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Sample records for cells behavior analysis

  1. Analysis of the coupling behavior of PEM fuel cells and DC-DC converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groetsch, M.; Mangold, M.; Kienle, A. [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Process Synthesis and Process Dynamics Group, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Kienle, A. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Lehrstuhl fuer Automatisierungstechnik / Modellbildung, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The connection between PEM fuel cells and common DC-DC converters is examined. The analysis is model-based and done for boost, buck and buck-boost converters. In a first step, the effect of the converter ripples upon the PEM fuel cell is shown. They introduce oscillations in the fuel cell. Their appearance is explained, discussed and possibilities for their suppression are given. After that, the overall behaviors of the coupled fuel cell-converter systems are analyzed. It is shown, that neither stationary multiplicities nor oscillations can be introduced by the couplings and therefore separate control approaches for both the PEMFC and the DC-DC converters are applicable. (author)

  2. Analysis of the Coupling Behavior of PEM Fuel Cells and DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Kienle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The connection between PEM fuel cells and common DC-DC converters is examined. The analysis is model-based and done for boost, buck and buck-boost converters. In a first step, the effect of the converter ripples upon the PEM fuel cell is shown. They introduce oscillations in the fuel cell. Their appearance is explained, discussed and possibilities for their suppression are given. After that, the overall behaviors of the coupled fuel cell-converter systems are analyzed. It is shown, that neither stationary multiplicities nor oscillations can be introduced by the couplings and therefore separate control approaches for both the PEMFC and the DC-DC converters are applicable.

  3. Analysis and simulation for tensile behavior of anisotropic open-cell elastic foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢子兴; 刘强; 陈鑫

    2014-01-01

    Based on the elongated Kelvin model, a simplified periodic structural cell is obtained to investigate the tensile behavior of anisotropic open-cell elastic foams due to Kelvin model’s periodicity and symmetry in the whole space. The half-strut element and elastic deflection theory are used to analyze the tensile response as done in the previous studies. This study produces theoretical expressions for the tensile stress-strain curve in the rise and transverse directions. In addition, the theoretical results are examined with finite element simulation using an existing formula. The results indicate that the theoretical analysis agrees with the finite element simulation when the strain is not too high, and the present model is better. At the same time, the anisotropy ratio has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of foams. As the anisotropy ratio increases, the tensile stress is improved in the rising direction but drops in the transverse direction under the same strain.

  4. Analysis of behavior and trafficking of dendritic cells within the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Beena; Ricart, Brendon; Tait Wojno, Elia D; Harris, Tajie H; Randall, Louise M; Christian, David A; Gregg, Beth; De Almeida, Daniel Manzoni; Weninger, Wolfgang; Hammer, Daniel A; Hunter, Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    Under normal conditions the immune system has limited access to the brain; however, during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), large numbers of T cells and APCs accumulate within this site. A combination of real time imaging, transgenic reporter mice, and recombinant parasites allowed a comprehensive analysis of CD11c+ cells during TE. These studies reveal that the CNS CD11c+ cells consist of a mixture of microglia and dendritic cells (DCs) with distinct behavior associated with their ability to interact with parasites or effector T cells. The CNS DCs upregulated several chemokine receptors during TE, but none of these individual receptors tested was required for migration of DCs into the brain. However, this process was pertussis toxin sensitive and dependent on the integrin LFA-1, suggesting that the synergistic effect of signaling through multiple chemokine receptors, possibly leading to changes in the affinity of LFA-1, is involved in the recruitment/retention of DCs to the CNS and thus provides new insights into how the immune system accesses this unique site.

  5. Analysis of Vero cell growth behavior on microcarrier by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵曼君; 姜蕾; 丛威; 欧阳藩

    2002-01-01

    By using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes of Vero cells attached to and grown on the microcarrier Cytodex-3 were observed, and their behavior of adhesion, spreading and proliferation was analyzed. The effect of exogenous fibronectin/ laminin on adhesion and spreading of MCC/Vero cell was studied. The images of ESEM showed that expansion of cell growth was directed toward vacancy space. The growth curve and cell concentration change during the whole culture process were obtained from the statistical counting method based on ESEM images and the crystal violet method. The growth rate of Vero cells increases with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation, that is, the specific growth rate increases quickly with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation. When serum concentration in medium #199 ranged from 5% to 10%, experimental results indicated that serum concentration is one of the important factors influencing cell growth, particularly in the cell adhesion and spreading stage.

  6. Analysis of Vero cell growth behavior on microcarrier by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Manjun; Jiang, Lei; Cong, Wei; Ouyang, Fan

    2002-04-01

    By using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes of Vero cells attached to and grown on the microcarrier Cytodex-3 were observed, and their behavior of adhesion, spreading and proliferation was analyzed. The effect of exogenous fibronectin/ laminin on adhesion and spreading of MCC/Vero cell was studied. The images of ESEM showed that expansion of cell growth was directed toward vacancy space. The growth curve and cell concentration change during the whole culture process were obtained from the statistical counting method based on ESEM images and the crystal violet method. The growth rate of Vero cells increases with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation, that is, the specific growth rate increases quickly with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation. When serum concentration in medium #199 ranged from 5% to 10%, experimental results indicated that serum concentration is one of the important factors influencing cell growth, particularly in the cell adhesion and spreading stage. PMID:18763074

  7. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD FIBER CELL WALLS

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    Phichit Somboon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of the wood fiber cell wall under mechanical treatment in refining was simulated dynamically using a finite element method. The effect of the amplitude and frequency of impacts on the mechanical breakdown of the fiber wall structure was examined. The proposed model of the fiber cell wall was constructed from elementary microfibrils in various orientations embedded in isotropic lignin. The fatigue of the cell wall was simulated under normal refiner mechanical pulping conditions. A cyclic load was applied on the model fiber through a hemispherical grit proposed to be applied on the surface on refiner segments. Changes in the elastic modulus of the cell wall were analyzed to determine the potential for cell wall breakdown. An increase in the amplitude of applied forces and frequency of impacts was found to have a significant influence on the reduction of the elastic modulus of the wall structure. A high frequency of impacts increased the stiffness of the cell wall, but resulted in faster reduction of the elastic modulus. At a lower amplitude of impacts, efficient breakdown of the cell wall using grits was achieved with a high frequency of impacts or a high rotational speed of refiners.

  8. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  9. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952

  10. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  11. Contingency and behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more...

  12. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless—a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to Enlightenment and Samādhi. The concept of stimulus singularity is introduced to account for why, within Zen's frame of reference, its methods can be stu...

  13. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  14. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  15. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed. PMID:18329187

  16. Patient-specific modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of individual sickle red blood cells under hypoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous morphology and abnormal dynamics under hypoxic conditions. We developed a time-dependent cell model that is able to simulate the dynamic processes of repeated sickling and unsickling of red blood cells (RBCs) under physiological conditions. By using the kinetic cell model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the dynamic behavior of individual sickle RBCs flowing in a microfluidic channel with multiple microgates. We investigate how individual sickle RBCs behave differently from healthy ones in channel flow, and analyze the alteration of cellular behavior and response to single-cell capillary obstruction induced by cell rheologic rigidification and morphological change due to cell sickling under hypoxic conditions. We also simulate the flow dynamics of sickle RBCs treated with hydroxyurea (HU) and quantify the relative enhancement of hemodynamic performance of HU. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant U01HL114476.

  17. Behavior analysis and linguistic productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    The greatest intellectual challenge to the field of behavior analysis may be understanding linguistic productivity (e.g., being able to correctly say and understand novel sentences). One of the main issues concerning linguistic productivity is whether behavioral productivity is, itself, a fundamental behavioral process, as claimed by the proponents of relational frame theory, or whether we can understand linguistic productivity in terms of more fundamental behavioral principles.

  18. Studying post-stroke functional impairment after treatment with neural progenitor cells – an analysis of behavioral tests

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    Thorsten R. Doeppner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs in rodents reduces functional impairment after cerebral ischemia. In light of upcoming stroke trials regarding safety and feasibility of NPC transplantation, experimental studies have to successfully analyze the extent of NPC-induced neurorestoration on the functional level. However, appropriate behavioral tests for analysis of post-stroke motor coordination deficits and cognitive impairment after NPC grafting are not fully established. We therefore exposed male C57BL6 mice to either 45 min (mild or 90 min (severe of cerebral ischemia, using the thread occlusion model followed by intravenous injection of PBS or NPCs 6 h post-stroke with an observation period of three months. Post-stroke motor coordination was assessed by means of the rota rod, tight rope, corner turn, inclined plane, grip strength, foot fault, adhesive removal, pole test and balance beam test, whereas cognitive impairment was analyzed using the water maze, the open field and the passive avoidance test. Significant motor coordination differences after both mild and severe cerebral ischemia in favor of NPC-treated mice were observed for each motor coordination test except for the inclined plane and the grip strength test, which only showed significant differences after severe cerebral ischemia. Cognitive impairment after mild cerebral ischemia was successfully assessed using the water maze test, the open field and the passive avoidance test. On the contrary, the water maze test was not suitable in the severe cerebral ischemia paradigm, as it too much depends on motor coordination capabilities of test mice. In terms of both reliability and cost-effectiveness considerations, we thus recommend the corner turn, foot fault, balance beam, and open field test, which do not depend on durations of cerebral ischemia.

  19. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus;

    2015-01-01

    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  20. Histopathological Analysis from Gallic Acid Administration on Hippocampal Cell Density, Depression, and Anxiety Related Behaviors in A Trimethyltin Intoxication Model

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    Marzieh Moghadas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the effects of gallic acid (GA administration on trimethyltin chloride (TMT induced anxiety, depression, and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of TMT (8 mg/kg. The animals received either GA (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg or saline as the vehicle for 14 consecutive days. We measured depression and anxiety levels of the rats by conducting the behavioral tail suspension (TST, elevatedplusmaze (EPM, and novelty suppressed feeding (NSF tests. Histological analyses were then used to determine the cell densities of different hippocampal subdivisions. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: GA administration ameliorated anxiety and depression in the behavioral tests. The cell densities in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG hippocampal subdivisionsfrom GA-treated rats were higher than saline treated rats. Conclusion: GA treatment against TMT-induced hippocampal degeneration altered cellular loss in the hippocampus and ameliorated the depression-anxiety state in rats.

