communications, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29205 (United States); Baxter-Clemmons, Shannon [South Carolina Hydrogen Fuel Cell Alliance, P.O. Box 12302, Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)


    The current study uses quantitative survey results to explore what a near census of hydrogen and fuel cell (HFC) workers in South Carolina (n = 70) say about their HFC experiences and the degree to which these workers can be expected to act as opinion leaders for the field. In general, these workers say they are positive about the environmental, national security, and economic potential of HFC technologies. They further see HFC technologies as having small and manageable levels of risk. A number of these workers exhibit characteristics associated with both issue-specific and general opinion leadership. Issue-specific leadership and positive views about HFC technology were associated with higher levels of self-reported technology-related interpersonal discussion. The study concludes that the existence of workers with positive HFC experiences and a demonstrated interest in telling others about their experiences may represent an opportunity for those charged with promoting HFC development and adoption. Future efforts should explore how HFC workers could be effectively integrated into such efforts as a means of reaching difficult to reach audiences. (author)

  19. Glial Cell Regulation of Rhythmic Behavior (United States)

    Jackson, F. Rob; Ng, Fanny S.; Sengupta, Sukanya; You, Samantha; Huang, Yanmei


    Brain glial cells, in particular astrocytes and microglia, secrete signaling molecules that regulate glia–glia or glia–neuron communication and synaptic activity. While much is known about roles of glial cells in nervous system development, we are only beginning to understand the physiological functions of such cells in the adult brain. Studies in vertebrate and invertebrate models, in particular mice and Drosophila, have revealed roles of glia–neuron communication in the modulation of complex behavior. This chapter emphasizes recent evidence from studies of rodents and Drosophila that highlight the importance of glial cells and similarities or differences in the neural circuits regulating circadian rhythms and sleep in the two models. The chapter discusses cellular, molecular, and genetic approaches that have been useful in these models for understanding how glia–neuron communication contributes to the regulation of rhythmic behavior. PMID:25707272

  20. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.


    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  1. Integrins as architects of cell behavior. (United States)

    Streuli, Charles H


    Integrins are cell surface receptors that bind cells to their physical external environment, linking the extracellular matrix to cell function. They are essential in the biology of all animals. In the late 1980s, we discovered that integrins are required for the ability of breast epithelia to do what they are programmed to do, which is to differentiate and make milk. Since then, integrins have been shown to control most other aspects of phenotype: to stay alive, to divide, and to move about. Integrins also provide part of the mechanism that allows cells to form tissues. Here I discuss how we discovered that integrins control mammary gland differentiation and explore the role of integrins as central architects of other aspects of cell behavior.

  2. Cell behavior observation and gene expression analysis of melanoma associated with stromal fibroblasts in a three-dimensional magnetic cell culture array. (United States)

    Okochi, Mina; Matsumura, Taku; Yamamoto, And Shuhei; Nakayama, Eiichi; Jimbow, Kowichi; Honda, Hiroyuki


    A three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid culture array has been fabricated using a magnetic force-based cell patterning method, analyzing the effect of stromal fibroblast on the invasive capacity of melanoma. Formation of spheroids was observed when array-like multicellular patterns of melanoma were developed using a pin-holder device made of magnetic soft iron and an external magnet, which enables the assembly of the magnetically labeled cells on the collagen gel-coated surface as array-like cell patterns. The interaction of fibroblast on the invasion of melanoma was investigated using three types of cell interaction models: (i) fibroblasts were magnetically labeled and patterned together in array with melanoma spheroids (direct-interaction model), (ii) fibroblasts coexisting in the upper collagen gel (indirect-interaction model) of melanoma spheroids, and (iii) fibroblast-sheets coexisting under melanoma spheroids (fibroblast-sheet model). The fibroblast-sheet model has largely increased the invasive capacity of melanoma, and the promotion of adhesion, migration, and invasion were also observed. In the fibroblast-sheet model, the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 increased by 24-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in real time RT-PCR compared to the absence of fibroblasts. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of fibroblast interaction to invasive capacity of melanoma in the 3D in vitro bioengineered tumor microenvironment.

  3. A Behavioral Systems Analysis of Behavior Analysis as a Scientific System (United States)

    Hayes, Linda J.; Dubuque, Erick M.; Fryling, Mitch J.; Pritchard, Joshua K.


    Behavioral systems analyses typically address organizational problems in business and industry. However, to the extent that a behavioral system is an entity comprised of interdependent elements formed by individuals interacting toward a common goal, a scientific enterprise constitutes a behavioral system to which a behavioral systems analysis may…

  4. Genetic and Molecular Network Analysis of Behavior


    Williams, Robert W.; Mulligan, Megan K.


    This chapter provides an introduction into the genetic control and analysis of behavioral variation using powerful online resources. We introduce you to the new field of systems genetics using "case studies" drawn from the world of behavioral genetics that exploit populations of genetically diverse lines of mice. These lines differ very widely in patterns of gene and protein expression in the brain and in patterns of behavior. In this chapter we address the following set of related questions:...

  5. From molecular networks to qualitative cell behavior. (United States)

    Gagneur, Julien; Casari, Georg


    Adaptation and behavior are characteristics of life which are fundamentally dynamic. If we want to model the living cell we have to describe it as a dynamic system. Typical dynamic models are based on quantitative differential equations requiring very detailed kinetic knowledge. Alternative modeling techniques for less fine-grained information are better suited to available functional genomics data. As such, constraint-based techniques and qualitative modeling have proven themselves to be valid approaches in cell biology. These approaches offer formal support to check the consistency of molecular networks against phenotypic observations in the light of dynamic systems.

  6. Cell disaggregation behavior in shear flow. (United States)

    Snabre, P; Bitbol, M; Mills, P


    The disaggregation behavior of erythrocytes in dextran saline solution was investigated by a light reflectometry technique in a Couette flow and in a plane Poiseuille flow. Dextran concentration and mass average molecular weight of the polymer fraction strongly influence the shear stress dependence of the erythrocyte suspension reflectivity in shear flow and the critical hydrodynamic conditions (shear rate or shear stress) for near-complete cell dispersion. We investigated the influence of cell volume fraction and membrane deformability (heat treatment of the erythrocytes) on the reflectivity of the flowing suspension. This study indicates that the intercell adhesiveness and the shear stress are the only parameters that influence rouleau break-up in steady uniform shear flow, thus eliminating cell volume fraction and membrane deformability as possible factors. However, the critical cross-sectional average shear stress for near-complete cell dispersion through the flow cross-section is shown to depend on the flow pattern. The rotation of cells in a shear flow or the nonuniform shear field in Poiseuille flow indeed increases the flow resistance of cell aggregates. We give a theoretical description of the shear-induced cell disaggregation process in Couette flow and in plane Poiseuille flow. The quantitation of shear forces for cell dispersion provides a way for estimating the surface adhesive energy of the bridging membranes by fluid mechanical technique.

  7. Biosensors for Cell Analysis. (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander


    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  8. Unit Cell Analysis of the Superelastic Behavior of Open-Cell Tetrakaidecahedral Shape Memory Alloy Foam under Quasi-Static Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Maîtrejean


    Full Text Available Cellular solid materials and, more specifically, foams are increasingly common in many industrial applications due to their attractive characteristics. The tetrakaidecahedral foam microstructure, which can be observed in many types of foams, is studied in the present work in association with shape memory alloys (SMA material. SMA foams are of particular interest as they associate both the shape memory effect and the superelasticity with the characteristics of foam. A Unit Cell Finite Element Method approach is used, an approach that allows accurate predicting of the macroscale response of the foam with a highly reduced numerical effort. The tetrakaidecahedral foam’s responses, both in the elastic and in the superelastic stages, are then extracted and compared with results from the literature. The tetrakaidecahedral geometry is found to be of particular interest when associated with SMA as it takes more advantage of the superelastic property of the material than foams with randomly distributed porosity.

  9. International Behavior Analysis: Preliminary Findings (United States)


    Project. The Project’s basic goal is to provide a means for producing comparative, empirical generalizations about how, when, and why nations are...sources of behavior have been identified. These cpoens (or collections of source factors) include: (1) psychological; (2) political ; (3) societal; (4...nation initiate an external action? Thatis, after one or more conditions generate a decision occasion, how does the nation respond? Similar in nature is

  10. Signal analysis of behavioral and molecular cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowse Harold B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circadian clocks are biological oscillators that regulate molecular, physiological, and behavioral rhythms in a wide variety of organisms. While behavioral rhythms are typically monitored over many cycles, a similar approach to molecular rhythms was not possible until recently; the advent of real-time analysis using transgenic reporters now permits the observations of molecular rhythms over many cycles as well. This development suggests that new details about the relationship between molecular and behavioral rhythms may be revealed. Even so, behavioral and molecular rhythmicity have been analyzed using different methods, making such comparisons difficult to achieve. To address this shortcoming, among others, we developed a set of integrated analytical tools to unify the analysis of biological rhythms across modalities. Results We demonstrate an adaptation of digital signal analysis that allows similar treatment of both behavioral and molecular data from our studies of Drosophila. For both types of data, we apply digital filters to extract and clarify details of interest; we employ methods of autocorrelation and spectral analysis to assess rhythmicity and estimate the period; we evaluate phase shifts using crosscorrelation; and we use circular statistics to extract information about phase. Conclusion Using data generated by our investigation of rhythms in Drosophila we demonstrate how a unique aggregation of analytical tools may be used to analyze and compare behavioral and molecular rhythms. These methods are shown to be versatile and will also be adaptable to further experiments, owing in part to the non-proprietary nature of the code we have developed.

  11. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Aberrant Behavior. (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others


    This article reviews general classes of variables which help to maintain aberrant behavior including attention seeking, sensory and perceptual consequences, and access to materials or activities. Suggestions for a methodology providing a comprehensive functional analysis are offered which include descriptive analysis, hypothesis forming,…

  12. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  13. Cell mechanics through analysis of cell trajectories in microfluidic channel (United States)

    Bowie, Samuel; Alexeev, Alexander; Sulchek, Todd

    The understanding of dynamic cell behavior can aid in research ranging from the mechanistic causes of diseases to the development of microfluidic devices for cancer detection. Through analysis of trajectories captured from video of the cells moving in a specially designed microfluidic device, insight into the dynamic viscoelastic nature of cells can be found. The microfluidic device distinguishes cells viscoelastic properties through the use of angled ridges causing a series of compressions, resulting in differences in trajectories based on cell stiffness. Trajectories of cell passing through the device are collected using image processing methods and data mining techniques are used to relate the trajectories to cell properties obtained from experiments. Furthermore, numerical simulation of the cell and microfluidic device are used to match the experimental results from the trajectory analysis. Combination of the modeling and experimental data help to uncover how changes in cellular structures result in changes in mechanical properties.

  14. Synthetic hydrogels as scaffolds for manipulating endothelium cell behaviors



    Synthetic hydrogels can be used as scaffolds that not only favor endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation but also manipulate the behaviors and functions of the ECs. In this review paper, the effect of chemical structure, Young's modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of synthetic hydrogel scaffolds on static cell behaviors, including cell morphology, proliferation, cytoskeleton structure and focal adhesion, and on dynamic cell behaviors, including migration velocity and morphology oscillation, as w...

  15. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food


    Chao Luo; Guangrong Tong; Yang Pan; Sha Yang


    This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and prod...

  16. Isolation and analysis of mouse microglial cells. (United States)

    Garcia, Jenny A; Cardona, Sandra M; Cardona, Astrid E


    Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that make up about 10% of the central nervous system (CNS). They are known for their surveillant behavior, which involves continuous monitoring of neural tissue by extending and retracting their processes. Microglial cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and play important roles in homeostasis as well as inflammatory and immune responses in the brain. This unit describes several microglial cell isolation protocols that can be easily adapted for projects requiring a rapid and efficient analysis of mouse microglial cells by flow cytometry. Methods for visualizing microglial cells using in situ immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry in free-floating sections are also included.

  17. The Scientific Image in Behavior Analysis. (United States)

    Keenan, Mickey


    Throughout the history of science, the scientific image has played a significant role in communication. With recent developments in computing technology, there has been an increase in the kinds of opportunities now available for scientists to communicate in more sophisticated ways. Within behavior analysis, though, we are only just beginning to appreciate the importance of going beyond the printing press to elucidate basic principles of behavior. The aim of this manuscript is to stimulate appreciation of both the role of the scientific image and the opportunities provided by a quick response code (QR code) for enhancing the functionality of the printed page. I discuss the limitations of imagery in behavior analysis ("Introduction"), and I show examples of what can be done with animations and multimedia for teaching philosophical issues that arise when teaching about private events ("Private Events 1 and 2"). Animations are also useful for bypassing ethical issues when showing examples of challenging behavior ("Challenging Behavior"). Each of these topics can be accessed only by scanning the QR code provided. This contingency has been arranged to help the reader embrace this new technology. In so doing, I hope to show its potential for going beyond the limitations of the printing press.

  18. Biophysical Cueing and Vascular Endothelial Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Wood


    Full Text Available Human vascular endothelial cells (VEC line the vessels of the body and are critical for the maintenance of vessel integrity and trafficking of biochemical cues. They are fundamental structural elements and are central to the signaling environment. Alterations in the normal functioning of the VEC population are associated with a number of vascular disorders among which are some of the leading causes of death in both the United States and abroad. VECs attach to their underlying stromal elements through a specialization of the extracellular matrix, the basement membrane. The basement membrane provides signaling cues to the VEC through its chemical constituents, by serving as a reservoir for cytoactive factors and through its intrinsic biophysical properties. This specialized matrix is composed of a topographically rich 3D felt-like network of fibers and pores on the nano (1–100 nm and submicron (100–1,000 nm size scale. The basement membrane provides biophysical cues to the overlying VECs through its intrinsic topography as well as through its local compliance (relative stiffness. These biophysical cues modulate VEC adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and the cytoskeletal signaling network of the individual cells. This review focuses on the impact of biophysical cues on VEC behaviors and demonstrates the need for their consideration in future vascular studies and the design of improved prosthetics.

  19. Fractal Analysis on Human Behaviors Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Zha, Yi-Long


    The study of human dynamics has attracted much interest from many fields recently. In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The Hurst exponents and length of non-periodic cycles calculated through Rescaled Range Analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors is fractal with long-range correlation. Then the time series are converted to complex networks by visibility graph algorithm. The topological properties of the networks, such as scale-free property, small-world effect and hierarchical structure imply that close relationships exist between the amounts of repetitious actions performed by people during certain periods of time, especially for some important days. Finally, the networks obtained are verified to be not fractal and self-similar using box-counting method. Our work implies the intrinsic regularity shown in human collective repetitious behaviors.

  20. Oscillatory behaviors and hierarchical assembly of contractile structures in intercalating cells (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Zallen, Jennifer A.


    Fluctuations in the size of the apical cell surface have been associated with apical constriction and tissue invagination. However, it is currently not known if apical oscillatory behaviors are a unique property of constricting cells or if they constitute a universal feature of the force balance between cells in multicellular tissues. Here, we set out to determine whether oscillatory cell behaviors occur in parallel with cell intercalation during the morphogenetic process of axis elongation in the Drosophila embryo. We applied multi-color, time-lapse imaging of living embryos and SIESTA, an integrated tool for automated and semi-automated cell segmentation, tracking, and analysis of image sequences. Using SIESTA, we identified cycles of contraction and expansion of the apical surface in intercalating cells and characterized them at the molecular, cellular, and tissue scales. We demonstrate that apical oscillations are anisotropic, and this anisotropy depends on the presence of intact cell-cell junctions and spatial cues provided by the anterior-posterior patterning system. Oscillatory cell behaviors during axis elongation are associated with the hierarchical assembly and disassembly of contractile actomyosin structures at the medial cortex of the cell, with actin localization preceding myosin II and with the localization of both proteins preceding changes in cell shape. We discuss models to explain how the architecture of cytoskeletal networks regulates their contractile behavior and the mechanisms that give rise to oscillatory cell behaviors in intercalating cells.

  1. Teleology and teleonomy in behavior analysis. (United States)

    Reese, H W


    Teleological descriptions and explanations refer to purpose as consequent to a phenomenon. They become nonteleological if purpose is represented as antecedent to the phenomenon. Such nonteleological statements are called teleonomic, especially when they refer to antecedent genetic "programs." In behavior analysis, purpose is attributed to the organism's history of consequences. Such a history may leave a trace-physiological (mechanism) or mental (cognitivism)-or the issue of traces may be irrelevant (contextualism). The history or trace is antecedent to current responding, and thus is not a teleological concept in the classical sense. It could be called a teleonomic concept, but this designation is undesirable if it implies exclusively genetic programming, because the history or trace is genetically programmed in evolutionary selection but not in ontogenetic selection. Therefore, the concepts of teleology and teleonomy are not useful for behavior analysis, and invoking them can be misleading. The concept of purpose can be useful if it is not reified.

  2. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases. (United States)

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan


    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids ('adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids') are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29-84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n=3) and lung (n=1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed 'other' carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular ('carcinoid pattern') was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (tumor progression. In conclusion, 'adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid' is an appendix-specific, high-grade malignant neoplasm with distinctive morphology that is recognizable at metastatic sites and recapitulates crypt cells (appendiceal crypt cell adenocarcinoma). Unlike intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, it occurs predominantly in women, is disguised as gynecologic malignancy

  3. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  4. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server


    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  5. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.


    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  6. Influence of cell voltage and current on sulfur poisoning behavior of solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Zha, Shaowu; Liu, Meilin

    The sulfur poisoning behavior of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermet anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. While the observed relative drop in cell power output caused by sulfur poisoning decreases as the cell-terminal voltage is lowered potentiostatically (thus more current passing through the cell), it increases as more current is drawn from the cell galvanostatically (thus leading to lower terminal voltage). The apparent contradictory trends in relative performance loss due to sulfur poisoning are explained using a simple equivalent circuit analysis, which was further validated by impedance measurements of cells before and after poisoning by trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) under different conditions. Results suggest that the relative increase in cell internal resistance caused by sulfur poisoning is smaller when more current is drawn from the cell (or the cell-terminal voltage is lowered) under either potentiostatic or galvanostatic conditions. Thus, the increase in anode polarization resistance, not the drop in cell power output, should be used to describe the degree of sulfur poisoning in order to avoid any confusion.

  7. Autonomous behavior of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Akkerman, [No Value; Weersing, E; Ausema, A; Dontje, B; Van Zant, G; de Haan, G


    Objective. Mechanisms that affect the function of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with long-term proliferative potential remain largely unknown. Here we assessed whether properties of stem cells are cell-extrinsically or cell-autonomously regulated. Materials and Methods. We developed a model in

  8. Computational Analysis of Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ďurišová


    Full Text Available orrespondence: Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Phone + 42-1254775928; Fax +421254775928; E-mail: 84 RESEARCH ARTICLE The objective of this study was to perform a computational analysis of the pharmacokinetic behavior of ampicillin, using data from the literature. A method based on the theory of dynamic systems was used for modeling purposes. The method used has been introduced to pharmacokinetics with the aim to contribute to the knowledge base in pharmacokinetics by including the modeling method which enables researchers to develop mathematical models of various pharmacokinetic processes in an identical way, using identical model structures. A few examples of a successful use of the modeling method considered here in pharmacokinetics can be found in full texts articles available free of charge at the website of the author, and in the example given in the this study. The modeling method employed in this study can be used to develop a mathematical model of the pharmacokinetic behavior of any drug, under the condition that the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug under study can be at least partially approximated using linear models.

  9. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van A.A.; Mano, J.F.


    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  10. DNDO Analysis Cell Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagh, Richard T.; Dimmerling, Paul J.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Hoyt, Joel R.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Rohlfing, Kerrie S.; Schweppe, John E.; Sego, Landon H.; Shergur, Jason M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.


    The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) has a mission of implementing rad/nuc interdiction capabilities for a managed and coordinated response to threats, integration of federal nuclear forensics programs, and coordinating the development of the global nuclear detection and reporting architecture. In the process of executing this mission, DNDO has generated substantial information, data, technical results, operational workflows and analytical tools. The effective utilization of these resources is an overarching goal of the organization. After nearly a decade of performing work, DNDO faces a challenge in capitalizing on the large amount of data, reports, processes, tools, and people. As new work is being planned, managers and researchers need to have an understating of what information has been collected, what tools are available, the collaborations which can be utilized to propel the work forward, processes to plan and execute, and how to present conclusions and results that can assist the government in making decisions. This type of challenge can be met through the use of a series of organized and connected elements which form a broader structure (cell) that promotes cross utilization of elements such that they can be tailored (analyzed) to fit the context of the problem to be solved. The development of an analysis cell for DNDO will address the challenges of utilizing existing elements, identifying gaps, annually reporting the performance of rad/nuc interdiction instrumentation, and planning the execution of future work.

  11. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo


    Full Text Available This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and product awareness is one of the small degree of influence. However, the convenience of purchase has no significant effect on buying green food. At last, this study aiming factors that affect consumer purchasing choice, proposed some suggestions to expand the eco-labeling of food consumption.

  12. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology. (United States)

    Laties, Victor G


    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search for new drugs. Psychologists, most of whom were skilled in the behavior-analytic approach, started to assume prominent positions as authors and editors for the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics as its emphasis on behavior increased. This also proved true with the other publications founded to deal with the popularity of behavioral pharmacology. Especially important were contributions by B. F. Skinner, Peter B. Dews, and Joseph V. Brady.

  13. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  14. Behavior of Cell on Vibrating Micro Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino


    Full Text Available The effect of micro ridges on cells cultured at a vibrating scaffold has been studied in vitro. Several parallel lines of micro ridges have been made on a disk of transparent polydimethylsiloxane for a scaffold. To apply the vibration on the cultured cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the scaffold. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by the sinusoidal alternating voltage (Vp-p < 16 V at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Four kinds of cells were used in the test: L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of C3H mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma, C2C12 (mouse myoblast, 3T3-L1 (mouse fat precursor cells. The cells were seeded on the micro pattern at the density of 2000 cells/cm2 in the medium containing 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/ streptomycin. After the adhesion of cells in several hours, the cells are exposed to the ultrasonic vibration for several hours. The cells were observed with a phase contrast microscope. The experimental results show that the cells adhere, deform and migrate on the scaffold with micro patterns regardless of the ultrasonic vibration. The effects of the vibration and the micro pattern depend on the kind of cells.

  15. Analysis of the thermal and electrical behavior of commercial photovoltaic cells in inverse operation; Analisis del comportamiento termico y electrico de celulas fotovoltaicas comerciales en operacion inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margineda, D.; Alonso-Garcia, M. C.; Sanchez-Friera, P.


    In order to analyse the thermal and electrical behaviour of commercial solar cells in reverse operation photovoltaic cells of the same type, but different class (different efficiency in the same type cell) were selected. electrical characterisation of the samples was performed through I-V curve measurements in direct and reverse bias, what gave information about the type of reverse I-V characteristics. besides, infrared characterisation showed temperature distributions along cell surface, pointing out localised heating that could cause hot-spots. From both characterisations (electrical and thermal) it is possible to obtain relations between the class of the cell, the type of reverse characteristics and maximum temperatures in case of partial shading or faulty operation. (Author)

  16. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Chuen Wu, Ching-Li Tseng, Chi-Chang Wu, Feng-Chen Kao, Yuan-Kun Tu, Edmund C So and Yang-Kao Wang


    Full Text Available Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  17. How do culture media influence in vitro perivascular cell behavior? (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Kluger, Petra Juliane


    Perivascular cells are multilineage cells located around the vessel wall and important for wall stabilization. In this study, we evaluated a stem cell media and a perivascular cell-specific media for the culture of primary perivascular cells regarding their cell morphology, doubling time, stem cell properties, and expression of cell type-specific markers. When the two cell culture media were compared to each other, perivascular cells cultured in the stem cell medium had a more elongated morphology and a faster doubling rate and cells cultured in the pericyte medium had a more typical morphology, with several filopodia, and a slower doubling rate. To evaluate stem cell properties, perivascular cells, CD146(-) cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. It was seen that perivascular cells, as well as CD146(-) cells and MSCs, cultured in stem cell medium showed greater differentiation than cells cultured in pericyte-specific medium. The expression of pericyte-specific markers CD146, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), myosin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) could be found in both pericyte cultures, as well as to varying amounts in CD146(-) cells, MSCs, and endothelial cells. The here presented work shows that perivascular cells can adapt to their in vitro environment and cell culture conditions influence cell functionality, such as doubling rate or differentiation behavior. Pericyte-specific markers were shown to be expressed also from cells other than perivascular cells. We can further conclude that CD146(+) perivascular cells are inhomogeneous cell population probably containing stem cell subpopulations, which are located perivascular around capillaries.

  18. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Fortunato, Santo


    Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.

  19. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Mitrović, Marija; Fortunato, Santo


    Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.

  20. Impact of cycling at low temperatures on the safety behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: Combined study of mechanical and thermal abuse testing accompanied by post-mortem analysis (United States)

    Friesen, Alex; Horsthemke, Fabian; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Brunklaus, Gunther; Krafft, Roman; Börner, Markus; Risthaus, Tim; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.


    The impact of cycling at low temperatures on the thermal and mechanical abuse behavior of commercial 18650-type lithium ion cells was compared to fresh cells. Post-mortem analyses revealed a deposition of high surface area lithium (HSAL) metal on the graphite surface accompanied by severe electrolyte decomposition. Heat wait search (HWS) tests in an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) were performed to investigate the thermal abuse behavior of aged and fresh cells under quasi-adiabatic conditions, showing a strong shift of the onset temperature for exothermic reactions. HSAL deposition promotes the reduction of the carbonate based electrolyte due to the high reactivity of lithium metal with high surface area, leading to a thermally induced decomposition of the electrolyte to produce volatile gaseous products. Nail penetration tests showed a change in the thermal runaway (TR) behavior affected by the decomposition reaction. This study indicates a greater thermal hazard for LIB cells at higher SOC and experiencing aging at low temperature.

  1. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology


    Laties, Victor G.


    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search ...

  2. Three-Dimensional Scaffold from Decellularized Human Gingiva for Cell Cultures: Glycoconjugates and Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Banihashem Rad


    Full Text Available Objective: We studied both the presence of some carbohydrate compounds in a three-dimensional (3D matrix harvested from human gingiva and the cell behavior in this matrix.Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, in order to prepare 3D scaffolds, human palatal gingival biopsies were harvested and physically decellularized by freeze-thawing and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The scaffolds were placed within the rings of blastema tissues obtained from a pinna rabbit, in vitro. We evaluated the presence of glycoconjugatesand cellular behavior according to histological, histochemical and spectrophotometry techniques at one, two and three weeks after culture. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVAcomparedthe groups.Results: Extracellular matrix (ECM remained after decellularization of tissue with 1% SDS. Glycoconjugate contents decreased meaningfully at a higher SDS concentration (p<0.0001. After culture of the ECM scaffold with blastema, we observed increased staining of alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and toluidine blue in the scaffold and a number of other migrant cells which was caused by cell penetrationinto the scaffold. Spectrophotometry results showed an increase in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs of the decellularized scaffolds at three weeks after culture.Conclusion: The present study has shown that a scaffold generated from palatal gingival tissue ECM is a suitable substrate for blastema cell migration and activity.This scaffold maypotentially be useful as a biological scaffold in tissue engineering applications.

  3. Functions of Research in Radical Behaviorism for the Further Development of Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Leigland, Sam


    The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…

  4. Behavior Basics: Quick Behavior Analysis and Implementation of Interventions for Classroom Teachers (United States)

    Taylor, Shanon S.


    Dealing with student behavior is often cited as one of the most frustrating aspects of teaching, yet many classroom teachers receive no pre-service training in the basics of behavior management. This article describes the process of implementing a quick behavioral analysis for the purpose of designing a basic intervention. It will provide general…

  5. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  6. Motion Picture and Videotape Analysis of Behavior. (United States)

    Carpenter, Geoffrey C.; Duvall, David


    Use of motion pictures and videotape recordings to analyze animal behavior is described. Indicates that accuracy/amount of data available is greatly increased and that simultaneous behaviors of different animals can be studied or individual behavior patterns increased/decreased, providing observers with temporal perceptions similar to the animals…

  7. A retrospective appreciation of Willard Day's contributions to radical behaviorism and the analysis of verbal behavior (United States)

    Moore, Jay


    Willard Day's contributions to radical behaviorism are grouped under three headings: (a) an emphasis on the distinction between radical and methodological behaviorism; (b) an emphasis on the interpretation, rather than the prediction and control, of behavior; and (c) an emphasis on the analysis of verbal behavior as a natural, ongoing phenomenon. The paper suggests that the contributions above are listed in ascending order of significance. PMID:22477632

  8. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Fernanda V., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dias, Paulo F. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)


    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography.

  9. Negative Reinforcement in Applied Behavior Analysis: An Emerging Technology. (United States)

    Iwata, Brian A.


    The article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. Current research suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement.…

  10. Cell-Division Behavior in a Heterogeneous Swarm Environment. (United States)

    Erskine, Adam; Herrmann, J Michael


    We present a system of virtual particles that interact using simple kinetic rules. It is known that heterogeneous mixtures of particles can produce particularly interesting behaviors. Here we present a two-species three-dimensional swarm in which a behavior emerges that resembles cell division. We show that the dividing behavior exists across a narrow but finite band of parameters and for a wide range of population sizes. When executed in a two-dimensional environment the swarm's characteristics and dynamism manifest differently. In further experiments we show that repeated divisions can occur if the system is extended by a biased equilibrium process to control the split of populations. We propose that this repeated division behavior provides a simple model for cell-division mechanisms and is of interest for the formation of morphological structure and to swarm robotics.

  11. Influence of Flow Behavior of Alginate-Cell Suspensions on Cell Viability and Proliferation. (United States)

    Ning, Liqun; Guillemot, Arthur; Zhao, Jingxuan; Kipouros, Georges; Chen, Xiongbiao


    Tissue scaffolds with living cells fabricated by three-dimensional bioprinting/plotting techniques are becoming more prevalent in tissue repair and regeneration. In the bioprinting process, cells are subject to process-induced forces (such as shear force) that can result in cell damage and loss of cell function. The flow behavior of the biomaterial solutions that encapsulate living cells in this process plays an important role. This study used a rheometer to examine the flow behavior of alginate solution and alginate-Schwann cell (RSC96), alginate-fibroblast cell (NIH-3T3), and alginate-skeletal muscle cell (L8) suspensions during shearing with respect to effects on cell viability and proliferation. The flow behavior of all the alginate-cell suspensions varied with alginate concentration and cell density and had a significant influence on the viability and proliferation of the cells once sheared as well as on the recovery of the sheared cells. These findings provide a mean to preserve cell viability and/or retain cell proliferation function in the bioprinting process by regulating the flow behavior of cell-biomaterial suspensions and process parameters.

  12. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells (United States)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.


    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  13. Deformation behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, A.C., E-mail:; Fleck, C.


    This study presents the deformation and cell collapse behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams. 316L stainless-steel open-cell foams with two porosities (30 and 45 pores per inch, ppi) were produced with the pressureless powder metallurgical method, and tested in quasi-static compression. As a result of the manufacturing technique, 316L stainless steel open-cell foams have a high amount of microporosity. The deformation behavior was investigated on a macroscopic scale by digital image correlation (DIC) evaluation of light micrographs and on the microscopic scale by in situ loading of cells in the scanning electron microscope. The deformation behavior of the metal foams was highly affected by microstructural features, such as closed pores and their distribution throughout the foam specimen. Moreover, the closed pores made a contribution to the plateau stress of the foams through cell face stretching. Strut buckling and bending are the dominant mechanisms in cell collapse. Although there are edge defects on the struts, the struts have an enormous plastic deformation capability. The cell size of the steel foams had no significant effect on the mechanical properties. Due to the inhomogeneities in the microstructure, the measured plateau stresses of the foams showed about 20% scatter at the same relative density.

  14. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová


    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  15. Recognition and Analysis on Overtaking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yu


    Full Text Available This study has a research of HMM and recognizes current driving intention, Moreover, using time to judge whether the behavior is overtaking behavior or not. Next, MSS was used to judge whether the overtaking conditions met or not. In addition, if they do not meet there will be a warning for driver. Use Gauss density functions to improve P-2D-HMM and discriminate driving intention, then identify the overtaking behavior. Based on vehicle kinematics theory, judge whether the overtaking behavior is normal by SMM. Warn the drivers whose overtaking behavior is abnormal to expect to reduce the traffic accident caused by overtaking. The result of experiment confirms that the model can accurately recognize overtaking behavior and the abnormal overtaking can be effective identified.

  16. Global behavior of gear system using mixed cell mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yunwen; LIU Mengjun; DONG Haijun


    In some mechanical nonlinear systems, the transient motion will be undergoing a very long process and the attractor-basin boundaries are so complicated that some difficulties occur in analyzing the system global behavior. To solve this problem a mixed cell mapping method based on the point mapping and the principle of simple cell mapping is developed. The algorithm of the mixed cell mapping is studied. A dynamic model of a gear pair is established with the backlash, damping, transmission error and the time-varying stiffness taken into consideration. The global behaviors of this system are analyzed. The coexistence of the system attractors and the respective attractor-basin of each attractor with different parameters are obtained, thus laying a theoretical basis for improvement of the dynamic behaviors of gear system.

  17. Labor Market Analysis and Concerted Behavior


    Ulman, Lloyd


    In the first part of this paper, the importance of concerted behavior by workers emerges from examination of some prominent theories which set out to explain wage rigidity in the face of declining demand or excess supply without abandoning key elements of competitive theory. In the second part, the importance of certain Keyenesian and satisficing behavioral postulates in motivating concerted worker behavior is. suggested by the shortcomings of some contemporary economic models of the trade un...

  18. Cell adhesive behavior on thin polyelectrolyte multilayers: cells attempt to achieve homeostasis of its adhesion energy. (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit; Hunley, S Christopher; Pawelec, Kendell M; Zhang, Linxia; Lee, Ilsoon; Baek, Seungik; Chan, Christina


    Linearly growing ultrathin polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films of strong polyelectrolytes, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC), and sulfonated polystyrene, sodium salt (SPS) exhibit a gradual shift from cytophilic to cytophobic behavior, with increasing thickness for films of less than 100 nm. Previous explanations based on film hydration, swelling, and changes in the elastic modulus cannot account for the cytophobicity observed with these thin films as the number of bilayers increases. We implemented a finite element analysis to help elucidate the observed trends in cell spreading. The simulation results suggest that cells maintain a constant level of energy consumption (energy homeostasis) during active probing and thus respond to changes in the film stiffness as the film thickness increases by adjusting their morphology and the number of focal adhesions recruited and thereby their attachment to a substrate.

  19. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.


    Iwata, B A


    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these area...

  20. Behavioral Research Data Analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuelin


    This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su

  1. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  2. Behavior Analysis of Forgiveness in Couples Therapy (United States)

    Cordova, James; Cautilli, Joseph; Simon, Corrina; Sabag, Robin Axelrod


    Behavioral couples' therapy has a long history of success with couples and is an empirically validated treatment for marital discord (Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995). However, only about 50% of all couples in treatment experience long-term change (2 years). One of the founders of behavioral couples'…

  3. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior. (United States)

    Seltmann, Kristin; Fritsch, Anatol W; Käs, Josef A; Magin, Thomas M


    Cell motility and cell shape adaptations are crucial during wound healing, inflammation, and malignant progression. These processes require the remodeling of the keratin cytoskeleton to facilitate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. However, the role of keratins for biomechanical properties and invasion of epithelial cells is only partially understood. In this study, we address this issue in murine keratinocytes lacking all keratins on genome engineering. In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.

  4. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells (United States)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas


    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  5. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ


    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  6. Asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear functional-integral equation of cell kinetics with unequal division. (United States)

    Arino, O; Kimmel, M


    A model of cell cycle kinetics is proposed, which includes unequal division of cells, and a nonlinear dependence of the fraction of cells re-entering proliferation on the total number of cells in the cycle. The model is described by a nonlinear functional-integral equation. It is analyzed using the operator semigroup theory combined with classical differential equations approach. A complete description of the asymptotic behavior of the model is provided for a relatively broad class of nonlinearities. The nonnegative solutions either tend to a stable steady state, or to zero. The simplicity of the model makes it an interesting step in the analysis of dynamics of nonlinear structure populations.

  7. Static Behavior of Chalcogenide Based Programmable Metallization Cells (United States)

    Rajabi, Saba

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization. To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities. The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior. The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of

  8. Phototransistor Behavior Based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X Q; Wang, Y F; Zhou, W Q; Lu, Y M; Liu, Z Y


    In the present work, a light-controlled device cell is established based on the dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline TiO2 films. Voltage-current curves are characterized by three types of transport behaviors: linear increase, saturated plateau and breakdown-like increase, which are actually of the typical performances for a photo-gated transistor. Moreover, an asymmetric behavior is observed in the voltage-current loops, which is believed to arise from the difference in the effective photo-conducting areas. The photovoltaic voltage between the shared counter electrode and drain (VCE-D) is investigated as well, clarifying that the predominant dark process in source and the predominant photovoltaic process in drain are series connected, modifying the electric potential levels and thus resulting in the characteristic phototransistor behaviors.

  9. Escalation research: providing new frontiers for applying behavior analysis to organizational behavior. (United States)

    Goltz, S M


    Decision fiascoes such as escalation of commitment, the tendency of decision makers to "throw good money after bad," can have serious consequences for organizations and are therefore of great interest in applied research. This paper discusses the use of behavior analysis in organizational behavior research on escalation. Among the most significant aspects of behavior-analytic research on escalation is that it has indicated that both the patterns of outcomes that decision makers have experienced for past decisions and the patterns of responses that they make are critical for understanding escalation. This research has also stimulated the refinement of methods by researchers to better assess decision making and the role reinforcement plays in it. Finally, behavior-analytic escalation research has not only indicated the utility of reinforcement principles for predicting more complex human behavior but has also suggested some additional areas for future exploration of decision making using behavior analysis.

  10. Characteristics and Behavior of Cycled Aged Lithium Ion Cells (United States)


    service cycle and provide the cornerstone for safety analysis. 18650 Cells with representative chemistry of cells contained in current Army procured...their relevance to this effort warrants inclusion. 1-3 EXPERIMENTAL Representative 18650 cells were cycled at different rates and environmental...conditions. The 18650 chemistry used in this effort is a LiCoO2 lithium ion electrochemical cell. The bulk of this effort was conducted with 1.5 Amp-hr

  11. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work


    Mazzocato Pamela; Hvitfeldt Forsberg Helena; von Thiele Schwarz Ulrica


    Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial ph...

  12. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease : answering basic questions regarding cell behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der


    Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the re

  13. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang


    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published Outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: 2015. (United States)

    Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren A


    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  15. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2015 (United States)

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren A.


    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior" in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  16. Thin and small form factor cells : simulated behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clews, Peggy Jane; Pluym, Tammy; Grubbs, Robert K.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Young, Ralph Watson; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James


    Thin and small form factor cells have been researched lately by several research groups around the world due to possible lower assembly costs and reduced material consumption with higher efficiencies. Given the popularity of these devices, it is important to have detailed information about the behavior of these devices. Simulation of fabrication processes and device performance reveals some of the advantages and behavior of solar cells that are thin and small. Three main effects were studied: the effect of surface recombination on the optimum thickness, efficiency, and current density, the effect of contact distance on the efficiency for thin cells, and lastly the effect of surface recombination on the grams per Watt-peak. Results show that high efficiency can be obtained in thin devices if they are well-passivated and the distance between contacts is short. Furthermore, the ratio of grams per Watt-peak is greatly reduced as the device is thinned.

  17. Units of analysis and kinetic structure of behavioral repertoires. (United States)

    Thompson, T; Lubinski, D


    It is suggested that molar streams of behavior are constructed of various arrangements of three elementary constituents (elicited, evoked, and emitted response classes). An eight-cell taxonomy is elaborated as a framework for analyzing and synthesizing complex behavioral repertoires based on these functional units. It is proposed that the local force binding functional units into a smoothly articulated kinetic sequence arises from temporally arranged relative response probability relationships. Behavioral integration is thought to reflect the joint influence of the organism's hierarchy of relative response probabilities, fluctuating biological states, and the arrangement of environmental and behavioral events in time.

  18. N-cadherin is required for the polarized cell behaviors that drive neurulation in the zebrafish. (United States)

    Hong, Elim; Brewster, Rachel


    Through the direct analysis of cell behaviors, we address the mechanisms underlying anterior neural tube morphogenesis in the zebrafish and the role of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad) in this process. We demonstrate that although the mode of neurulation differs at the morphological level between amphibians and teleosts, the underlying cellular mechanisms are conserved. Contrary to previous reports, the zebrafish neural plate is a multi-layered structure, composed of deep and superficial cells that converge medially while undergoing radial intercalation, to form a single cell-layered neural tube. Time-lapse recording of individual cell behaviors reveals that cells are polarized along the mediolateral axis and exhibit protrusive activity. In N-cad mutants, both convergence and intercalation are blocked. Moreover, although N-cad-depleted cells are not defective in their ability to form protrusions, they are unable to maintain them stably. Taken together, these studies uncover key cellular mechanisms underlying neural tube morphogenesis in teleosts, and reveal a role for cadherins in promoting the polarized cell behaviors that underlie cellular rearrangements and shape the vertebrate embryo.

  19. Neurodevelopment. Live imaging of adult neural stem cell behavior in the intact and injured zebrafish brain. (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rosario; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Baumgart, Emily Violette; Theis, Fabian J; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica


    Adult neural stem cells are the source for restoring injured brain tissue. We used repetitive imaging to follow single stem cells in the intact and injured adult zebrafish telencephalon in vivo and found that neurons are generated by both direct conversions of stem cells into postmitotic neurons and via intermediate progenitors amplifying the neuronal output. We observed an imbalance of direct conversion consuming the stem cells and asymmetric and symmetric self-renewing divisions, leading to depletion of stem cells over time. After brain injury, neuronal progenitors are recruited to the injury site. These progenitors are generated by symmetric divisions that deplete the pool of stem cells, a mode of neurogenesis absent in the intact telencephalon. Our analysis revealed changes in the behavior of stem cells underlying generation of additional neurons during regeneration.

  20. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare. (United States)

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Poling, A


    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? Such information certainly is necessary for making reasonable decisions about animal welfare, although it is not sufficient in and of itself.

  1. The Chameleon framework : practical solutions for memory behavior analysis


    Weinberg, Jonathan


    Though the performance of many applications is dominated by memory behavior, our ability to describe, capture, compare, and recreate that behavior is quite limited. This inability underlies much of the complexity in the field of performance analysis: it is fundamentally difficult to relate benchmarks and applications or use realistic workloads to guide system design and procurement. A concise, observable, and machine-independent characterization of memory behavior is needed. This dissertation...

  2. Manometer Behavior Analysis using CATHENA, RELAP and GOTHIC Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Hoon; Han, Kee Soo; Moon, Bok Ja; Jang, Misuk [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this presentation, simple thermal hydraulic behavior is analyzed using three codes to show the possibility of using alternative codes. We established three models of simple u-tube manometer using three different codes. CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for Thermal hydraulic Network Analysis), RELAP (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program), GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal Hydraulic Information for Containments) are used for this analysis. CATHENA and RELAP are widely used codes for the analysis of system behavior of CANDU and PWR. And GOTHIC code also has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulic behavior in the containment system. In this paper, the internal behavior of u-tube manometer was analyzed using 3 codes, CATHENA, RELAP and GOTHIC. The general transient behavior is similar among 3 codes. However, the behavior simulated using GOTHIC shows some different trend compared with the results from the other 2 codes at the end of the transient. It would be resulted from the use of different physical model in GOTHIC, which is specialized for the multi-phase thermal hydraulic behavior analysis of containment system unlike the other two codes.

  3. Behavioral inspiratory inhibition: inactivated and activated respiratory cells. (United States)

    Orem, J


    1. Eleven adult cats were trained to stop inspiration in response to a conditioning stimulus. The conditioning stimuli were presented at the onset of inspiration at intervals of approximately 20-30 s. Intratracheal pressures, diaphragmatic activity, and the extracellular activity of single medullary respiratory neurons were recorded while the animals performed this response. 2. Inactivation of the diaphragm to the conditioning stimuli occurred at latencies that varied from 40 to 110 ms and averaged 74 +/- 32 (SD) ms. 3. The subjects of this report are 38 inspiratory neurons that were inactivated and 19 cells that were activated when inspiration was stopped behaviorally. These cells were located in the region of n. ambiguus and the ventrolateral n. of tractus solitarius. 4. The inspiratory cells that were inactivated behaviorally had the following characteristics: 1) Most had an augmenting inspiratory profile with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) postinspiratory activity. Other types were inspiratory throughout (n = 5), decrementing inspiratory (n = 3), tonic inspiratory (n = 4), early inspiratory (n = 2), and expiratory-inspiratory (n = 1). 2) Their mean discharge rate was 39 +/- 2.7 (SE) Hz. 3) The latency of their inactivation in response to the task averaged 81 +/- 4.9 (SE) ms, and 4) Their activity corresponded closely to breathing not only during the behavioral response but also during eupnea (eta 2 = 0.62 +/- 0.04, mean +/- SE) and respiratory acts such as sneezing, sniffing, meowing, and purring. 5. The cells that were activated when inspiration was stopped behaviorally had the following characteristics. 1) As a group, they had discharge profiles related to every phase of the respiratory cycle. 2) They were recorded in the same region as, and often simultaneously with, respiratory cells that were inactivated. 3) Their activity patterns were highly variable such that the signal strength and consistency of the respiratory component of that activity were weak (eta 2

  4. The analysis of Hengkelong Supermarket Management Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of local retail industry,Hengkelong Supermarket win fat profit.Yet how can it maintain its business advantage in the fierce competition with foreign business giants? This paper analyzes the management behavior of Hengkelong Supermarket,intending to give relevant policy recommendations.

  5. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language]. (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M


    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  6. Defining Tumor Cell and Immune Cell Behavior in Vivo during Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer (United States)


    tail vein injection) either inline 6 with imaging or prior to prepping the animal for surgery. This method has revealed a unique phenomenon by which...immune cell behavior in the disease Asthma as well as T cell behavior in lung viral infections. This method will hopefully enable greater overall... Internet site(s) Nothing to report c) Technologies or techniques Refined approach to Lung Intravital Microscopy (LIVM.) This approach will be

  7. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support. (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald


    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis.

  8. Citation Analysis of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior:" 1984-2004 (United States)

    Dymond, S.; O'Hora, D.; Whelan, R.; O'Donovan, A.


    The present study undertook an updated citation analysis of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior". All articles that cited "Verbal Behavior" between 1984 and 2004 were recorded and content analyzed into one of five categories; four empirical and one nonempirical. Of the empirical categories, studies that employed a verbal operant from Skinner's…

  9. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan


    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  10. Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective (United States)

    Prather, Walter


    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or…

  11. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training (United States)

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.


    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  12. Emerging Themes in the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior. (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.


    The successful application of functional analysis to problem behavior suggests the need to examine: additional functional properties of behavior involving social avoidance, biological reinforcement, and respondent conditioning; the role of context (including social factors and biological factors); and the multidimensional character of assessment…

  13. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis (United States)

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.


    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  14. The Analysis of Behavior: What's in It for Us? (United States)

    Sidman, Murray


    When we publish behavioral research, we are not allowed to communicate the thrill, the poetry, or the exhilaration that are outcomes of the discovery process. Yet, these are among our most potent reinforcers. Explicit recognition of the emotional accompaniments to research could help attract students into the experimental analysis of behavior.…

  15. Microfluidics and cancer analysis: cell separation, cell/tissue culture, cell mechanics, and integrated analysis systems. (United States)

    Pappas, Dimitri


    Among the growing number of tools available for cancer studies, microfluidic systems have emerged as a promising analytical tool to elucidate cancer cell and tumor function. Microfluidic methods to culture cells have created approaches to provide a range of environments from single-cell analysis to complex three-dimensional devices. In this review we discuss recent advances in tumor cell culture, cancer cell analysis, and advanced studies enabled by microfluidic systems.

  16. Stretching Behavior of Red Blood Cells at High Strain Rates (United States)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William


    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this work, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that a simple viscoelastic model captures the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 1000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  17. Behavioral analysis of pheromones in fish. (United States)

    Sorensen, Peter W


    Pheromones are chemicals that pass between members of the same species which have inherent meaning. Because most fish pheromones are mixtures, and their actions can be complex, behavioral assays are required to identify them. This chapter describes a few strategies and two specific methods (one for measuring attraction and another for sexual arousal) that can serve this purpose in fishes that live in nonflowing water such as the carps.

  18. Genomic imprinting in development, growth, behavior and stem cells. (United States)

    Plasschaert, Robert N; Bartolomei, Marisa S


    Genes that are subject to genomic imprinting in mammals are preferentially expressed from a single parental allele. This imprinted expression of a small number of genes is crucial for normal development, as these genes often directly regulate fetal growth. Recent work has also demonstrated intricate roles for imprinted genes in the brain, with important consequences on behavior and neuronal function. Finally, new studies have revealed the importance of proper expression of specific imprinted genes in induced pluripotent stem cells and in adult stem cells. As we review here, these findings highlight the complex nature and developmental importance of imprinted genes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-mei Chen; Jing-jing Yang; Yoshihito Osada; Jian Ping Gong


    Synthetic hydrogels can be used as scaffolds that not only favor endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation but also manipulate the behaviors and functions of the ECs. In this review paper, the effect of chemical structure, Young’s modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of synthetic hydrogel scaffolds on static cell behaviors, including cell morphology, proliferation,cytoskeleton structure and focal adhesion, and on dynamic cell behaviors, including migration velocity and morphology oscillation, as well as on EC function such as anti-platelet adhesion, are reported. It was found that negatively charged hydrogels, poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonie sodium) (PNaAMPS) and poly(sodium p-styrene sulphonate) (PNaSS), can directly promote cell proliferation, with no need of surface modification by any cell-adhesive proteins or peptides at the environment of serum-containing medium. In addition, the Young’s modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of hydrogel scaffolds are quantitatively tuned by copolymer hydrogels, poly(NaAMPS-co-DMAAm) and poly(NaSS-co-DMAAm), in which the two kinds of negatively charged monomers NaAMPS and NaSS are copolymerized with neutral monomer, N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm). It was found that the critical zeta potential of hydrogels manipulating EC morphology, proliferation, and motility is ζcritical = -20.83 mV and ζcritical = -14.0 mV for poly(NaAMPS-co-DMAAm) and poly(NaSS-co-DMAAm), respectively. The above mentioned EC behaviors well correlate with the adsorption of fibronectin,a kind of cell-adhesive protein, on the hydrogel surfaces. Furthermore, adhered platelets on the EC monolayers cultured on the hydrogel scaffolds obviously decreases with an increase of the Young’s modulus (E) of the hydrogels, especially when E > 60 kPa. Glycocalyx assay and gene expression of ECs demonstrate that the anti-platelet adhesion well correlates with the EC-specific glycocalyx. The above investigation suggests that understanding the relationship

  20. Finite-size corrections to scaling behavior in sorted cell aggregates. (United States)

    Klopper, A V; Krens, G; Grill, S W; Heisenberg, C-P


    Cell sorting is a widespread phenomenon pivotal to the early development of multicellular organisms. In vitro cell sorting studies have been instrumental in revealing the cellular properties driving this process. However, these studies have as yet been limited to two-dimensional analysis of three-dimensional cell sorting events. Here we describe a method to record the sorting of primary zebrafish ectoderm and mesoderm germ layer progenitor cells in three dimensions over time, and quantitatively analyze their sorting behavior using an order parameter related to heterotypic interface length. We investigate the cell population size dependence of sorted aggregates and find that the germ layer progenitor cells engulfed in the final configuration display a relationship between total interfacial length and system size according to a simple geometrical argument, subject to a finite-size effect.

  1. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  2. Differentiated cell behavior: a multiscale approach using measure theory. (United States)

    Colombi, Annachiara; Scianna, Marco; Tosin, Andrea


    This paper deals with the derivation of a collective model of cell populations out of an individual-based description of the underlying physical particle system. By looking at the spatial distribution of cells in terms of time-evolving measures, rather than at individual cell paths, we obtain an ensemble representation stemming from the phenomenological behavior of the single component cells. In particular, as a key advantage of our approach, the scale of representation of the system, i.e., microscopic/discrete vs. macroscopic/continuous, can be chosen a posteriori according only to the spatial structure given to the aforesaid measures. The paper focuses in particular on the use of different scales based on the specific functions performed by cells. A two-population hybrid system is considered, where cells with a specialized/differentiated phenotype are treated as a discrete population of point masses while unspecialized/undifferentiated cell aggregates are represented by a continuous approximation. Numerical simulations and analytical investigations emphasize the role of some biologically relevant parameters in determining the specific evolution of such a hybrid cell system.

  3. Prediction and Analysis of students Behavior using BARC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Educational Data mining is a recent trends where data mining methods are experimented for the improvement of student performance in academics. The work describes the mining of higher education students’ related attributes such as behavior, attitude and relationship. The data were collected from a higher education institution in terms of the mentioned attributes. The proposed work explored Behavior Attitude Relationship Clustering (BARC Algorithm, which showed the improvement in students’ performance in terms of predicting good behavior, average attitude and good relationship withfaculty members and Tutors. The Hierarchical clusters were grouped with related similarities and analysis was experimented using WEKA tool. The resulted analysis describes the input parameters werefound optimal.

  4. Space solar cells - tradeoff analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.R. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Power Systems Group


    This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to be available in the near future, were considered for this trade study. Four solar array designs: rigid, flexible, thin film flexible and concentrator solar arrays were considered for assessment. Performance of the solar cells along with solar array designs were studied for two types of space missions:geo synchronous orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The Solar array designs assumed were to provide 15 kW power for 15 years mission life in GEO and 5 kW power for 5 years mission life in LEO altitudes. To perform tradeoff analysis a spread sheet model was developed that calculates the size, mass and estimates the cost of solar arrays based on different solar cell and array technologies for given set of mission requirements. Comparative performance metrics (W/kg, W/m{sup 2}, kg/m{sup 2}, and $/W) were calculated for all solar arrays studied and compared, at the solar array subsystem level and also at the spacecraft system level. The trade analysis results show that high-efficiency multijunction solar cells bring lot of cost advantages for both types of missions. The trade study also shows that thin film solar cells with moderate efficiency with ultra lightweight flexible array design may become competitive with well-established single crystalline solar cell technologies in the future. (author)

  5. Space solar cells. Tradeoff analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M. Raja [Power Systems Group, Solar Panels Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India)


    This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to be available in the near future, were considered for this trade study. Four solar array designs: rigid, flexible, thin film flexible and concentrator solar arrays were considered for assessment. Performance of the solar cells along with solar array designs were studied for two types of space missions: geo synchronous orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The Solar array designs assumed were to provide 15kW power for 15 years mission life in GEO and 5kW power for 5 years mission life in LEO altitudes. To perform tradeoff analysis a spread sheet model was developed that calculates the size, mass and estimates the cost of solar arrays based on different solar cell and array technologies for given set of mission requirements. Comparative performance metrics (W/kg, W/m{sup 2}, kg/m{sup 2}, and $/W) were calculated for all solar arrays studied and compared, at the solar array subsystem level and also at the spacecraft system level. The trade analysis results show that high-efficiency multijunction solar cells bring lot of cost advantages for both types of missions. The trade study also show that thin film solar cells with moderate efficiency with ultra lightweight flexible array design may become competitive with well-established single crystalline solar cell technologies in the future.

  6. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  7. Microfluidic Cell Cycle Analysis of Spread Cells by DAPI Staining


    Jing Sun; Jiayu Zhang; Haibo Yang; Gongzhuo Wang; Yanzhao Li; Xuxin Zhang; Qidan Chen; Ming-Fei Lang


    Single-cell cell cycle analysis is an emerging technique that requires detailed exploration of the image analysis process. In this study, we established a microfluidic single-cell cell cycle analysis method that can analyze cells in small numbers and in situ on a microfluidic chip. In addition, factors that influenced the analysis were carefully investigated. U87 or HeLa cells were seeded and attached to microfluidic channels before measurement. Cell nucleic DNA was imaged by 4′-6-diamidino-2...

  8. Analysis of sexual behavior in adolescents. (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara


    The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  9. Local cell metrics: a novel method for analysis of cell-cell interactions

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    Chen Chien-Chiang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of many cell functions is inherently linked to cell-cell contact interactions. However, effects of contact interactions among adherent cells can be difficult to detect with global summary statistics due to the localized nature and noise inherent to cell-cell interactions. The lack of informatics approaches specific for detecting cell-cell interactions is a limitation in the analysis of large sets of cell image data, including traditional and combinatorial or high-throughput studies. Here we introduce a novel histogram-based data analysis strategy, termed local cell metrics (LCMs, which addresses this shortcoming. Results The new LCM method is demonstrated via a study of contact inhibition of proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. We describe how LCMs can be used to quantify the local environment of cells and how LCMs are decomposed mathematically into metrics specific to each cell type in a culture, e.g., differently-labelled cells in fluorescence imaging. Using this approach, a quantitative, probabilistic description of the contact inhibition effects in MC3T3-E1 cultures has been achieved. We also show how LCMs are related to the naïve Bayes model. Namely, LCMs are Bayes class-conditional probability functions, suggesting their use for data mining and classification. Conclusion LCMs are successful in robust detection of cell contact inhibition in situations where conventional global statistics fail to do so. The noise due to the random features of cell behavior was suppressed significantly as a result of the focus on local distances, providing sensitive detection of cell-cell contact effects. The methodology can be extended to any quantifiable feature that can be obtained from imaging of cell cultures or tissue samples, including optical, fluorescent, and confocal microscopy. This approach may prove useful in interpreting culture and histological data in fields where cell-cell interactions play a critical

  10. International Behavior Analysis: The Operationalization Task (United States)


    both source analysis and process analysis: (l) pcycholocical; (2) political ; (3) societal; (U) interstate; and (5) global. Nations have been...dimensions, generating 27 variables for 56 nations. Events are elftMified on th; basis of’six dimensions: (l) spa- tial; (?) rclaiicnal; (3) ter.-xorul, (U...stimuli. Accor- d ncly, it is potslbl« to identify three d’..estic (or internal) and two foreign (»«eternal) stimuli: (l) psycholoßical- (2) political

  11. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior (United States)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  12. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

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    Adrian Mitroi


    Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation, reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action and emotion (the judge of the course of action are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

  13. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

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    Leier André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  14. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism. (United States)

    Lamal, P A


    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.

  15. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang


    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  16. An imaging system for standardized quantitative analysis of C. elegans behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used for the genetic analysis of neuronal cell biology, development, and behavior. Because traditional methods for evaluating behavioral phenotypes are qualitative and imprecise, there is a need for tools that allow quantitation and standardization of C. elegans behavioral assays. Results Here we describe a tracking and imaging system for the automated analysis of C. elegans morphology and behavior. Using this system, it is possible to record the behavior of individual nematodes over long time periods and quantify 144 specific phenotypic parameters. Conclusions These tools for phenotypic analysis will provide reliable, comprehensive scoring of a wide range of behavioral abnormalities, and will make it possible to standardize assays such that behavioral data from different labs can readily be compared. In addition, this system will facilitate high-throughput collection of phenotypic data that can ultimately be used to generate a comprehensive database of C. elegans phenotypic information. Availability The hardware configuration and software for the system are available from

  17. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. (United States)

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E


    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases.

  18. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

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    Mazzocato Pamela


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED. However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. Results We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. Conclusions This study illustrates how behavior analysis

  19. Electrical field manipulation of cancer cell behavior monitored by whole cell biosensing device. (United States)

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Melnick, Steven J; Zhang, Xueji; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Chen-Zhong


    All living cells possess electrical characteristics and are thus responsive to, and even generate electric fields and currents. It has been shown that the electrical properties of cancer cells differ from normal proliferating cells, thus electric fields may induce differential effects in normal and cancer cells. Manipulation of these electrical properties may provide a powerful direct and/or adjuvant therapeutic option for cancer. A whole cell impedance-based biosensor to monitor the effects of a range of different frequencies (50 kHz-2 MHz) at low-intensity (growth rate of human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells versus non-cancerous HUVECs is reported. Rapid real-time monitoring of the SKOV3 behavior was observed as the alternating electric fields were applied and the impedimetric response of the cells was recorded. The cells were also labeled with propidium iodide to examine morphological changes and cell viability with fluorescence microscopy with trypan blue for comparison. A noticeable decrease in the growth profile of the SKOV3 was observed with the application of 200 kHz alternating electric fields indicating specific inhibitory effects on dividing cells in culture in contrast to the HUVECs. The outcome of this research will improve our fundamental understanding of the behavior of cancer cells when exposed to alternating electric fields at specific frequencies and foster the development strategies and optimal parameters for alternating electric field therapies for clinical and drug delivery applications.

  20. Analysis of coalescence behavior for compressed droplets (United States)

    Choi, Sung Woong; Lee, Dong Eon; Lee, Woo Il; Kim, Han Sang


    Coalescence of droplets is a significant phenomenon, and it has been adapted to many applications such as raindrop formation, emulsion polymerization, ink-jet printing, coating, and multiphase flows. In this study, the morphological characteristics of two compressed adjacent droplets between two parallel plates were investigated to study the phenomenon of coalescence of droplets. By controlling the distance of the dispensed droplets, various results for coalescence of droplets were evaluated, especially, from the view of the minor axis, major axis, and meniscus liquid bridge of the coalesced droplet. Experimental results show that the length of the meniscus liquid bridge rapidly increases and then the rate of increase slows with time. The increase rate of the major and minor axes is largely influenced by the meniscus liquid bridge, which is mainly due to the curvature between the droplets. The numerical modeling of the coalescence of the two compressed droplets between two parallel plates was presented and simulation was conducted to realize the coalescence behavior. Comparison with numerical simulation showed that there was a good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. A Behavioral Analysis of Morality and Value. (United States)

    Hocutt, Max


    Morality has long been conceived as divinely instituted, so otherworldly, rules meant not to describe or explain behavior but to guide it towards an absolute good. The philosophical formulation of this theory by Plato was later grafted onto Christian thought by Augustine and Aquinas. The equally ancient theory of the Greek sophist Protagoras (that the good is relative to personal preferences and morality to man-made social customs) was forgotten until revived in the 18th and 19th centuries by such empiricists as David Hume and J. S. Mill. Then it was dismissed again in the 20th century by G. E. Moore and W. D. Ross as naturalistic fallacy, that is, conflation of what is with what ought to be. However, those who took this dismissive attitude themselves made the reverse mistake of conflating what ideally ought to be with what actually is. In other words, they mistook ideals for actualities. As B. F. Skinner (1971) said in Beyond Freedom and Dignity, sorting things out requires behaviorist parsing of the good (the personally reinforcing) and duty (the socially reinforced).

  2. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

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    Jennifer S. Liu


    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  3. [Effects of decitabine on biological behavior of U266 cells]. (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Lin-Hua; Dong, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Jian-Fang; Zhagn, Li; Feng, Da-Wei


    This study was aimed to explore the effects of decitabine on the biological behaviour of U266 cells in vitro so as to provide a new thinking and experiment basis, as well as new evidences for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the impact of decitabine on the ability of proliferation of U266 cells; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell distribution in cell cycle; transwell chamber and matrigel assays were used to observe the ability of migration and invasion. The results indicated that decitabine could significantly suppress the proliferation of U266 cells in time-and dose-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells in G(0)-G(1) phase significantly increased while the cells in S and G(2)/M phase decreased. The migration and matrigel invading tests showed that the number of cells moving into under chamber of transwell decreased after U266 cells treated with decitabine. It is concluded that decitabine may act as an effective drug for MM by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and the specific mechanism needs to be deeply explored.

  4. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis (United States)

    Mindrila, Diana L.


    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  5. Analysis of Early Military Attrition Behavior. (United States)


    Quitting,’ Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 62., August 1980, pp. 388-398. Vroom , Victor , Work and Motivation, Wiley, New York, 1974. Warner, John...and older recruits are more attrition-prone than younger recruits. 4M gg~~mi~yCLAIPICTIOWOF H S AGK(’ 0 g~tr.E R-3069-MIL Analysis of Early Military...marginal revenue product (MRP). Thus, lit - h (MRPit - wit) (2) where lit is the probability of a worker with t years of tenure being laid off a job i

  6. Microfluidic Cell Cycle Analysis of Spread Cells by DAPI Staining

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    Jing Sun


    Full Text Available Single-cell cell cycle analysis is an emerging technique that requires detailed exploration of the image analysis process. In this study, we established a microfluidic single-cell cell cycle analysis method that can analyze cells in small numbers and in situ on a microfluidic chip. In addition, factors that influenced the analysis were carefully investigated. U87 or HeLa cells were seeded and attached to microfluidic channels before measurement. Cell nucleic DNA was imaged by 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining under a fluorescent microscope and subsequently fluorescent intensities of the cell nuclei DNA were converted to depict histograms for cell cycle phases. DAPI concentration, microscopic magnification, exposure time and cell number were examined for optimal cell cycle analysis conditions. The results showed that as few as a few hundred cells could be measured by DAPI staining in the range of 0.4–0.6 μg/mL to depict histograms with typical cell cycle phase distribution. Microscopic magnification during image acquisition, however, could distort the phase distribution. Exposure time did not significantly affect the cell cycle analysis. Furthermore, cell cycle inhibitor rapamycin treatment changed the cell cycle phase distribution as expected. In conclusion, a method for microfluidic single-cell cell cycle analysis of spread cells in situ was developed. Factors such as dye concentration and microscopic magnification had more influence on cell cycle phase distribution. Further studies will focus on detail differentiation of cell cycle phases and the application of such a method for biological meanings.

  7. Transient Behavior of Ethanol Fermentation in Immobilized Cell Bioreactors*


    Tohru, KANNO; Yoshinori, FUJISHIGE; Hiroyuki, Ito; koichi, yamazaki; Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI


    The dynamic behavior of ethanol fermentation catalysed by an immobilized cell has been studied in batch and continuous stirred tank bioreactors, changing the operating conditions in a stepwise fashion. The rate of ethanol fermentation in the flow reactor reaches a new steady state within 60 min for the stepwise change in temperature or flow rate at 15〜30℃ and the residence time t_R=40 hr. The rate of fermentation obeys the Lineweaven-Burk plot and the Michaelis constant is calculated


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler


    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  9. Modeling HER2 effects on cell behavior from mass spectrometry phosphotyrosine data.