  1. Direct measurements of IPTG enable analysis of the induction behavior of E. coli in high cell density cultures

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    Fernández-Castané Alfred

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E. coli lac operon and its components have been studied for decades, and lac-derived systems are widely used for recombinant protein production. However, lac operon dynamics and induction behavior remain the paradigm of gene regulation. Recently, an HPLC-MS-based method to quantify IPTG in the medium and inside the biomass has been established, and this tool may be useful to uncover the lack of knowledge and allow optimization of biotechnological processes. Results The results obtained from the study of IPTG distribution profiles in fed-batch, high cell density cultures allowed discrimination between two different depletion patterns of an inducer from the medium to the biomass in E. coli-expressing rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA. Moreover, we could demonstrate that active transport mediates the uptake of this gratuitous inducer. Additionally, we could study the induction behaviors of this expression system by taking into account the biomass concentration at the induction time. Conclusions In the bistable range, partial induction occurred, which led to intermediate levels of RhuA activity. There was a direct relationship between the initial inducer concentrations and the initial inducer transport rate together with the specific activity. A majority of the inducer remains in the medium to reach equilibrium with the intracellular level. The intracellular inducer accumulation was a further evidence of bistability of the lac operon.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the effects of biofunctional and physical gradients on cell behavior in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turturro, Michael

    The continued enhancement of tissue engineered scaffolds relies on their ability to stimulate the formation of a stable microvascular network within the biomaterial. In vivo, the spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The overall goals of this thesis are to develop a technique for the generation of gradients of physical properties and incorporated biofunctionality within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) scaffolds and to investigate the effects of these gradients on 3D cell invasion and neovascularization. To this end, a novel photopolymerization technique for generating spatial variations in matrix properties and incorporated biofunctionality within synthetic PEGDA hydrogels, perfusion-based frontal polymerization (PBFP), was developed. This technique relies on the controlled perfusion of a photoinitiator to a reaction chamber containing a precursor solution and results in the propagation of a polymer reaction front that travels through the monomer solution creating a gradient in hydrogel crosslinking. Manipulation of the magnitude of the gradient can be achieved through alterations in the polymerization conditions. Scaffolds with embedded gradients were designed and optimized based on a range of properties shown to support 2D cell adhesion, proliferation, and 3D vascular cell invasion in bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with homogeneous properties. An in vitro model of neovascularization was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Sprout invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the

  3. Contextualism: The World View of Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the world view of contemporary behavior analysis, especially behavior analysis of child development, is contextualistic, not mechanistic. The history of behavior analysis is presented in a revised account that focuses on philosophic movements. Contextualism of behavior analysis is contrasted with mechanism with respect to five core…

  4. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  5. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  6. Autistic Behavior, Behavior Analysis, and the Gene—Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the negative behavior-analytic commentary on Drash and Tudor's behavior-analytic analysis of the etiology of autistic repertoires and values. This article also asks that, in our effort to scrub it clean, we not drown Drash and Tudor's beautiful, but fragile, new-born, behavior-analytic baby in hyper-methodological, hyper-scholarly bathwater.

  7. Osteoblastic cell behavior on nanostructured metal implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guehennec, L Le; Martin, F.; Lopez-Heredia, M.A.; Louarn, G.; Amouriq, Y.; Cousty, J.; Layrolle, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Surface modifications at the nanometric scale may promote protein adsorption, cell adhesion and thus favor the osseointegration of metal implants. The behavior of osteoblastic cells was studied on mirror-polished (Smooth-SS) and nanostructured (Nano-SS) stainless steel surfaces. MATERIALS & ME

  8. Cell signaling underlying epileptic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri eBozzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a complex disease, characterized by the repeated occurrence of bursts of electrical activity (seizures in specific brain areas. The behavioral outcome of seizure events strongly depends on the brain regions that are affected by overactivity. Here we review the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the generation of seizures in epileptogenic areas. Pathways activated by modulatory neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, involving the activation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs and the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs will be first discussed in relation to the occurrence of acute seizure events. Activation of immediate early genes has been proposed to lead to long-term molecular and behavioral responses induced by acute seizures. We also review deleterious consequences of seizure activity, focusing on the contribution of apoptosis-associated signaling pathways to the progression of the disease. A deep understanding of signaling pathways involved in both acute and long-term responses to seizures continues to be crucial to unravel the origins of epileptic behaviors and ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for the cure of epilepsy.

  9. Modeling cell behavior: moving beyond intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jolicoeur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the launching of this new journal, we propose a forum to the community of researchers interested and involved in, or even simply questioning the why, what, how, and when of modeling cell or cell culture behavior. To start the discussion, we review some of the usual questions we are routinely asked on the pertinence of modeling cell behavior, and on who might benefit from conducting such work. To draw a global portrait, throughout this text we refer the reader to handbooks introducing the basics of modeling a biosystem, as well as to selected works that can help visualize the broad fields of applications.

  10. Improving Public Perception of Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David H

    2016-05-01

    The potential impact of behavior analysis is limited by the public's dim awareness of the field. The mass media rarely cover behavior analysis, other than to echo inaccurate negative stereotypes about control and punishment. The media instead play up appealing but less-evidence-based approaches to problems, a key example being the touting of dubious diets over behavioral approaches to losing excess weight. These sorts of claims distort or skirt scientific evidence, undercutting the fidelity of behavior analysis to scientific rigor. Strategies for better connecting behavior analysis with the public might include reframing the field's techniques and principles in friendlier, more resonant form; pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals in simple terms; and playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis. PMID:27606184

  11. Identified nerve cells and insect behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, C M; Robertson, R M

    2001-03-01

    Studies of insect identified neurons over the past 25 years have provided some of the very best data on sensorimotor integration; tracing information flow from sensory to motor networks. General principles have emerged that have increased the sophistication with which we now understand both sensory processing and motor control. Two overarching themes have emerged from studies of identified sensory interneurons. First, within a species, there are profound differences in neuronal organization associated with both the sex and the social experience of the individual. Second, single neurons exhibit some surprisingly rich examples of computational sophistication in terms of (a) temporal dynamics (coding superimposed upon circadian and shorter-term rhythms), and also (b) what Kenneth Roeder called "neural parsimony": that optimal information can be encoded, and complex acts of sensorimotor coordination can be mediated, by small ensembles of cells. Insect motor systems have proven to be relatively complex, and so studies of their organization typically have not yielded completely defined circuits as are known from some other invertebrates. However, several important findings have emerged. Analysis of neuronal oscillators for rhythmic behavior have delineated a profound influence of sensory feedback on interneuronal circuits: they are not only modulated by feedback, but may be substantially reconfigured. Additionally, insect motor circuits provide potent examples of neuronal restructuring during an organism's lifetime, as well as insights on how circuits have been modified across evolutionary time. Several areas where future advances seem likely to occur include: molecular genetic analyses, neuroecological syntheses, and neuroinformatics--the use of digital resources to organize databases with information on identified nerve cells and behavior. PMID:11163685

  12. Cells behaviors and genotoxicity on topological surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, N.; Yang, M.K.; Bi, S.X. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Chen, L., E-mail: chenlis@tjpu.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhu, Z.Y.; Gao, Y.T.; Du, Z. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Tianjin Third Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300170 (China)

    2013-08-01

    To investigate different cells behaviors and genotoxicity, which were driven by specific microenvironments, three patterned surfaces (pillars, wide grooves and narrow grooves) and one smooth surface were prepared by template-based technique. Vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques and associates with cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions, which can promote cell adhesion and spreading. The immunofluorescence staining of vinculin revealed that the narrow grooves patterned substrate was favorable for L929 cell adhesion. For cell multiplication, the narrow grooves surface was fitted for the proliferation of L929, L02 and MSC cells, the pillars surface was only in favor of L929 cells to proliferate during 7 days of cell cultivation. Cell genetic toxicity was evaluated by cellular micronuclei test (MNT). The results indicated that topological surfaces were more suitable for L929 cells to proliferate and maintain the stability of genome. On the contrary, the narrow grooves surface induced higher micronuclei ratio of L02 and MSC cells than other surfaces. With the comprehensive results of cell multiplication and MNT, it was concluded that the wide grooves surface was best fitted for L02 cells to proliferate and have less DNA damages, and the smooth surface was optimum for the research of MSC cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Different cells behaviors on microstructure surfaces were discussed in this paper. • The expression of cell protein of Vinculin was studied in this research. • Cellular micronuclei test was applied to evaluate cells' genotoxicity. • Cell genotoxicity was first studied in the research field of topological surfaces.

  13. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1984-01-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  14. Experimental and model analysis of the co-oxidative behavior of syngas feed in an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazzi, A.; Rahmanipour, M.; Maestri, M.; Groppi, G.; Bardini, L.; Pappacena, A.; Boaro, M.

    2016-02-01

    By means of model analysis, we show that, in the presence of syngas, the electro-oxidation of H2 and that of CO occur in parallel and contemporarily on Samaria-doped Ceria (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9, SDC) Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). The activation of a co-oxidative route is a most distinguishing feature of Ce-based cells, compared to traditional SOFCs. SDC electrolyte supported IT-SOFCs with Cu-Pd-CZ80 composite anodes and LSCF cathodes were tested under a wide range of operating conditions. Polarization and EIS measurements were collected at 600 °C and 650 °C with syngas mixtures (2.3-0.4H2/CO ratio), H2/N2 mixtures (from 97 to 30% H2 v/v) and CO/CO2 mixtures (from 97 to 50% CO v/v). A 1D, dynamic and heterogeneous model of the cell was applied to analyze the polarization and the EIS curves. The kinetics of the reactions of H2 electro-oxidation, CO electro-oxidation and O2 reduction were individually investigated and global power law rates were derived. The syngas experiments were simulated on a fully predictive basis and no parameter adjustment, confirming that the polarization behavior could be best reproduced exclusively by assuming the presence of the co-oxidative route. The IT-SOFCs were also exposed to biogas mixtures, revealing that the dry-reforming reaction was active.