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    Neil Kumar


    Full Text Available Cellular behavior in response to stimulatory cues is governed by information encoded within a complex intracellular signaling network. An understanding of how phenotype is determined requires the distributed characterization of signaling processes (e.g., phosphorylation states and kinase activities in parallel with measures of resulting cell function. We previously applied quantitative mass spectrometry methods to characterize the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation in human mammary epithelial cells with varying human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 expression levels after treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF or heregulin (HRG. We sought to identify potential mechanisms by which changes in tyrosine phosphorylation govern changes in cell migration or proliferation, two behaviors that we measured in the same cell system. Here, we describe the use of a computational linear mapping technique, partial least squares regression (PLSR, to detail and characterize signaling mechanisms responsible for HER2-mediated effects on migration and proliferation. PLSR model analysis via principal component inner products identified phosphotyrosine signals most strongly associated with control of migration and proliferation, as HER2 expression or ligand treatment were individually varied. Inspection of these signals revealed both previously identified and novel pathways that correlate with cell behavior. Furthermore, we isolated elements of the signaling network that differentially give rise to migration and proliferation. Finally, model analysis identified nine especially informative phosphorylation sites on six proteins that recapitulated the predictive capability of the full model. A model based on these nine sites and trained solely on data from a low HER2-expressing cell line a priori predicted migration and proliferation in a HER2-overexpressing cell line. We identify the nine signals as a "network gauge," meaning that when interrogated

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the fission gas behavior model in BISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Pastore, Giovanni; Perez, Danielle; Williamson, Richard


    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of a new model for the fission gas behavior (release and swelling) in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the new model in BISON, the sensitivity of the calculated fission gas release and swelling to the involved parameters and the associated uncertainties is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of intrinsic uncertainties in the analysis of fission gas behavior in nuclear fuel.

  11. On radicalizing behaviorism: A call for cultural analysis. (United States)

    Malagodi, E F


    Our culture at large continues many practices that work against the well-being of its members and its chances for survival. Our discipline has failed to realize its potential for contributing to the understanding of these practices and to the generation of solutions. This failure of realization is in part a consequence of the general failure of behavior analysts to view social and cultural analysis as a fundamental component of radical behaviorism. This omission is related to three prevailing practices of our discipline. First, radical behaviorism is characteristically defined as a "philosophy of science," and its concerns are ordinarily restricted to certain epistemological issues. Second, theoretical extensions to social and cultural phenomena too often depend solely upon principles derived from the analysis of behavior. Third, little attention has been directed at examining the relationships that do, or that should, exist between our discipline and related sciences. These practices themselves are attributed to certain features of the history of our field. Two general remedies for this situation are suggested: first, that radical behaviorism be treated as a comprehensive world view in which epistemological, psychological, and cultural analyses constitute interdependent components; second, that principles derived from compatible social-science disciplines be incorporated into radical behaviorism.

  12. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng


    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  13. Prediction of anisotropic behavior of nano/micro composite based on damage mechanics with cell modeling. (United States)

    Lee, Dock-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Moon-Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Liu, Wing Kam


    New advanced composite materials have recently been of great interest. Especially, many researchers have studied on nano/micro composites based on matrix filled with nano-particles, nano-tubes, nano-wires and so forth, which have outstanding characteristics on thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical properties. Therefore, the need of numerical approach for design and development of the advanced materials has been recognized. In this paper, finite element analysis based on multi-resolution continuum theory is carried out to predict the anisotropic behavior of nano/micro composites based on damage mechanics with a cell modeling. The cell modeling systematically evaluates constitutive relationships from microstructure of the composite material. Effects of plastic anisotropy on deformation behavior and damage evolution of nano/micro composite are investigated by using Hill's 48 yield function and also compared with those obtained from Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman isotropic damage model based on von Mises yield function.

  14. Defining Tumor Cell and Immune Cell Behavior in Vivo during Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer (United States)


    Congress in the Educational Session on Cancer Immunology . I gave a talk entitled “ Harnessing Intravital Microscopy To Understand The Real-Time...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0009 TITLE: Defining Tumor Cell and Immune Cell Behavior in Vivo during Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer ...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data

  15. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.


    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapi

  16. A Functional Analysis of the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling. (United States)

    Selinske, Jane E.; And Others


    Behavior analysis was implemented in a school for 38 children with multiple disabilities, following staff training. Results over two years showed educationally significant increases in trials taught, correct student trials, and objectives achieved. During followup, results indicated maintenance and social validity of the behavior analysis package.…

  17. Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia (United States)

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann


    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…

  18. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.


    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  19. In Search of Meaning: Values in Modern Clinical Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Plumb, Jennifer C.; Stewart, Ian; Dahl, JoAnne; Lundgren, Tobias


    Skinner described behavior analysis as the field of values and purpose. However, he defined these concepts in terms of a history of reinforcement and failed to specify whether and how human and nonhuman values might differ. Human values have been seen as theoretically central within a number of nonbehavioral traditions in psychology, including…

  20. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior (United States)

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.


    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  1. Remote controlled bio-stimulator and animal behavior analysis system (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Yuan, Kui; Han, Taizhen; Chai, Jie


    This paper presents a surveillance and stimulation system to study the animal locomotion behavior under electrical micro-stimulations in the brain nerve, which provides a new platform and methodology for behavior experiment in neural science. The system consists of two parts: 1) micro-control based multi-channel stimulator backed by animal; 2) Computer vision based animal behavior tracking system; The performance of the micro-stimulator is validated for sciatic nerve of frog and the results show that it is reliable, stabile, compact (25×35×10 mm), light (20g with cell). The tracking speed and accuracy is improved with our new hybrid tracking algorithm based on color table looking and moving predication, and compared with the manual recording. The preliminary results of rat tracking show that it works accurately and robustly in real-time even under interference condition.

  2. NK cell-like behavior of Valpha14i NK T cells during MCMV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnna D Wesley


    Full Text Available Immunity to the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV is critically dependent on the innate response for initial containment of viral replication, resolution of active infection, and proper induction of the adaptive phase of the anti-viral response. In contrast to NK cells, the Valpha14 invariant natural killer T cell response to MCMV has not been examined. We found that Valpha14i NK T cells become activated and produce significant levels of IFN-gamma, but do not proliferate or produce IL-4 following MCMV infection. In vivo treatment with an anti-CD1d mAb and adoptive transfer of Valpha14i NK T cells into MCMV-infected CD1d(-/- mice demonstrate that CD1d is dispensable for Valpha14i NK T cell activation. In contrast, both IFN-alpha/beta and IL-12 are required for optimal activation. Valpha14i NK T cell-derived IFN-gamma is partially dependent on IFN-alpha/beta but highly dependent on IL-12. Valpha14i NK T cells contribute to the immune response to MCMV and amplify NK cell-derived IFN-gamma. Importantly, mortality is increased in CD1d(-/- mice in response to high dose MCMV infection when compared to heterozygote littermate controls. Collectively, these findings illustrate the plasticity of Valpha14i NK T cells that act as effector T cells during bacterial infection, but have NK cell-like behavior during the innate immune response to MCMV infection.

  3. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung


    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  4. A Mixture IRT Analysis of Risky Youth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes eFinch


    Full Text Available The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N = 16,410 to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: 1 To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and 2 To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that 4 classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed.

  5. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua


    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  6. Empirical Analysis of Customer Behaviors in Chinese E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Wang


    Full Text Available With the burgeoning e-Business websites, E-Commerce in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. From the analysis of Chinese E-Commerce market, it is possible to discover customer purchasing patterns or behavior characteristics, which are indispensable knowledge for the expansion of Chinese E-Commerce market. This paper presents an empirical analysis on the sale transactions from the 360buy website based on the analysis of time interval distributions in perspectives of customers. Results reveal that in most situations the time intervals approximately obey the power-law distribution over two orders of magnitudes. Additionally, time interval on customer’s successive purchase can reflect how loyal a customer is to a specific product category. Moreover, we also find an interesting phenomenon about human behaviors that could be related to psychology of customers. In general, customers’ requirements in different product categories are similar. The investigation into individual behaviors may help researchers understand how customers’ group behaviors generated.

  7. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin


    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  8. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru


    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  9. Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhen Yan


    Full Text Available Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs. Materials and Methods. STRO-1 positive hPDLCs were sorted and the sorted cells were expanded and compared with their unsorted parental cells. Thereafter, hPDLCs were treated with or without Wnt3a and the cell proliferation, self-renewal, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Results. No differences were measured between the expanded STRO-1-sorted cells and unsorted parental cells in terms of proliferation, CFU, and mineralization capacity. Wnt3a enhanced the proliferation and self-renewal ability of hPDLCs significantly as displayed by higher DNA content values, a shorter cell population doubling time, and higher expression of the self-renewal gene Oct4. Moreover, Wnt3a promoted the expansion of hPDLCs for 5 passages without affecting cell proliferation, CFU, and osteogenic capacity. Conclusions. Expanded STRO-1-sorted hPDLCs showed no superiority compared to their unsorted parental cells. On the other hand, Wnt3a promotes the efficient hPDLC expansion and retains the self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation capacity.

  10. Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly


    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Bloggers Collective Behavior Powered by Emotions

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrović, Marija; Tadić, Bosiljka


    Large-scale data resulting from users online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study emergence of the emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from onto bipartite network of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion-classifier developed for this type of texts. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and tempo...

  12. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Huang


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, the new governing equation is solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the calculation results of this new method and other two methods are compared. It can be found that Gibson’s method may underestimate the excess pore water pressure during primary consolidation. The new method which takes the secondary consolidation behavior, the nonlinear compressibility, and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration can precisely estimate the settlement rate and the final settlement of Hangzhou soft clay sample.

  13. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  14. Prediction of stress-strain behavior of ceramic matrix composites using unit cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Takuya


    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic modulus and the stress-strain curve of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs were predicted by using the unit cell model that consists of fiber bundles and matrix. The unit cell model was developed based on the observation of cross sections of CMCs. The elastic modulus of CMCs was calculated from the results of finite element analysis using the developed model. The non-linear behavior of stress-strain curve of CMCs was also predicted by taking the degradation of the elastic modulus into consideration, where the degradation was related to the experimentally measured crack density in CMCs. The approach using the unit cell model was applied to two kinds of CMCs, and good agreement was obtained between the experimental and the calculated results.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;


    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...

  16. Electrospinning, mechanical properties, and cell behavior study of chitosan/PVA nanofibers. (United States)

    Koosha, Mojtaba; Mirzadeh, Hamid


    Electrospinning process has been widely used to produce nanofibers from polymer blends. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) have numerous biomedical applications such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Nanofibers of CS/PVA have been prepared by many works, however, a complete physicochemical and mechanical characterization as well as cell behavior has not been reported. In this study, PVA and CS/PVA blend solutions in acetic acid 70% with different volume ratios (30/70, 50/50, and 70/30) were electrospun in constant electrospinning process parameters. The structure and morphology of nanofibrous mats were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD methods. The best nanofibrous mat was achieved from the CS/PVA 30/70 blend solution regarding the electrospinning throughput. The dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of PVA and CS/PVA 30/70 nanofibrous mats were measured which were not considered in the previous studies. DMTA results in accordance to the DSC analysis approved the partial compatibility between the two polymers, while a single glass transition temperature was not observed for the blend. The tensile strength of PVA and CS/PVA nanofibers were also reported. Results of cell behavior study indicated that the heat stabilized nanofibrous mat CS/PVA 30/70 was able to support the attachment and proliferation of the fibroblast cells.

  17. Behavioral analysis of the escape response in larval zebrafish (United States)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    The behavior of larval zebrafish is of great interest because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with its rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their swimming behavior while our lab has built a parameter-free model based on singular value decomposition analysis to characterize it. Our previous work has analyzed the free swimming of larval zebrafish and presented a different picture from the current classification of larval zebrafish locomotion. Now we are extending this work to the studies of their escape response to acoustic stimulus. Analysis has shown intrinsic difference in the locomotion between escape response and free swimming.

  18. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  19. CORBA-Based Analysis of Multi Agent Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapan Bhattacharya; Anirban Banerjee; Shibdas Bandyopadhyay


    An agent is a computer software that is capable of taking independent action on behalf of its user or owner. It is an entity with goals, actions and domain knowledge, situated in an environment. Multiagent systems comprises of multiple autonomous, interacting computer software, or agents. These systems can successfully emulate the entities active in a distributed environment. The analysis of multiagent behavior has been studied in this paper based on a specific board game problem similar to the famous problem of GO. In this paper a framework is developed to define the states of the multiagent entities and measure the convergence metrics for this problem. An analysis of the changes of states leading to the goal state is also made. We support our study of multiagent behavior by simulations based on a CORBA framework in order to substantiate our findings.

  20. Comparison of cell behavior on pva/pva-gelatin electrospun nanofibers with random and aligned configuration (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hu, Keng-Hsiang; Wei, Zung-Hang


    Electrospinning technique is able to create nanofibers with specific orientation. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have good mechanical stability but poor cell adhesion property due to the low affinity of protein. In this paper, extracellular matrix, gelatin is incorporated into PVA solution to form electrospun PVA-gelatin nanofibers membrane. Both randomly oriented and aligned nanofibers are used to investigate the topography-induced behavior of fibroblasts. Surface morphology of the fibers is studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. Functional group composition in PVA or PVA-gelatin is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphological changes, surface coverage, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts influenced by PVA and PVA-gelatin nanofibers with randomly orientated or aligned configuration are systematically compared. Fibroblasts growing on PVA-gelatin fibers show significantly larger projected areas as compared with those cultivated on PVA fibers which p-value is smaller than 0.005. Cells on PVA-gelatin aligned fibers stretch out extensively and their intracellular stress fiber pull nucleus to deform. Results suggest that instead of the anisotropic topology within the scaffold trigger the preferential orientation of cells, the adhesion of cell membrane to gelatin have substantial influence on cellular behavior.

  1. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis


    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver


    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  2. Analysis of the behavior of sedimentary rocks under impact loading


    Millon, O.; Ruiz Ripoll, M.L.; Hoerth, T.


    In multiple engineering fields such as rock drilling or building constructions or extreme events like earthquakes or impacts, the dynamic properties of rock play an important role. A way to model these events and define measures to minimize the damage derived from these events is created by means of numerical analysis. Hence, the knowledge of the dynamic material behavior is essential for studying the effects of such a loading scenario. Solid geological materials, from the family of the sedim...

  3. Shear-Resistant Behavior Analysis of Light Composite Shear Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升才; 江见鲸; 于庆荣


    Shear test results for a composite wall panel in a light composite structure system are compared with test results for shear walls in Japan in this paper. The analysis results show that this kind of composite wall panel works very well, and can be regarded as a solid panel. The composite wall panel with a hidden frame is essential for bringing its effect on shear resistance into full play. Comprehensive analysis of the shear-resistant behavior of the composite wall panel suggests that the shear of the composite shear wall panel can be controlled by the cracking strength of the web shearing diagonal crack.

  4. Neuropeptides control the dynamic behavior of airway mucosal dendritic cells. (United States)

    Voedisch, Sabrina; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Veres, Tibor Z; Spies, Emma; Braun, Armin


    The airway mucosal epithelium is permanently exposed to airborne particles. A network of immune cells patrols at this interface to the environment. The interplay of immune cells is orchestrated by different mediators. In the current study we investigated the impact of neuronal signals on key functions of dendritic cells (DC). Using two-photon microscopic time-lapse analysis of living lung sections from CD11c-EYFP transgenic mice we studied the influence of neuropeptides on airway DC motility. Additionally, using a confocal microscopic approach, the phagocytotic capacity of CD11c(+) cells after neuropeptide stimulation was determined. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) leads to an unspecific release of neuropeptides from nerves. After EFS and treatment with the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), airway DC in living lung slices showed an altered motility. Furthermore, the EFS-mediated effect could partially be blocked by pre-treatment with the receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Additionally, the phagocytotic capacity of bone marrow-derived and whole lung CD11c(+) cells could be inhibited by neuropeptides CGRP, VIP, and Substance P. We then cross-linked these data with the in vivo situation by analyzing DC motility in two different OVA asthma models. Both in the acute and prolonged OVA asthma model altered neuropeptide amounts and DC motility in the airways could be measured. In summary, our data suggest that neuropeptides modulate key features motility and phagocytosis of mouse airway DC. Therefore altered neuropeptide levels in airways during allergic inflammation have impact on regulation of airway immune mechanisms and therefore might contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma.

  5. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India); Das, Debdulal [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India); Das, Mitun, E-mail: [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Bandyopadhyay, Amit [W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Chowdhury, Amit Roy, E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India)


    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. - Highlights: • Porous CP-Ti samples fabricated using additive manufacturing technique • Compressive deformation behavior of porous samples closely matches with micro-CT and RVE based analysis • In vitro studies showed better cell proliferation with time on porous CP-Ti surfaces.

  6. Differences in CART expression and cell cycle behavior discriminate sympathetic neuroblast from chromaffin cell lineages in mouse sympathoadrenal cells. (United States)

    Chan, Wing Hei; Gonsalvez, David G; Young, Heather M; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Cane, Kylie N; Anderson, Colin R


    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and peripheral sympathetic neurons originate from a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell. The timing and phenotypic changes that mark this lineage diversification are not fully understood. The present study investigated the expression patterns of phenotypic markers, and cell cycle dynamics, in the adrenal medulla and the neighboring suprarenal ganglion of embryonic mice. The noradrenergic marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was detected in both presumptive adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglion cells, but with significantly stronger immunostaining in the former. There was intense cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunostaining in most neuroblasts, whereas very few adrenal chromaffin cells showed detectable CART immunostaining. This phenotypic segregation appeared as early as E12.5, before anatomical segregation of the two cell types. Cell cycle dynamics were also examined. Initially, 88% of Sox10 positive (+) neural crest progenitors were proliferating at E10.5. Many SA progenitor cells withdrew from the cell cycle at E11.5 as they started to express TH. Whereas 70% of neuroblasts (TH+/CART+ cells) were back in the cell cycle at E12.5, only around 20% of chromaffin (CART negative) cells were in the cell cycle at E12.5 and subsequent days. Thus, chromaffin cell and neuroblast lineages showed differences in proliferative behavior from their earliest appearance. We conclude that the intensity of TH immunostaining and the expression of CART permit early discrimination of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neuroblasts, and that developing chromaffin cells exhibit significantly lower proliferative activity relative to sympathetic neuroblasts.

  7. Three applications of functional analysis with group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy. (United States)

    Scharwächter, Peter


    Case illustrations from group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are presented to demonstrate three applications of functional analysis and the resulting cognitive behavioral interventions. The principles of group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are explained. A functional analysis is applied first to the problem behavior of an individual group member. A clinical case illustrates how the group members help to change this individual group member's behavior from a learning theory perspective. Next, the circular interactional problem behavior between two group members is reduced to the individual functional analysis of each of the two member's problem behaviors. It is then illustrated how the two group member's problem behaviors, as well as feedback from others, contribute toward helping to change each others behavior. The paper concludes that functional analysis and ensuing behavioral interventions can be also applied to group as a whole behavior.

  8. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues (United States)

    Malagodi, E. F.; Jackson, Kevin


    Three strategic suggestions are offered to behavior analysts who are concerned with extending the interests of our discipline into domains traditionally assigned to the social sciences: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the “psychocentric” world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by “deviation-dampening” contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large. PMID:22478014

  9. Numerical analysis of pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆志东; 刘力; 郑刚; 姜岩


    A finite difference numerical method was adopted to evaluate the pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment. A published case history was used to verify the proposed methodology. By simulating the case history, the determination of parameters needed were verified. Then three embankments constructed on different ground conditions with different soil-pile relative stiffnesses were analyzed to study pile lateral behaviors including pile deflection and bending moment. The results show that pile deflections and bending moments induced by soil lateral deformation and embankment vertical load are different for piles at different positions under the same embankment. The relative stiffness between pile and soil affected by the properties of different reinforcing piles such as concrete pile and deep mixing method pile exert important effects on the pile lateral behavior and the pile’s failure modes. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the different piles lateral behaviors and possible failure modes at different positions and the different piles proprieties with different reinforcing methods in the embankment stability analysis.

  10. Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin G. Butler


    Full Text Available We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications and regions of homozygosity (ROH for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1 m ±   7.9 m; age range 14 m–41 m randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status.

  11. Behavior of a methanol fuel cell in transitory regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.F.; Pilla, A.S.; Duarte, M.M.E.; Mayer, C.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion, Depto. de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    The operation of a polymeric electrolyte methanol/air fuel cell connected to a storage tank with anolyte batch recycle is analyzed. When the cell is discharged at constant current, far below the anode reaction limiting current density, the concentration in the tank is found to decrease with time following a lineal variation. At zero time, a high CO{sub 2} concentration is detected in the air leaving the cathode compartment, which increased when higher methanol concentration is used in the anode compartment. This effect is associated to the crossover of methanol through the membrane. The amount of CO{sub 2} in the air outlet is important, and both this quantity and the crossover flux decrease when methanol concentration diminish in the anolyte. A model derived from electrochemical reactor analysis, that correlates methanol concentration changes in the storage tank, and methanol concentration at the anodic compartment exit with the amount consumed in the cell reaction and the flow through the membrane is developed. (author)

  12. Analysis of the Behavior of Sedimentary Rocks Under Impact Loading (United States)

    Millon, Oliver; Ruiz-Ripoll, Maria Luisa; Hoerth, Tobias


    In multiple engineering fields such as rock drilling or building constructions or extreme events like earthquakes or impacts, the dynamic properties of rock play an important role. A way to model these events and define measures to minimize the damage derived from these events is created by means of numerical analysis. Hence, the knowledge of the dynamic material behavior is essential for studying the effects of such a loading scenario. Solid geological materials, from the family of the sedimentary rocks, have been analyzed under quasi-static loads. However, there is a lack of knowledge when high strain rate loadings are involved. Within this context, the paper focuses on the experimental characterization of two sedimentary rocks, sandstone and limestone, under impact loading using the Hopkinson-Bar spallation and compression tests. The analysis encompasses the determination of the tensile and compressive properties as well as the comparison between the quasi-static and dynamic behavior (dynamic increase factors). The paper fills the gap of information existing about dynamic behavior of sedimentary rocks under strain rates between 100 and 5.2 × 102 s-1. Furthermore, the fragmentation under different strain rates is investigated and conclusions with respect to energy absorption capacity are drawn.

  13. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz


    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  14. Globally visualizing the microtubule-dependent transport behaviors of influenza virus in live cells. (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wu, Qiu-Mei; Sun, En-Ze; Shi, Yun-Bo; Pang, Dai-Wen


    Understanding the microtubule-dependent behaviors of viruses in live cells is very meaningful for revealing the mechanisms of virus infection and endocytosis. Herein, we used a quantum dots-based single-particle tracking technique to dynamically and globally visualize the microtubule-dependent transport behaviors of influenza virus in live cells. We found that the intersection configuration of microtubules can interfere with the transport behaviors of the virus in live cells, which lead to the changing and long-time pausing of the transport behavior of viruses. Our results revealed that most of the viruses moved along straight microtubules rapidly and unidirectionally from the cell periphery to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) near the bottom of the cell, and the viruses were confined in the grid of microtubules near the top of the cell and at the MTOC near the bottom of the cell. These results provided deep insights into the influence of entire microtubule geometry on the virus infection.

  15. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior. (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others


    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  16. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)


    expression was significantly decreased by everolimus (10{sup -5} M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  17. Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells: The future for behavior genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGerlai


    Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  18. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics? (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert


    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  19. Creep and recovery behavior analysis of space mesh structures (United States)

    Tang, Yaqiong; Li, Tuanjie; Ma, Xiaofei


    The Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic theory and nonlinear force-density method have been investigated to analyze the creep and recovery behaviors of space deployable mesh reflectors in this paper. Based on Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic theory, we establish the creep and recovery constitutive model for cables whose pretensions were applied stepwise in time. This constitutive model has been further used for adjustment of cables' elongation rigidity. In addition, the time-dependent tangent stiffness matrix is calculated by the partial differentiation of the corresponding load vector with respect to the nodal coordinate vector obtained by the nonlinear force-density method. An incremental-iterative solution based on the Newton-Raphson method is adopted for solving the time-dependent nonlinear statics equations. Finally, a hoop truss reflector antenna is presented as a numerical example to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method for the creep and recovery behavior analysis of space deployable mesh structures.

  20. Microfluidic single-cell analysis for systems immunology. (United States)

    Junkin, Michael; Tay, Savaş


    The immune system constantly battles infection and tissue damage, but exaggerated immune responses lead to allergies, autoimmunity and cancer. Discrimination of self from foreign and the fine-tuning of immunity are achieved by information processing pathways, whose regulatory mechanisms are little understood. Cell-to-cell variability and stochastic molecular interactions result in diverse cellular responses to identical signaling inputs, casting doubt on the reliability of traditional population-averaged analyses. Furthermore, dynamic molecular and cellular interactions create emergent properties that change over multiple time scales. Understanding immunity in the face of complexity and noisy dynamics requires time-dependent analysis of single-cells in a proper context. Microfluidic systems create precisely defined microenvironments by controlling fluidic and surface chemistries, feature sizes, geometries and signal input timing, and thus enable quantitative multi-parameter analysis of single cells. Such qualities allow observable dynamic environments approaching in vivo levels of biological complexity. Seamless parallelization of functional units in microfluidic devices allows high-throughput measurements, an essential feature for statistically meaningful analysis of naturally variable biological systems. These abilities recapitulate diverse scenarios such as cell-cell signaling, migration, differentiation, antibody and cytokine production, clonal selection, and cell lysis, thereby enabling accurate and meaningful study of immune behaviors in vitro.

  1. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin


    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can...... be analyzed statically. We present algorithms that derive worst-case bounds on the latency-inducing operations of the stack cache. Their results can be used by a static WCET tool. By breaking the analysis down into subproblems that solve intra-procedural data-flow analysis and path searches on the call......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  2. Behavioral health providers' perspectives of delivering behavioral health services in primary care: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beehler Gregory P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-located, collaborative care (CCC is one component of VA’s model of Integrated Primary Care that embeds behavioral health providers (BHPs into primary care clinics to treat commonly occurring mental health concerns among Veterans. Key features of the CCC model include time-limited, brief treatments (up to 6 encounters of 30 minutes each and emphasis on multi-dimensional functional assessment. Although CCC is a mandated model of care, the barriers and facilitators to implementing this approach as identified from the perspective of BHPs have not been previously identified. Methods This secondary data analysis used interview data captured as part of a quality improvement project in 2008. Fourteen BHPs (48% of providers in a regional VA network agreed to participate in a 30-minute, semi-structured phone interview. The interview included questions about their perceived role as a CCC provider, depiction of usual practice styles and behaviors, and perceptions of typical barriers and facilitators to providing behavioral healthcare to Veterans in CCC. Interviews were transcribed verbatim into a text database and analyzed using grounded theory. Results Six main categories emerged from the analysis: (a Working in the VA Context, (b Managing Access to Care on the Front Line, (c Assessing a Care Trajectory, (d Developing a Local Integrated Model, (e Working in Collaborative Teams, and (f Being a Behavioral Health Generalist. These categories pointed to system, clinic, and provider level factors that impacted BHP’s role and ability to implement CCC. Across categories, participants identified ways in which they provided Veteran-centered care within variable environments. Conclusions This study provided a contextualized account of the experiences of BHP’s in CCC. Results suggest that these providers play a multifaceted role in delivering clinical services to Veterans while also acting as an interdependent component of the larger VA

  3. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  4. Construction of an allogenic chimeric mouse model for the study of the behaviors of donor stem cells in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mo-lin; YAN Jing-bin; XIAO Yan-ping; HUANG Shu-zhen


    Background It is essential to establish an animal model for the elucidation of the biological behaviors of stem cells in vivo. We constructed a chimeric animal model by in utero transplantation for investigation of stem cell transplantation.Methods This chimerism was achieved by injecting the stem cells derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transgenic mice into fetal mice at 13.5 days of gestation. Several methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used for the observation of donor cells.Results Under a fluorescence microscope, we observed the GFP cells of donor-origin in a recipient. PCR, FACS analysis and FISH indicated chimerism at various intervals. Real-time PCR indicated that some donor cells existed in chimera for more than 6 months.Conclusions Allogenic stem cells may exist in recipients for a long time and this allogenic animal model provides a useful tool for studying the behavior of hematopoietic stem cells and also offers an effective model system for the study of stem cells.

  5. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of cluster of differentiation 47 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatsugu Koshimizu

    Full Text Available Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα, a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS, such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice.

  6. Simulation and Analysis of Tethering Behavior of Neutrophils with Pseudopods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D Rocheleau

    Full Text Available P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 play important roles in mediating the inflammatory cascade. Selectin kinetics, together with neutrophil hydrodynamics, regulate the fundamental adhesion cascade of cell tethering and rolling on the endothelium. The current study uses the Multiscale Adhesive Dynamics computational model to simulate, for the first time, the tethering and rolling behavior of pseudopod-containing neutrophils as mediated by P-selectin/PSGL-1 bonds. This paper looks at the effect of including P-selectin/PSGL-1 adhesion kinetics. The parameters examined included the shear rate, adhesion on-rate, initial neutrophil position, and receptor number sensitivity. The outcomes analyzed included types of adhesive behavior observed, tether rolling distance and time, number of bonds formed during an adhesive event, contact area, and contact time. In contrast to the hydrodynamic model, P-selectin/PSGL-1 binding slows the neutrophil's translation in the direction of flow and causes the neutrophil to swing around perpendicular to flow. Several behaviors were observed during the simulations, including tethering without firm adhesion, tethering with downstream firm adhesion, and firm adhesion upon first contact with the endothelium. These behaviors were qualitatively consistent with in vivo data of murine neutrophils with pseudopods. In the simulations, increasing shear rate, receptor count, and bond formation rate increased the incidence of firm adhesion upon first contact with the endothelium. Tethering was conserved across a range of physiological shear rates and was resistant to fluctuations in the number of surface PSGL-1 molecules. In simulations where bonding occurred, interaction with the side of the pseudopod, rather than the tip, afforded more surface area and greater contact time with the endothelial wall.

  7. Asymptotic behaviors of a cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection model perturbed by white noise (United States)

    Liu, Qun


    In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model of cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells perturbed by stochastic perturbations. First of all, we investigate that there exists a unique global positive solution of the system for any positive initial value. Then by using Lyapunov analysis methods, we study the asymptotic property of this solution. Moreover, we discuss whether there is a stationary distribution for this system and if it owns the ergodic property. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  8. Adsorption behavior of low concentration carbon monoxide on polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes for automotive applications (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Mitsushima, Shigenori


    The adsorption behavior of CO on the anode around the concentration of 0.2 ppm allowed by ISO 14687-2 is investigated in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). CO and CO2 concentrations in the anode exhaust are measured during the operation of a JARI standard single cell at 60 °C cell temperature and 1000 mA cm-2 current density. CO coverage is estimated from the gas analysis and CO stripping voltammetry. The cell voltage decrease as a result of 0.2 ppm CO is 29 mV and the CO coverage is 0.6 at the steady state with 0.11 mg cm-2 of anode platinum loading. The CO coverage as a function of CO concentration approximately follows a Temkin-type isotherm. Oxygen permeated to the anode through a membrane is also measured during fuel cell operation. The exhaust velocity of oxygen from the anode was shown to be much higher than the CO supply velocity. Permeated oxygen should play an important role in CO oxidation under low CO concentration conditions.

  9. Schwarzschild scalar wigs: spectral analysis and late time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, Juan; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Nunez, Dario; Sarbach, Olivier


    Using the Green's function representation technique, the late time behavior of localized scalar field distributions on Schwarzschild spacetimes is studied. Assuming arbitrary initial data we perform a spectral analysis, computing the amplitude of each excited quasi-bound mode without the necessity of performing dynamical evolutions. The resulting superposition of modes is compared with a traditional numerical evolution with excellent agreement; therefore, we have an efficient way to determine final black hole wigs. The astrophysical relevance of the quasi-bound modes is discussed in the context of scalar field dark matter models and the axiverse.

  10. The Journal of The Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Fifty (United States)

    Laties, Victor G


    The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is made up of women. Other changes in the journal include having its own website for more than a decade and now publishing online as well as on paper. A recent connection with PubMed Central of the National Library of Medicine has made possible the completely free electronic presentation of the entire archive of about 3,800 articles. PMID:18338677

  11. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting


    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  12. Visual Analysis of Cloud Computing Performance Using Behavioral Lines. (United States)

    Muelder, Chris; Zhu, Biao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Hongxin; Ma, Kwan-Liu


    Cloud computing is an essential technology to Big Data analytics and services. A cloud computing system is often comprised of a large number of parallel computing and storage devices. Monitoring the usage and performance of such a system is important for efficient operations, maintenance, and security. Tracing every application on a large cloud system is untenable due to scale and privacy issues. But profile data can be collected relatively efficiently by regularly sampling the state of the system, including properties such as CPU load, memory usage, network usage, and others, creating a set of multivariate time series for each system. Adequate tools for studying such large-scale, multidimensional data are lacking. In this paper, we present a visual based analysis approach to understanding and analyzing the performance and behavior of cloud computing systems. Our design is based on similarity measures and a layout method to portray the behavior of each compute node over time. When visualizing a large number of behavioral lines together, distinct patterns often appear suggesting particular types of performance bottleneck. The resulting system provides multiple linked views, which allow the user to interactively explore the data by examining the data or a selected subset at different levels of detail. Our case studies, which use datasets collected from two different cloud systems, show that this visual based approach is effective in identifying trends and anomalies of the systems.

  13. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Multirobot Cooperative Hunting Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song


    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of multirobot cooperative hunting behavior. Multiple robots try to search for and surround a prey. When a robot detects a prey it forms a following team. When another “searching” robot detects the same prey, the robots form a new following team. Until four robots have detected the same prey, the prey disappears from the simulation and the robots return to searching for other prey. If a following team fails to be joined by another robot within a certain time limit the team is disbanded and the robots return to searching state. The mathematical model is formulated by a set of rate equations. The evolution of robot collective hunting behaviors represents the transition between different states of robots. The complex collective hunting behavior emerges through local interaction. The paper presents numerical solutions to normalized versions of the model equations and provides both a steady state and a collaboration ratio analysis. The value of the delay time is shown through mathematical modeling to be a strong factor in the performance of the system as well as the relative numbers of the searching robots and the prey.

  14. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C


    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, pcortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, pcortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  15. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver


    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors.

  16. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions (United States)

    Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka


    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  17. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao


    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  18. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  19. Video analysis of motor events in REM sleep behavior disorder. (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Gschliesser, Viola; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Ulmer, Hanno; Peralta, Cecilia M; Müller, Jörg; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit


    In REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), several studies focused on electromyographic characterization of motor activity, whereas video analysis has remained more general. The aim of this study was to undertake a detailed and systematic video analysis. Nine polysomnographic records from 5 Parkinson patients with RBD were analyzed and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Each motor event in the video during REM sleep was classified according to duration, type of movement, and topographical distribution. In RBD, a mean of 54 +/- 23.2 events/10 minutes of REM sleep (total 1392) were identified and visually analyzed. Seventy-five percent of all motor events lasted <2 seconds. Of these events, 1,155 (83.0%) were classified as elementary, 188 (13.5%) as complex behaviors, 50 (3.6%) as violent, and 146 (10.5%) as vocalizations. In the control group, 3.6 +/- 2.3 events/10 minutes (total 264) of predominantly elementary simple character (n = 240, 90.9%) were identified. Number and types of motor events differed significantly between patients and controls (P < 0.05). This study shows a very high number and great variety of motor events during REM sleep in symptomatic RBD. However, most motor events are minor, and violent episodes represent only a small fraction.

  20. Histamine from Brain Resident MAST Cells Promotes Wakefulness and Modulates Behavioral States


    Sachiko Chikahisa; Tohru Kodama; Atsushi Soya; Yohei Sagawa; Yuji Ishimaru; Hiroyoshi Séi; Seiji Nishino


    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing espec...

  1. Single-cell analysis - Methods and protocols


    Carlo Alberto Redi


    This is certainly a timely volume in the Methods in molecular biology series: we already entered the synthetic biology era and thus we need to be aware of the new methodological advances able to fulfill the new and necessary needs for biologists, biotechnologists and nano-biotechnologists. Notably, among these, the possibility to perform single cell analysis allow researchers to capture single cell responses....

  2. Single-Cell Memory Regulates a Neural Circuit for Sensory Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyogo Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Unveiling the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying memory has been a challenge for the past few decades. Although synaptic plasticity is proven to be essential for memory formation, the significance of “single-cell memory” still remains elusive. Here, we exploited a primary culture system for the analysis of C. elegans neurons and show that a single thermosensory neuron has an ability to form, retain, and reset a temperature memory. Genetic and proteomic analyses found that the expression of the single-cell memory exhibits inter-individual variability, which is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved CaMKI/IV and Raf pathway. The variable responses of a sensory neuron influenced the neural activity of downstream interneurons, suggesting that modulation of the sensory neurons ultimately determines the behavioral output in C. elegans. Our results provide proof of single-cell memory and suggest that the individual differences in neural responses at the single-cell level can confer individuality.

  3. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani


    practical study of a descriptive-analytic nature. The data is compiled based on library source and field survey. In the field survey the tool used is a researcher designed questionnaire containing two series of open and closed questions. The questionnaire consists of the two following measuring parts:A.General characteristics that include variables such as sex, age, driving license issuance date, hours driven per day, education, income, occupational status, residential sectionB.Driving behavior that includes variables such as conduct on local roads which contain 9 items measured by Likert scale. Sample size is estimated through Cochran formula, by which 322 drivers were randomly selected from the intra-city drivers in the vicinity of major connecting intersections like squares, circles, crosses. They were asked to stop when at a very low speed or almost unmoving. Data analysis, summarizing and categorization are processed through SPSS. The descriptive findings are illustrated through GIS Arc software, and Kruskal-Wallis test, Tavy - Kendall none and chi-square were run to analyze the data.Discussion of Results & ConclusionsThe findings indicate that be getting older drivers tend to observe traffic roles in the following ways: 1.Observing the standard distance from the vehicle in front 2.Observing the proper speed when the traffic is high3.Driving between the lines4.Not overtaking from right5.Allowing others to overtake6.Patience during driving7.Having proper speed when overtaking8.Watching the side mirrors and proper signaling before turningThere is no statistical significance between driver age and parking at "No Parking" zones. As the driving skills are advanced all the above variables are improved. However, there is no statistical significance between the skill record and parking at No Parking zones.As the duration of driving per day increases, parking in No parking zones, overtaking from right and impatience among the drivers increases too. There is no statistical

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People. (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.


    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  5. A Theoretical Analysis of Potential Extinction Properties of Behavior-Specific Manual Restraint (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; Thomas, Melvin; Martin, Daniel


    This paper will examine possible extinction properties of behavior-specific manual restraint. It will analyze the possibility of extinction being produced via restraint with respect to the target behavior's possible environmental functions. The theoretical analysis will involve the analysis of behavioral properties of restraint during two temporal…

  6. Nonchromosomal cytogenetic analysis of mammal somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalova O. А.


    Full Text Available The mutational events that take place in mammalian somatic cells influenced with different endogenous and exogenous factors are presented in this review. The nonchromosomal method of research allows taking into account the complex cell characteristics without time-consuming analysis of the chromosomes as such. As a result, the information can be obtained about the mitotic (phases of mitosis, the number of nuclei per cell, micronuclei, pathology of mitosis and vital (mitotic index, apoptosis cell statuses, as well as about the state of chromosomal integrity (the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges, nucleus protrusions, chromosome fragmentation, micronuclei. Depending on the material studied (erythrocytes and lymphocytes of peripheral blood, buccal cells, permanent cell lines etc., a complex of cytogenetic characteristics can be selected for each case which is the most informative for determination of the mutational spectra in mammalian somatic cells.

  7. Probing the behaviors of gold nanorods in metastatic breast cancer cells based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Ji, Yinglu; Meng, Jie; Wu, Xiaochun; Xu, Haiyan


    In this work, behaviors of positively-charged AuNRs in a highly metastatic tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 are examined based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dark-field microscopic observation. It is found that characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of AuNRs can be detected using spectroscopic method within living cells that have taken up AuNRs. The peak area of transverse SPR band is shown to be proportionally related to the amount of AuNRs in the cells determined with ICP-MS, which suggests a facile and real time quantification method for AuNRs in living cells. The shape of longitudinal SPR band in UV-vis-NIR spectrum reflects the aggregation state of AuNRs in the cells during the incubation period, which is proved by TEM and microscopic observations. Experimental results reveal that AuNRs are internalized by the cells rapidly; the accumulation, distribution and aggregation of AuNRs in the cells compartments are time and dose dependent. The established spectroscopic analysis method can not only monitor the behaviors of AuNRs in living cells but may also be helpful in choosing the optimum laser stimulation wavelength for anti-tumor thermotherapy.

  8. Probing the behaviors of gold nanorods in metastatic breast cancer cells based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqi Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work, behaviors of positively-charged AuNRs in a highly metastatic tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 are examined based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dark-field microscopic observation. It is found that characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks of AuNRs can be detected using spectroscopic method within living cells that have taken up AuNRs. The peak area of transverse SPR band is shown to be proportionally related to the amount of AuNRs in the cells determined with ICP-MS, which suggests a facile and real time quantification method for AuNRs in living cells. The shape of longitudinal SPR band in UV-vis-NIR spectrum reflects the aggregation state of AuNRs in the cells during the incubation period, which is proved by TEM and microscopic observations. Experimental results reveal that AuNRs are internalized by the cells rapidly; the accumulation, distribution and aggregation of AuNRs in the cells compartments are time and dose dependent. The established spectroscopic analysis method can not only monitor the behaviors of AuNRs in living cells but may also be helpful in choosing the optimum laser stimulation wavelength for anti-tumor thermotherapy.

  9. So much data, so little time: Using sequential data analysis to monitor behavioral changes. (United States)

    Walker, Tywanquila


    Twenty-three infants (M = 13.7 months, SD = 3.73) and their primary caregivers were observed and video-taped in three 20-min play sessions. Over the course of a month, changes in infant behaviors and caregiver responsiveness to those behaviors were monitored. Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors significantly increased over the course of the sessions. However, the ANOVAs did not specify exactly which caregiver behaviors changed. Sequential data analysis revealed that caregivers specifically increased their use of dyadic vocal behaviors in response to all infant behaviors. This study reveals that although ANOVAs are useful for providing information about macro, overall changes in caregiver behavior, sequential data analysis is a useful tool for evaluating micro, moment-to-moment changes in behavior. With sequential analysis, specific behavioral patterns can be examined and, if necessary, steps can be taken to modify and monitor those behaviors over time. •Sequential data analysis was used to monitor changes in caregiver behavior.•Non-culture-specific behavioral codes and techniques were used to quantify caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors.•When compared to ANOVA, sequential data analysis is more useful for assessing micro-level behavioral changes in infant-caregiver interactions.

  10. Analysis Components of the Digital Consumer Behavior in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bogdan Onete


    Full Text Available This article is investigating the Romanian consumer behavior in the context of the evolution of the online shopping. Given that online stores are a profitable business model in the area of electronic commerce and because the relationship between consumer digital Romania and its decision to purchase products or services on the Internet has not been sufficiently explored, this study aims to identify specific features of the new type of consumer and to examine the level of online shopping in Romania. Therefore a documentary study was carried out with statistic data regarding the volume and the number of transactions of the online shopping in Romania during 2010-2014, the type of products and services that Romanians are searching the Internet for and demographics of these people. In addition, to study more closely the online consumer behavior, and to interpret the detailed secondary data provided, an exploratory research was performed as a structured questionnaire with five closed questions on the distribution of individuals according to the gender category they belong (male or female; decision to purchase products / services in the virtual environment in the past year; the source of the goods / services purchased (Romanian or foreign sites; factors that have determined the consumers to buy products from foreign sites; categories of products purchased through online transactions from foreign merchants. The questionnaire was distributed electronically via Facebook social network users and the data collected was processed directly in the Facebook official app to create and interpret responses to surveys. The results of this research correlated with the official data reveals the following characteristics of the digital consumer in Romania: atypical European consumer, interested more in online purchases from abroad, influenced by the quality and price of the purchase. This paper assumed a careful analysis of the online acquisitions phenomenon and also

  11. Improvement of Parkinsonian behavior with co-grafts of Schwann cells and neural stem cells in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia; Chengchuan Jiang; Zhongliang Ding; Yang Wang; Bin Xu; Linyin Feng


    BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of autograft transplant rejection, Schwann cells (SCs) can promote the proliferation of embryonic stem cells and the induction of dopaminergic neurons. Mesencephalic stem cells can be induced to produce dopaminergic neurons. The therapeutic effects of co-grafts of SCs and neural stem cells (NSCs) deserves further study and verification in Parkinsonian animal models.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Schwann cells and mesencephalic NSC co-grafts in Parkinsonian animal models on animal behavior and histology.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Fudan University; Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences.MATERIALS: The following animals were obtained from the Experimental Animal Center, Shanghai Institute for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences: 5 Sprague-Dawley rats, embryonic day (E) 13–16; 16 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, postnatal day 1–3; and 18 adult SD rats of both genders. Animal experimentation met animal ethical approval.METHODS: The experiment was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Medical Center, Fudan University from September 2005 to January 2007. The mesencephalic NSCs were obtained from the brains of SD rats at E 13–16, and SCs were harvested from the sciatic nerves of neonatal rats at day 1–3. Hemiparkinsonian rats (n =18) were selected for transplantation after estimating rotational behavior in response to apomorphine and were randomly assigned to three groups: control group, NSC group, and co-graft group. There were 6 rats in each group. Either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), NSCs, or SCs plus NSCs were transplanted into the right neostriatum of Parkinsonian rats, respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Rotational behavior was induced by apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg, I.p.) 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after transplantation, and the number of rotations were counted. ② Differentiation and survival of dopaminergic neurons in the right

  12. Micro and nanoplatforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange


    In this paper some of the technological platforms developed in our group for biological cell analysis will be highlighted. The paper first presents a short introduction pinpointing the advantages of using micro and nano technology in cellular studies. The issues of requiring transient analysis...

  13. Analysis of flow behavior in fractured lithophysal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianchun; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Wu, Yu-Shu


    This study develops a mathematical model for the analysis of pressure behavior in fractured lithophysal reservoirs. The lithophysal rock is described as a tri-continuum medium, consisting of fractures, rock matrices, and cavities. In the conceptual model, fractures have homogeneous properties throughout and interact with rock matrices and cavities that have different permeabilities and porosities. Global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrices and cavities contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Interporosity flows between the triple media are described using a pseudosteady-state concept and the system is characterized by interporosity transmissivity ratios and storativity ratio of each continuum. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots, and the effects of the characteristic parameters. Typical pressure responses from fractures, matrices, and cavities are represented by three semilog straight lines; the transitions by two troughs below the stabilization lines in the derivative plots. The analytical solution to the proposed model is further verified using a numerical simulation. The analytical model has also been applied to a published field-buildup well test and is able to match the pressure buildup data.

  14. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells With Six Reprogramming Factors From Prairie Vole, Which Is an Animal Model for Social Behaviors. (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Hirayama, Takashi; Horie, Kengo; Kiyono, Tohru; Donai, Kenichiro; Takeda, Satoru; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Tomokazu


    Prairie voles show strong pair bonding with their mating partners, and they demonstrate parental behavior toward their infants, indicating that the prairie vole is a unique animal model for analysis of molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Until a recent study, the signaling pathway of oxytocin was thought to be critical for the social behavior of prairie voles, but neuron-specific functional research may be necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Prairie vole pluripotent stem cells of high quality are essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of social behaviors. Generation of high-quality induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) would help to establish a genetically modified prairie vole, including knockout and knock-in models, based on the pluripotency of iPSCs. Thus, we attempted to establish high-quality prairie vole-derived iPSCs (pv-iPSCs) in this study. We constructed a polycistronic reprogramming vector, which included six reprograming factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-myc, Lin28, and Nanog). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of six reprogramming factors, which included Oct3/4 with the transactivation domain (TAD) of MyoD. Implantation of the pv-iPSCs into immunodeficient mice caused a teratoma with three germ layers. Furthermore, the established pv-iPSCs tested positive for stem cell markers, including alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1, and dependence on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Our data indicate that our newly established pv-iPSCs may be a useful tool for genetic analysis of social behavior.

  15. Spectral Representation Theory for Dielectric Behavior of Nonspherical Cell Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-Ping; YU Kin-Wah; LEI Jun; SUN Hong


    Recent experiments revealed that the dielectric dispersion spectrum of fission yeast cells in a suspension was mainly composed of two sub-dispersions. The low-frequency sub-dispersion depended on the cell length, while the high-frequency one was independent of it. The cell shape effect was simulated by an ellipsoidal cell model but the comparison between theory and experiment was far from being satisfactory. Prompted by the discrepancy, we proposed the use of spectral representation to analyze more realistic cell models. We adopted a shell-spheroidal model to analyze the effects of the cell membrane. It is found that the dielectric property of the cell membrane has only a minor effect on the dispersion magnitude ratio and the characteristic frequency ratio. We further included the effect of rotation of dipole induced by an external electric field, and solved the dipole-rotation spheroidal model in the spectral representation.Good agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained.

  16. Behavior of interdigitated back-contact solar cells (United States)

    Cheng, L. J.; Leung, D. C.


    This paper presents experimental data concerning operation mechanisms of two versions of interdigitated back-contact solar cells: the tandem junction cell and the front-surface field cell. It is shown that a photogenerated forward bias at the front junction of a tandem junction cell is a critical parameter for cell performance which not only causes photogenerated carriers to migrate to the back junction, but also eliminates the reduction in photoresponse over back p(+) metallization regions. However, no similar light effects are observed in the performance of front-surface field cells. Finally, a discussion on mechanisms concerning the performance of front-surface field and tandem junction cells along with their merits is given.

  17. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Biobehavioral influences on recovery following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (United States)

    Review of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and its potential “window of opportunity” during which interventions targeting stress-related behavioral factors can influence the survival, health, and well-being of recipients.

  18. Regional Difference Analysis of Farmers’ Land Use Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin; HUANG; Chengwu; LIU; Guangping; DING


    Based on the survey data and statistical information on farmers,we conduct comparative analysis of land use behavior of farmers in the Jianghan Plain and the hilly areas of Xianning City in Hubei Province.We find that the utilization rate of agricultural land and level of agricultural labor output in the plain areas are higher than in the hilly areas;at the same time,the degree of mechanization of agricultural land utilization and farmers’land use scale are larger in the plain areas.But the crop type in the plain areas is single,and the decline rate of the growing area of food crops is higher in recent twenty years;meanwhile,the material input costs and opportunity cost of labor for the agricultural land utilization in the plain areas are greater than in the hilly areas.

  19. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles (United States)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.


    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  20. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang


    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  1. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use. (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo


    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  2. Lymph node topology dictates T cell migration behavior. (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; Lynch, Jennifer N; Miller, Mark J; de Boer, Rob J


    Adaptive immunity is initiated by T cell recognition of foreign peptides presented on dendritic cells (DCs) by major histocompatibility molecules. These interactions take place in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen, and hence the anatomical structure of these tissues plays a crucial role in the development of immune responses. Two-photon microscopy (2PM) imaging in LNs suggests that T cells walk in a consistent direction for several minutes, pause briefly with a regular period, and then take off in a new, random direction. Here, we construct a spatially explicit model of T cell and DC migration in LNs and show that all dynamical properties of T cells could be a consequence of the densely packed LN environment. By means of 2PM experiments, we confirm that the large velocity fluctuations of T cells are indeed environmentally determined rather than resulting from an intrinsic motility program. Our simulations further predict that T cells self-organize into microscopically small, highly dynamic streams. We present experimental evidence for the presence of such turbulent streams in LNs. Finally, the model allows us to estimate the scanning rates of DCs (2,000 different T cells per hour) and T cells (100 different DCs per hour).

  3. Transient Behavior of Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (United States)


    dependence of the rate of change of capacitance suggests Arrhenius-type behavior associated with ion motion with an activation energy of ~1.27 eV. The...initial rate of change of capacitance is faster than the rate of change of light and current, suggesting that modification of the field near the

  4. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei


    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  5. Theoretical analysis on convergence behavior of rank filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Wanzhou


    This paper systematically studies the convergence behavior of rank filters. The problem of convergence behavior of rank filters has been solved completely for bounded sequences. Moreover, some properties of its limiting sequences and recurrent sequences are obtained.

  6. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting Analysis of Heterotypic Cell-in-Cell Structures. (United States)

    He, Meifang; Huang, Hongyan; Wang, Manna; Chen, Ang; Ning, Xiangkai; Yu, Kaitao; Li, Qihong; Li, Wen; Ma, Li; Chen, Zhaolie; Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Qiang


    Cell-in-cell structures (CICs), characterized by the presence of one or more viable cells inside another one, were recently found important player in development, immune homeostasis and tumorigenesis etc. Incompatible with ever-increasing interests on this unique phenomenon, reliable methods available for high throughput quantification and systemic investigation are lacking. Here, we report a flow cytometry-based method for rapid analysis and sorting of heterotypic CICs formed between lymphocytes and tumor cells. In this method, cells were labeled with fluorescent dyes for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) by flow cytometry, conditions for reducing cell doublets were optimized such that high purity (>95%) of CICs could be achieved. By taking advantage of this method, we analyzed CICs formation between different cell pairs, and found that factors from both internalized effector cells and engulfing target cells affect heterotypic CICs formation. Thus, flow cytometry-based FACS analysis would serve as a high throughput method to promote systemic researches on CICs.

  7. Behavioral activation treatments of depression: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Warmerdam, Lisanne


    Activity scheduling is a behavioral treatment of depression in which patients learn to monitor their mood and daily activities, and how to increase the number of pleasant activities and to increase positive interactions with their environment. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized effect studies of activity scheduling. Sixteen studies with 780 subjects were included. The pooled effect size indicating the difference between intervention and control conditions at post-test was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.60 - 1.15). This is a large effect. Heterogeneity was low in all analyses. The comparisons with other psychological treatments at post-test resulted in a non-significant pooled effect size of 0.13 in favor of activity scheduling. In ten studies activity scheduling was compared to cognitive therapy, and the pooled effect size indicating the difference between these two types of treatment was 0.02. The changes from post-test to follow-up for activity scheduling were non-significant, indicating that the benefits of the treatments were retained at follow-up. The differences between activity scheduling and cognitive therapy at follow-up were also non-significant. Activity scheduling is an attractive treatment for depression, not only because it is relatively uncomplicated, time-efficient and does not require complex skills from patients or therapist, but also because this meta-analysis found clear indications that it is effective.

  8. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil


    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  9. Vagal neural crest cell migratory behavior: a transition between the cranial and trunk crest. (United States)

    Kuo, Bryan R; Erickson, Carol A


    Migration and differentiation of cranial neural crest cells are largely controlled by environmental cues, whereas pathfinding at the trunk level is dictated by cell-autonomous molecular changes owing to early specification of the premigratory crest. Here, we investigated the migration and patterning of vagal neural crest cells. We show that (1) vagal neural crest cells exhibit some developmental bias, and (2) they take separate pathways to the heart and to the gut. Together these observations suggest that prior specification dictates initial pathway choice. However, when we challenged the vagal neural crest cells with different migratory environments, we observed that the behavior of the anterior vagal neural crest cells (somite-level 1-3) exhibit considerable migratory plasticity, whereas the posterior vagal neural crest cells (somite-level 5-7) are more restricted in their behavior. We conclude that the vagal neural crest is a transitional population that has evolved between the head and the trunk.

  10. An Ecological Analysis of Cognitions of Behavioral Deviancy. (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.


    Determined whether educators' judgments of problem behaviors are influenced by classroom contex (disruptive x nondisruptive) and teacher type (regular x special). After viewing videotaped behavioral segments presented within a disruptive or nondisruptive classroom setting, teachers rated behavioral severity, tolerance, manageability, and…

  11. Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Music (United States)

    Buckley, Scott D.; Newchok, Debra K.


    The present study investigated the effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) on problem behavior evoked by music in a 7-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. Following an auditory stimulus assessment, DNRO was used to reduce problem behavior to near-zero levels. Results are discussed in terms of…

  12. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development. (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret


    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver.

  13. Single-cell analysis - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi


    Full Text Available This is certainly a timely volume in the Methods in molecular biology series: we already entered the synthetic biology era and thus we need to be aware of the new methodological advances able to fulfill the new and necessary needs for biologists, biotechnologists and nano-biotechnologists. Notably, among these, the possibility to perform single cell analysis allow researchers to capture single cell responses....

  14. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm-Jan Westra


    Full Text Available The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-environment interaction (GxE meta-analysis on data from 5,683 samples to infer the cell type specificity of whole blood cis-eQTLs. We demonstrate that this method is able to predict neutrophil and lymphocyte specific cis-eQTLs and replicate these predictions in independent cell-type specific datasets. Finally, we show that SNPs associated with Crohn's disease preferentially affect gene expression within neutrophils, including the archetypal NOD2 locus.

  15. Mechanical behavior and numerical analysis of corrugated wire mesh laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Ho; Shankar, Krishna; Tahtali, Murat [UNSW, ADFA, Canberra (Australia)


    The objective is to show a possibility of corrugated wire mesh laminate (CWML) structure for bone application. CWML is a part of open-cell structures with low density and high strength built with bonded mesh layers. Specimens of CWML made of 316 stainless steel woven meshes with 0.22 mm wire diameter and 0.95 mm mesh aperture, bonded by transit liquid phase (TLP) at low temperatures, were fabricated and tested under quasi-static conditions to determine their compressive behavior with varying numbers of layers of the sample. The finite element software was used to model the CWML and studied their response to mechanical loading. Then, the numerical model was confirmed by the tested sample. Consequently, CWML specimens were reasonably matched with the human tibia bone ranged over apparent density from 0.05 to 0.08 g/cm{sup 3} in Young's modulus and from 0.05 to 0.11 g/cm{sup 3} in compressive yield strength. The CWML model can have the potential for bone application.

  16. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. The perivascular phenotype and behaviors of dedifferentiated cells derived from human mature adipocytes. (United States)

    Song, Ning; Kou, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Sugawara, Atsunori; Shimizu, Yutaka; Wu, Min-Ke; Du, Li; Wang, Hang; Sato, Soh; Shen, Jie-Fei


    Derived from mature adipocytes, dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells represent a special group of multipotent cells. However, their phenotype and cellular nature remain unclear. Our study found that human DFAT cells adopted perivascular characteristics and behaviors. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining revealed that human DFAT cells positively expressed markers highly related to perivascular cell lineages, such as CD140b, NG2 and desmin, but were negative for common endothelial markers, including CD31, CD34, and CD309. Furthermore, DFAT cells displayed vascular network formation ability in Matrigel, and they noticeably promoted and stabilized the vessel structures formed by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These results provide novel evidence on the pericyte nature of human DFAT cells, further supporting the recent model for the perivascular origin of adult stem cells, in which tissue-specific progenitor cells in mesenchymal tissues associate with blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular characteristics and functions.

  18. Analysis of Vertical Architecture Photogalvanic Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad Ali


    A new configuration of the photogalvanic cells (PGCs) is proposed that relaxes some of the hard to achieve requirements for efficient conventional photogalvanic cells. Instead of illuminating the device perpendicular to the electrode as was done classically, the vertical alignment of PGCs is suggested so that the light comes in from the gap between the two electrodes. This way, the electron generation extends to the depth of the device and therefore slower kinetics are allowed for deep cells. The depth can also be adjusted according to the concentration of the dyes, which solves the high solubility problem of the electrode-illuminated cells. The configuration is mathematically modeled and the advantages over the conventional cell are shown. A computer model is built for more detailed analysis.

  19. Microfabricated devices for single cell analysis (United States)

    Gao, Yuanfang

    BioMEMS or lab-on-a-chip technology is promising technology and enables the possibility of microchip devices with higher throughput or better performance for single cell analysis. We have designed and fabricated microdevices for single cell analysis, with impedance based device for fast cell screening and microchannel based flow systems for high throughput, high time resolution quantal exocytosis measurement with automatic cell positioning and reusability. The automatic cell positioning is realized by differential forces of fluidic dynamics. Microelectrodes are patterned at automatic trap positions for electrochemical detection quantal release of hormones like catecholamines secreted by cells. We also developed diamond-like carbon (DLC) microelectrodes onto chip device for low noise exocytosis measurement. The DLC microelectrodes were deposited by magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping and a bottom ITO conductive layer. Test results show the developed DLC can detect exocytosis with low noise and a stable background current which are comparable to that of carbon-fiber electrodes. They are batch producible at low cost and can realize high-throughput on-chip measurement of quantal exocytosis. The technology developed in this research can have wide ranging applications in fields such as electrophysiology, cell based sensors, high throughput screening of new drug development.

  20. Isolated cell behavior drives the evolution of antibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Dudley, Carmel; Vega, Nicole M; Gore, Jeff


    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is typically quantified by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth starting from a standard cell density. However, when antibiotic resistance is mediated by degradation, the collective inactivation of antibiotic by the bacterial population can cause the measured MIC to depend strongly on the initial cell density. In cases where this inoculum effect is strong, the relationship between MIC and bacterial fitness in the antibiotic is not well defined. Here, we demonstrate that the resistance of a single, isolated cell-which we call the single-cell MIC (scMIC)-provides a superior metric for quantifying antibiotic resistance. Unlike the MIC, we find that the scMIC predicts the direction of selection and also specifies the antibiotic concentration at which selection begins to favor new mutants. Understanding the cooperative nature of bacterial growth in antibiotics is therefore essential in predicting the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis. (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P


    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  2. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Wright-Gallo, Glenna L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, Kara A.; Davey, Bryan J.


    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task…

  3. Discretization behavior analysis of a switching control system from a unified mathematical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghuo YU; Ling YANG; Guanrong CHEN


    A useful unified analysis framework is proposed for exploring the intriguing behaviors of a second-order switching control system. Complex discretization behaviors of the switching control system are explored in detail, and some intrinsic relationships between the system periodic behaviors and their associated symbolic sequences are studied.

  4. Computer-Assisted Reconstruction and Motion Analysis of the Three-Dimensional Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Soll


    Full Text Available Even though several microscopic techniques provide three-dimensional (3D information on fixed and living cells, the perception persists that cells are two-dimensional (2D. Cells are, in fact, 3D and their behavior, including the extension of pseudopods, includes an important 3D component. Although treating the cell as a 2D entity has proven effective in understanding how cells locomote, and in identifying defects in a variety of mutant and abnormal cells, there are cases in which 3D reconstruction and analysis are essential. Here, we describe advanced computer-assisted 3D reconstruction and motion analysis programs for both individual live, crawling cells and developing embryos. These systems (3D-DIAS, 3D-DIASemb can be used to reconstruct and motion analyze at short time intervals the nucleus and pseudopodia as well as the entire surface of a single migrating cell, or every cell and nucleus in a developing embryo. Because all images are converted to mathematical representations, a variety of motility and dynamic morphology parameters can be computed that have proven quite valuable in the identification of mutant behaviors. We also describe examples of mutant behaviors in Dictyostelium that were revealed through 3D analysis.

  5. The strength of indecisiveness: oscillatory behavior for better cell fate determination. (United States)

    Lahav, Galit


    Oscillatory behavior is very common in many cellular responses. Recently, two pathways involved in response to cell stress, the p53 and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, have been found to show oscillatory behavior. At first sight, there would seem to be no reason for signaling pathways of this type to require oscillations. Recent single-cell studies indicate that oscillatory behavior may be used to allow repeated testing for the continued existence of a signal. I argue that oscillations increase cellular response sensitivity and flexibility by allowing the cell to integrate the results of many periodical evaluations of the signal before making an eventual decision about cell fate, thus reducing the risk of premature commitment.

  6. Behavioral profile and dorsal hippocampal cells in carioca high-conditioned freezing rats. (United States)

    Dias, Gisele Pereira; Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar do Nascimento; Silveira, Anna Claudia Domingos; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Gardino, Patrícia Franca


    Selection for contextual fear conditioning is an important behavioral paradigm for studying the role of genetic variables and their interaction with the surrounding environment in the etiology and development of anxiety disorders. Recently, a new line of animals selectively bred for high levels of freezing in response to contextual cues previously associated with footshock was developed from a Wistar population. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the emotional and cognitive aspects of this new line of animals, which has been named Carioca High-Freezing (CHF). For the characterization of anxious behavior, CHF and control animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the social interaction test. CHF animals were significantly more anxious than control rats in terms of both the number of entries into EPM open arms and the percentage of time spent in these arms. The time spent in social interaction behavior was also significantly decreased. No statistical differences were found in locomotor activity, as measured by both the number of entries into the closed arms of the EPM and the number of crossings into the social interaction test arena. No differences between CHF and control groups were found in the depression forced swimming test, suggesting that the anxiety trait selected in the CHF line did not interact with affective disorders traits such as those for depression. Cognitive aspects of the CHF rats were evaluated in the object recognition task. Results from this test indicated no difference between the two groups. The present study also encompassed histological analysis of the dorsal hippocampus from CHF and control animals. Results revealed an absence of qualitative and quantitative differences between these two groups of animals in cells located in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Therefore, future studies are required to further investigate the possible neural mechanisms involved in the origin and development of the anxious

  7. Fluid and cell behaviors along a 3D printed alginate/gelatin/fibrin channel. (United States)

    Xu, Yufan; Wang, Xiaohong


    Three-dimensional (3D) cell manipulation is available with the integration of microfluidic technology and rapid prototyping techniques. High-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) constructs hold enormous therapeutic potential for organ manufacturing and regenerative medicine. In the present paper we introduced a quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) model with parallel biocompatible alginate/gelatin/fibrin hurdles. The behaviors of fluids and cells along the microfluidic channels with various widths were studied. Cells inside the newly designed microfluidic channels attached and grew well. Morphological changes of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D milieu were found on the printed constructs. Endothelialization occurred with the co-cultures of ADSCs and hepatocytes. This study provides insights into the interactions among fluids, cells and biomaterials, the behaviors of fluids and cells along the microfluidic channels, and the applications of Q3D techniques.