  15. Analysis of South Carolina hydrogen and fuel cell workers views and opinion leadership behavior: A waiting opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besley, John C. [School of Journalism and Mass Communications, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29205 (United States); Baxter-Clemmons, Shannon [South Carolina Hydrogen Fuel Cell Alliance, P.O. Box 12302, Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The current study uses quantitative survey results to explore what a near census of hydrogen and fuel cell (HFC) workers in South Carolina (n = 70) say about their HFC experiences and the degree to which these workers can be expected to act as opinion leaders for the field. In general, these workers say they are positive about the environmental, national security, and economic potential of HFC technologies. They further see HFC technologies as having small and manageable levels of risk. A number of these workers exhibit characteristics associated with both issue-specific and general opinion leadership. Issue-specific leadership and positive views about HFC technology were associated with higher levels of self-reported technology-related interpersonal discussion. The study concludes that the existence of workers with positive HFC experiences and a demonstrated interest in telling others about their experiences may represent an opportunity for those charged with promoting HFC development and adoption. Future efforts should explore how HFC workers could be effectively integrated into such efforts as a means of reaching difficult to reach audiences. (author)

  16. Behavior Analysis: A Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, William

    This paper provides students with a brief outline of behavioral principles and behavior change techniques, and describes various means of behavior change including operant conditioning. Methods discussed include reinforcement, extinction, punishment, response cost, time-out, overcorrection, training, and data collection for taking a baseline.…

  17. Glial Cell Regulation of Rhythmic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F. Rob; Ng, Fanny S.; Sengupta, Sukanya; You, Samantha; Huang, Yanmei

    2015-01-01

    Brain glial cells, in particular astrocytes and microglia, secrete signaling molecules that regulate glia–glia or glia–neuron communication and synaptic activity. While much is known about roles of glial cells in nervous system development, we are only beginning to understand the physiological functions of such cells in the adult brain. Studies in vertebrate and invertebrate models, in particular mice and Drosophila, have revealed roles of glia–neuron communication in the modulation of complex behavior. This chapter emphasizes recent evidence from studies of rodents and Drosophila that highlight the importance of glial cells and similarities or differences in the neural circuits regulating circadian rhythms and sleep in the two models. The chapter discusses cellular, molecular, and genetic approaches that have been useful in these models for understanding how glia–neuron communication contributes to the regulation of rhythmic behavior. PMID:25707272

  18. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, C P

    1984-11-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingencies is tied to this particular picture. But this picture may be incompatible with, and certainly is different from, other possible pictures. Reinforcement contingencies that place greater emphasis on the local temporal patterning of behavior seem tied to some of these alternative pictures of what behavior is. These other pictures encourage a wide range of theoretical approaches, including cognitive ones, various kinds of mathematical analyses, and computer-simulation methods to characterize entire behavior streams. In the future, perhaps the experimental analysis of behavior will accept a somewhat different range of views on the nature and function of theory, a correspondingly different set of experimental methods, and alternative ways of talking about behavior. PMID:16812399

  19. Multiscale Entropy Analysis on Human Operating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Junshan Pan; Hanping Hu; Xiang Liu; Yong Hu

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting the statistical analysis method, human dynamics provides new insights to the research of human behavior. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the computer operating behavior through a modified multiscale entropy algorithm with both the interval time series and the number series of individuals’ operating behavior been investigated. We also discuss the activity of individuals’ behavior from the three groups denoted as the retiree group, the student group and the worker...

  20. Mechanical behavior of open cell aluminum foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jikou

    Open cell metallic foams are relatively new materials with increasingly applications due to their attractive combinations of physical, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. Since plastic deformation in the struts involves dislocation motion, dislocation slip bands are used to track the initiation/propagation and locations of plastic deformation in individual struts. We find that the onset of plastic deformation in struts is far beyond the observable strut/cell shape changes, and both plastic bending and buckling are strut deformation modes. To measure the strut mechanical properties, an existing micro-scale tensile tester was updated to test the individual struts extracted from foams using electro-discharged machining. The micro-tensile testing results show that the foam struts are typically more ductile and one time stronger than the corresponding fully dense alloy. To integrate the measured strut and foam properties, a four-strut structure unit is identified as a structural representative of the open cell foam structure. Based on the observed strut deformation modes, mechanics analysis is performed on the structure unit to predict the foam stiffness and strength. The predictions are in good agreement with the measured data, suggesting the significance of the studies on the foam strut properties and deformation. This model also predicts the bounds of the foam strengths. Under cyclic compression, foams fail due to damage accumulation in individual struts, in which surface cracks initiate and grow. At low stress levels, surface cracks are formed in multiple struts that are distributed across the foam block. This results in an abrupt strain jump due to the crush of foam block, upon foam failure. To meet applications requirements, open cell aluminum foams are usually annealed or strengthened. The studies are carried out in the foams in the as-fabricated (F), annealed (O) and T6-strengthed (T6) conditions. We find that annealing and T6 strengthening

  1. Cell behavior observation and gene expression analysis of melanoma associated with stromal fibroblasts in a three-dimensional magnetic cell culture array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Mina; Matsumura, Taku; Yamamoto, And Shuhei; Nakayama, Eiichi; Jimbow, Kowichi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid culture array has been fabricated using a magnetic force-based cell patterning method, analyzing the effect of stromal fibroblast on the invasive capacity of melanoma. Formation of spheroids was observed when array-like multicellular patterns of melanoma were developed using a pin-holder device made of magnetic soft iron and an external magnet, which enables the assembly of the magnetically labeled cells on the collagen gel-coated surface as array-like cell patterns. The interaction of fibroblast on the invasion of melanoma was investigated using three types of cell interaction models: (i) fibroblasts were magnetically labeled and patterned together in array with melanoma spheroids (direct-interaction model), (ii) fibroblasts coexisting in the upper collagen gel (indirect-interaction model) of melanoma spheroids, and (iii) fibroblast-sheets coexisting under melanoma spheroids (fibroblast-sheet model). The fibroblast-sheet model has largely increased the invasive capacity of melanoma, and the promotion of adhesion, migration, and invasion were also observed. In the fibroblast-sheet model, the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 increased by 24-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in real time RT-PCR compared to the absence of fibroblasts. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of fibroblast interaction to invasive capacity of melanoma in the 3D in vitro bioengineered tumor microenvironment.

  2. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS BY GRAPH MINING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    KATSUTOSHI YADA; HIROSHI MOTODA; TAKASHI WASHIO; ASUKA MIYAWAKI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how graph mining system is applied to sales transaction data so as to understand consumer behavior. First, existing research of consumer behavior analysis for sequential purchase pattern is reviewed. Then we propose to represent the complicated customer purchase behavior by a directed graph retaining temporal information in a purchase sequence and apply a graph mining technique to analyze the frequent occurring patterns. In this paper, we demonstrate through the case...

  3. Quantifying cell behaviors during embryonic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, David; Ma, Xiaoyan; Crews, Sarah; Lynch, Holley; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-03-01

    During embryogenesis, internal forces induce motions in cells leading to widespread motion in tissues. We previously developed laser hole-drilling as a consistent, repeatable way to probe such epithelial mechanics. The initial recoil (less than 30s) gives information about physical properties (elasticity, force) of cells surrounding the wound, but the long-term healing process (tens of minutes) shows how cells adjust their behavior in response to stimuli. To study this biofeedback in many cells through time, we developed tools to quantify statistics of individual cells. By combining watershed segmentation with a powerful and efficient user interaction system, we overcome problems that arise in any automatic segmentation from poor image quality. We analyzed cell area, perimeter, aspect ratio, and orientation relative to wound for a wide variety of laser cuts in dorsal closure. We quantified statistics for different regions as well, i.e. cells near to and distant from the wound. Regional differences give a distribution of wound-induced changes, whose spatial localization provides clues into the physical/chemical signals that modulate the wound healing response. Supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGP0021/2007 C).

  4. Self-Awareness: Behavior Analysis and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Travis

    2008-01-01

    "Self-awareness" is a specific type of autoclitic discriminative behavior and inferential generalization to similar performances exhibited by other people. Brain imaging findings take on special importance within behavior analysis when they indicate that dysfunctions in these areas are related to differential effects of our interventions, with…

  5. Procrastination, partial naivete, and behavioral welfare analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper has a dual purpose. First, I present a new modeling of partial naivete, and apply this to the analysis of procrastination. The decision maker is assumed to have stationary behavior and to be partially naive in the sense of perceiving that his current preferences may persist in the future. The behavioral implications of such partial naivete differ from those of related literature. Second, I suggest a general principle for welfare analysis in multi-self settings through a new applica...

  6. Multiscale Entropy Analysis on Human Operating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junshan Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By exploiting the statistical analysis method, human dynamics provides new insights to the research of human behavior. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the computer operating behavior through a modified multiscale entropy algorithm with both the interval time series and the number series of individuals’ operating behavior been investigated. We also discuss the activity of individuals’ behavior from the three groups denoted as the retiree group, the student group and the worker group based on the nature of their jobs. We find that the operating behavior of the retiree group exhibits more complex dynamics than the other two groups and further present a reasonable explanation for this phenomenon. Our findings offer new insights for the further understanding of individual behavior at different time scales.