  8. Chitosan and polycaprolactone membranes patterned via electrospinning: effect of underlying chemistry and pattern characteristics on epithelial/fibroblastic cell behavior. (United States)

    Simşek, Murat; Capkın, Merve; Karakeçili, Ayşe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe


    Electrospinning was used as an effective route to pattern chitosan (CS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes with submicron fibers having different chemical structure (PCL or PCL/collagen) and physical characteristics (size: between ≈200 and 550 nm; randomly oriented or aligned form). While the PCL fibers with diameters in the same range (≈200 nm) were patterned on both of CS and PCL membranes to evaluate the influence of the underlying membrane chemistry, only CS membranes were patterned with PCL fibers having different sizes simply by changing the electrospinning conditions to investigate the effects of pattern characteristics. Furthermore, collagen was added to the PCL fiber structure to change the chemical composition of the fibers in a cell-attractive way. Two cell lines with different morphologies, fibroblastic MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and epithelial Madine Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, were cultured on the patterned membranes. The observation of cellular behavior in terms of cell morphology and F-actin synthesis was realized by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy analysis during the first 12 h of culture period. The viability of cells was controlled by MTT assay through 96 h of cell culture. The cell culture studies indicated that the leading aspect for the morphology change on patterned membranes was the fiber orientation. The aligned topography controlled the morphology of cells both on CS and PCL membranes. In the presence of collagen in the fiber structure, F-actin filament synthesis increased for MC3T3-E1 and MDBK cell lines.

  9. Relationship between nanotopographical alignment and stem cell fate with live imaging and shape analysis (United States)

    Newman, Peter; Galenano-Niño, Jorge Luis; Graney, Pamela; Razal, Joselito M.; Minett, Andrew I.; Ribas, João; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Biro, Maté; Zreiqat, Hala


    The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells.

  10. 认知行为治疗中的行为分析%Behavior Analysis of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 行为分析(Behavior Analysis)做为一项心理治疗技术,被国外心理治疗师广泛应用,它通常不独立完成对心理问题的干预,而是在认知行为治疗的开始或治疗过程中经常体现到它的存在. 有学者把这一概念又称为行为功能分析(Behavior Functional Analysis).

  11. Behavioral Logistics - Analysis of behavioral routines and governance structures in the interorganizational maritime transport chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The strong improvements in information and communication systems as well as better transshipment technologies provide the platform for more efficient transport within interorganizational transport chains. Nevertheless these technologies do not automatically optimize systems based on routines and behavioral patterns, established over the last decades. Logisticians - in theory and practice - have to consider the field of behavioral science to describe and analyse transport problems regarding to involved actors' strategic behavior and social embeddedness, too. The objective of this paper is to illustrate behavioral aspects of supposed technical problems in interorganizational transport chains. Therefore, this paper analyses behavioral routines and governance structures in the interorganizational maritime transport chain using a case study, dealing with the generation and circulation of transport information at the earliest point available, so called "estimated time of arrival" (ETA.

  12. A new isotropic cell for studying the thermo-mechanical behavior of unsaturated expansive clays

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Barnel, Nathalie


    This paper presents a new suction-temperature controlled isotropic cell that can be used to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of unsaturated expansive clays. The vapor equilibrium technique is used to control the soil suction; the temperature of the cell is controlled using a thermostat bath. The isotropic pressure is applied using a volume/pressure controller that is also used to monitor the volume change of soil specimen. Preliminary experimental results showed good performance of the cell.

  13. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof


    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  14. Analysis of nomofobic behaviors of adolescents regarding various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Mertkan Gezgin


    Full Text Available Although the developments in technology have made our lives and daily activities easier, it is believed that problematic and excessive use of technology could have some negative effects on people. One of these negative effects is the prevalence of nomophobia, which is considered as a new phobia in recent years. Nomophobia is defined as the fear and anxiety when an individual cannot access his or her mobile/smart phone or cannot have the chance to communicate online and offline via mobile devices. Nomophobic tendencies can change individuals’ daily habits. Negative emotions due to nomophobic tendencies like fear and anxiety especially in young people is thought to affect their school lives and academic achievements. The purpose of this research is to analyze the prevalence of nomophobia among high school students regarding various factors. The Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q, which was used in this study, was developed by Yildirim and Correia (2015, and adapted into Turkish by Yildirim, Sumuer, Adnan and Yildirim (2015. The study group consists of 475 high school students attending six different schools situated in diverse socio-economic areas in Izmir and Edirne in 2015-2016 education year. The study was conducted in survey model and descriptive statistics. T-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques were used at the analysis stage. According to the findings, mean scores obtained from the scale demonstrated that the levels of nomophobic behaviors of high school students were above the average. Besides, female students have higher nomophobia levels compared to male students in terms of gender variable and a significant difference was found in terms of the duration of mobile internet usage. A significant difference could not be found in terms of the variables such as grade, parents’ education levels, and the duration of smartphone usage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that high school students use their

  15. Functional data analysis for dynamical system identification of behavioral processes. (United States)

    Trail, Jessica B; Collins, Linda M; Rivera, Daniel E; Li, Runze; Piper, Megan E; Baker, Timothy B


    Efficient new technology has made it straightforward for behavioral scientists to collect anywhere from several dozen to several thousand dense, repeated measurements on one or more time-varying variables. These intensive longitudinal data (ILD) are ideal for examining complex change over time but present new challenges that illustrate the need for more advanced analytic methods. For example, in ILD the temporal spacing of observations may be irregular, and individuals may be sampled at different times. Also, it is important to assess both how the outcome changes over time and the variation between participants' time-varying processes to make inferences about a particular intervention's effectiveness within the population of interest. The methods presented in this article integrate 2 innovative ILD analytic techniques: functional data analysis and dynamical systems modeling. An empirical application is presented using data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. Study participants provided 42 daily assessments of pre-quit and post-quit withdrawal symptoms. Regression splines were used to approximate smooth functions of craving and negative affect and to estimate the variables' derivatives for each participant. We then modeled the dynamics of nicotine craving using standard input-output dynamical systems models. These models provide a more detailed characterization of the post-quit craving process than do traditional longitudinal models, including information regarding the type, magnitude, and speed of the response to an input. The results, in conjunction with standard engineering control theory techniques, could potentially be used by tobacco researchers to develop a more effective smoking intervention.

  16. Optimization of genetic analysis for single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hussein mouawia


    Full Text Available The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO. This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal.

  17. Breast cancer cell behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices derived from tumor cells at various malignant stages. (United States)

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been focused to understand tumor progression in addition to the genetic mutation of cancer cells. Here, we prepared "staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices" which mimic in vivo ECM in tumor tissue at each malignant stage to understand the roles of ECM in tumor progression. Breast tumor cells, MDA-MB-231 (invasive), MCF-7 (non-invasive), and MCF-10A (benign) cells, were cultured to form their own ECM beneath the cells and formed ECM was prepared as staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices by decellularization treatment. Cells showed weak attachment on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The proliferations of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 was promoted on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells whereas MCF-10A cell proliferation was not promoted. MCF-10A cell proliferation was promoted on the matrices derived from MCF-10A cells. Chemoresistance of MDA-MB-231 cells against 5-fluorouracil increased on only matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that the cells showed different behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices according to the malignancy of cell sources for ECM preparation. Therefore, staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices might be a useful in vitro ECM models to investigate the roles of ECM in tumor progression.



    Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fredrick, Laura D; Reed, Gregory K; Rivas, Kristi D; Kadey, Heather J


    Functional analyses identified children whose inappropriate mealtime behavior was maintained by escape and adult attention. Function-based extinction procedures were tested individually and in combination. Attention extinction alone did not result in decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior or a significant increase in acceptance. By contrast, escape extinction alone resulted in a decrease in inappropriate mealtime behavior and an increase in acceptance. However, inappropriate mealtime be...

  19. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  20. Coordinating cell and tissue behavior during zebrafish neural tube morphogenesis. (United States)

    Araya, Claudio; Ward, Laura C; Girdler, Gemma C; Miranda, Miguel


    The development of a vertebrate neural epithelium with well-organized apico-basal polarity and a central lumen is essential for its proper function. However, how this polarity is established during embryonic development and the potential influence of surrounding signals and tissues on such organization has remained less understood. In recent years the combined superior transparency and genetics of the zebrafish embryo has allowed for in vivo visualization and quantification of the cellular and molecular dynamics that govern neural tube structure. Here, we discuss recent studies revealing how co-ordinated cell-cell interactions coupled with adjacent tissue dynamics are critical to regulate final neural tissue architecture. Furthermore, new findings show how the spatial regulation and timing of orientated cell division is key in defining precise lumen formation at the tissue midline. In addition, we compare zebrafish neurulation with that of amniotes and amphibians in an attempt to understand the conserved cellular mechanisms driving neurulation and resolve the apparent differences among animals. Zebrafish neurulation not only offers fundamental insights into early vertebrate brain development but also the opportunity to explore in vivo cell and tissue dynamics during complex three-dimensional animal morphogenesis.

  1. Modeling the Behavior of Red Blood Cells within the Caudal Vein Plexus of Zebrafish (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana R.; Karthik, Swapna; Saveljic, Igor; Djonov, Valentin; Filipovic, Nenad


    Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development. Numerical simulations were performed using a specific numerical model that combines fluid flow simulation, modeling of the interaction of individual RBCs immersed in blood plasma with the surrounding fluid and modeling the deformation of individual cells. The results of numerical simulations are in accordance with the in vivo observed region of interest within the caudal vein plexus of the zebrafish embryo. Good agreement of results demonstrates the capabilities of the developed numerical model to predict and analyze the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex geometries. The proposed model (methodology) will help to elucidate different rheological and hematological related pathologies and finally to design better treatment strategies. PMID:27774070

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael


    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  3. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Grin

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WFA is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects.

  4. Classification of human natural killer cells based on migration behavior and cytotoxic response. (United States)

    Vanherberghen, Bruno; Olofsson, Per E; Forslund, Elin; Sternberg-Simon, Michal; Khorshidi, Mohammad Ali; Pacouret, Simon; Guldevall, Karolin; Enqvist, Monika; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Mehr, Ramit; Önfelt, Björn


    Despite intense scrutiny of the molecular interactions between natural killer (NK) and target cells, few studies have been devoted to dissection of the basic functional heterogeneity in individual NK cell behavior. Using a microchip-based, time-lapse imaging approach allowing the entire contact history of each NK cell to be recorded, in the present study, we were able to quantify how the cytotoxic response varied between individual NK cells. Strikingly, approximately half of the NK cells did not kill any target cells at all, whereas a minority of NK cells was responsible for a majority of the target cell deaths. These dynamic cytotoxicity data allowed categorization of NK cells into 5 distinct classes. A small but particularly active subclass of NK cells killed several target cells in a consecutive fashion. These "serial killers" delivered their lytic hits faster and induced faster target cell death than other NK cells. Fast, necrotic target cell death was correlated with the amount of perforin released by the NK cells. Our data are consistent with a model in which a small fraction of NK cells drives tumor elimination and inflammation.

  5. Multifunctional Prenylated Peptides for Live Cell Analysis (United States)

    Wollack, James W.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mullen, Daniel G.; Amundson, Gregg; Geier, Suzanne; Falkum, Stacy; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D.


    Protein prenylation is a common post-translational modification present in eukaryotic cells. Many key proteins involved in signal transduction pathways are prenylated and inhibition of prenylation can be useful as a therapeutic intervention. While significant progress has been made in understanding protein prenylation in vitro, we have been interested in studying this process in living cells, including the question of where prenylated molecules localize. Here, we describe the synthesis and live cell analysis of a series of fluorescently labeled multifunctional peptides, based on the C-terminus of the naturally prenylated protein CDC42. A synthetic route was developed that features a key Acm to Scm protecting group conversion. This strategy was compatible with acid-sensitive isoprenoid moieties, and allowed incorporation of an appropriate fluorophore as well as a cell-penetrating sequence (penetratin). These peptides are able to enter cells through different mechanisms, depending on the presence or absence of the penetratin vehicle and the nature of the prenyl group attached. Interestingly, prenylated peptides lacking penetratin are able to enter cells freely through an energy-independent process, and localize in a perinuclear fashion. This effect extends to a prenylated peptide that includes a full “CAAX box” sequence (specifically, CVLL). Hence, these peptides open the door for studies of protein prenylation in living cells, including enzymatic processing and intracellular peptide trafficking. Moreover, the synthetic strategy developed here should be useful for the assembly of other types of peptides that contain acid sensitive functionalities. PMID:19425596

  6. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  7. Symmetry analysis of the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation (United States)

    Kuna, Agnieszka; Sikora, Wiesława


    Symmetry analysis was applied in this work to discuss the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation (deuteration), where different structural transformations and magnetic properties, depending on the type of R and M atoms and hydrogen (deuterium) concentrations, have been found. The crystallographic structure of these compounds is described by the Fm3m space group and contain 116 atoms per unit cell occupying the positions 24e(R), 4b, 24d, 32f1 and 32f2(M). Additionally in the elementary cell, there could be up to 100 atoms of hydrogen (or deuterium) occupying the interstitial positions 4a, 32f3, 96j1 and 96k1. The symmetry analysis in the frame of the theory of space groups and their representation gives the opportunity to find all possible transformations from high symmetry parent structure to the structures with symmetry belonging to one of its subgroups. For a given transformation it indicates possible displacements of atoms from initial positions in the parent structure, ordering of hydrogen over interstitial sites and also ordering of magnetic moments, described by the smallest possible number of free parameters. The analysis was carried out by means of the MODY computer program for vectors k = (0; 0; 0) and k = (0; 0; 1) describing the changes of translational symmetry and all positions occupied by the R, M and D atoms.

  8. A Pavlovian Analysis of Goal-Directed Behavior. (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.


    Analyzes associative structures underlying goal-directed behavior using well-developed techniques for studying Pavlovian conditioning. Identifies the roles of the stimulus, response, and reinforcer in instrumental learning. A response and its reinforcer must be associated for acquisition and maintenance of instrumental behavior. (Author/LHW)

  9. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Multiply Controlled Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior (United States)

    Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Reed, Gregory K.; Rivas, Kristi D.; Kadey, Heather J.


    Functional analyses identified children whose inappropriate mealtime behavior was maintained by escape and adult attention. Function-based extinction procedures were tested individually and in combination. Attention extinction alone did not result in decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior or a significant increase in acceptance. By contrast,…

  10. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.


    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  11. A Component Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression. (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others


    Tested Beck's theory explaining efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CT) for depression. Involved randomly assigning 150 outpatients with major depression to a treatment focused on the behavioral activation (BA) component of CT, a treatment including BA and teaching skills to modify automatic thoughts, but excluding the components of CT…

  12. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara


    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  13. Towards high-throughput single cell/clone cultivation and analysis. (United States)

    Lindström, Sara; Larsson, Rolf; Svahn, Helene Andersson


    In order to better understand cellular processes and behavior, a controlled way of studying high numbers of single cells and their clone formation is greatly needed. Numerous ways of ordering single cells into arrays have previously been described, but platforms in which each cell/clone can be addressed to an exact position in the microplate, cultivated for weeks and treated separately in a high-throughput manner have until now been missing. Here, a novel microplate developed for high-throughput single cell/clone cultivation and analysis is presented. Rapid single cell seeding into microwells, using conventional flow cytometry, allows several thousands of single cells to be cultivated, short-term (72 h) or long-term (10-14 days), and analyzed individually. By controlled sorting of individual cells to predefined locations in the microplate, analysis of single cell heterogeneity and clonogenic properties related to drug sensitivity can be accomplished. Additionally, the platform requires remarkably low number of cells, a major advantage when screening limited amounts of patient cell samples. By seeding single cells into the microplate it is possible to analyze the cells for over 14 generations, ending up with more than 10 000 cells in each well. Described here is a proof-of-concept on compartmentalization and cultivation of thousands of individual cells enabling heterogeneity analysis of various cells/clones and their response to different drugs.

  14. “Decoding” angiogenesis: new facets controlling endothelial cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Mattia Santoro


    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a unique and crucial biological process occurring during both development and adulthood. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulates such process is mandatory to intervene in pathophysiological conditions. Here we highlight some recent argument on new players that are critical in endothelial cells, by summarizing novel discoveries that regulate notorious vascular pathways such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, Notch and Planar Cell Polarity, and by discussing more recent findings that put metabolism, redox signaling and hemodynamic forces as novel unforeseen facets in angiogenesis. These new aspects, that critically regulate angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis in health and diseased, represent unforeseen new ground to develop anti-angiogenic therapies.

  15. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu


    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  16. Understanding HIV Testing Behaviors of Minority Adolescents: A Health Behavior Model Analysis


    Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine


    Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIVinfection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangu...

  17. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;


    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  18. A method to investigate radial glia cell behavior using two-photon time-lapse microscopy in an ex vivo model of spinal cord development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M.P. Pakan


    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS develops from multipotent progenitor cells, which proliferate and differentiate into the various cell types of the brain and spinal cord. Despite the wealth of knowledge from progenitor cell culture studies, there is a significant lack of understanding regarding dynamic progenitor cell behavior over the course of development. This is in part due to shortcomings in the techniques available to study these processes in living tissues as they are occurring. In order to investigate cell behavior under physiologically relevant conditions we established an ex vivo model of the developing rat spinal cord. This method allows us to directly observe specific populations of cells ex vivo in real time and over extended developmental periods as they undergo proliferation, migration and differentiation in the CNS. Previous investigations of progenitor cell behavior have been limited in either spatial or temporal resolution (or both due to the necessity of preserving tissue viability and avoiding phototoxic effects of fluorescent imaging. The method described here overcomes these obstacles. Using two-photon and confocal microscopy and transfected organotypic spinal cord slice cultures we have undertaken detailed imaging of a unique population of neural progenitors, radial glial cells. This method uniquely enables analysis of large populations as well as individual cells; ultimately resulting in a 4D dataset of progenitor cell behavior for up to seven days during embryonic development. This approach can be adapted to study a variety of cell populations at different stages of development using appropriate promoter driven fluorescent protein expression. The ability to control the tissue micro-environment makes this ex vivo method a powerful tool to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating cell behavior during embryonic development.

  19. Temporal modulation of collective cell behavior controls vascular network topology. (United States)

    Kur, Esther; Kim, Jiha; Tata, Aleksandra; Comin, Cesar H; Harrington, Kyle I; Costa, Luciano da F; Bentley, Katie; Gu, Chenghua


    Vascular network density determines the amount of oxygen and nutrients delivered to host tissues, but how the vast diversity of densities is generated is unknown. Reiterations of endothelial-tip-cell selection, sprout extension and anastomosis are the basis for vascular network generation, a process governed by the VEGF/Notch feedback loop. Here, we find that temporal regulation of this feedback loop, a previously unexplored dimension, is the key mechanism to determine vascular density. Iterating between computational modeling and in vivo live imaging, we demonstrate that the rate of tip-cell selection determines the length of linear sprout extension at the expense of branching, dictating network density. We provide the first example of a host tissue-derived signal (Semaphorin3E-Plexin-D1) that accelerates tip cell selection rate, yielding a dense network. We propose that temporal regulation of this critical, iterative aspect of network formation could be a general mechanism, and additional temporal regulators may exist to sculpt vascular topology.

  20. A systems analysis of psychobiology and behavior therapy. Implications for behavioral medicine. (United States)

    Schwartz, G E


    This article examines some basic principles of systems theory and applies them to the integration of psychobiology and behavior therapy in the evolution of behavioral medicine. Using the concepts of whole/part relationships, level and emergent property, and self-regulation and disregulation, it is proposed that all behavioral therapies involve psychobiological processes, and therefore, indirectly impinge on physical health. It is argued that the distinction between behavior and biology is one of level, and, therefore, behavioral therapies are ultimately biobehavioral therapies having biobehavioral consequences. It is proposed that contrary to traditional reductionistic logic, modern advances in biology are providing strong justification for the importance of including psychological methods in treating diseases manifested at the biological level. Various clinical examples are used to demonstrate how systems theory can be applied to differential diagnosis and treatment, computing cost/benefit ratios of different treatments, and conducting comprehensive clinical research and evaluation. Assessing the interaction of biological, psychological, and social treatment modalities becomes the hallmark of responsible patient care. Implications of the systems conception of behavioral medicine for collaboration among health care providers, the training of future clinicians in different disciplines, and policy decisions regarding the larger social consequences of health care are considered.

  1. A multi-step standard-cell placement algorithm of optimizing timing and congestion behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文婷; 洪先龙; 吴为民; 蔡懿慈


    The timing behavior and congestion behavior are two important goals in the performance-driven standard-cell placement. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between the timing and congestion behavior. We bring up a multi-step placement algorithm to reach the two goals. First, the timing-driven placement algorithm is used to find the global optimal solution. In the second step, the algorithm tries to decrease the maximum congestion while not deteriorating the timing behavior. We have implemented our algorithm and tested it with real circuits. The results show that the maximum delay can decrease by 30% in our timing-driven placement and in the second step the maximum congestion will decrease by 10% while the timing behavior is unchanged.

  2. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifoori, Sajjad, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation.

  3. Mathematical analysis of mis-estimation of cell subsets in flow cytometry: viability staining revisited. (United States)

    Petrunkina, A M; Harrison, R A P


    Many research projects in cell biology now use flow cytometry for analysis or for isolation of specific cell types. In such studies, cell viability is obviously a crucial issue. However, many studies appear to rely upon light-scattering characteristics to identify and gate out non-viable cells, despite the fact that reliable identification of such cells can only be achieved through staining with impermeable fluorescent nuclear dyes such as propidium iodide or 7-amino actinomycin. In this paper we apply mathematical analysis to the theoretical problem of quantifying cell sub-populations labeled with two or more fluorescent markers, comparing situations in which dead cells have been identified with those in which cell viability has not been assessed. We demonstrate that in all cases in which dead cells are present within the population, percentages of live sub-populations in different subsets are mis-estimated. In cases where the pattern of marker expression differs greatly between live and dead cells, or where the proportion of dead cells is high, this mis-estimation will be aggravated; the subsets pattern will therefore be biased in a population selected only on the basis of light-scatter behavior. The importance of accurately detecting and gating out dead cells is illustrated by an experimental example accompanying the mathematical analysis. To conclude, identification of dead cells by means of viability stains should be an absolute routine in practical flow cytometry, so as to avoid mis-estimation in sorting or analysis.

  4. Impact of the irregular microgeometry of polyurethane foam on the macroscopic acoustic behavior predicted by a unit-cell model. (United States)

    Doutres, O; Ouisse, M; Atalla, N; Ichchou, M


    This paper deals with the prediction of the macroscopic sound absorption behavior of highly porous polyurethane foams using two unit-cell microstructure-based models recently developed by Doutres, Atalla, and Dong [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 113, 054901 (2013)]. In these models, the porous material is idealized as a packing of a tetrakaidecahedra unit-cell representative of the disordered network that constitutes the porous frame. The non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity, airflow resistivity, tortuosity, etc.) are derived from characteristic properties of the unit-cell and semi-empirical relationships. A global sensitivity analysis is performed on these two models in order to investigate how the variability associated with the measured unit-cell characteristics affects the models outputs. This allows identification of the possible limitations of a unit-cell micro-macro approach due to microstructure irregularity. The sensitivity analysis mainly shows that for moderately and highly reticulated polyurethane foams, the strut length parameter is the key parameter since it greatly impacts three important non-acoustic parameters and causes large uncertainty on the sound absorption coefficient even if its measurement variability is moderate. For foams with a slight inhomogeneity and anisotropy, a micro-macro model associated to cell size measurements should be preferred.

  5. Noninvasive In Toto Imaging of the Thymus Reveals Heterogeneous Migratory Behavior of Developing T Cells. (United States)

    Bajoghli, Baubak; Kuri, Paola; Inoue, Daigo; Aghaallaei, Narges; Hanelt, Marleen; Thumberger, Thomas; Rauzi, Matteo; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Leptin, Maria


    The migration of developing T cells (thymocytes) between distinct thymic microenvironments is crucial for their development. Ex vivo studies of thymus tissue explants suggest two distinct migratory behaviors of thymocytes in the thymus. In the cortex, thymocytes exhibit a stochastic migration, whereas medullary thymocytes show confined migratory behavior. Thus far, it has been difficult to follow all thymocytes in an entire thymus and relate their differentiation steps to their migratory dynamics. To understand the spatial organization of the migratory behavior and development of thymocytes in a fully functional thymus, we developed transgenic reporter lines for the chemokine receptors ccr9a and ccr9b, as well as for rag2, and used them for noninvasive live imaging of the entire thymus in medaka (Oryzias latipes). We found that the expression of these two chemokine receptors in the medaka juvenile thymus defined two spatially distinct subpopulations of thymocytes. Landmark events of T cell development including proliferation, somatic recombination, and thymic selection can be mapped to subregions of the thymus. The migratory behavior of thymocytes within each of the subpopulations is equally heterogeneous, and specific migratory behaviors are not associated with particular domains in the thymus. During the period when thymocytes express rag2 their migratory behavior was more homogeneous. Therefore, the migratory behavior of thymocytes is partly correlated with their developmental stage rather than being defined by their spatial localization.

  6. Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. (United States)

    Iwata, B A; Pace, G M; Kalsher, M J; Cowdery, G E; Cataldo, M F


    Three studies are presented in which environmental correlates of self-injurious behavior were systematically examined and later used as the basis for treatment. In Study 1, 7 developmentally disabled subjects were exposed to a series of conditions designed to identify factors that maintain self-injurious behavior: attention contingent on self-injurious behavior (positive reinforcement), escape from or avoidance of demands contingent on self-injurious behaviour (negative reinforcement), alone (automatic reinforcement), and play (control). Results of a multielement design showed that each subject's self-injurious behavior occurred more frequently in the demand condition, suggesting that the behavior served an avoidance or escape function. Six of the 7 subjects participated in Study 2. During educational sessions, "escape extinction" was applied as treatment for their self-injurious behavior in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Results showed noticeable reduction or elimination of self-injurious behavior for each subject and an increase in compliance with instructions in all subjects for whom compliance data were taken. The 7th subject, whose self-injurious behavior during Study 1 occurred in response to medical demands (i.e., physical examinations), participated in Study 3. Treatment was comprised of extinction, as in Study 2, plus reinforcement for tolerance of the examination procedure, and was evaluated in a multiple baseline across settings design. Results showed that the treatment was successful in eliminating self-injurious behavior and that its effects transferred across eight new therapists and three physicians. General implications for the design, interpretation, and uses of assessment studies are discussed.

  7. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Raorane, Abhijit


    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improve conventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trusted customers using sales data in a super market industry

  8. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová


    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  9. Family dynamics and self-injury behaviors: a correlation analysis. (United States)

    Halstead, Ruth Ogden; Pavkov, Thomas W; Hecker, Lorna L; Seliner, Michelle M


    This study tested the relationship between family dynamics and self-injury. A total of 189 participants responded to a web-based survey collecting information related to previous self-injury behaviors and family dynamics. Participants were over 18 years old who had used self-injury (intentionally harming themselves physically to relieve painful emotions without suicidal intent), but who had not used self-injury for over a year. Results indicated that healthy family dynamics were negatively correlated and associated with higher scores of self-injury behaviors. This study offers some evidence that family dynamics influence self-injury behaviors. The implications for family therapy are discussed.

  10. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  11. Single-Cell and Single-Molecule Analysis of Gene Expression Regulation (United States)

    Vera, Maria; Biswas, Jeetayu; Senecal, Adrien


    Recent advancements in single-cell and single-molecule imaging technologies have resolved biological processes in time and space that are fundamental to understanding the regulation of gene expression. Observations of single-molecule events in their cellular context have revealed highly dynamic aspects of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control in eukaryotic cells. This approach can relate transcription with mRNA abundance and lifetimes. Another key aspect of single-cell analysis is the cell-to-cell variability among populations of cells. Definition of heterogeneity has revealed stochastic processes, determined characteristics of under-represented cell types or transitional states, and integrated cellular behaviors in the context of multicellular organisms. In this review, we discuss novel aspects of gene expression of eukaryotic cells and multicellular organisms revealed by the latest advances in single-cell and single-molecule imaging technology. PMID:27893965

  12. DNA conformational behavior and compaction in biomimetic systems: Toward better understanding of DNA packaging in cell. (United States)

    Zinchenko, Anatoly


    In a living cell, long genomic DNA is strongly compacted and exists in the environment characterized by a dense macromolecular crowding, high concentrations of mono- and divalent cations, and confinement of ca. 10μm size surrounded by a phospholipid membrane. Experimental modelling of such complex biological system is challenging but important to understand spatiotemporal dynamics and functions of the DNA in cell. The accumulated knowledge about DNA condensation/compaction in conditions resembling those in the real cell can be eventually used to design and construct partly functional "artificial cells" having potential applications in drug delivery systems, gene therapy, and production of synthetic cells. In this review, I would like to overview the past progress in our understanding of the DNA conformational behavior and, in particular, DNA condensation/compaction phenomenon and its relation to the DNA biological activity. This understanding was gained by designing relevant experimental models mimicking DNA behavior in the environment of living cell. Starting with a brief summary of classic experimental systems to study DNA condensation/compaction, in later parts, I highlight recent experimental methodologies to address the effects of macromolecular crowding and nanoscale and microscale confinements on DNA conformation dynamics. All the studies are discussed in the light of their relevance to DNA behavior in living cells, and future prospects of the field are outlined.

  13. A detailed analysis of threshold behavior for the Efimov effect (United States)

    Côté, R.; Simbotin, I.; Shu, D.


    We analyze the energy dependence of the three-body recombination rate K3 for systems which possess Efimov states, and we identify a new regime of energies, characterized by a simple behavior of K3(E) . Using a model which captures the key features of the Efimov problem, we confirm the oscillatory behavior at high energy found by Esry et al. However, we find that in the ultracold limit, the oscillatory behavior does not transition directly into the Wigner type behavior. We uncovered a domain of intermediate energies between the Wigner and the oscillatory regimes. The extent of the new energy regime is determined by the Efimov state nearest to the threshold, or by an Efimov resonance just above the threshold. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0213).

  14. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome


    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  15. Deindividuation and antinormative behavior : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R


    A meta-analytic integration reviews evidence for deindividuation theory as an explanation of collective and antinormative behavior. Deindividuation theories propose a subjective deindividuated state that causes transgression of general social norms. Deindividuation research classically manipulates a

  16. Experimental Analysis and Extinction of Self-Injurious Escape Behavior. (United States)

    Iwata, Brian A.; And Others


    Three studies investigated environmental correlates of self-injurious behavior in seven developmentally disabled children and adolescents which were then later used for treatment. Correlates investigated included positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, automatic reinforcement, and control. "Escape extinction" was successfully…

  17. Gamification: The Intersection between Behavior Analysis and Game Design Technologies. (United States)

    Morford, Zachary H; Witts, Benjamin N; Killingsworth, Kenneth J; Alavosius, Mark P


    Deterding et al. (Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, USA 15: 9-15, 2011) report a recent rise in popularity of video game inspired software designed to address issues in a variety of areas, including health, energy conservation, education, and business. These applications have been based on the concept of gamification, which involves a process by which nongame activities are designed to be more like a game. We provide examples of how gamification has been used to increase health-related behavior, energy consumption, academic performance, and other socially-significant behavior. We argue that behavior analytic research and practice stands to benefit from incorporating successful elements of game design. Lastly, we provide suggestions for behavior analysts regarding applied and basic research related to gamification.

  18. Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior


    Marr, M. Jackson


    This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences—physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the ...

  19. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci M. CIHON


    Full Text Available The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school district in which behavior analytic services were provided for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. A list of terms and definitions are provided as well as suggestions on how to develop shared vocabularies within the readers’ own service provision context.

  20. A simple model of hysteresis behavior using spreadsheet analysis (United States)

    Ehrmann, A.; Blachowicz, T.


    Hysteresis loops occur in many scientific and technical problems, especially as field dependent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, but also as stress-strain-curves of materials measured by tensile tests including thermal effects, liquid-solid phase transitions, in cell biology or economics. While several mathematical models exist which aim to calculate hysteresis energies and other parameters, here we offer a simple model for a general hysteretic system, showing different hysteresis loops depending on the defined parameters. The calculation which is based on basic spreadsheet analysis plus an easy macro code can be used by students to understand how these systems work and how the parameters influence the reactions of the system on an external field. Importantly, in the step-by-step mode, each change of the system state, compared to the last step, becomes visible. The simple program can be developed further by several changes and additions, enabling the building of a tool which is capable of answering real physical questions in the broad field of magnetism as well as in other scientific areas, in which similar hysteresis loops occur.

  1. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)


    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  2. Effects of laminin glycopeptides on metastasis—related behaviors of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Our previous reports have shown that lamininglycopeptides (LN-GPs),the total glycopeptides prepared from laminin (LN),can prevent the experimental lung metastasis and liver metastasis of mouse cancer cells.In order to explore the anti-metastatic mechanism of LN-GPs,we studied the effects of LN-GPs on metastasisrelated behaviors of cancer cells in vitro.LN-GPs did not affect cell survival.However,LN-GPs inhibited cell attachment and spreading of S180 cells on LN-and Matrigelsubstrate in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners.Moreover,inhibition of cell attachment and spreading on Matrigel substrates were much greater on Matrigel substrate than on LN substrate.In the gresence of LN-GPs,S180 cells on LN substrate changed from a flattened polygonal shape to a round one,the migration of S180 cells on LN substrate decreased,and the number of a highly invasive human pulmonary giant carcinoma PG cells invading Matrigel filter in a Boyden chamber was reduced.LN-GPs thus have multiple inhibitory effects on cancer metastasisrelated behaviors.

  3. Usage of a Responsible Gambling Tool: A Descriptive Analysis and Latent Class Analysis of User Behavior. (United States)

    Forsström, David; Hesser, Hugo; Carlbring, Per


    Gambling is a common pastime around the world. Most gamblers can engage in gambling activities without negative consequences, but some run the risk of developing an excessive gambling pattern. Excessive gambling has severe negative economic and psychological consequences, which makes the development of responsible gambling strategies vital to protecting individuals from these risks. One such strategy is responsible gambling (RG) tools. These tools track an individual's gambling history and supplies personalized feedback and might be one way to decrease excessive gambling behavior. However, research is lacking in this area and little is known about the usage of these tools. The aim of this article is to describe user behavior and to investigate if there are different subclasses of users by conducting a latent class analysis. The user behaviour of 9528 online gamblers who voluntarily used a RG tool was analysed. Number of visits to the site, self-tests made, and advice used were the observed variables included in the latent class analysis. Descriptive statistics show that overall the functions of the tool had a high initial usage and a low repeated usage. Latent class analysis yielded five distinct classes of users: self-testers, multi-function users, advice users, site visitors, and non-users. Multinomial regression revealed that classes were associated with different risk levels of excessive gambling. The self-testers and multi-function users used the tool to a higher extent and were found to have a greater risk of excessive gambling than the other classes.

  4. Transfection effect of microbubbles on cells in superposed ultrasound waves and behavior of cavitation bubble. (United States)

    Kodama, Tetsuya; Tomita, Yukio; Koshiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Blomley, Martin J K


    The combination of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) is able to induce transient membrane permeability leading to direct delivery of exogenous molecules into cells. Cavitation bubbles are believed to be involved in the membrane permeability; however, the detailed mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, the effects of ultrasound and the UCAs, Optison on transfection in vitro for different medium heights and the related dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubbles were investigated. Cultured CHO-E cells mixed with reporter genes (luciferase or beta-gal plasmid DNA) and UCAs were exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound in 24-well plates. Ultrasound was applied from the bottom of the well and reflected at the free surface of the medium, resulting in the superposition of ultrasound waves within the well. Cells cultured on the bottom of 24-well plates were located near the first node (displacement node) of the incident ultrasound downstream. Transfection activity was a function determined with the height of the medium (wave traveling distance), as well as the concentration of UCAs and the exposure time was also determined with the concentration of UCAs and the exposure duration. Survival fraction was determined by MTT assay, also changes with these values in the reverse pattern compared with luciferase activity. With shallow medium height, high transfection efficacy and high survival fraction were obtained at a low concentration of UCAs. In addition, capillary waves and subsequent atomized particles became significant as the medium height decreased. These phenomena suggested cavitation bubbles were being generated in the medium. To determine the effect of UCAs on bubble generation, we repeated the experiments using crushed heat-treated Optison solution instead of the standard microbubble preparation. The transfection ratio and survival fraction showed no additional benefit when ultrasound was used. These results suggested that cavitation bubbles created by the

  5. Problematic Internet and Cell-Phone Use: Psychological, Behavioral, and Health Correlates


    Jenaro Río, Cristina; Flores Robaina, Noelia; Gómez Vela, María; González Gil, Francisca; Caballo Escribano, Cristina


    [EN]This study aimed to assess pathological Internet and cell-phone use in college students, and to identify psychological, health, and behavioral correlates. A cross-sectional design was utilized to gather data from 337 students. We developed two measures, termed the Internet Over-use Scale (IOS), and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS). Additional measures utilized were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Results provide suppor...

  6. Verbal Behavior Analysis: A Program of Research in the Induction and Expansion of Complex Verbal Behavior (United States)

    Greer, R. Douglas; Ross, Denise E.


    Both applied and conceptual experiments based on Skinner's theory of verbal behavior have led to significant benefits for: (a) persons with language disorders and delays, (b) students who need to bridge the achievement gap, (c) professionals who work with students, and (d) individuals who wish to design functional curricula and pedagogy to meet…

  7. Cell fusion through a microslit between adhered cells and observation of their nuclear behavior. (United States)

    Wada, Ken-Ichi; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kondo, Eitaro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Mizuo


    This paper describes a novel cell fusion method which induces cell fusion between adhered cells through a microslit for preventing nuclear mixing. For this purpose, a microfluidic device which had ∼ 100 cell pairing structures (CPSs) making cell pairs through microslits with 2.1 ± 0.3 µm width was fabricated. After trapping NIH3T3 cells with hydrodynamic forces at the CPSs, the cells were fused through the microslit by the Sendai virus envelope method. With following timelapse observation, we discovered that the spread cells were much less susceptible to nuclear migration passing through the microslit compared with round cells, and that cytoplasmic fraction containing mitochondria was transferred through the microslit without nuclear mixing. These findings will provide an effective method for cell fusion without nuclear mixing, and will lead to an efficient method for reprograming and transdifferentiation of target cells toward regenerative medicine.

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sub-Micron Traps for Single-Cell Analysis of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Kohlheyer


    Full Text Available Microfluidics has become an essential tool in single-cell analysis assays for gaining more accurate insights into cell behavior. Various microfluidics methods have been introduced facilitating single-cell analysis of a broad range of cell types. However, the study of prokaryotic cells such as Escherichia coli and others still faces the challenge of achieving proper single-cell immobilization simply due to their small size and often fast growth rates. Recently, new approaches were presented to investigate bacteria growing in monolayers and single-cell tracks under environmental control. This allows for high-resolution time-lapse observation of cell proliferation, cell morphology and fluorescence-coupled bioreporters. Inside microcolonies, interactions between nearby cells are likely and may cause interference during perturbation studies. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device containing hundred sub-micron sized trapping barrier structures for single E. coli cells. Descendant cells are rapidly washed away as well as components secreted by growing cells. Experiments show excellent growth rates, indicating high cell viability. Analyses of elongation and growth rates as well as morphology were successfully performed. This device will find application in prokaryotic single-cell studies under constant environment where by-product interference is undesired.

  9. Memristive behavior in a junctionless flash memory cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orak, Ikram [Vocational School of Health Services, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Ürel, Mustafa; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bakan, Gokhan [Faculty of Engineering, Antalya International University, 07190 Antalya (Turkey)


    We report charge storage based memristive operation of a junctionless thin film flash memory cell when it is operated as a two terminal device by grounding the gate. Unlike memristors based on nanoionics, the presented device mode, which we refer to as the flashristor mode, potentially allows greater control over the memristive properties, allowing rational design. The mode is demonstrated using a depletion type n-channel ZnO transistor grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with HfO{sub 2} as the tunnel dielectric, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the control dielectric, and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride as the charge storage layer. The device exhibits the pinched hysteresis of a memristor and in the unoptimized device, R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios of about 3 are presented with low operating voltages below 5 V. A simplified model predicts R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios can be improved significantly by adjusting the native threshold voltage of the devices. The repeatability of the resistive switching is excellent and devices exhibit 10{sup 6 }s retention time, which can, in principle, be improved by engineering the gate stack and storage layer properties. The flashristor mode can find use in analog information processing applications, such as neuromorphic computing, where well-behaving and highly repeatable memristive properties are desirable.

  10. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae. (United States)

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young


    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds.

  11. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou


    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  12. Analysis of silt behavior induced by water waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Mian


    Karman, Th., Zur theorie der spanungszustnde in plastischen und sandartigen medion, Nachr. Gesellsch. Wissensch., Gttingen, 1909.[17]Szczepinski, W., Introduction to the Mechanics of Plastic Forming of Metals, Netherlands: Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979.[18]Chen, W. F., Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity, New York: Elsevier, 1975.[19]Yu, M. H., He, L. N., A new model and theory on yield and failure of materials under complex stress state, Mechanical Behaviors of Materials~6, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991, 3: 841—846.[20]Yu, M. H., New System of Strength Theory (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong Universitry Press, 1992.[21]Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Song, L. Y., Twin shear stress theory and its generalization, Scientia Sinica (Science in China), Series A, 1985, 28(11): 1174—1183.[22]Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y. et al., Unified elasto-plastic associated and non-associated constitutive model and its engineering applications, Computers and Structures, 1999, 71: 627—636.[23]Ma, G. W., Shoji, I., Plastic limit analysis of circular plates with respect to unified yield criterion, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1998, 40(10): 963.[24]Ma, G. W., Hao, H., Unified plastic limit analyses of circular plates under arbitrary load, Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, 1999, 66(2): 568.[25]Qiang, H. F., Lu, N., Liu, B. J., Unified solutions of crack tip plastic zone under small scale yielding, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 35(1): 34—38.[26]Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., Constitutive descriptions of multiphase poropus media, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(1):11—24.[27]Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., An elasto-plastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated geomaterials, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(2): 198—206.[28]Cheng, H. X., Li, J. J., Zhang, G. S. et al., Finite element analysis program system HAJIF(X), Chinese Journal of

  13. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  14. Clustering analysis of malware behavior using Self Organizing Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    Map, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, for generating clusters that capture the similarities between malware behavior. A data set of approximately 270,000 samples was used to generate the behavioral profile of malicious types in order to compare the outcome of the proposed clustering...... accurate results based on the clusters created by competitive and cooperative algorithms like Self Organizing Map that better describe the behavioral profile of malware....... approach with the labels collected from 57 Antivirus vendors using VirusTotal. Upon evaluating the results, the paper concludes on shortcomings of relying on AV vendors for labeling malware samples. In order to solve the problem, a cluster-based classification is proposed, which should provide more...

  15. Spatial behavior analysis at the global level using fractal geometry. (United States)

    Sambrook, Roger C


    Previous work has suggested that an estimate of fractal dimension can provide a useful metric for quantifying settlement patterns. This study uses fractal methods to investigate settlement patterns at a global scale showing that the scaling behavior of the pattern of the world's largest cities corresponds to that typically observed for coastlines and rivers. This serves to validate the use of fractal dimension as a scale-independent measure of settlement patterns which can be correlated with other physical features. Such a measure may be a useful validation criterion for models of human settlement and spatial behavior.

  16. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner


    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  17. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen


    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  18. Mathematical model of dynamic behavior of microbial desalination cells for simultaneous wastewater treatment and water desalination. (United States)

    Ping, Qingyun; Zhang, Chenyao; Chen, Xueer; Zhang, Bo; Huang, Zuyi; He, Zhen


    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are an emerging concept for simultaneous wastewater treatment and water desalination. This work presents a mathematical model to simulate dynamic behavior of MDCs for the first time through evaluating multiple factors such as organic supply, salt loading, and current generation. Ordinary differential equations were applied to describe the substrate as well as bacterial concentrations in the anode compartment. Local sensitivity analysis was employed to select model parameters that needed to be re-estimated from the previous studies. This model was validated by experimental data from both a bench- and a large-scale MDC system. It could fit current generation fairly well and simulate the change of salt concentration. It was able to predict the response of the MDC with time under various conditions, and also provide information for analyzing the effects of different operating conditions. Furthermore, optimal operating conditions for the MDC used in this study were estimated to have an acetate flow rate of 0.8 mL·min(-1), influent salt concentration of 15 g·L(-1) and salt solution flow rate of 0.04 mL·min(-1), and to be operated with an external resistor less than 30 Ω. The MDC model will be helpful with determining operational parameters to achieve optimal desalination in MDCs.

  19. Designing stable finite state machine behaviors using phase plane analysis and variable structure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.


    This paper discusses how phase plane analysis can be used to describe the overall behavior of single and multiple autonomous robotic vehicles with finite state machine rules. The importance of this result is that one can begin to design provably asymptotically stable group behaviors from a set of simple control laws and appropriate switching points with decentralized variable structure control. The ability to prove asymptotically stable group behavior is especially important for applications such as locating military targets or land mines.

  20. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  1. Classroom-BasedFunctional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders


    Wright-Gallo, G. L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, K. A.; Davey, B. J.


    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task demands and access to attention. Based on this information, we implemented a DRA procedure in which participants could request either escape or atte...

  2. Functional analysis of challenging behavior in people with severe intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Delgado-Casas, C; Navarro, J I; Garcia-Gonzalez-Gordon, R; Marchena, E


    Challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities often hinder the acquisition of academic, social, and life skills. Functional analysis has been useful for assessing challenging behavior in various settings. The purpose of this study was to implement an operant methodology for recognizing the functional properties of challenging behavior in people with intellectual disabilities. Four adults diagnosed with profound intellectual disability received assessment under several experimental conditions using a functional analysis methodology: social attention as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement such as the termination of demands, positive tangible reinforcements, absence of social contingencies, and escape from noisy stimuli. Results showed that different types of reinforcement or avoiding contingencies affected the rate of aggression, self-injury, disruption, stereotypy, or socially offensive behaviors, and functional analysis may potentially be a viable alternative for identifying challenging behaviors.

  3. Modeling of Magnetite Nanoparticles Behavior under Conditions of Microcirculation and Analysis of In Vivo Toxicity. (United States)

    Sakharov, D A; Rudakovskaya, P G; Maltseva, D V; Trushkin, E V; Tonevitskaya, S A


    The behavior of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in the cell chip microcapillaries. No aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles under conditions of long-term circulation was noted. Biodistribution and toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles (14 nm) and aminated magnetite after their intragastric administration to mice were studied in vivo. According to mass spectrometry and microscopy data, accumulation of nanoparticles occurred mainly in the liver cells.

  4. A quorum-sensing factor in vegetative Dictyostelium discoideum cells revealed by quantitative migration analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Golé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cells communicate through the production of diffusible signaling molecules that accumulate and once a critical concentration has been reached, can activate or repress a number of target genes in a process termed quorum sensing (QS. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, QS plays an important role during development. However little is known about its effect on cell migration especially in the growth phase. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate the role of cell density on cell migration in the growth phase, we use multisite timelapse microscopy and automated cell tracking. This analysis reveals a high heterogeneity within a given cell population, and the necessity to use large data sets to draw reliable conclusions on cell motion. In average, motion is persistent for short periods of time (t ≤ 5 min, but normal diffusive behavior is recovered over longer time periods. The persistence times are positively correlated with the migrated distances. Interestingly, the migrated distance decreases as well with cell density. The adaptation of cell migration to cell density highlights the role of a secreted quorum sensing factor (QSF on cell migration. Using a simple model describing the balance between the rate of QSF generation and the rate of QSF dilution, we were able to gather all experimental results into a single master curve, showing a sharp cell transition between high and low motile behaviors with increasing QSF. CONCLUSION: This study unambiguously demonstrates the central role played by QSF on amoeboid motion in the growth phase.

  5. A computer-assisted 3D model for analyzing the aggregation of tumorigenic cells reveals specialized behaviors and unique cell types that facilitate aggregate coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Scherer

    Full Text Available We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity, and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named "facilitators" and "probes." A third cell type, the "dervish", is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs.

  6. A Detailed Analysis of End-User Search Behaviors. (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; And Others


    Discussion of search strategy formulation focuses on a study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill that analyzed how medical students developed and revised search strategies for microbiology database searches. Implications for future research on search behavior, for system interface design, and for end user training are suggested. (16…

  7. Strikes, Arbitration, and Teacher Salaries: A Behavioral Analysis. (United States)

    Delaney, John Thomas


    Using a behavioral theory of bargaining, the authors examined data sets from Illinois and Iowa school districts and from a national sample of teachers. Results suggest that strike use and the availability of arbitration and the right to strike affect teacher salaries, while arbitration use does not. (Author/SK)

  8. Mitigating Consumptive Behavior: The Analysis of Learning Experiences of Housewives (United States)



    The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of consumptive behavior by analyzing learning experiences of housewives as members of Family Welfare Movement (PKK) in Malang, East Java Indonesia. Financial literacy is defined as personal knowledge and capability in financial management. Sample of this study was 123 housewives and…

  9. Perturbation analysis on post-buckling behavior of pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The nonlinear large deflection differential equation, based on the assumption that the subsoil coefficient is the 2nd root of the depth, was established by energy method. The perturbation parameter was introduced to transform the equation to a series of linear differential equations to be solved, and the deflection function according with the boundary condition was considered. Then,the nonlinear higher-order asymptotic solution of post-buckling behavior of a pile was obtained by parameter-substituting. The influencing factors such as bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile, slenderness ratio on the post-buckling behavior of a pile were analyzed. The results show that the pile is more unstable when the bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile increase,and although the buckling load increases with the stiffness of soil, the pile may ruin for its brittleness. Thus, in the region where buckling behavior of pile must be taken into account, the high grade concrete is supposed to be applied, and the dynamic buckling behavior of pile needs to be further studied.

  10. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior among Adolescents: A Multivariate Analysis. (United States)

    Harvey, S. Marie; Spigner, Clarence


    A self-administered survey examining multiple factors associated with engaging in sexual intercourse was completed by 1,026 high school students in a classroom setting. Findings suggest that effective interventions to address teenage pregnancy need to utilize a multifaceted approach to the prevention of high-risk behaviors. (JPS)

  11. Formal modeling and analysis of cognitive agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, Alexei; Treur, Jan


    From an external perspective, cognitive agent behavior can be described by specifying (temporal) correlations of a certain complexity between stimuli (input states) and (re)actions (output states) of the agent. From an internal perspective the agent’s dynamics can be characterized by direct (causa

  12. A Content Analysis of Problematic Behavior in Counselor Education Programs (United States)

    Brown, Maranda


    Counselor education programs are obligated by accreditation standards and professional codes of ethics to identify counselors-in-training whose academic, clinical, and personal performance indicate problematic behavior that would potentially prevent them from entering the profession (McAdams, Foster, & Ward, 2007; Rust, Raskin, & Hill,…

  13. Diagnosing foodborne illness: A behavioral analysis of barriers to testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.


    Public health authorities rely on the timely flow of laboratory results to detect and control food-borne illnesses. At times, social and economic barriers limit individuals’ ability to get needed tests. We demonstrate a simple behavioral approach to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions des

  14. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education (United States)

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.


    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  15. Marketing Journal Coauthorships: An Empirical Analysis of Coauthor Behavior (United States)

    Brown, Christopher L.; Chan, Kam C.; Lai, Pikki


    The objective of this article is to study the bargaining behavior of coauthors in multiauthored marketing papers. The literature argues that the order of author names sends a signal about their relative contribution to the article, and the signal is muted when the names are in alphabetical order. In addition, other things being the same, the…

  16. Strategic Behavior Analysis of Small Business in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bent Hansen


    Full Text Available Over recent years, small businesses have been the target of public and private investment in Brazil due to the appreciation of their economic and social impact. The growth of small businesses in Brazil has stimulated a demand for greater knowledge and a broader understanding of their peculiarities. Hence, this paper aims to propose a framework for analyzing the strategic behavior for small businesses. To test the suitability of this analytical framework, qualitative research was conducted based on descriptive and exploratory case studies involving three small companies in the construction sector in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The results show that: (i based on the proposed analytical structure it was possible to identifythe idiosyncrasies and the conflicts between strategy, structure and processes in such firms; (ii the strategic behavior ofthe firms is not stable, since they demonstrate the ability to change the prevailing strategic behavior based on strategicdecisions that reinforce the strategic typologies studied and; (iii it is possible to identify opportunities to strengthen certainstrategic behavior of firms.

  17. Don'T wag the dog: extending the reach of applied behavior analysis. (United States)

    Normand, Matthew P; Kohn, Carolynn S


    We argue that the field of behavior analysis would be best served if behavior analysts worked to extend the reach of behavioral services into a more diverse range of settings and with more varied populations, with an emphasis on the establishment of new career opportunities for graduating students. This is not a new proposal, but it is a tall order; it is not difficult to see why many would choose a surer route to gainful employment. Currently, the most fruitful career path for behavior analysts in practice is in the area of autism and developmental disabilities. For the continued growth of the field of behavior analysis, however, it is important to foster new career opportunities for those trained as behavior analysts. Toward this end, we identify several fields that seem well suited to behavior analysts and summarize the training requirements and likely professional outcomes for behavior analysts who pursue education and certification in these fields. These fields require relatively little additional formal training in the hopes of minimizing the response effort necessary for individuals who have already completed a rigorous program of graduate study in behavior analysis.

  18. Effects of transforming growth interacting factor on biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Liang Hu; Ji-Fang Wen; De-Sheng Xiao; Hui Zhen; Chun-Yan Fu


    AIM:Transforming growth interacting factor (TGIF) is an inhibitor of both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, the activation of MAPK pathway can prolong its half-life. However, its role in carcinogenesis is still unknown. Thus we attempted to investigate the effect of TGIF on biologic behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells.METHODS: Gastric carcinoma cell line, SGC-7901, was stably transfected with plasmid PcDNA3.1-TGIF. Western blotting and cell immunohistochemistry screening for the highly expressing clone of TGIF were employed. The growth of transfected cells was investigated by MTT and colonyformation assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy.Tumorigenicity of the transfectant cells was also analyzed.RESULTS: TGIF had no effect on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, but cellular organelles of cells transfected with TGIF were richer than those of vector control or parental cells. Its clones were smaller than the control ones in plate efficiency, and its tumor tissues also had no obvious necrosis compared with the vector control or parental cells. Moreover, TGIF could resist TGF-β mediated growth inhibition.CONCLUSION: TGIF may induce differentiation of stomach neoplastic cells. In addition, TGIF can counteract the growth inhibition induced by TGF-β.

  19. Influence of nanostructural environment and fluid flow on osteoblast-like cell behavior: a model for cell-mechanics studies. (United States)

    Prodanov, L; Semeins, C M; van Loon, J J W A; te Riet, J; Jansen, J A; Klein-Nulend, J; Walboomers, X F


    Introducing nanoroughness on various biomaterials has been shown to profoundly effect cell-material interactions. Similarly, physical forces act on a diverse array of cells and tissues. Particularly in bone, the tissue experiences compressive or tensile forces resulting in fluid shear stress. The current study aimed to develop an experimental setup for bone cell behavior, combining a nanometrically grooved substrate (200 nm wide, 50 nm deep) mimicking the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix, with mechanical stimulation by pulsatile fluid flow (PFF). MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were assessed for morphology, expression of genes involved in cell attachment and osteoblastogenesis and nitric oxide (NO) release. The results showed that both nanotexture and PFF did affect cellular morphology. Cells aligned on nanotexture substrate in a direction parallel to the groove orientation. PFF at a magnitude of 0.7 Pa was sufficient to induce alignment of cells on a smooth surface in a direction perpendicular to the applied flow. When environmental cues texture and flow were interacting, PFF of 1.4 Pa applied parallel to the nanogrooves initiated significant cellular realignment. PFF increased NO synthesis 15-fold in cells attached to both smooth and nanotextured substrates. Increased collagen and alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression was observed on the nanotextured substrate, but not on the smooth substrate. Furthermore, vinculin and bone sialoprotein were up-regulated after 1 h of PFF stimulation. In conclusion, the data show that interstitial fluid forces and structural cues mimicking extracellular matrix contribute to the final bone cell morphology and behavior, which might have potential application in tissue engineering.

  20. Single cell transcriptome analysis using next generation sequencing.


    Blattner, M.


    The heterogeneity of tissues, especially in cancer research, is a central issue in transcriptome analysis. In recent years, research has primarily focused on the development of methods for single cell analysis. Single cell analysis aims at gaining (novel) insights into biological processes of healthy and diseased cells. Some of the challenges in transcriptome analysis concern low abundance of sample starting material, necessary sample amplification steps and subsequent analysis. In this study...

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung


    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  2. Gender Differences in Computer-Related Attitudes and Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.


    A meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in computer attitudes and behavior found that males exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive attitudes toward computers than females. Most differences in attitudes and behavior were small, with the largest found in high school students.…

  3. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Demands (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Shanholtzer, Alison; Mezhoudi, Nabil; Scherbak, Bailey; Kahng, SungWoo


    Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a useful tool for quickly evaluating intervention strategies for individuals with academic deficits and minor behavior problems. However, there is a lack of research investigating BEA for intervention strategies with individuals who emit severe problem behavior to avoid academic demands. For the current study,…

  4. The Application of Functional Analysis of Behavior by Teachers in a Natural School Setting. Final Report. (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    The initial purpose of this project was to demonstrate in four Washington state elementary schools the application of functional analysis of behavior to children who have learning disabilities and social behavior disturbances in the natural school setting. During the development of the project this purpose was broadened to include the prevention…

  5. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of College English Teacher ’ s Non-verbal Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian


    This paper analyzes College English teacher’s non-verbal behaviors in multimedia classroom from the perspective of Multimodal Discourse Analysis, aiming to explore how the non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching can be applied in meaning-making process to facilitate teacher-students interaction and realize three metafunctions of language in class.

  6. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.


    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  7. Graph Theory-Based Analysis of the Lymph Node Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network. (United States)

    Novkovic, Mario; Onder, Lucas; Bocharov, Gennady; Ludewig, Burkhard


    Secondary lymphoid organs have developed segregated niches that are able to initiate and maintain effective immune responses. Such global organization requires tight control of diverse cellular components, specifically those that regulate lymphocyte trafficking. Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form a densely interconnected network in lymph nodes and provide key factors necessary for T cell migration and retention, and foster subsequent interactions between T cells and dendritic cells. Development of integrative systems biology approaches has made it possible to elucidate this multilevel complexity of the immune system. Here, we present a graph theory-based analysis of the FRC network in murine lymph nodes, where generation of the network topology is performed using high-resolution confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction. This approach facilitates the analysis of physical cell-to-cell connectivity, and estimation of topological robustness and global behavior of the network when it is subjected to perturbation in silico.

  8. Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green: Photochemical Behavior in Solution and in a Mammalian Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Blaikie, Frances Helen;


    The development of efficient and selective luminescent probes for reactive oxygen species, particularly for singlet molecular oxygen, is currently of great importance. In this study, the photochemical behavior of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® (SOSG), a commercially available fluorescent probe...... for singlet oxygen, was examined. Despite published claims to the contrary, the data presented herein indicate that SOSG can, in fact, be incorporated into a living mammalian cell. However, for a number of reasons, caution must be exercised when using SOSG. First, it is shown that the immediate product...... of the reaction between SOSG and singlet oxygen is, itself, an efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizer. Second, SOSG appears to efficiently bind to proteins which, in turn, can influence uptake by a cell as well as behavior in the cell. As such, incorrect use of SOSG can yield misleading data on yields...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.


    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  10. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell depletion modulates anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Stress has been shown to suppress immune function and increase susceptibility to inflammatory disease and psychiatric disease. CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T (Treg cells are prominent in immune regulation. This study was conducted to determine if anti-CD25 antibody (Ab mediated depletion of Treg cells in mice susceptibility to stress-induced development of depression-like behaviors, as well as immunological and neurochemical activity. To accomplish this, an elevated plus-maze test (EPM, tail suspension test (TST, and forced swim test (FST were used to examine depression-like behaviors upon chronic immobilization stress. Immune imbalance status was observed based on analysis of serum cytokines using a mouse cytometric bead array in conjunction with flow cytometry and changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT and dopamine (DA in the brain were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The time spent in the open arms of the EPM decreased significantly and the immobility time in the FST increased significantly in the anti-CD25 Ab-treated group when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. In addition, interlukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-á (TNF-á, interlukin-2 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interlukin-4 (IL-4 and interlukin-17A (IL-17A concentrations were significantly upregulated in the stressed anti-CD25 Ab-treated group when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. Furthermore, the non stressed anti-CD25 Ab-treated group displayed decreased 5-HT levels within the hippocampus when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. These results suggest that CD4(+CD25(+ Treg cell depletion modulated alterations in depressive behavior, cytokine and monoaminergic activity. Therefore, controlling CD4(+CD25(+ Treg cell function during stress may be a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of depression-like symptoms.

  11. Effects of graphene quantum dots on linear and nonlinear optical behavior of malignant ovarian cells (United States)

    Mohajer, Salman; Ara, Mohammad Hossein Majles; Serahatjoo, Leila


    We investigate linear and nonlinear optical properties of standard human ovarian cancer cells (cell line: A2780cp) in vitro. Cells were treated by graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two special concentrations. Nontoxicity of GQDs was examined in standard biological viability tests. Cancerous cells were fixed on a glass slide; then, interaction of light with biofilms was studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. Absorption spectra of untreated biofilms and biofilms with two different concentrations of GQDs was studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Optical behavior of biofilms in a linear regime of intensity (with low-intensity laser exposure) was reported using a simple optical setup. After that, we compared the attenuation of light in biofilm of cancerous cells with and without GQDs. Nonlinear behavior of these biofilms was investigated by a Z-scan setup using a continued wave He-Ne laser. Results showed that GQDs decreased the extinction coefficient and changed the sign and exact value of the nonlinear refractive index of malignant ovarian cells noticeably. The nonlinear refractive index of studied cells with no GQDs treatment was in the order of 10-8 (cm2/w) with a positive sign. This quantity changed to the same order of magnitude with a negative sign after GQDs treatment. Thus, GQDs can be used for cancer diagnosis under laser irradiation.

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Inflammatory Regulators of Cell Behaviors in Vascular Formation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishan Chen


    Full Text Available Abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling contribute to pathogenesis of a number of disorders such as tumor, arthritis, atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, and neurodegeneration. During angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, behaviors of stem/progenitor cells, endothelial cells (ECs, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and its interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM play a critical role in the processes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, well-known inflammatory mediators are a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that degrade various components of ECM and non-ECM molecules mediating tissue remodeling in both physiological and pathological processes. MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MT1-MMP, are stimulated and activated by various stimuli in vascular tissues. Once activated, MMPs degrade ECM proteins or other related signal molecules to promote recruitment of stem/progenitor cells and facilitate migration and invasion of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis can also be regulated by MMPs via proteolytically cleaving and modulating bioactive molecules and relevant signaling pathways. Regarding the importance of vascular cells in abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, regulation of vascular cell behaviors through modulating expression and activation of MMPs shows therapeutic potential.

  13. Toward a theory of distinct types of "impulsive" behaviors: A meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures. (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Markon, Kristian E; Clark, Lee Anna


    Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity

  14. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R.


    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes. PMID:26340681

  15. Mechanical behavior of cells within a cell-based model of wheat leaf growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Zubairova


    Full Text Available Understanding the principles and mechanisms of cell growth coordination in plant tissue remains an outstanding challenge for modern developmental biology. Cell-based modeling is a widely used technique for studying the geometric and topological features of plant tissue morphology during growth. We developed a quasi-one-dimensional model of unidirectional growth of a tissue layer in a linear leaf blade that takes cell autonomous growth mode into account. The model allows for fitting of the visible cell length using the experimental cell length distribution along the longitudinal axis of a wheat leaf epidermis. Additionally, it describes changes in turgor and osmotic pressures for each cell in the growing tissue. Our numerical experiments show that the pressures in the cell change over the cell cycle, and in symplastically growing tissue, they vary from cell to cell and strongly depend on the leaf growing zone to which the cells belong. Therefore, we believe that the mechanical signals generated by pressures are important to consider in simulations of tissue growth as possible targets for molecular genetic regulators of individual cell growth.

  16. Planar Cell Polarity Pathway – Coordinating morphogenetic cell behaviors with embryonic polarity



    Planar cell polarization entails establishment of cellular asymmetries within the tissue plane. An evolutionarily conserved Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling system employs intra- and intercellular feedback interactions between its core components, including Frizzled, Van Gogh, Flamingo, Prickle and Dishevelled, to establish their characteristic asymmetric intracellular distributions and coordinate planar polarity of cell populations. By translating global patterning information into asymm...

  17. Single-cell analysis: Advances and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hodzic


    Full Text Available The last several years have seen rapid development of technologies and methods that permit a detailed analysis of the genome and transcriptome of a single cell. Recent evidence from studies of single cells reveals that each cell type has a distinct lineage and function. The lineage and stage of development of each cell determine how they respond to each other and the environment. Experimental approaches that utilize single-cell analysis are effective means to understand how cell networks work in concert to coordinate a response at the population level; recent progress in single-cell analysis is offering a glimpse at the future.