  7. Mast cells behavior analysis: non mineralized wall of suprabony periodontal pockets submitted to low intensity laser radiation. (An in anima nobile study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this study 20 patients with periodontal disease were selected. The treatment required for all of then was the gingivectomy, a ressective periodontal surgery. This technique consists of removing the whole excess of gingival tissue with the intent of reestablishing the anatomy and the correct function. The gingival area was submitted to 2 different wavelengths and then histologically analysed to search for alterations, mainly concerning mast cells behavior, a blood cell responsible, among other things, for blood vases enlargement. During the surgical procedure each gingival area was submitted to infrared low intensity laser (λ = 785 nm) or to red laser (λ = 688 nm), both with 50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm2. A third area was analysed, the control area, in which no laser treatment was employed. The samples were fixated in formol, cut and stained by hematoxyline eosine and toluidine blue. Based on the result we can conclude: the 2 wavelengths used in this study led to the reduction in the number of mast cells present in the tissue as well as to the increase on the degranulation of the remaining mast cells, considered statistically significant taken the degranulation index and; there was no significant difference caused by the action of the two laser wavelengths λ=785 nm and λ=688 nm -50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm2-, over the degranulation of the mast cells; the length and width of the randomly chosen blood vases were not statistically different among the analysed groups. (author)

  8. Isolation and analysis of mouse microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jenny A; Cardona, Sandra M; Cardona, Astrid E

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that make up about 10% of the central nervous system (CNS). They are known for their surveillant behavior, which involves continuous monitoring of neural tissue by extending and retracting their processes. Microglial cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and play important roles in homeostasis as well as inflammatory and immune responses in the brain. This unit describes several microglial cell isolation protocols that can be easily adapted for projects requiring a rapid and efficient analysis of mouse microglial cells by flow cytometry. Methods for visualizing microglial cells using in situ immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry in free-floating sections are also included.

  9. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194

  10. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Luo; Guangrong Tong; Yang Pan; Sha Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and prod...

  11. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  12. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers. PMID:27540508

  13. A Token Manual for Behavior Analysis Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Don, Jr.

    This dual language manual, written in both Spanish and English, will help the teacher in a Behavior Analysis classroom utilize the Token System to motivate, reinforce, and foster independence in pupils' learning activities. The rationale and procedures for earning, giving, and exchanging tokens is clearly explained. The use of helpful accessories…

  14. The Scientific Image in Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Mickey

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history of science, the scientific image has played a significant role in communication. With recent developments in computing technology, there has been an increase in the kinds of opportunities now available for scientists to communicate in more sophisticated ways. Within behavior analysis, though, we are only just beginning to appreciate the importance of going beyond the printing press to elucidate basic principles of behavior. The aim of this manuscript is to stimulate appreciation of both the role of the scientific image and the opportunities provided by a quick response code (QR code) for enhancing the functionality of the printed page. I discuss the limitations of imagery in behavior analysis ("Introduction"), and I show examples of what can be done with animations and multimedia for teaching philosophical issues that arise when teaching about private events ("Private Events 1 and 2"). Animations are also useful for bypassing ethical issues when showing examples of challenging behavior ("Challenging Behavior"). Each of these topics can be accessed only by scanning the QR code provided. This contingency has been arranged to help the reader embrace this new technology. In so doing, I hope to show its potential for going beyond the limitations of the printing press. PMID:27606187

  15. Oscillatory behaviors and hierarchical assembly of contractile structures in intercalating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2011-08-01

    Fluctuations in the size of the apical cell surface have been associated with apical constriction and tissue invagination. However, it is currently not known if apical oscillatory behaviors are a unique property of constricting cells or if they constitute a universal feature of the force balance between cells in multicellular tissues. Here, we set out to determine whether oscillatory cell behaviors occur in parallel with cell intercalation during the morphogenetic process of axis elongation in the Drosophila embryo. We applied multi-color, time-lapse imaging of living embryos and SIESTA, an integrated tool for automated and semi-automated cell segmentation, tracking, and analysis of image sequences. Using SIESTA, we identified cycles of contraction and expansion of the apical surface in intercalating cells and characterized them at the molecular, cellular, and tissue scales. We demonstrate that apical oscillations are anisotropic, and this anisotropy depends on the presence of intact cell-cell junctions and spatial cues provided by the anterior-posterior patterning system. Oscillatory cell behaviors during axis elongation are associated with the hierarchical assembly and disassembly of contractile actomyosin structures at the medial cortex of the cell, with actin localization preceding myosin II and with the localization of both proteins preceding changes in cell shape. We discuss models to explain how the architecture of cytoskeletal networks regulates their contractile behavior and the mechanisms that give rise to oscillatory cell behaviors in intercalating cells.

  16. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  17. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  18. Fractal Analysis on Human Behaviors Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Zha, Yi-Long

    2010-01-01

    The study of human dynamics has attracted much interest from many fields recently. In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The Hurst exponents and length of non-periodic cycles calculated through Rescaled Range Analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors is fractal with long-range correlation. Then the time series are converted to complex networks by visibility graph algorithm. The topological properties of the networks, such as scale-free property, small-world effect and hierarchical structure imply that close relationships exist between the amounts of repetitious actions performed by people during certain periods of time, especially for some important days. Finally, the networks obtained are verified to be not fractal and self-similar using box-counting method. Our work implies the intrinsic regularity shown in human collective repetitious behaviors.

  19. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data. PMID:26415154

  20. Teleology and teleonomy in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, H W

    1994-01-01

    Teleological descriptions and explanations refer to purpose as consequent to a phenomenon. They become nonteleological if purpose is represented as antecedent to the phenomenon. Such nonteleological statements are called teleonomic, especially when they refer to antecedent genetic "programs." In behavior analysis, purpose is attributed to the organism's history of consequences. Such a history may leave a trace-physiological (mechanism) or mental (cognitivism)-or the issue of traces may be irrelevant (contextualism). The history or trace is antecedent to current responding, and thus is not a teleological concept in the classical sense. It could be called a teleonomic concept, but this designation is undesirable if it implies exclusively genetic programming, because the history or trace is genetically programmed in evolutionary selection but not in ontogenetic selection. Therefore, the concepts of teleology and teleonomy are not useful for behavior analysis, and invoking them can be misleading. The concept of purpose can be useful if it is not reified. PMID:22478174

  1. Multi scale analysis of composite structures behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lachaud, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    This research activity report is mainly based on the last 14 years work for understanding and modeling the nonlinear mechanical behavior of aeronautical composite materials. Being initiated during my PhD, this work is an extent of it, oriented to the analysis of damage phenomena (initiation and propagation) under static or rapid dynamic loadings for a broad range of composite materials such as short fibers composites, unidirectional composites, and woven composites, with thermoplastic or t...

  2. Behavior Analysis: Thriving, But How About Its Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Fantino, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been thriving by continuing to make important theoretical and empirical contributions to a wide array of problems, as well as by contributing to interdisciplinary research. Applied research in behavior analysis is flourishing. Despite these positive signs there may be an erosion of support for basic research in animal learning and behavior, including behavior analysis. Increased attention by behavior analysts to fundamental problems in areas of cognition, including decis...

  3. DNDO Analysis Cell Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagh, Richard T.; Dimmerling, Paul J.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Hoyt, Joel R.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Rohlfing, Kerrie S.; Schweppe, John E.; Sego, Landon H.; Shergur, Jason M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2014-03-12

    The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) has a mission of implementing rad/nuc interdiction capabilities for a managed and coordinated response to threats, integration of federal nuclear forensics programs, and coordinating the development of the global nuclear detection and reporting architecture. In the process of executing this mission, DNDO has generated substantial information, data, technical results, operational workflows and analytical tools. The effective utilization of these resources is an overarching goal of the organization. After nearly a decade of performing work, DNDO faces a challenge in capitalizing on the large amount of data, reports, processes, tools, and people. As new work is being planned, managers and researchers need to have an understating of what information has been collected, what tools are available, the collaborations which can be utilized to propel the work forward, processes to plan and execute, and how to present conclusions and results that can assist the government in making decisions. This type of challenge can be met through the use of a series of organized and connected elements which form a broader structure (cell) that promotes cross utilization of elements such that they can be tailored (analyzed) to fit the context of the problem to be solved. The development of an analysis cell for DNDO will address the challenges of utilizing existing elements, identifying gaps, annually reporting the performance of rad/nuc interdiction instrumentation, and planning the execution of future work.

  4. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  5. Autonomous behavior of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Akkerman, [No Value; Weersing, E; Ausema, A; Dontje, B; Van Zant, G; de Haan, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Mechanisms that affect the function of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with long-term proliferative potential remain largely unknown. Here we assessed whether properties of stem cells are cell-extrinsically or cell-autonomously regulated. Materials and Methods. We developed a model in

  6. Participation by women in behavior analysis. II: 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Participation by women and men in (a) the editorial process and publication of three behavior analysis journals, (b) leadership in the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and (c) participation in the 1982 and 1991 conventions of the Association for Behavior Analysis are described. The data indicate that the relative involvement of women in all three areas is lower than the percentage of ABA members who are women (31%) and is consi...

  7. A Survey on Video-based Vehicle Behavior Analysis Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Vehicle Behavior is mainly to analyze and identify the vehicles’ motion pattern, and describe it by the use of natural language. It is a considerable challenge to analyze and describe the vehicles’ behavior in a complex scene. This paper first hackles the development history of the intelligent transportation system and analysis of vehicles’ behavior, and then conducts an in-depth analysis of current situation of vehicle behavior analysis from the video processing, video analysis and video understanding, summarizes the achieved results and the key technical problems, and prospects the future development of vehicle behavior analysis.

  8. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van A.A.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  9. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, King-Chuen; Tseng, Ching-Li; Wu, Chi-Chang; Kao, Feng-Chen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; So, Edmund C.; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2013-10-01

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell-scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Emergent behavior of cells on microfabricated soft polymeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sandeep Venkit

    In recent years, cell based bio-actuators like cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells have emerged as popular choices for powering biological machines consisting of soft polymeric scaffolds at the micro and macro scales. This is owing to their unique ability to generate spontaneous, synchronous contractions either autonomously or under externally applied fields. Most of the biological machine designs reported in literature use single cells or cell clusters conjugated with biocompatible soft polymers like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydrogels to produce some form of locomotion by converting chemical energy of the cells to mechanical energy. The mode of locomotion may vary, but the fundamental mechanism that these biological machines exploit to achieve locomotion stems from cell substrate interactions leading to large deformations of the substrates (relative to the cell size). However, the effect of such large scale, dynamic deformation of the substrates on the cellular and cluster level organization of the cells remains elusive. This dissertation tries to explore the emergent behavior of cells on different types of micro-scale deformable, soft polymeric substrates. In the first part of the dissertation, contractile dynamics of primary cardiomyocyte clusters is studied by culturing them on deformable thin polymeric films. The cell clusters beat and generate sufficient forces to deform the substrates out of plane. Over time, the clusters reorient their force dipoles along the direction of maximum compliance. This suggests that the cells are capable of sensing substrate deformations through a mechanosensitive feedback mechanism and dynamically reorganizing themselves. Results are further validated through finite element analysis. The development, characterization and quantification of a novel 1D/2D like polymeric platform for cell culture is presented in the second part. The platform consists of a 2D surface anchoring a long (few millimeters) narrow filament (1D

  11. Computational Analysis of Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ďurišová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available orrespondence: Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Phone + 42-1254775928; Fax +421254775928; E-mail: maria.durisova@savba.sk 84 RESEARCH ARTICLE The objective of this study was to perform a computational analysis of the pharmacokinetic behavior of ampicillin, using data from the literature. A method based on the theory of dynamic systems was used for modeling purposes. The method used has been introduced to pharmacokinetics with the aim to contribute to the knowledge base in pharmacokinetics by including the modeling method which enables researchers to develop mathematical models of various pharmacokinetic processes in an identical way, using identical model structures. A few examples of a successful use of the modeling method considered here in pharmacokinetics can be found in full texts articles available free of charge at the website of the author, and in the example given in the this study. The modeling method employed in this study can be used to develop a mathematical model of the pharmacokinetic behavior of any drug, under the condition that the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug under study can be at least partially approximated using linear models.

  12. Behavior of Cell on Vibrating Micro Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of micro ridges on cells cultured at a vibrating scaffold has been studied in vitro. Several parallel lines of micro ridges have been made on a disk of transparent polydimethylsiloxane for a scaffold. To apply the vibration on the cultured cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the scaffold. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by the sinusoidal alternating voltage (Vp-p < 16 V at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Four kinds of cells were used in the test: L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of C3H mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma, C2C12 (mouse myoblast, 3T3-L1 (mouse fat precursor cells. The cells were seeded on the micro pattern at the density of 2000 cells/cm2 in the medium containing 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/ streptomycin. After the adhesion of cells in several hours, the cells are exposed to the ultrasonic vibration for several hours. The cells were observed with a phase contrast microscope. The experimental results show that the cells adhere, deform and migrate on the scaffold with micro patterns regardless of the ultrasonic vibration. The effects of the vibration and the micro pattern depend on the kind of cells.

  13. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and product awareness is one of the small degree of influence. However, the convenience of purchase has no significant effect on buying green food. At last, this study aiming factors that affect consumer purchasing choice, proposed some suggestions to expand the eco-labeling of food consumption.

  14. How do culture media influence in vitro perivascular cell behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Perivascular cells are multilineage cells located around the vessel wall and important for wall stabilization. In this study, we evaluated a stem cell media and a perivascular cell-specific media for the culture of primary perivascular cells regarding their cell morphology, doubling time, stem cell properties, and expression of cell type-specific markers. When the two cell culture media were compared to each other, perivascular cells cultured in the stem cell medium had a more elongated morphology and a faster doubling rate and cells cultured in the pericyte medium had a more typical morphology, with several filopodia, and a slower doubling rate. To evaluate stem cell properties, perivascular cells, CD146(-) cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. It was seen that perivascular cells, as well as CD146(-) cells and MSCs, cultured in stem cell medium showed greater differentiation than cells cultured in pericyte-specific medium. The expression of pericyte-specific markers CD146, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), myosin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) could be found in both pericyte cultures, as well as to varying amounts in CD146(-) cells, MSCs, and endothelial cells. The here presented work shows that perivascular cells can adapt to their in vitro environment and cell culture conditions influence cell functionality, such as doubling rate or differentiation behavior. Pericyte-specific markers were shown to be expressed also from cells other than perivascular cells. We can further conclude that CD146(+) perivascular cells are inhomogeneous cell population probably containing stem cell subpopulations, which are located perivascular around capillaries.

  15. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (review)

  16. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Chuen Wu, Ching-Li Tseng, Chi-Chang Wu, Feng-Chen Kao, Yuan-Kun Tu, Edmund C So and Yang-Kao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  17. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  18. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and (c) playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis (see Freedman 2015, in this issue, for a thorough description of these strategies). This article outlines three additional strategies that the author believes will position behavior analysis as a "contemporary science of what works in behavior change." These new strategies are (a) creating a cohesive, easily understandable framework; (b) personally communicating a more contemporary, sophisticated message; and PMID:27606183

  19. Multicultural Alliance of Behavior Analysis Standards for Cultural Competence in Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth Hughes; Tanaka, Sakurako

    2013-01-01

    The United States Census bureau projects there will be significant increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades, in part due to international migration (Guarneri & Ortman, 2009). Due to the increase in culturally diverse populations working within the framework of behavior analysis, clinicians must ensure that they are…

  20. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. PMID:20152890

  1. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Mitrović, Marija; Fortunato, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.

  2. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Fortunato, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.

  3. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Fernanda V., E-mail: fernanda@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dias, Paulo F. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography.

  4. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  5. Primary intracranial germ-cell tumors. A retrospective analysis with special reference to long-term results of treatment and the behavior of rare types of tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N.; Yamada, H.; Andoh, T.; Hirata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Shinoda, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumors were reviewed with reference to the effect of treatment. Histologically, there were 23 pure germinomas, while the remaining tumors had more unusual histology; 3 of these were teratomas, and 4 germcell tumors with the admixture of yolk sac tumor (YST) or embryonal carcinoma (EMC). Three of these rare cases are presented. The performed surgery and radiotherapy, seemed adequate for pure germinomas, and all these cases lived tumor-free after an observation time of 13 to 139 months although 4 patients developed intellectual retardation or cerebral dullness after radiotherapy. Four cases with YST and EMC elements, indicated by the elevation of AFP and HCG values in serum, were resistant to radio- and chemotherapy and developed, despite surgically total removal of the tumor, intra- or extracranial metastases. A review of the literature is included.

  6. The cognitive cell: bacterial behavior reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Research on how bacteria adapt to changing environments underlies the contemporary biological understanding of signal transduction (ST), and ST provides the foundation of the information-processing approach that is the hallmark of the ‘cognitive revolution,’ which began in the mid-20th century. Yet cognitive scientists largely remain oblivious to research into microbial behavior that might provide insights into problems in their own domains, while microbiologists seem equally unaware of the potential importance of their work to understanding cognitive capacities in multicellular organisms, including vertebrates. Evidence in bacteria for capacities encompassed by the concept of cognition is reviewed. Parallels exist not only at the heuristic level of functional analogue, but also at the level of molecular mechanism, evolution and ecology, which is where fruitful cross-fertilization among disciplines might be found. PMID:25926819

  7. 4D Tumorigenesis Model for Quantitating Coalescence, Directed Cell Motility and Chemotaxis, Identifying Unique Cell Behaviors, and Testing Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Spencer; Voss, Edward; Scherer, Amanda; Lusche, Daniel F; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R

    2016-01-01

    A 4D high-resolution computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system has been developed and applied to the long-term (14-30 days) analysis of cancer cells migrating and aggregating within a 3D matrix. 4D tumorigenesis models more closely approximate the tumor microenvironment than 2D substrates and, therefore, are improved tools for elucidating the interactions within the tumor microenvironment that promote growth and metastasis. The model we describe here can be used to analyze the growth of tumor cells, aggregate coalescence, directed cell motility and chemotaxis, matrix degradation, the effects of anticancer drugs, and the behavior of immune and endothelial cells mixed with cancer cells. The information given in this chapter is also intended to acquaint the reader with computer-assisted methods and algorithms that can be used for high-resolution 3D reconstruction and quantitative motion analysis. PMID:27271907

  8. Deformation behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, A.C., E-mail: a.kaya@campus.tu-berlin.de; Fleck, C.

    2014-10-06

    This study presents the deformation and cell collapse behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams. 316L stainless-steel open-cell foams with two porosities (30 and 45 pores per inch, ppi) were produced with the pressureless powder metallurgical method, and tested in quasi-static compression. As a result of the manufacturing technique, 316L stainless steel open-cell foams have a high amount of microporosity. The deformation behavior was investigated on a macroscopic scale by digital image correlation (DIC) evaluation of light micrographs and on the microscopic scale by in situ loading of cells in the scanning electron microscope. The deformation behavior of the metal foams was highly affected by microstructural features, such as closed pores and their distribution throughout the foam specimen. Moreover, the closed pores made a contribution to the plateau stress of the foams through cell face stretching. Strut buckling and bending are the dominant mechanisms in cell collapse. Although there are edge defects on the struts, the struts have an enormous plastic deformation capability. The cell size of the steel foams had no significant effect on the mechanical properties. Due to the inhomogeneities in the microstructure, the measured plateau stresses of the foams showed about 20% scatter at the same relative density.

  9. On computational and behavioral evidence regarding Hebbian transcortical cell assemblies.

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, M. J.; Andrews, M. W.; Richardson, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Pulvermuller restricts himself to an unnecessarily narrow range of evidence to support his claims. Evidence from neural modeling and behavioral experiments provides further support for an account of words encoded as transcortical cell assemblies. A cognitive neuroscience of language must include a range of methodologies (e.g., neural, computational, and behavioral) and will need to focus on the on-line processes of real-time language processing in more natural contexts.