  18. Cellular behavior in micropatterned hydrogels by bioprinting system depended on the cell types and cellular interaction. (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Seung-Joon; Lee, Jae Yeon; Jang, Hwanseok; Choi, Jaesoon; Sun, Kyung; Park, Yongdoo


    The fabrication of patterned microstructures within three-dimensional (3D) matrices is a challenging subject in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A 3D, free-moving bioprinting system was developed and hydrogels were patterned by varying the process parameters of z-axis moving velocity and ejection velocity. The patterning of hydrogel based microfibers in a 3D matrigel was achieved with dimensions of 4.5 mm length and widths from 79 to 200 μm. Hyaluronan-based hydrogels mixed with fibroblasts (L929), mouse endothelial cells (MS1), or human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were patterned using a 3D moving axis bioprinter and cell behavior was monitored in culture for up to 16 days. L929 and MS1 cells and hMSCs in patterned hydrogel revealed cell-cell interactions and a morphological dependency on cell types. HMSCs formed spheres through cell aggregation, while L929 cells increased in cellular mass without cell aggregation and MS1 dispersed into the matrix instead of aggregating. The aggregation of hMSCs was attenuated by treatment with Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and cadherin antibody. This reflected the close relationship between cell aggregation and migration with RhoA and cell-cell adhesion molecules. Angiogenic-specific gene expression profiles showed that expression of CD105 decreased to 22% in the ROCK inhibitor group compared to control group. These results showed that cell-based patterns in a 3D matrix are highly dependent on both cell aggregation and migration over time.

  19. Loss of T cells influences sex differences in behavior and brain structure. (United States)

    Rilett, Kelly C; Friedel, Miriam; Ellegood, Jacob; MacKenzie, Robyn N; Lerch, Jason P; Foster, Jane A


    Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that immune-brain communication influences behavior and brain function. Mice lacking T cell receptor β and δ chains were tested in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light-dark test and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior compared to wild type. Interestingly sex differences were observed in the behavioural phenotype of TCRβ-/-δ- mice. Specifically, female TCRβ-/-δ- mice spent more time in the light chamber compared to wild type females, whereas male TCRβ-/-δ- spent more time in the center of the open field compared to wild type males. In addition, TCRβ-/-δ- mice did not show sex differences in activity-related behaviors observed in WT mice. Ex vivo brain imaging (7 Tesla MRI) revealed volume changes in hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe and other brain regions between wild type and T cell receptor knockout mice. There was also a loss of sexual dimorphism in brain volume in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, normally the most sexually dimorphic region in the brain, in immune compromised mice. These data demonstrate the presence of T cells is important in the development of sex differences in CNS circuitry and behavior.

  20. Analysis of the noise-induced bursting-spiking transition in a pancreatic beta-cell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, J.; Mosekilde, Erik; Sanjuan, M.A.F.


    A stochastic model of the electrophysiological behavior of the pancreatic beta cell is studied, as a paradigmatic example of a bursting biological cell embedded in a noisy environment. The analysis is focused on the distortion that a growing noise causes to the basic properties of the membrane po...

  1. Effects of chitosan/collagen substrates on the behavior of rat neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spinal cord and brain injuries usually lead to cavity formation.The transplantation by combining stem cells and tissue engineering scaffolds has the potential to fill the cavities and replace the lost neural cells.Both chitosan and collagen have their unique characteristics.In this study,the effects of chitosan and collagen on the behavior of rat neural stem cells (at the neurosphere level) were tested in vitro in terms of cytotoxicity and supporting ability for stem cell survival,proliferation and differentiation.Under the serum-free condition,both chitosan membranes and collagen gels had low cytotoxicity to neurospheres.That is,cells migrated from neurospheres,and processes extended out from these neurospheres and the differentiated cells.Compared with the above two materials,chitosan-collagen membranes were more suitable for the co-culture with rat neural stem cells,because,except for low cytotoxicity and supporting ability for the cell survival,in this group,a large number of cells were observed to migrate out from neurospheres,and the differentiating percentage from neurospheres into neurons was significantly increased.Further modification of chitosan-collagen membranes may shed light on in vivo nerve regeneration by transplanting neural stem cells.

  2. Patient-specific modeling of individual sickle cell behavior under transient hypoxia (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Karniadakis, George Em


    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a highly complex genetic blood disorder in which red blood cells (RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphology changes and decreased deformability. We employ a kinetic model for cell morphological sickling that invokes parameters derived from patient-specific data. This model is used to investigate the dynamics of individual sickle cells in a capillary-like microenvironment in order to address various mechanisms associated with SCD. We show that all RBCs, both hypoxia-unaffected and hypoxia-affected ones, regularly pass through microgates under oxygenated state. However, the hypoxia-affected cells undergo sickling which significantly alters cell dynamics. In particular, the dense and rigid sickle RBCs are obstructed thereby clogging blood flow while the less dense and deformable ones are capable of circumnavigating dead (trapped) cells ahead of them by choosing a serpentine path. Informed by recent experiments involving microfluidics that provide in vitro quantitative information on cell dynamics under transient hypoxia conditions, we have performed detailed computational simulations of alterations to cell behavior in response to morphological changes and membrane stiffening. Our model reveals that SCD exhibits substantial heterogeneity even within a particular density-fractionated subpopulation. These findings provide unique insights into how individual sickle cells move through capillaries under transient hypoxic conditions, and offer novel possibilities for designing effective therapeutic interventions for SCD. PMID:28288152

  3. Analysis of Users Web Browsing Behavior Using Markov chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Shukla


    Full Text Available In present days of growing information technology, many browsers available for surfing and web mining. A user has option to use any of them at a time to mine out the desired website. Every browser has pre-defined level of popularity and reputation in the market. This paper considers the setup of only two browsers in a computer system and a user prefers to any one, if fails, switches to the other one .The behavior of user is modeled through Markov chain procedure and transition probabilities are calculated. The quitting to browsing is treated as a parameter of variation over the popularity. Graphical study is performed to explain the inter relationship between user behavior parameters and browser market popularity parameters. If rate of a company is lowest in terms of browser failure and lowest in terms of quitting probability then company enjoys better popularity and larger user proportion

  4. "Tangible as tissue": Arnold Gesell, infant behavior, and film analysis. (United States)

    Curtis, Scott


    From 1924 to 1948, developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell regularly used photographic and motion picture technologies to collect data on infant behavior. The film camera, he said, records behavior "in such coherent, authentic and measurable detail that ... the reaction patterns of infant and child become almost as tangible as tissue." This essay places his faith in the fidelity and tangibility of film, as well as his use of film as evidence, in the context of developmental psychology's professed need for legitimately scientific observational techniques. It also examines his use of these same films as educational material to promote his brand of scientific child rearing. But his analytic techniques - his methods of extracting data from the film frames - are the key to understanding the complex relationship between his theories of development and his chosen research technology.

  5. Bending and buckling behavior analysis of foamed metal circular plate. (United States)

    Fan, Jian Ling; Ma, Lian Sheng; Zhang, Lu; De Su, Hou


    This paper establishes a density gradient model along the thickness direction of a circular plate made of foamed material. Based on the first shear deformation plate theory, the result is deduced that the foamed metal circular plate with graded density along thickness direction yields axisymmetric bending problem under the action of uniformly distributed load, and the analytical solution is obtained by solving the governing equation directly. The analyses on two constraint conditions of edge radial clamping and simply supported show that the density gradient index and external load may affect the axisymmetric bending behavior of the plate. Then, based on the classical plate theory, the paper analyzes the behavior of axisymmetric buckling under radial pressure applied on the circular plate. Shooting method is used to obtain the critical load, and the effects of gradient nature of material properties and boundary conditions on the critical load of the plate are analyzed.

  6. Analysis of the occupants’ behavior related to natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calì, Davide; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Osterhage, Tanja


    The real energy performance of buildings depends both upon deterministic aspects (building'sphysics and engineering systems) and probabilistic aspects such as weather and occupantbehavior. Occupant behavior is usually not directly considered when calculating the expected energy performance...... of buildings. In fact, field test studies all over the world have shown discrepancies between expectation and real energy performances of buildings. This gap could be bridged, by embedding stochastic occupants’ behavior models within buildings’ energy performances simulation software. Within this work...... monitored in terms of indoor environmental quality and window operation for four years. The aim of this work is the investigation of the drivers leading occupants to open and close windows.The evaluation of the 300 windows showed: the two most common drivers leading to the opening action were the time...

  7. Effects of Anode Wettability and Slots on Anodic Bubble Behavior Using Transparent Aluminium Electrolytic Cells (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibin; Gao, Bingliang; Feng, Yuqing; Huang, Yipeng; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei


    Transparent aluminum electrolytic cells were used to study the effects of anode wettability and slots on bubble behavior in a similar environment to that used in industrial cells. Observations were conducted using two types of transparent cells, one with side-observation and the other with a bottom-observation cell design. Anodic bubbles rising process in the side channel is strongly affected by the wettability of the anode. After rising a short distance, the bubbles detach from the anode vertical surface at good-wetting anode cases, while the bubbles still attach to the vertical surface at poor-wetting anode cases. Anode slots of width of 4 mm are able to prevent smaller bubbles from coalescing into larger bubbles and thus decrease the bubble size and gas coverage on the anode. Anode slots also make a contribution in slightly reducing bubble thickness. With the presence of slots, the bubble-induced cell voltage oscillation decreases as well.

  8. Neuronal cells' behavior on polypyrrole coated bacterial nanocellulose three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. (United States)

    Muller, D; Silva, J P; Rambo, C R; Barra, G M O; Dourado, F; Gama, F M


    In this work, polypyrrole (PPy) was in situ polymerized onto the surface of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, by chemical oxidation in aqueous medium using ammonium persulfate. Composites (BNC/PPy) were produced with varying concentrations of pyrrole (Py). The produced BNC/PPy membranes were used as a template for the seeding of PC12 rat neuronal cells. Cell suspensions were directly seeded onto the surfaces of the BNC/PPy membranes. The Py concentration affected the behavior of neuronal cells that adhered and grew significantly more on BNC/PPy comparatively to BNC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that PC12 cells adhered on the surface of the BNC and BNC/PPy membranes. Conductive PPy coatings on nanofibers acting as an active interface for tissue engineering may be used to regulate cell activity through electrical stimulations.

  9. Analysis Components of the Digital Consumer Behavior in Romania


    Cristian Bogdan Onete; Ioana Teodorescu; Viorel Vasile


    This article is investigating the Romanian consumer behavior in the context of the evolution of the online shopping. Given that online stores are a profitable business model in the area of electronic commerce and because the relationship between consumer digital Romania and its decision to purchase products or services on the Internet has not been sufficiently explored, this study aims to identify specific features of the new type of consumer and to examine the level of online shopping in Rom...

  10. Finite element analysis of notch tensile behavior of alloy 718 (United States)

    Sridhar, A.; Srivathsa, B.


    Notch tensile behavior of alloy 718 is characterized in conventionally heat treated condition as a function of U and V notches at 25, 200 & 400 °C. The experimental results were then compared with the values obtained from simulation of notched geometries in ANSYS software using smooth specimen data. An excellent agreement is noticed between simulated and experimental true stress-true strain curves.

  11. Analysis of Management Behavior Assessments and Affect on Productivity (United States)


    associated with the affects of management behavior on employee beliefs and attitudes; include Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory , Vroom’s Expectancy and Equity...achieved, when recognized, when given additional responsibility, and when advanced in job position. Vroom’s Expectancy and Equity Theories of or higher. The results of the study proved the validity of the Vroom and Yetton theory , but the employee assessments of management decision-making

  12. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima


    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  13. Health Behavior Theory for Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Root-Cause Analysis Project in Critical Care Nursing. (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K


    The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care.

  14. Degradation behavior of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell using LNF cathode as function of current load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yoshiteru; Watanabe, Kimitaka; Chiba, Reiichi; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Orui, Himeko; Arai, Hajime [NTT Energy and Environment Systems Laboratories, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)


    We investigated the effect of current loading on the degradation behavior of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cell consisted of LaNi{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LNF), alumina-doped scandia stabilized zirconia (SASZ), and a Ni-SASZ cermet as the cathode, electrolyte, and anode, respectively. The test was carried out at 1073 K with constant loads of 0.3, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.3 A cm{sup -2}. The degradation rate, defined by the voltage loss during a fixed period (about 1000 h), was faster at higher current densities. From an impedance analysis, the degradation depended mainly on increases in the cathodic resistance, while the anodic and ohmic resistances contributed very little. The cathode microstructures were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (author)

  15. Reward bias and lateralization in gambling behavior: behavioral activation system and alpha band analysis. (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia; Messina, Rossella


    The present research explored the main factors that can influence subjects' choices in the case of decisions. In order to elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making their strategies more or less advantageous, we tested the effect of a reward sensitivity in the behavioral activation system (BAS-Reward) constructed on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Secondly, the lateralization effect, related to increased activation of the left (BAS-related) hemisphere, was explored. Thirty-one subjects were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task, and the BAS-Reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS groups. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options) and alpha-band modulation were considered. It was found that high-BAS group increased their tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) rather than the long-term option (win strategy). Secondly, high-BAS subjects showed an increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with low-BAS subjects. A "reward bias" effect was supposed to explain both the bad strategy and the unbalanced hemispheric activation for high-BAS and more risk-taking subjects.

  16. Dentinoameloblastoma with ghost cells: A rare case report with emphasis on its biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar


    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are regarded as a homogeneous group of neoplasms with locally invasive character. They generally do not show induction of dental hard tissue formation except in few cases. Biological behavior and histogenesis of these tumors is still unexplored as there is lack of relevant studies and long follow-up of these patients. So, we aimed to report this rare case of dentinoameloblastoma with unique presence of ghost cells in middle-aged female involving maxilla with emphasis on its biological behavior. We conclude that although histogenesis of this tumor is not clear but biological potential is similar to conventional ameloblastoma requiring wider excision.

  17. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis. (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I


    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  18. A full model for simulation of electrochemical cells including complex behavior (United States)

    Esperilla, J. J.; Félez, J.; Romero, G.; Carretero, A.

    This communication presents a model of electrochemical cells developed in order to simulate their electrical, chemical and thermal behavior showing the differences when thermal effects are or not considered in the charge-discharge process. The work presented here has been applied to the particular case of the Pb,PbSO 4|H 2SO 4 (aq)|PbO 2,Pb cell, which forms the basis of the lead-acid batteries so widely used in the automotive industry and as traction batteries in electric or hybrid vehicles. Each half-cell is considered independently in the model. For each half-cell, in addition to the main electrode reaction, a secondary reaction is considered: the hydrogen evolution reaction in the negative electrode and the oxygen evolution reaction in the positive. The equilibrium potential is calculated with the Nernst equation, in which the activity coefficients are fitted to an exponential function using experimental data. On the other hand, the two main mechanisms that produce the overpotential are considered, that is the activation or charge transfer and the diffusion mechanisms. First, an isothermal model has been studied in order to show the behavior of the main phenomena. A more complex model has also been studied including thermal behavior. This model is very useful in the case of traction batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles where high current intensities appear. Some simulation results are also presented in order to show the accuracy of the proposed models.

  19. Effects of Notch-1 down-regulation on malignant behaviors of breast cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Peng, Gong-ling; Tian, Ye; Lu, Chong; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Xiang-wang; Guo, Ya-wen; Wang, Long-qiang; Du, Qiu-li; Liu, Chun-ping


    This study examined the effect of Notch-1 signaling on malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells by regulating breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). BCSCs were enriched by using serum-free medium and knocked out of Notch-1 by using a lentiviral vector. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the Notch-1 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and BCSCs, and flow cytometry to detect the proportion of BCSCs in BCSC spheres. The BCSC self-renewal, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity were examined by the tumor microsphere-forming assay and transwell assay and after xenotransplantation. The results showed that the Notch-1 silencing reduced the number of BCSC spheres, the proportion of BCSCs, and the number of cells penetrating through the transwell membrane. It also decreased the size of tumors that were implanted in the nude mice. These results suggest that Notch-1 signaling is intimately linked to the behaviors of BCSCs. Blocking Notch-1 signaling can inhibit the malignant behaviors of BCSCs, which may provide a promising therapeutical approach for breast cancer.

  20. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior. (United States)

    Smith, Terry L


    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'.

  1. Centrifuge Testing and Seismic Response Analysis for Uplift Behavior of Spread Foundation Structures on Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Suzuki


    Full Text Available The uplift behavior of structures subjected to severe seismic motion has not been clarified. This paper presents experimental and analytical studies conducted for clarifying this problem of spread foundation structures on rock. First, centrifugal loading tests are conducted to determine the uplift behavior of these structures, and the uplift behavior of these structures is confirmed. Then, simulation analyses are performed using a three-dimensional FE model and the accuracy of these analyses is confirmed. A comparison between test and analyses results clarified the important analytical conditions required for maintaining analysis precision and the limit of analysis precision.

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palm Megan


    Full Text Available Egg laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of egg-laying onset using deformable template matching and other morphological image analysis techniques. Some behavioral changes surrounding egg-laying events are also studied. The results demonstrate that the computer vision tools and the algorithm developed here can be effectively used to study C. elegans egg-laying behaviors. The algorithm developed is an essential part of a machine-vision system for C. elegans tracking and behavioral analysis.

  3. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis. (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamasue, Hidenori


    Individuals with antisocial behavior place a great physical and economic burden on society. Deficits in emotional processing have been recognized as a fundamental cause of antisocial behavior. Emerging evidence also highlights a significant contribution of attention allocation deficits to such behavior. A comprehensive literature search identified 12 studies that were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, which compared 291 individuals with antisocial problems and 247 controls. Signed Differential Mapping revealed that compared with controls, gray matter volume (GMV) in subjects with antisocial behavior was reduced in the right lentiform nucleus (P antisocial behavior. Previous studies have suggested an FPC role in attention allocation during emotional processing. Therefore, GMV deviations in this area may constitute a neural basis of deficits in attention allocation linked with antisocial behavior.

  4. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study. (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge


    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  5. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states. (United States)

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Kodama, Tohru; Soya, Atsushi; Sagawa, Yohei; Ishimaru, Yuji; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Nishino, Seiji


    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v)) mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v) mice and their wild-type littermates (WT), although W/W(v) mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v) mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine) significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v) mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v) mice. W/W(v) mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  6. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  7. Waste behavior analysis for tank 241-SY-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, N.E.


    Tank 241-SY-103 is on the Flammable Gas Watch List. The waste in this tank behaves similarly to that in tank 241-Sy-101. Both show slurry growth and periodic surface level drops. However, the surface level drops are much smaller than those in tank 101-SY. A standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) was recently installed in tank 103-SY, and waste auger samples were recently taken. This document covers the characterization results to date for the auger samples, and the behavior of the tank waste during both steady state periods and gas release events.

  8. Analysis of behavior of melted dark green silty soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqun TANG; Ping YANG; Feng SHEN; Nianqing ZHOU


    The behavior of dark green silty soil of the 6th storey is studied by means of scanning electron micro-scopy (SEM). The shape, size and contact condition of the basic elements of the soil microstructure, and the shape and the size of the pore are further studied. In addi-tion, a comparative study is made to analyze the experi-ment results of Cu and dynamic test. The mechanic characteristics of common soil and those of melted soil are presented and their influences on dark silty soil after being frozen are theoretically illustrated from a micro-scopic perspective.

  9. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis


    Young, Margaret H.


    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  10. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device (United States)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin


    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  11. Hydrogel Droplet Microfluidics for High-Throughput Single Molecule/Cell Analysis. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James


    Heterogeneity among individual molecules and cells has posed significant challenges to traditional bulk assays, due to the assumption of average behavior, which would lose important biological information in heterogeneity and result in a misleading interpretation. Single molecule/cell analysis has become an important and emerging field in biological and biomedical research for insights into heterogeneity between large populations at high resolution. Compared with the ensemble bulk method, single molecule/cell analysis explores the information on time trajectories, conformational states, and interactions of individual molecules/cells, all key factors in the study of chemical and biological reaction pathways. Various powerful techniques have been developed for single molecule/cell analysis, including flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy, optical and magnetic tweezers, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, and so forth. However, some of them have the low-throughput issue that has to analyze single molecules/cells one by one. Flow cytometry is a widely used high-throughput technique for single cell analysis but lacks the ability for intercellular interaction study and local environment control. Droplet microfluidics becomes attractive for single molecule/cell manipulation because single molecules/cells can be individually encased in monodisperse microdroplets, allowing high-throughput analysis and manipulation with precise control of the local environment. Moreover, hydrogels, cross-linked polymer networks that swell in the presence of water, have been introduced into droplet microfluidic systems as hydrogel droplet microfluidics. By replacing an aqueous phase with a monomer or polymer solution, hydrogel droplets can be generated on microfluidic chips for encapsulation of single molecules/cells according to the Poisson distribution. The sol-gel transition property endows the hydrogel droplets with new functionalities and diversified applications in single

  12. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew J


    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of $\\mathbb{R}^2$, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an $S^2$ of constant radius $\\mathcal{R}$. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in t...

  13. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)


    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of R{sup 2}, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an S{sup 2} of constant radius R. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in the compact space. This suggests that higher-dimensional signatures may be extremely difficult to detect in the effective (3+1)-dimensional dynamics of strings compactified on an internal space, even if configurations with nontrivial windings persist over long time periods. (orig.)

  14. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W


    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  15. Treatment Analysis in a Cancer Stem Cell Context Using a Tumor Growth Model Based on Cellular Automata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.

  16. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Fact sheet describing the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  17. Tumor and endothelial cell-derived microvesicles carry distinct CEACAMs and influence T-cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison T Muturi

    Full Text Available Normal and malignant cells release a variety of different vesicles into their extracellular environment. The most prominent vesicles are the microvesicles (MVs, 100-1000 nm in diameter, which are shed of the plasma membrane, and the exosomes (70-120 nm in diameter, derivates of the endosomal system. MVs have been associated with intercellular communication processes and transport numerous proteins, lipids and RNAs. As essential component of immune-escape mechanisms tumor-derived MVs suppress immune responses. Additionally, tumor-derived MVs have been found to promote metastasis, tumor-stroma interactions and angiogenesis. Since members of the carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM-family have been associated with similar processes, we studied the distribution and function of CEACAMs in MV fractions of different human epithelial tumor cells and of human and murine endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate that in association to their cell surface phenotype, MVs released from different human epithelial tumor cells contain CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6, while human and murine endothelial cells were positive for CEACAM1 only. Furthermore, MVs derived from CEACAM1 transfected CHO cells carried CEACAM1. In terms of their secretion kinetics, we show that MVs are permanently released in low doses, which are extensively increased upon cellular starvation stress. Although CEACAM1 did not transmit signals into MVs it served as ligand for CEACAM expressing cell types. We gained evidence that CEACAM1-positive MVs significantly increase the CD3 and CD3/CD28-induced T-cell proliferation. All together, our data demonstrate that MV-bound forms of CEACAMs play important roles in intercellular communication processes, which can modulate immune response, tumor progression, metastasis and angiogenesis.

  18. Gene set enrichment analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line. (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed I; Dębski, Konrad J; Dabrowski, Michał; Czarnecka, Anna M; Szczylik, Cezary


    In recent years, genome-wide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool that offers a great opportunity to study and understand the key role of genes that contribute to carcinogenesis. Various microarray platforms and statistical approaches can be used to identify genes that might serve as prognostic biomarkers and be developed as antitumor therapies in the future. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a serious, life-threatening disease, and there are few treatment options for patients. In this study, we performed one-color microarray gene expression (4×44K) analysis of the mRCC cell line Caki-1 and the healthy kidney cell line ASE-5063. A total of 1,921 genes were differentially expressed in the Caki-1 cell line (1,023 upregulated and 898 downregulated). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approaches were used to analyze the differential-expression data. The objective of this research was to identify complex biological changes that occur during metastatic development using Caki-1 as a model mRCC cell line. Our data suggest that there are multiple deregulated pathways associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), including integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, IGF-I signaling, CXCR4 signaling, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. The IPA upstream analysis predicted top transcriptional regulators that are either activated or inhibited, such as estrogen receptors, TP53, KDM5B, SPDEF, and CDKN1A. The GSEA approach was used to further confirm enriched pathway data following IPA.

  19. Study on in vitro Cultural Behaviors of Spermatogonium Stem Cells of New Born Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinyou; HU Pengfei; HUANG Zhijun; LV Zhonghua; ZHANG Guixue


    Three methods were adopted in culture spermatogoniums of newly born calf in vitro, such as enzymatic digestion and percoll density gradient centrifugation(Method I ), tubular fragments culture(Method Ⅱ ) and tissue culture(Method Ⅲ), and cultural behaviors of cells were observed. The results showed that typical spermatogonium colonies appeard at 144 h of culture by enzymatic digestion-percoll density gradient centrifugation method and tubular fragments culture method, 2.5% FBS kept the characteristics of spermatogonium stem cell better than others, produced more mass clones, and FBS of more than 2.5% concentration benefited spermatogonium differentiation and the number of colonies was significantly affected by FBS concentration. After 1 week of culture in method Ⅲ, the diameter of lumens and quantity of sertoli's cells in tubal wall increased obviously, lumen of seminiferous tubules appeared. Sertoli's cells kept constant and the number of spermatogoniums decreased obviously after 2 weeks of culture.

  20. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Foster


    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  1. Human dental pulp stem cell behavior using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Acasigua, Gerson Arisoly Xavier; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Scher, Cristiane Regina; Xavier Filho, Lauro; Pranke, Patricia Helena Lucas; Basmaji, Pierre


    Adhesion and Viability study with human dental pulp stem cell using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine are presented at first time in this work. Nanotolith, are osteoinductors, i.e., they stimulate bone regeneration, enabling higher cells migration for bone tissue regeneration formation. This is mainly because nanotoliths are rich minerals present in the internal ear of bony fish. In addition, are part of a system which acts as a depth sensor and balance, acting as a sound vibrations detector and considered essential for the bone mineralization process, as in hydroxiapatites. Nanotoliths influence in bacterial cellulose was analyzed using transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results shows that fermentation process and nanotoliths agglomeration decrease initial human dental pulp stem cell adhesion however tested bionanocomposite behavior has cell viability increase over time.

  2. Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, X.Z.; Both, S.K.; Yang, P.S.; Jansen, J.A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Yang, F.


    Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation th

  3. Size distribution of retrovirally marked lineages matches prediction from population measurements of cell cycle behavior (United States)

    Cai, Li; Hayes, Nancy L.; Takahashi, Takao; Caviness, Verne S Jr; Nowakowski, Richard S.


    Mechanisms that regulate neuron production in the developing mouse neocortex were examined by using a retroviral lineage marking method to determine the sizes of the lineages remaining in the proliferating population of the ventricular zone during the period of neuron production. The distribution of clade sizes obtained experimentally in four different injection-survival paradigms (E11-E13, E11-E14, E11-E15, and E12-E15) from a total of over 500 labeled lineages was compared with that obtained from three models in which the average behavior of the proliferating population [i.e., the proportion of cells remaining in the proliferative population (P) vs. that exiting the proliferative population (Q)] was quantitatively related to lineage size distribution. In model 1, different proportions of asymmetric, symmetric terminal, and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions coexisted during the entire developmental period. In model 2, the developmental period was divided into two epochs: During the first, asymmetric and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions occurred, but, during the second, asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions occurred. In model 3, the shifts in P and Q are accounted for by changes in the proportions of the two types of symmetric cell divisions without the inclusion of any asymmetric cell divisions. The results obtained from the retroviral experiments were well accounted for by model 1 but not by model 2 or 3. These findings demonstrate that: 1) asymmetric and both types of symmetric cell divisions coexist during the entire period of neurogenesis in the mouse, 2) neuron production is regulated in the proliferative population by the independent decisions of the two daughter cells to reenter S phase, and 3) neurons are produced by both asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions. In addition, the findings mean that cell death and/or tangential movements of cells in the proliferative population occur at only a low rate and that there are no

  4. Mice lacking TrkB in parvalbumin-positive cells exhibit sexually dimorphic behavioral phenotypes


    Lucas, Elizabeth K.; Jegarl, Anita; Clem, Roger L.


    Activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) is required for cued fear memory consolidation and extinction. Although BDNF is primarily secreted from glutamatergic neurons, TrkB is expressed by other genetically defined cells whose contributions to the behavioral effects of BDNF remain poorly understood. Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, which are highly enriched in TrkB, are emerging as key regulators of fear memory expr...

  5. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents


    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy


    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific ...

  6. Interaction of motility, directional sensing, and polarity modules recreates the behaviors of chemotaxing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Shi

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis involves the coordinated action of separable but interrelated processes: motility, gradient sensing, and polarization. We have hypothesized that these are mediated by separate modules that account for these processes individually and that, when combined, recreate most of the behaviors of chemotactic cells. Here, we describe a mathematical model where the modules are implemented in terms of reaction-diffusion equations. Migration and the accompanying changes in cellular morphology are demonstrated in simulations using a mechanical model of the cell cortex implemented in the level set framework. The central module is an excitable network that accounts for random migration. The response to combinations of uniform stimuli and gradients is mediated by a local excitation, global inhibition module that biases the direction in which excitability is directed. A polarization module linked to the excitable network through the cytoskeleton allows unstimulated cells to move persistently and, for cells in gradients, to gradually acquire distinct sensitivity between front and back. Finally, by varying the strengths of various feedback loops in the model we obtain cellular behaviors that mirror those of genetically altered cell lines.

  7. Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias migration and offshore behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J Jorgensen

    Full Text Available Elucidating how mobile ocean predators utilize the pelagic environment is vital to understanding the dynamics of oceanic species and ecosystems. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT tags have emerged as an important tool to describe animal migrations in oceanic environments where direct observation is not feasible. Available PAT tag data, however, are for the most part limited to geographic position, swimming depth and environmental temperature, making effective behavioral observation challenging. However, novel analysis approaches have the potential to extend the interpretive power of these limited observations. Here we developed an approach based on clustering analysis of PAT daily time-at-depth histogram records to distinguish behavioral modes in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias. We found four dominant and distinctive behavioral clusters matching previously described behavioral patterns, including two distinctive offshore diving modes. Once validated, we mapped behavior mode occurrence in space and time. Our results demonstrate spatial, temporal and sex-based structure in the diving behavior of white sharks in the northeastern Pacific previously unrecognized including behavioral and migratory patterns resembling those of species with lek mating systems. We discuss our findings, in combination with available life history and environmental data, and propose specific testable hypotheses to distinguish between mating and foraging in northeastern Pacific white sharks that can provide a framework for future work. Our methodology can be applied to similar datasets from other species to further define behaviors during unobservable phases.

  8. CD44 Influences Fibroblast Behaviors Via Modulation of Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Interactions, Affecting Survivin and Hippo Pathways. (United States)

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Madri, Joseph A


    CD44 has been studied in a wide variety of cell types, in a diverse array of cell behaviors and in a diverse range of signaling pathways. We now document a role for CD44 in mediating fibroblast behaviors via regulation of N-cadherin, extracellular matrix expression, Survivin and the Hippo pathway. Here, we report our findings on the roles of CD44 in modulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of murine wild-type (WT-FB) and CD44 knockout dermal fibroblasts (CD44KO-FB). As we have documented in microvascular endothelial cells lacking CD44, we found persistent increased proliferation, reduced activation of cleaved caspase 3, increased initial attachment, but decreased strength of cell attachment in high cell density, post confluent CD44KO-FB cultures. Additionally, we found that siRNA knock-down of CD44 mimicked the behaviors of CD44KO-FB, restoring the decreases in N-cadherin, collagen type I, fibronectin, Survivin, nuclear fractions of YAP and phospho-YAP and decreased levels of cleaved caspase 3 to the levels observed in CD44KO-FB. Interestingly, plating CD44KO-FB on collagen type I or fibronectin resulted in significant decreases in secondary proliferation rates compared to plating cells on non-coated dishes, consistent with increased cell adhesion compared to their effects on WT-FB. Lastly, siRNA knockdown of CD44 in WT-FB resulted in increased fibroblast migration compared to WT-FB, albeit at reduced rates compared to CD44KO-FB. These results are consistent with CD44's pivotal role in modulating several diverse behaviors important for adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion during development, growth, repair, maintenance and regression of a wide variety of mesenchymal tissues.

  9. Mice lacking TrkB in parvalbumin-positive cells exhibit sexually dimorphic behavioral phenotypes. (United States)

    Lucas, Elizabeth K; Jegarl, Anita; Clem, Roger L


    Activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) is required for cued fear memory consolidation and extinction. Although BDNF is primarily secreted from glutamatergic neurons, TrkB is expressed by other genetically defined cells whose contributions to the behavioral effects of BDNF remain poorly understood. Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, which are highly enriched in TrkB, are emerging as key regulators of fear memory expression. We therefore hypothesized that activity-dependent BDNF signaling in PV-interneurons may modulate emotional learning. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the LoxP/Cre system for conditional deletion of TrkB in PV-positive cells to examine the impact of cell-autonomous BDNF signaling on Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. However, behavioral abnormalities indicative of vestibular dysfunction precluded the use of homozygous conditional knockouts in tests of higher cognitive functioning. While vestibular dysfunction was apparent in both sexes, female conditional knockouts exhibited an exacerbated phenotype, including extreme motor hyperactivity and circling behavior, compared to their male littermates. Heterozygous conditional knockouts were spared of vestibular dysfunction. While fear memory consolidation was unaffected in heterozygotes of both sexes, males exhibited impaired extinction consolidation compared to their littermate controls. Our findings complement evidence from human and rodent studies suggesting that BDNF signaling promotes consolidation of extinction and point to PV-positive neurons as a discrete population that mediates these effects in a sex-specific manner.

  10. Electrical properties and degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous Si alloys for solar cells (United States)

    Krühler, W.; Kusian, W.; Karg, F.; Pfleiderer, H.