  10. Global behavior of gear system using mixed cell mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yunwen; LIU; Mengjun; DONG; Haijun

    2004-01-01

    In some mechanical nonlinear systems, the transient motion will be undergoing a very long process and the attractor-basin boundaries are so complicated that some difficulties occur in analyzing the system global behavior. To solve this problem a mixed cell mapping method based on the point mapping and the principle of simple cell mapping is developed. The algorithm of the mixed cell mapping is studied. A dynamic model of a gear pair is established with the backlash, damping, transmission error and the time-varying stiffness taken into consideration. The global behaviors of this system are analyzed. The coexistence of the system attractors and the respective attractor-basin of each attractor with different parameters are obtained, thus laying a theoretical basis for improvement of the dynamic behaviors of gear system.

  11. Negative Reinforcement in Applied Behavior Analysis: An Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. Current research suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement.…

  12. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  13. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  14. Uncovering cancer cell behavioral phenotype in 3-D in vitro metastatic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Sun, Bo; Duclos, Guillaume; Kam, Yoonseok; Gatenby, Robert; Stone, Howard; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    One well-known fact is that cancer cell genetics determines cell metastatic potentials. However, from a physics point of view, genetics as cell properties cannot directly act on metastasis. An agent is needed to unscramble the genetics first before generating dynamics for metastasis. Exactly this agent is cell behavioral phenotype, which is rarely studied due to the difficulties of real-time cell tracking in in vivo tissue. Here we have successfully constructed a micro in vitro environment with collagen based Extracellular Matrix (ECM) structures for cell 3-D metastasis. With stable nutrition (glucose) gradient inside, breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 is able to invade inside the collagen from the nutrition poor site towards the nutrition rich site. Continuous confocal microscopy captures images of the cells every 12 hours and tracks their positions in 3-D space. The micro fluorescent beads pre-mixed inside the ECM demonstrate that invasive cells have altered the structures through mechanics. With the observation and the analysis of cell collective behaviors, we argue that game theory may exist between the pioneering cells and their followers in the metastatic cell group. The cell collaboration may explain the high efficiency of metastasis.

  15. Behavioral pattern analysis and dopamine release in quinpirole-induced repetitive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Ria; Nijdam, Annelies; Westra, Tjalke A; Kas, Martien J H; Westenberg, Herman G M

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. People with OCD suffer from intrusive, unwanted and recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). The aim of this study is to quantify the dimensions of ritualistic 'compulsive-like' behavior in quinpirole-induced behavior in rats by using T-pattern behavioral analysis. In addition, we investigated whether the behavioral effects elicited by quinpirole sensitization remained after 2 weeks of cessation of treatment. Finally, to study the neurobiological underpinnings of this 'compulsive-like' behavior, we investigated the effect of quinpirole treatment on the extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Once established, 'compulsive-like' behavior is dependent upon quinpirole administration, as this behavior rapidly normalized after cessation of treatment. After a single dose of quinpirole the dopamine level decreased more in saline pre-treated animals as compared with animals given quinpirole treatment continuously. Furthermore, T-pattern analysis revealed that quinpirole-induced behavior consists, unlike OCD rituals, of a smaller behavioral repertoire. As seen in patients with OCD, quinpirole-treated animals performed these behaviors with a high rate of repetition. These findings suggest that quinpirole-induced behavior mimics only part of the compulsive behavior as shown in OCD patients. PMID:21148023

  16. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  17. Recognition and Analysis on Overtaking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has a research of HMM and recognizes current driving intention, Moreover, using time to judge whether the behavior is overtaking behavior or not. Next, MSS was used to judge whether the overtaking conditions met or not. In addition, if they do not meet there will be a warning for driver. Use Gauss density functions to improve P-2D-HMM and discriminate driving intention, then identify the overtaking behavior. Based on vehicle kinematics theory, judge whether the overtaking behavior is normal by SMM. Warn the drivers whose overtaking behavior is abnormal to expect to reduce the traffic accident caused by overtaking. The result of experiment confirms that the model can accurately recognize overtaking behavior and the abnormal overtaking can be effective identified.

  18. Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M J

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences-physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the dynamics of behavior. Behavioral momentum and maximization have received mathematical formulations in behavior analysis. Yet to be worked out are the relations between molar and molecular formulations of behavioral theory. PMID:22478028

  19. Labor Market Analysis and Concerted Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ulman, Lloyd

    1989-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, the importance of concerted behavior by workers emerges from examination of some prominent theories which set out to explain wage rigidity in the face of declining demand or excess supply without abandoning key elements of competitive theory. In the second part, the importance of certain Keyenesian and satisficing behavioral postulates in motivating concerted worker behavior is. suggested by the shortcomings of some contemporary economic models of the trade un...

  20. Behavioral Research Data Analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuelin

    2012-01-01

    This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su

  1. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these area...

  2. Sequential Analysis of Rat Behavior in th Open Field

    OpenAIRE

    Pisula, Wojciech

    1994-01-01

    Fifty four rats were tested in an open field. Both Frequency and Sequence of behavioral acts were analyzed. Distribution of the behavioral index frequencies appeared to be far from normal. Cluster analysis based on sequential data revealed that rats employ two main behavioral patterns in the open field. The results are discussed in terms of individual differences. The procedure used here represents an improved approach to analyzing open-field behavior.

  3. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Gresham; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Beha...

  5. Static Behavior of Chalcogenide Based Programmable Metallization Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Saba

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization. To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities. The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior. The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of

  6. Behavior Analysis of Forgiveness in Couples Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, James; Cautilli, Joseph; Simon, Corrina; Sabag, Robin Axelrod

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral couples' therapy has a long history of success with couples and is an empirically validated treatment for marital discord (Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995). However, only about 50% of all couples in treatment experience long-term change (2 years). One of the founders of behavioral couples'…

  7. Behavior Analysis: Thriving, but How about Its Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been thriving by continuing to make important theoretical and empirical contributions to a wide array of problems, as well as by contributing to interdisciplinary research. Applied research in behavior analysis is flourishing. Despite these positive signs there may be an erosion of support for basic research in animal…

  8. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  9. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  10. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease : answering basic questions regarding cell behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the re

  11. Chemical Analysis of Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Laura M.; Kottegoda, Sumith; Phillips, K. Scott; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-07-01

    Chemical analysis of single cells requires methods for quickly and quantitatively detecting a diverse array of analytes from extremely small volumes (femtoliters to nanoliters) with very high sensitivity and selectivity. Microelectrophoretic separations, using both traditional capillary electrophoresis and emerging microfluidic methods, are well suited for handling the unique size of single cells and limited numbers of intracellular molecules. Numerous analytes, ranging from small molecules such as amino acids and neurotransmitters to large proteins and subcellular organelles, have been quantified in single cells using microelectrophoretic separation techniques. Microseparation techniques, coupled to varying detection schemes including absorbance and fluorescence detection, electrochemical detection, and mass spectrometry, have allowed researchers to examine a number of processes inside single cells. This review also touches on a promising direction in single cell cytometry: the development of microfluidics for integrated cellular manipulation, chemical processing, and separation of cellular contents.

  12. Is behavior analysis undergoing selection by consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennypacker, H S

    1992-11-01

    The legacy of B. F. Skinner's life is a natural science of behavior. The generality of its basic functional relations has led, by induction, to the unifying principle of selection by consequences, which accounts for morphological, behavioral, and cultural evolution. This principle both predicts and explains the observation that the science itself is becoming the object of differential selection in our culture. Public policy is increasingly being framed in terms of the effects of consequences on behavior, as illustrated by examples from education, economics, and politics. Survival of our culture may depend on our skill in managing this process. PMID:1482009

  13. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Diagnosis of PEM fuel cell stack dynamic behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jixin; Zhou, Biao

    In this study, the steady-state performance and dynamic behavior of a commercial 10-cell Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack was experimentally investigated using a self-developed PEM fuel cell test stand. The start-up characteristics of the stack to different current loads and dynamic responses after current step-up to an elevated load were investigated. The stack voltage was observed to experience oscillation at air excess coefficient of 2 due to the flooding/recovery cycle of part of the cells. In order to correlate the stack voltage with the pressure drop across the cathode/anode, fast Fourier transform was performed. Dominant frequency of pressure drop signal was obtained to indicate the water behavior in cathode/anode, thereby predicting the stack voltage change. Such relationship between frequency of pressure drop and stack voltage was found and summarized. This provides an innovative approach to utilize frequency of pressure drop signal as a diagnostic tool for PEM fuel cell stack dynamic behaviors.

  15. Thin and small form factor cells : simulated behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clews, Peggy Jane; Pluym, Tammy; Grubbs, Robert K.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Young, Ralph Watson; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James

    2010-07-01

    Thin and small form factor cells have been researched lately by several research groups around the world due to possible lower assembly costs and reduced material consumption with higher efficiencies. Given the popularity of these devices, it is important to have detailed information about the behavior of these devices. Simulation of fabrication processes and device performance reveals some of the advantages and behavior of solar cells that are thin and small. Three main effects were studied: the effect of surface recombination on the optimum thickness, efficiency, and current density, the effect of contact distance on the efficiency for thin cells, and lastly the effect of surface recombination on the grams per Watt-peak. Results show that high efficiency can be obtained in thin devices if they are well-passivated and the distance between contacts is short. Furthermore, the ratio of grams per Watt-peak is greatly reduced as the device is thinned.

  16. N-cadherin is required for the polarized cell behaviors that drive neurulation in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Elim; Brewster, Rachel

    2006-10-01

    Through the direct analysis of cell behaviors, we address the mechanisms underlying anterior neural tube morphogenesis in the zebrafish and the role of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad) in this process. We demonstrate that although the mode of neurulation differs at the morphological level between amphibians and teleosts, the underlying cellular mechanisms are conserved. Contrary to previous reports, the zebrafish neural plate is a multi-layered structure, composed of deep and superficial cells that converge medially while undergoing radial intercalation, to form a single cell-layered neural tube. Time-lapse recording of individual cell behaviors reveals that cells are polarized along the mediolateral axis and exhibit protrusive activity. In N-cad mutants, both convergence and intercalation are blocked. Moreover, although N-cad-depleted cells are not defective in their ability to form protrusions, they are unable to maintain them stably. Taken together, these studies uncover key cellular mechanisms underlying neural tube morphogenesis in teleosts, and reveal a role for cadherins in promoting the polarized cell behaviors that underlie cellular rearrangements and shape the vertebrate embryo.

  17. Escalation research: providing new frontiers for applying behavior analysis to organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, S M

    2000-01-01

    Decision fiascoes such as escalation of commitment, the tendency of decision makers to "throw good money after bad," can have serious consequences for organizations and are therefore of great interest in applied research. This paper discusses the use of behavior analysis in organizational behavior research on escalation. Among the most significant aspects of behavior-analytic research on escalation is that it has indicated that both the patterns of outcomes that decision makers have experienced for past decisions and the patterns of responses that they make are critical for understanding escalation. This research has also stimulated the refinement of methods by researchers to better assess decision making and the role reinforcement plays in it. Finally, behavior-analytic escalation research has not only indicated the utility of reinforcement principles for predicting more complex human behavior but has also suggested some additional areas for future exploration of decision making using behavior analysis.

  18. Units of analysis and kinetic structure of behavioral repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T; Lubinski, D

    1986-09-01

    It is suggested that molar streams of behavior are constructed of various arrangements of three elementary constituents (elicited, evoked, and emitted response classes). An eight-cell taxonomy is elaborated as a framework for analyzing and synthesizing complex behavioral repertoires based on these functional units. It is proposed that the local force binding functional units into a smoothly articulated kinetic sequence arises from temporally arranged relative response probability relationships. Behavioral integration is thought to reflect the joint influence of the organism's hierarchy of relative response probabilities, fluctuating biological states, and the arrangement of environmental and behavioral events in time.

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior" in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  20. Space solar cells - tradeoff analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.R. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Power Systems Group

    2003-05-15

    This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to be available in the near future, were considered for this trade study. Four solar array designs: rigid, flexible, thin film flexible and concentrator solar arrays were considered for assessment. Performance of the solar cells along with solar array designs were studied for two types of space missions:geo synchronous orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The Solar array designs assumed were to provide 15 kW power for 15 years mission life in GEO and 5 kW power for 5 years mission life in LEO altitudes. To perform tradeoff analysis a spread sheet model was developed that calculates the size, mass and estimates the cost of solar arrays based on different solar cell and array technologies for given set of mission requirements. Comparative performance metrics (W/kg, W/m{sup 2}, kg/m{sup 2}, and $/W) were calculated for all solar arrays studied and compared, at the solar array subsystem level and also at the spacecraft system level. The trade analysis results show that high-efficiency multijunction solar cells bring lot of cost advantages for both types of missions. The trade study also shows that thin film solar cells with moderate efficiency with ultra lightweight flexible array design may become competitive with well-established single crystalline solar cell technologies in the future. (author)

  1. Space solar cells. Tradeoff analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M. Raja [Power Systems Group, Solar Panels Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India)

    2003-05-15

    This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to be available in the near future, were considered for this trade study. Four solar array designs: rigid, flexible, thin film flexible and concentrator solar arrays were considered for assessment. Performance of the solar cells along with solar array designs were studied for two types of space missions: geo synchronous orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The Solar array designs assumed were to provide 15kW power for 15 years mission life in GEO and 5kW power for 5 years mission life in LEO altitudes. To perform tradeoff analysis a spread sheet model was developed that calculates the size, mass and estimates the cost of solar arrays based on different solar cell and array technologies for given set of mission requirements. Comparative performance metrics (W/kg, W/m{sup 2}, kg/m{sup 2}, and $/W) were calculated for all solar arrays studied and compared, at the solar array subsystem level and also at the spacecraft system level. The trade analysis results show that high-efficiency multijunction solar cells bring lot of cost advantages for both types of missions. The trade study also show that thin film solar cells with moderate efficiency with ultra lightweight flexible array design may become competitive with well-established single crystalline solar cell technologies in the future.

  2. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? S...

  3. ANIMAL RESEARCH IN THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say–do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by...

  4. THE CONCEPT OF MEANING FROM BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS AND OTHER PERSPECTIVES.

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCA PATRICIA BALLESTEROS DE VALDERRAMA

    2005-01-01

    This article presents crucial points related to the concept of meaning trying to emphasize some convergences betweenbehavior analysis, other behavioral perspectives, like Staats’ and Ribes-Iñesta’s, and postures outside behaviorism,specially those made by J. Bruner and other representatives of constructivism and constructionism. DeGrandpre(2000) presented some ways how behaviorism can contribute to the “science of meaning” and the “psychology ofpractical significance”; his suggestions are com...

  5. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year. We analyze the data in an innovative and systematic way by developing and using a behavioral leadership coding scheme. The analysis indicates that highly effective CIOs are good listeners. They als...

  6. Recent reinforcement-schedule research and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Neef, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinforcement schedules are considered in relation to applied behavior analysis by examining several recent laboratory experiments with humans and other animals. The experiments are drawn from three areas of contemporary schedule research: behavioral history effects on schedule performance, the role of instructions in schedule performance of humans, and dynamic schedules of reinforcement. All of the experiments are discussed in relation to the role of behavioral history in current schedule pe...

  7. Hair Mineral Analysis and Behavior: An Analysis of 51 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Bernard; Larson, Gerald E.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-one studies on the relationship between hair mineral levels and human behavior covered a variety of behavior, including learning disabilities, retardation, hyperactivity, autism, and behavior disorders. High levels of certain minerals (especially lead and cadmium) and low levels of other minerals (especially potassium and sodium) associated…

  8. The analysis of Hengkelong Supermarket Management Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓霜

    2010-01-01

    With the development of local retail industry,Hengkelong Supermarket win fat profit.Yet how can it maintain its business advantage in the fierce competition with foreign business giants? This paper analyzes the management behavior of Hengkelong Supermarket,intending to give relevant policy recommendations.

  9. Local cell metrics: a novel method for analysis of cell-cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Chiang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of many cell functions is inherently linked to cell-cell contact interactions. However, effects of contact interactions among adherent cells can be difficult to detect with global summary statistics due to the localized nature and noise inherent to cell-cell interactions. The lack of informatics approaches specific for detecting cell-cell interactions is a limitation in the analysis of large sets of cell image data, including traditional and combinatorial or high-throughput studies. Here we introduce a novel histogram-based data analysis strategy, termed local cell metrics (LCMs, which addresses this shortcoming. Results The new LCM method is demonstrated via a study of contact inhibition of proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. We describe how LCMs can be used to quantify the local environment of cells and how LCMs are decomposed mathematically into metrics specific to each cell type in a culture, e.g., differently-labelled cells in fluorescence imaging. Using this approach, a quantitative, probabilistic description of the contact inhibition effects in MC3T3-E1 cultures has been achieved. We also show how LCMs are related to the naïve Bayes model. Namely, LCMs are Bayes class-conditional probability functions, suggesting their use for data mining and classification. Conclusion LCMs are successful in robust detection of cell contact inhibition in situations where conventional global statistics fail to do so. The noise due to the random features of cell behavior was suppressed significantly as a result of the focus on local distances, providing sensitive detection of cell-cell contact effects. The methodology can be extended to any quantifiable feature that can be obtained from imaging of cell cultures or tissue samples, including optical, fluorescent, and confocal microscopy. This approach may prove useful in interpreting culture and histological data in fields where cell-cell interactions play a critical

  10. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  11. Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or…

  12. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  13. Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a transcribed audio recording of the invited address the author gave to Sigrid Glenn on the relations between cultural materialism and radical behaviorism at the 12th annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on May 23rd, 1986. In his address, the author emphasizes that the necessity…

  14. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  15. Citation Analysis of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior:" 1984-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, S.; O'Hora, D.; Whelan, R.; O'Donovan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study undertook an updated citation analysis of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior". All articles that cited "Verbal Behavior" between 1984 and 2004 were recorded and content analyzed into one of five categories; four empirical and one nonempirical. Of the empirical categories, studies that employed a verbal operant from Skinner's…

  16. Tokens for the Behavior Analysis Classroom: A Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Don, Jr.

    This manual briefly describes, in both English and Spanish, the basics of behavior analysis classroom procedures involving a token system. The token system is an exchange system. Teachers give the children tokens (any object such as a poker chip, marble or card) for acceptable behavior (paying attention, working on an assignment, correct answers,…

  17. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOR: ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Biryuk, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out the analysis of business communication focused at the aspects of communicative behavior. Business communication is considered to be fundamental in business, as a collaborative activity.We study personal features as the barriers to overcome the gaps of mutual understanding and the role of communicative behavior as an important element at every step in the business communication model.

  18. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  19. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  20. Solar cells based on GaAs: Thermal behavior study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli, Emmanuel; Martaj, Nadia; Bennacer, Rachid; Dollet, Alain; Perona, Arnaud; Pincemin, Sandrine; Cuminal, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    Current CPV electricity costs are still higher than those of conventional PV (thin films or silicon). This is due to additional components (tracker, Fresnel lens, optical guide…) required for CPV and to a lesser extent, to the very high price of III-V multi-junction solar cells. One way to lower CPV costs is to reduce the size of solar cells and operate at higher concentration [1]. One of the main potential limitations for the use of PV cells at very high solar concentration is cell overheating. The goal of this work is to study and better understand the thermal behavior of PV cells in high solar concentrations conditions (˜ 2000 suns). For that purpose, we have designed and prepared PV cells with platinum resistors included. Temperature measurements performed on these cells in real solar concentration conditions have allowed us to validate thermal simulations of our devices that could be used to optimize the thermal management of the cell under high concentration. At the request of the authors of the paper, an updated version of this article was published on 31 March 2016. In the original article supplied to AIP Publishing an author was omitted as well as a credit line on the last page. These errors have been corrected in the updated republished article.