    The electrical properties and the degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys (a-Si1- x A x : H, with A=C, Ge, B, P) in designs of pin, pip, nin, and MOS structures are investigated by measuring the dark and light I(V) characteristics and the spectral response as well as the space-charge-limited current (SCLC), the time of flight (TOF) of carriers and the field effect (FE). These investigations give an overview of our recent work combined with new results emphasizing the physics of the a-Si:H pin solar cells. We discuss the stabilizing influence on the degradation behavior achieved by profiling the i layers of the pin solar cells with P and B. Two kinds of pin solar cells, namely glass/SnO2/p(C)in/metal and glass/metal/pin/ITO, are investigated and an explanation of their different spectral response behavior is given. SCLC measurements lead to the conclusion that trapping is also involved in the degradation mechanism, as is recombination. TOF experiments on a-Si1- x Ge x : H pin diodes indicate that the incorporation of Ge widens the tail-state distribution below the conduction band. FE measurements showed densities of gap states of about 5×l016cm-3eV-1.

  11. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya


    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  12. Micromechanical analysis of the behavior of stiff clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Yin; Ching S. Chang; Pierre-Yves Hicher; Jian-Hua Wang


    Cementations formed in geological timescale are observed in various stiff clays.A micromechanical stress strain model is developed for modeling the effect of cementation on the deformation behavior of stiff clay.The proposed approach considers explicitly cementations at intercluster contacts,which is different from conventional model.The concept of inter-cluster bonding is introduced to account for an additional cohesion in shear sliding and a higher yield stress in normal compression.A damage law for inter-cluster bonding is proposed at cluster contacts for the debonding process during mechanical loading.The model is used to simulate numerous stress-path tests on Vallericca stiff clay.The applicability of the present model is evaluated through comparisons between the predicted and the measured results.In order to explain the stress-induced anisotropy arising from extemally applied load,the evolution of local stresses and local strains at inter-cluster planes are discussed.

  13. Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuo


    In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors,etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular usedR-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

  14. Behavioral impact of sickle cell disease in young children with repeated hospitalization

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    Mohamed H Bakri


    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD in children with a history of repeated hospitalization is distressing for children as well as their parents leading to anxiety and has negative effects on the psychological state of children and their families. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of SCD on the behavior of young children age 1½ to 5 years old who had repeated history of hospitalization, compared to a control group of healthy children attended a vaccination clinic. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five children of age 1½ to 5 years who have SCD and repeated history of hospitalization were recruited from pediatric clinic as the study group and matched with same number of healthy children who attended vaccination clinic, as a control group. Both groups were administered the child behavior checklist (CBCL 1½ to 5 years and diagnostic and statistical (DSM-oriented scale. Behavior data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Children who have SCD had statistically significant behavioral changes on CBCL compared to the control group: Anxiety/depression (65.2 vs. 55.1; P < 0.001, somatic complaint (66.7 vs. 54.4; P < 0.001 withdrawn (63.4 vs. 53.2; P < 0.001, aggressive behavior (60.4 vs. 56; P=0.04, and internalizing symptoms (64.7 vs. 51.5; P < 0.001, respectively. The DSM scale showed that children with SCD scored significantly higher in pervasive developmental disorder compared to the control group (60.9 vs. 53.9; P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusion: Children with SCD who had history of repeated hospitalization are at an increased risk of developing behavioral problems. Psychological counseling, social support, and proper pain management could minimize these behavioral consequences.

  15. β-III tubulin modulates the behavior of Snail overexpressed during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. (United States)

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Ciszewski, Wojciech M; Sacewicz-Hofman, Izabela; Wawro, Marta E; Wiktorska, Magdalena; Boncela, Joanna; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Kwasniak, Pawel; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S; Niewiarowska, Jolanta


    Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a marker of drug resistance expressed in a variety of solid tumors. Originally, it was described as an important element of chemoresistance to taxanes. Recent studies have revealed that TUBB3 is also involved in an adaptive response to a microenvironmental stressor, e.g. low oxygen levels and poor nutrient supply in some solid tumors, independently of the microtubule targeting agent. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that TUBB3 is a marker of biological aggressiveness associated with modulation of metastatic abilities in colon cancer. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a basic cellular process by which epithelial cells lose their epithelial behavior and become invasive cells involved in cancer metastasis. Snail is a zinc-finger transcription factor which is able to induce EMT through the repression of E-cadherin expression. In the presented studies we focused on the analysis of the TUBB3 role in EMT-induced colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HT-29 and LS180. We observed a positive correlation between Snail presence and TUBB3 upregulation in tested adenocarcinoma cell lines. The cellular and behavioral analysis revealed for the first time that elevated TUBB3 level is functionally linked to increased cell migration and invasive capability of EMT induced cells. Additionally, the post-transcriptional modifications (phosphorylation, glycosylation) appear to regulate the cellular localization of TUBB3 and its phosphorylation, observed in cytoskeleton, is probably involved in cell motility modulation.

  16. Electromyographic analysis of goal-directed grasping behavior in the American lobster. (United States)

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu


    Animals spontaneously initiate goal-directed behavior including foraging action based on their appetitive motivation. The American lobster Homarus americanus exhibits grasping behavior with its crusher claw as feeding behavior that can be initiated after appropriate operant conditioning. In order to quantitatively characterize the goal-directed grasping behavior with a time resolution fine enough for neurophysiological analysis of its initiation and control mechanisms, we made simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording from grasping- and reaching-related muscles of the crusher claw while animals initiated grasping behavior. We developed an in vivo extracellular recording chamber that allowed the animal under a semi-restrained condition to perform operant reward learning of claw grasping. Three muscles in the crusher claw (propodite-dactyl closer/opener and coxal protractor) were found to be closely associated with spontaneous grasping behavior. In spontaneous grasping, the activation of those muscles consistently preceded the grasping onset time and exhibited different activity patterns from the grasp induced by a mechanical stimulus. Furthermore, we found that the timing of coxal protractor activation was closer to the grasp onset and its activity was briefer for goal-directed grasping behavior in trained and hungry animals than for non-goal-directed spontaneous grasping behavior in naive or satiated animals. It is suggested that the goal-directed grasping behavior of lobster is characterized, at least partly, by experience-dependent briefer activity of specific muscles involved in reaching action.

  17. Social Behavior in Medulloblastoma: Functional Analysis of Tumor-Supporting (United States)


    experts in signal transduction and the medical community. With the support of UVa leadership and the dedication of lab members, the lab has started full...on Shh pathway hyperactivation, originate from granule neuron precursors (GNPs). It is puzzling that although GNPs are unipotent toward the granule...differences in signaling context between transforming and non- responsive cell types could provide critical insights for devising highly effective

  18. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  19. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily


    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  20. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.


    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  1. Nitric oxide regulates cell behavior on an interactive cell-derived extracellular matrix scaffold. (United States)

    Xing, Qi; Zhang, Lijun; Redman, Travis; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng


    During tissue injury and wound healing process, there are dynamic reciprocal interactions among cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediating molecules which are crucial for functional tissue repair. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key mediating molecules that can positively regulate various biological activities involved in wound healing. Various ECM components serve as binding sites for cells and mediating molecules, and the interactions further stimulate cellular activities. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can migrate to the wound site and contribute to tissue regeneration through differentiation and paracrine signaling. The objective of this work was to investigate the regulatory effect of NO on hMSCs in an interactive ECM-rich microenvironment. In order to mimic the in vivo stromal environment in wound site, a cell-derived ECM scaffold that was able to release NO within the range of in vivo wound fluid NO level was fabricated. Results showed that the micro-molar level of NO released from the ECM scaffold had an inhibitory effect on cellular activities of hMSCs. The NO impaired cell growth, altered cell morphology, disrupted the F-actin organization, also decreased the expression of focal adhesion related molecules integrin α5 and paxillin. These results may contribute to the elucidation of how NO acts on hMSCs in wound healing process.

  2. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  3. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation. (United States)

    Elmore, Monica R P; Lee, Rafael J; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N


    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  4. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.


    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  5. Harmonizing HeLa cell cytoskeleton behavior by multi-Ti oxide phased nanostructure synthesized through ultrashort pulsed laser (United States)

    Chinnakkannu Vijayakumar, Chandramouli; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo


    Knowledge about cancer cell behavior on heterogeneous nanostructures is relevant for developing a distinct biomaterial that can actuate cancer cells. In this manuscript, we have demonstrated a harmonized approach of forming multi Ti-oxide phases in a nanostructure (MTOP nanostructure) for its unique cancer cell controlling behavior.Conventionally, single phases of TiO2 are used for targeted therapy and as drug carrier systems.In this research, we have shown a biomaterial that can control HeLa cells diligently using a combination of TiO, Ti3O and TiO2 phases when compared to fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells.MTOP-nanostructures are generated by varying the ionization energy in the vapor plume of the ultrashort pulse laser; this interaction with the material allows accurate tuning and composition of phases within the nanostructure. In addition, the lattice spacing of MTOP-nanostructures was analyzed as shown by HR-TEM investigations. An FESEM investigation of MTOP-nanostructures revealed a greater reduction of HeLa cells relative to fibroblast cells. Altered cell adhesion was followed by modulation of HeLa cell architecture with a significant reduction of actin stress fibers.The intricate combination of MTOP-nanostructures renders a biomaterial that can precisely alter HeLa cell but not fibroblast cell behavior, filling a void in the research for a biomaterial to modulate cancer cell behavior.

  6. Harmonizing HeLa cell cytoskeleton behavior by multi-Ti oxide phased nanostructure synthesized through ultrashort pulsed laser. (United States)

    Chinnakkannu Vijayakumar, Chandramouli; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo


    Knowledge about cancer cell behavior on heterogeneous nanostructures is relevant for developing a distinct biomaterial that can actuate cancer cells. In this manuscript, we have demonstrated a harmonized approach of forming multi Ti-oxide phases in a nanostructure (MTOP nanostructure) for its unique cancer cell controlling behavior.Conventionally, single phases of TiO2 are used for targeted therapy and as drug carrier systems.In this research, we have shown a biomaterial that can control HeLa cells diligently using a combination of TiO, Ti3O and TiO2 phases when compared to fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells.MTOP-nanostructures are generated by varying the ionization energy in the vapor plume of the ultrashort pulse laser; this interaction with the material allows accurate tuning and composition of phases within the nanostructure. In addition, the lattice spacing of MTOP-nanostructures was analyzed as shown by HR-TEM investigations. An FESEM investigation of MTOP-nanostructures revealed a greater reduction of HeLa cells relative to fibroblast cells. Altered cell adhesion was followed by modulation of HeLa cell architecture with a significant reduction of actin stress fibers.The intricate combination of MTOP-nanostructures renders a biomaterial that can precisely alter HeLa cell but not fibroblast cell behavior, filling a void in the research for a biomaterial to modulate cancer cell behavior.

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of carbonization behavior of wood, cellulose and lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Meier, Dietrich; Imamura, Yuji


    The surface and bulk chemistry of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica), cotton cellulose and lignin samples carbonized at 500-1,000 degrees C was investigated by elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectrometry.

  8. Longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of children aged 0 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Frederico Cunha


    Full Text Available "When" and "how" the dentist intervenes have repercussions on children's physical and emotional patterns. The objective of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of babies aged 0 to 3 years. A total of 216 patients seen at the Baby Clinic of the School of Dentistry at Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, were selected. The selection criterion was attendance at ten dental care sessions at bimonthly intervals for routine procedures such as clinical examination and oral hygiene. There was a predominance of cooperative behavior compared to uncooperative behavior when each visit was analyzed separately. The behavior of the patients must have been directly influenced by their psychomotor development. Constant attendance and exposure of the baby to non-stressful dental stimuli are factors that favor a cooperative behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat OKTAY


    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the organizational image and innovative organizational citizenship behavior and how these variables vary with of socio-demographic factors. The research uses both the relational and descriptive methods. Scores of both organizational image and innovative organi- zational citizenship behavior are obtained from a 937 survey with 5-point Likert scale. Regression analysis results showed that the organizational image is a statistically significant determinant of the innovative organizational citizenship behavior. The ANOVA and post-hoc analyses results show that age, experience, position, permanent or temporary work status, title, and education show that both the organizational image perception and the innovative organizational citizenship behavior scores significantly improves with age, experience, title level. However, as the level of education rises the organizational image scores significantly declines, but no significant impact of education level on innovative organizational citizenship behavior is observed.

  10. Analysis on E-consumers’ Purchasing Behavior Based on Data-driving Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Huang


    Full Text Available It is the Internet world with vasty purchasing data sea online that makes research model of e-consumers’ purchasing behavior very different from traditional ones. Firstly this paper proposes three kinds of research models of consumers’ purchasing behavior, and then pointed out that data-driving model is the best one to analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior on the Internet. Secondly, it adopts the improved SOFM Neural Network as the tool of data-driving model to detailedly analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior of Internet marketing. Lastly experiment results demonstrate that the method has more visualization, exactness and robustness. Because consumers’ purchasing behavior analysis based on the SOFM Neural Network is a comparatively novel method, the research fruit in this paper is just for reference.

  11. Effects of Nano-biphasic Calcium Phosphate Composite on Bioactivity and Osteoblast Cell Behavior in Tissue Engineering Applications. (United States)

    Ebrahimian-Hosseinabadi, Mehdi; Etemadifar, Mohammadreza; Ashrafizadeh, Fakhredin


    In this paper, preparation, bioactivity, and osteoblast cell behavior of cortical bone derived nano-biphasic calcium phosphate (nano-BCP) are presented. The calcined bovine bone samples with the addition of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate were heated at 700°C for 100 min, and thus nano-BCP with the composition of 63/37 hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was produced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of immersed samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution showed that a uniform layer was formed on the surface after 7 days with the chemical composition of HA. The results indicated that the nano-BCP sample developed excellent bioactivity after 28 days. The nano-BCP samples showed better cell proliferation compared to pure HA samples. After 7 days in cell culture, the prepared nano-BCP (HA/β-TCP) exhibited the maximum proliferation of the MG-63 osteoblast cells.

  12. Changes of osteosarcoma cell biological behavior afterId1 gene silencing by siRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Li Xu


    Objective:To study the changes of osteosarcoma cell biological behaviors proliferation, migration and invasion afterId1gene silencing by siRNA.Methods:Osteosarcoma HEK293 cell lines were cultured and transfected with Id1-siRNA and NC-siRNA respectively, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were detected after 24 h and 48 h of transfection, and the expression levels of proliferation-promoting genes, proliferation-inhibiting genes as well as migration and invasion-related genes in cells were detected after 48 h of transfection. Results:After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, cell OD value and the number of invasive cells of Id1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and scratch area was significantly larger than that of NC-siRNA group; after 48 h of transfection, hnRNP A2, hnRNP B1, S100A6, RUNX2, Aurora-A, Grb2, Gab2 and Rap2a expression levels of Id1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and p53, TAp73 and IGFBP5 were significantly higher than those of NC-siRNA group.Conclusions:Id1 gene silencing by siRNA can inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  13. Cell cycle behavior of laboratory and field populations of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (United States)

    Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Kamykowski, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.


    As a component of the ECOHAB Florida Regional Field Program, this study addresses cell cycle behavior and its importance to bloom formation of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. The cell cycle of K. brevis was first studied by flow cytometry in laboratory batch cultures, and a laboratory mesocosm column, followed by field populations over the 5-year course of the ECOHAB program. Under all conditions studied, K. brevis displayed diel phased cell division with S-phase beginning a minimum of 6 h after the onset of light and continuing for 12-14 h. Mitosis occurred during the dark, and was generally completed by the start of the next day. The timing of cell cycle phases relative to the diel cycle did not differ substantially in bloom populations displaying radically different growth rates ( μmin 0.17-0.55) under different day lengths and temperature conditions. The rhythm of cell cycle progression is independent from the rhythm controlling vertical migration, as similar cell cycle distributions are found at all depths of the water column in field samples. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of our current understanding of the dinoflagellate cell cycle and the development of improved models for K. brevis bloom growth.

  14. Effect of antisense human telomerase RNA on malignant behaviors of gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-liang; FANG Dian-chun; YANG Shi-ming; LUO Yuan-hui; LUO Kun-lun; LU Rong; LIU Wei-wen


    Objective: To study the effects of antisense human telomerase RNA (ahTR) transfection on the malignant behaviors of gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 and its potential role in gene therapy for tumor. Methods: An antisense hTR eukaryotic expression vector containing the sequence of template region of telomere repeats was transfected into gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with liposome DOTAP. The expressions of hTR RNA and antisense hTR RNA were observed with RT-PCR, telomerase activity with PCR-ELISA. Telomere length was measured with Southern blot. Cell morphology and cellular proliferation capacity were studied with MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic state were observed with flow cytometry. Efficiency of clone formation in soft agar and tumorigencity in nude mice were examined and evaluated in ahTR-transfected 7901 cells, and plasmid pCL-neo transfected 7901 cells and parental 7901 cells served as control. Results: An antisense hTR eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into 7901 cells successfully. The telomerase activity in ahTR-transfected 7901 cells was decreased from 100% to about 25%, and telomere length in the cells shortened from 4.08 kb to 3.35 kb at 60 population doublings (PDs). Compared with parental 7901 and pCL-neo transfected 7901 cells, ahTR-transfected 7901 cells displayed some morphological changes, including decreased cell atypia and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio under light microscope. Furthermore, ahTR-transfected 7901 cells displayed growth inhibition, decreased invasive capacity in Borden's chamber invasive model, increased G0/G1 phase rate and apoptotic rate, and restored contact inhibition and density inhibition. Surprisingly, ahTR-transfected 7901 cells lost their capacity of clone formation in soft agar and carcinogensis in nude mice. Conclusion: Antisense hTR transfection can induce 7901 cell differentiation and reverse its malignant phenotype. This study provides an exciting approach for cancer therapy through the

  15. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: a controlled analog analysis. (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; Zein, Farah El; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff


    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used to compare the effects of the antecedent communication intervention versus a no antecedent communication intervention condition. Immediately following the antecedent manipulations students were exposed to the tangible condition of the functional analysis. Results indicate that the antecedent communication intervention reduced challenging behavior in the subsequent tangible test condition for all three students. The importance of examining antecedent interventions to treat challenging behavior from a function analytic perspective is discussed.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of single neurons to correlate synaptic connectivity with grooming behavior. (United States)

    Kays, Ibrahim; Cvetkovska, Vedrana; Chen, Brian E


    We describe a protocol to image the complex axonal branching structure of identified mechanosensory neurons in Drosophila, combined with a behavioral assay to evaluate the functional output of the neuron. The stimulation of identified mechanosensory neurons in live animals produces a stereotyped grooming reflex. The mechanosensory axonal arbor within the CNS is subsequently labeled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The behavioral output can therefore be correlated to the axonal morphology of the stimulated neuron in the same animal. Combining this protocol with genetic analysis provides a powerful tool for identifying the roles of molecules involved in different aspects of hard-wired neural circuit formation underlying an innate behavior. From behavioral analysis to axonal imaging, the protocol takes 4 d.

  17. Computational Analysis and Simulation of Empathic Behaviors: a Survey of Empathy Modeling with Behavioral Signal Processing Framework. (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Imel, Zac E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Atkins, David C; Narayanan, Shrikanth S


    Empathy is an important psychological process that facilitates human communication and interaction. Enhancement of empathy has profound significance in a range of applications. In this paper, we review emerging directions of research on computational analysis of empathy expression and perception as well as empathic interactions, including their simulation. We summarize the work on empathic expression analysis by the targeted signal modalities (e.g., text, audio, and facial expressions). We categorize empathy simulation studies into theory-based emotion space modeling or application-driven user and context modeling. We summarize challenges in computational study of empathy including conceptual framing and understanding of empathy, data availability, appropriate use and validation of machine learning techniques, and behavior signal processing. Finally, we propose a unified view of empathy computation and offer a series of open problems for future research.

  18. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  19. CFD-based Analysis of Aeroelastic behavior of Supersonic Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxing Cai


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyze the flutter boundary, transient loads of a supersonic fin, and the flutter with perturbation. Reduced order mode (ROM based on Volterra Series is presented to calculate the flutter boundary, and CFD/CSD coupling is used to compute the transient aerodynamic load. The Volterra-based ROM is obtained using the derivative of unsteady aerodynamic step-response, and the infinite plate spline is used to perform interpolation of physical quantities between the fluid and the structural grids. The results show that inertia force plays a significant role in the transient loads, the moment cause by inertia force is lager than the aerodynamic force, because of the huge transient loads, structure may be broken by aeroelasticity below the flutter dynamic pressure. Perturbations of aircraft affect the aeroelastic response evident, the reduction of flutter dynamic pressure by rolling perturbation form 15.4% to 18.6% when Mach from 2.0 to 3.0. It is necessary to analyze the aeroelasticity behaviors under the compositive force environment.

  20. Perceived community environmental influences on eating behaviors: A Photovoice analysis. (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J


    People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people's perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds.

  1. Novel Approach for Electromagnetic Actuators Analysis in Transient Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIRBU, I. G.


    Full Text Available A new model of the actuator is proposed in this paper. It considers the nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena in the ferromagnetic core, as well as the influence of the mechanical load during the plunger movement. According to our approach, the entire system that includes the magnetic circuit, the electric circuit and the mechanical parts is mathematically modeled through a differential algebraic equation system (DAE. Therefore, a corresponding analog nonlinear electric circuit described by a similar mathematical model is conceived and implemented in an electric circuit simulation program capable to analyze its behavior in steady state or dynamic regimes. The SPICE simulator has been chosen as implementation platform and a case study has been performed to prove the feasibility and efficiency of our approach. The simulation result contains electromagnetic and mechanical quantities that were represented as time-domain functions. The method is remarkable through an extremely short computation time when compared with the classical methods based on the discretization of the domain.

  2. Malicious Nodes Detection in MANETs: Behavioral Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Khamayseh


    Full Text Available The increased popularity and usage of wireless technologies has opened the doors for new emerging applications in the domain of networking. One emerging and promising areas is the domain of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs. A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that form a dynamic network without the need for infrastructure or centralized points.   The dynamic nature of ad hoc networks presents many security challenges. Secure routing is a promising area for achieving better security for the network by protecting the routing protocols against malicious attacks. Several secure routing protocols have been proposed in the literatures that were successful in avoiding and preventing some types of security attacks in MANETs.    However, MANETs are still vulnerable to other types of attacks. Hence, there is a need for introducing an efficient mechanism to detect malicious nodes.   In this paper, a new mechanism is proposed that improves the performance of routing protocol against the malicious attacks. Since a malicious node behaves in abnormal ways, this mechanism proposes observing nodes behavior such as nodes’ mobility, and avoiding communication through these nodes which may lead to more secure routing.

  3. Personality and coping with professional demands: a behavioral genetics analysis. (United States)

    Maas, Heike; Spinath, Frank M


    Work-related mental health problems lead to individual ill-being but also absenteeism and early retirement from work. As such, it is desirable to diagnose strain and coping deficits before mental or physical symptoms occur in order to provide interventions early. Work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life are three facets of coping with professional demands that are related to psychological health (Kieschke & Schaarschmidt, 2003). Personality, defined as characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors over time and across situations, is also associated with health and well-being. To understand who becomes ill and why and to provide adequate interventions, we investigated the relations between personality and coping with professional demands, as well as the etiological basis of this relation. Personality and coping with professional demands (work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life) were assessed in a sample of 302 monozygotic and dizygotic adult twin pairs. Correlations between personality and coping with professional demands were moderate (r range: -0.61 to 0.37). All scales except occupational attitude toward life showed significant heritabilities. Genetic and environmental influences on coping with professional demands were largely independent of genetic and environmental effects on personality. These findings suggest that interventions should focus on work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life without specific considering of personality.

  4. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach. (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J


    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.

  5. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  6. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang


    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Free-Standing Fuel Cell Electrodes on Water Surface. (United States)

    Kim, Sanwi; Kim, Jae-Han; Oh, Jong-Gil; Jang, Kyung-Lim; Jeong, Byeong-Heon; Hong, Bo Ki; Kim, Taek-Soo


    Fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes as free-standing materials is essential to develop mechanically robust fuel cells. However, this has been a significant challenge due to critical difficulties, such as separating the pristine electrode from the substrate without damage and precisely measuring the mechanical properties of the very fragile and thin electrodes. We report the mechanical behavior of free-standing fuel cell electrodes on the water surface through adopting an innovative ice-assisted separation method to separate the electrode from decal transfer film. It is found that doubling the ionomer content in electrodes increases not only the tensile stress at the break and the Young's modulus (E) of the electrodes by approximately 2.1-3.5 and 1.7-2.4 times, respectively, but also the elongation at the break by approximately 1.5-1.7 times, which indicates that stronger, stiffer, and tougher electrodes are attained with increasing ionomer content, which have been of significant interest in materials research fields. The scaling law relationship between Young's modulus and density (ρ) has been unveiled as E ∼ ρ(1.6), and it is compared with other materials. These findings can be used to develop mechanically robust electrodes for fuel cell applications.

  8. The effect of a cholesterol liquid crystalline structure on osteoblast cell behavior. (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Ji, Jian; Shen, Jia-Cong


    To investigate the effect of a liquid crystalline structure on cell behavior, polymethylsiloxane-graft-(10-cholesteryloxydecanol) was specially designed to get a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicated that cholesterol was successfully covalently grafted onto polymethylhydrosiloxane via decamethylene 'flexible spacer'. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) investigations revealed that the copolymer with 44.9% mesogenic unit showed obvious thermotropic liquid crystalline transition at about 124.9 degrees C. Polymer films were prepared by spin coating on clean glass plates from 5 mg ml(-1) toluene solutions of the copolymers. The POM investigation indicated that while the unannealed films (SC15, SC45) showed no liquid crystalline structure, the films which were annealed in vacuo at 140 degrees C for 9 h and then quenched to room temperature (SC15C, SC45C) formed discrete island-like liquid crystalline and continuous liquid crystalline structures, respectively. Osteoblast cells (MC3T3) were chosen to test the cell behavior of annealed and unannealed films. In comparison to unannealed films, the annealed films with a cholesterol liquid crystalline structure could promote osteoblast cell attachment and growth significantly.

  9. Degradation behavior of oxygen-contaminated a-Si:H solar cells (United States)

    Kusian, W.; Günzel, E.; Krühler, W.; Pfleiderer, H.; Plätttner, R.; Bullemer, B.


    The degradation behavior of pin solar cells from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) having uncontaminated i-layers and that of solar cells in whih the i-layer is intentionally contaminated with oxygen or water vapour, was studied using a voltage-biased spectral response measurement method. The light-soaked solar cells are characterized by a reduction of the transition voltage UT which separates the primary and the secondary photocurrent, by an enhancement of the secondary photocurrent, by a reduction of the μτ products of the charge carriers and by a kink of the collection efficiency curve in the blue part of the spectrum. A contamination of the i-layer with impurities like O and H2O amplifies this degradation behavior of the cells. The kink is removable by a bias light as well as by a reverse bias voltage. The shape of the measured collection efficiency curves ar explained in detail by the electric field distribution in the i-layer.

  10. Analysis of pulse and relaxation behavior in lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Bernardi, Dawn M.; Go, Joo-Young

    A mathematical model of a lithium-ion cell is used to analyze pulse and relaxation behavior in cells designed for hybrid-electric-vehicle propulsion. Predictions of cell voltage show good agreement with experimental results. Model results indicate the ohmic voltage loss in the positive electrode is the dominant contributor to cell overvoltage in the first instances of a pulse. The concentration overvoltage associated with the reduced lithium in the solid phase of the positive is of secondary importance through pulse duration, but dominates after current interruption. Effects of anisotropy in the particle diffusion coefficient are also studied. Heaviside mollification functions are utilized to describe the thermodynamic open-circuit voltage of lithiated graphite, and the "pleated-layer model" is extended to realize the phase behavior of primary-particle aggregates during cell operation. The negative electrode contributes little to the cell overvoltage, and two-phase behavior results in a reaction front within the electrode. No voltage relaxation is associated with the negative electrode, and after full relaxation, a stable composition gradient of lithium exists throughout the solid phase. Internal galvanic coupling removes the composition gradients in the positive electrode during relaxation.

  11. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior. (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L


    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation.

  12. August Dvorak (1894-1975): Early expressions of applied behavior analysis and precision teaching


    Joyce, Bonnie; Moxley, Roy A.


    August Dvorak is best known for his development of the Dvorak keyboard. However, Dvorak also adapted and applied many behavioral and scientific management techniques to the field of education. Taken collectively, these techniques are representative of many of the procedures currently used in applied behavior analysis, in general, and especially in precision teaching. The failure to consider Dvorak's instructional methods may explain some of the discrepant findings in studies which compare the...

  13. Modulating the vascular behavior of metastatic breast cancer cells by curcumin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa ePalange


    Full Text Available The spreading of tumor cells to secondary sites (tumor metastasis is a complex process that involves multiple, sequential steps. Vascular adhesion and extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs is one, critical step. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from Curcuma longa, is known to have anti-tumoral, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory properties and affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules, mostly by targeting the NF-κB transcription factor. Here, upon treatment with Curcumin, the vascular behavior of three different estrogen receptor negative (ER– breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 is analyzed using a microfluidic system. First, the dose response to curcumin is characterized at 24, 48 and 72h using a XTT assay. For all three cell lines, an IC50 larger than 20 µM is observed at 72 h; whereas no significant reduction in cell viability is detected for curcumin concentrations up to 10 µM. Upon 24 h treatment at 10 µM of curcumin, SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells show a decrease in adhesion propensity of 40% (p = 0.02 and 47% (p = 0.001, respectively. No significant change is documented for the less metastatic MDA-MB-468 cells. All three treated cell lines show a 20% increase in rolling velocity from 48.3 to 58.7 µm/s in SK-BR-3, from 64.1 to 73.77 µm/s in MDA-MB-231 and from 57.5 to 74.4 µm/s in MDA-MB-468. Collectively, these results suggest that mild curcumin treatments could limit the metastatic potential of these adenocarcinoma cell lines, possibly by altering the expression of adhesion molecules, and the organization and stiffness of the cell cytoskeleton. Future studies will elucidate the biophysical mechanisms regulating this curcumin-induced behavior and further explore the clinical relevance of these findings.

  14. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Möller; M. Nikolić; M. Majdandžić; S.M. Bögels


    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children

  15. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.

  16. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof


    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  17. Theory of planned behavior and adherence in chronic illness: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara; Hagger, Martin S


    Social-cognitive models such as the theory of planned behavior have demonstrated efficacy in predicting behavior, but few studies have examined the theory as a predictor of treatment adherence in chronic illness. We tested the efficacy of the theory for predicting adherence to treatment in chronic illness across multiple studies. A database search identified 27 studies, meeting inclusion criteria. Averaged intercorrelations among theory variables were computed corrected for sampling error using random-effects meta-analysis. Path-analysis using the meta-analytically derived correlations was used to test theory hypotheses and effects of moderators. The theory explained 33 and 9 % of the variance in intention and adherence behavior respectively. Theoretically consistent patterns of effects among the attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention and behavior constructs were found with small-to-medium effect sizes. Effect sizes were invariant across behavior and measurement type. Although results support theory predictions, effect sizes were small, particularly for the intention-behavior relationship.

  18. Behavioral Analysis and Ethogram of Mating in the Wasp Sphex latreillei (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). (United States)

    Mandujano, V; Flores-Prado, L; Chiappa, E


    The present study reevaluates mating in Sphex latreillei (Lepeletier) based on the analysis of 69 filmed reproductive interactions from a population in central Chile. Behaviors recorded before, during, and after copulation were analyzed through Markov chains, identifying statistically significant behavioral transitions that are summarized in a mating ethogram. The results suggest that females exercise choice either during copulation by the means of an internal courtship, or via a post-copulation selection. Both types of inter-sexual selection proposed would explain, in both female and male, the dynamics of a sexual behavior crucial for a reproductive success.

  19. Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers


    Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Pérez Sarasola, Imanol; Aguado Roca, Maite


    The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the r...

  20. Nanoscale TiO2 nanotubes govern the biological behavior of human glioma and osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian A


    Full Text Available Ang Tian,1 Xiaofei Qin,2 Anhua Wu,2 Hangzhou Zhang,3 Quan Xu,4 Deguang Xing,2 He Yang,1 Bo Qiu,2 Xiangxin Xue,1 Dongyong Zhang,2 Chenbo Dong5 1Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological Utilization Technology and Boron Materials, Northeastern University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 3Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 4Institute of New Energy, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Cells respond to their surroundings through an interactive adhesion process that has direct effects on cell proliferation and migration. This research was designed to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanotubes with different topographies and structures on the biological behavior of cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the nanotube diameter, rather than the crystalline structure of the coatings, was a major factor for the biological behavior of the cultured cells. The optimal diameter of the nanotubes was 20 nm for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation in both glioma and osteosarcoma cells. The expression levels of vitronectin and phosphor-focal adhesion kinase were affected by the nanotube diameter; therefore, it is proposed that the responses of vitronectin and phosphor-focal adhesion kinase to the nanotube could modulate cell fate. In addition, the geometry and size of the nanotube coating could regulate the degree of expression of acetylated α-tubulin, thus indirectly modulating cell migration behavior. Moreover, the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were influenced by the topography. In conclusion, a nanotube diameter of 20 nm was the critical threshold that upregulated the expression