  1. SYNTHETIC HYDROGELS AS SCAFFOLDS FOR MANIPULATING ENDOTHELIUM CELL BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-mei Chen; Jing-jing Yang; Yoshihito Osada; Jian Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic hydrogels can be used as scaffolds that not only favor endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation but also manipulate the behaviors and functions of the ECs. In this review paper, the effect of chemical structure, Young’s modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of synthetic hydrogel scaffolds on static cell behaviors, including cell morphology, proliferation,cytoskeleton structure and focal adhesion, and on dynamic cell behaviors, including migration velocity and morphology oscillation, as well as on EC function such as anti-platelet adhesion, are reported. It was found that negatively charged hydrogels, poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonie sodium) (PNaAMPS) and poly(sodium p-styrene sulphonate) (PNaSS), can directly promote cell proliferation, with no need of surface modification by any cell-adhesive proteins or peptides at the environment of serum-containing medium. In addition, the Young’s modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of hydrogel scaffolds are quantitatively tuned by copolymer hydrogels, poly(NaAMPS-co-DMAAm) and poly(NaSS-co-DMAAm), in which the two kinds of negatively charged monomers NaAMPS and NaSS are copolymerized with neutral monomer, N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm). It was found that the critical zeta potential of hydrogels manipulating EC morphology, proliferation, and motility is ζcritical = -20.83 mV and ζcritical = -14.0 mV for poly(NaAMPS-co-DMAAm) and poly(NaSS-co-DMAAm), respectively. The above mentioned EC behaviors well correlate with the adsorption of fibronectin,a kind of cell-adhesive protein, on the hydrogel surfaces. Furthermore, adhered platelets on the EC monolayers cultured on the hydrogel scaffolds obviously decreases with an increase of the Young’s modulus (E) of the hydrogels, especially when E > 60 kPa. Glycocalyx assay and gene expression of ECs demonstrate that the anti-platelet adhesion well correlates with the EC-specific glycocalyx. The above investigation suggests that understanding the relationship

  2. Cancer cell differentiation heterogeneity and aggressive behavior in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jögi, Annika; Vaapil, Marica; Johansson, Martin; Påhlman, Sven

    2012-05-01

    The differentiation stage of tumors is a central aspect in the histopathological classification of solid malignancies. The differentiation stage is strongly associated with tumor behavior, and generally an immature tumor is more aggressive than the more differentiated counterpart. While this is common knowledge in surgical pathology, the contribution of differentiation-related gene expression and functions to tumor behavior is often overlooked in the experimental, tumor biological setting. The mechanisms by which tumor cell differentiation stages are perturbed or affected are poorly explored but have recently come into focus with the introduction.of the tumor stem cell concept. While developmental biologists view the differentiation as a unidirectional event, pathologists and tumor biologists have introduced the concept of dedifferentiation to explain phenotypic changes occurring in solid tumors. In this review we discuss the impact of the tumor cell differentiation stage as used in surgical pathology. We further discuss knowledge gained from exploring the molecular basis of the differentiation and dedifferentiation processes in neuroblastoma and breast cancer, two tumor forms where the tumor cell differentiation concept is used in the clinical diagnostic work and where the tumor stem cell theory has been applied.

  3. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  4. Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    There are a host of potentially risky behaviors in which youth engage, which have important implications for both their well being as youth and their life prospects. The past decade has seen dramatic shifts in the intensity with which youths pursue these risky activities: for example, youth homicide fell by 40%; teen births decline by 20%; youth smoking rose by 33%; and marijuana use among youth virtually doubled. This paper, and the volume it introduces, explores the determinants and implica...

  5. The development of automated behavior analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaana, Yuki; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Imabuchi, Takashi; Ito, Hisayoshi; Hosogoe, Kumiko

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of behavior for participants in a conversation scene involves verbal and nonverbal communications. The measurement validity may vary depending on the observers caused by some aspects such as human error, poorly designed measurement systems, and inadequate observer training. Although some systems have been introduced in previous studies to automatically measure the behaviors, these systems prevent participants to talk in a natural way. In this study, we propose a software application program to automatically analyze behaviors of the participants including utterances, facial expressions (happy or neutral), head nods, and poses using only a single omnidirectional camera. The camera is small enough to be embedded into a table to allow participants to have spontaneous conversation. The proposed software utilizes facial feature tracking based on constrained local model to observe the changes of the facial features captured by the camera, and the Japanese female facial expression database to recognize expressions. Our experiment results show that there are significant correlations between measurements observed by the observers and by the software.

  6. Computer automated movement detection for the analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazani, Roseanna B.; Harish R Krishnan; BERGESON, SUSAN E.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, measuring ethanol behaviors in flies depends on expensive image analysis software or time intensive experimenter observation. We have designed an automated system for the collection and analysis of locomotor behavior data, using the IEEE 1394 acquisition program dvgrab, the image toolkit ImageMagick and the programming language Perl. In the proposed method, flies are placed in a clear container and a computer-controlled camera takes pictures at regular intervals. Digital subtractio...

  7. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  8. Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip

  9. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  10. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  11. PEM fuel cell failure mode analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haijiang

    2011-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation. The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discus

  12. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targe...

  13. T cell behavior at the maternal-fetal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy, Patrice; Erlebacher, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the function of T cells at the maternal-fetal interface remains one of the most difficult problems in reproductive immunology. A great deal of work over the last two decades has led to the view that the T cells that populate the decidua have important roles in both normal and pathological pregnancies, but the exact nature of these roles has remained unclear. Indeed, the old assumption that decidual T cells are uniformly threatening to fetal survival because the placenta is fundamentally an 'allograft' has given way to the idea that different T cell subsets contribute in different ways to pregnancy success or failure. Accordingly, some T cells are thought to protect the placenta from immune rejection and facilitate embryo implantation, while others are thought to contribute to pregnancy pathologies such as preeclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Here, we review the current state of information on the behavior of decidual T cells with a focus on both mouse and human studies, and with an emphasis on the many unresolved areas within this overall emerging framework. PMID:25023685

  14. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation, reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action and emotion (the judge of the course of action are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

  15. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors : a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, M.; Covey, J.; Rosenthal, H. E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Methods: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews,...

  16. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  17. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  18. [Effects of decitabine on biological behavior of U266 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Lin-Hua; Dong, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Jian-Fang; Zhagn, Li; Feng, Da-Wei

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of decitabine on the biological behaviour of U266 cells in vitro so as to provide a new thinking and experiment basis, as well as new evidences for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the impact of decitabine on the ability of proliferation of U266 cells; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell distribution in cell cycle; transwell chamber and matrigel assays were used to observe the ability of migration and invasion. The results indicated that decitabine could significantly suppress the proliferation of U266 cells in time-and dose-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells in G(0)-G(1) phase significantly increased while the cells in S and G(2)/M phase decreased. The migration and matrigel invading tests showed that the number of cells moving into under chamber of transwell decreased after U266 cells treated with decitabine. It is concluded that decitabine may act as an effective drug for MM by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and the specific mechanism needs to be deeply explored.

  19. An imaging system for standardized quantitative analysis of C. elegans behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used for the genetic analysis of neuronal cell biology, development, and behavior. Because traditional methods for evaluating behavioral phenotypes are qualitative and imprecise, there is a need for tools that allow quantitation and standardization of C. elegans behavioral assays. Results Here we describe a tracking and imaging system for the automated analysis of C. elegans morphology and behavior. Using this system, it is possible to record the behavior of individual nematodes over long time periods and quantify 144 specific phenotypic parameters. Conclusions These tools for phenotypic analysis will provide reliable, comprehensive scoring of a wide range of behavioral abnormalities, and will make it possible to standardize assays such that behavioral data from different labs can readily be compared. In addition, this system will facilitate high-throughput collection of phenotypic data that can ultimately be used to generate a comprehensive database of C. elegans phenotypic information. Availability The hardware configuration and software for the system are available from wschafer@ucsd.edu.

  20. Trajectory Based Behavior Analysis for User Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Hsing-Kuo; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Fadlil, Junaidillah

    Many of our activities on computer need a verification step for authorized access. The goal of verification is to tell apart the true account owner from intruders. We propose a general approach for user verification based on user trajectory inputs. The approach is labor-free for users and is likely to avoid the possible copy or simulation from other non-authorized users or even automatic programs like bots. Our study focuses on finding the hidden patterns embedded in the trajectories produced by account users. We employ a Markov chain model with Gaussian distribution in its transitions to describe the behavior in the trajectory. To distinguish between two trajectories, we propose a novel dissimilarity measure combined with a manifold learnt tuning for catching the pairwise relationship. Based on the pairwise relationship, we plug-in any effective classification or clustering methods for the detection of unauthorized access. The method can also be applied for the task of recognition, predicting the trajectory type without pre-defined identity. Given a trajectory input, the results show that the proposed method can accurately verify the user identity, or suggest whom owns the trajectory if the input identity is not provided.

  1. Transient Behavior of Ethanol Fermentation in Immobilized Cell Bioreactors*

    OpenAIRE

    Tohru, KANNO; Yoshinori, FUJISHIGE; Hiroyuki, Ito; koichi, yamazaki; Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of ethanol fermentation catalysed by an immobilized cell has been studied in batch and continuous stirred tank bioreactors, changing the operating conditions in a stepwise fashion. The rate of ethanol fermentation in the flow reactor reaches a new steady state within 60 min for the stepwise change in temperature or flow rate at 15〜30℃ and the residence time t_R=40 hr. The rate of fermentation obeys the Lineweaven-Burk plot and the Michaelis constant is calculated

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR COMPARED ANALYSIS AT ROMANIAN SMEs LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Mihaela POPESCU; Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2013-01-01

    Finding new solutions that point out existing human potential in SMEs is an important element in reviving the national economy. Featured by diminished personnel, high flexibility and the possibility of a fast answer to external factors development, SMEs are based on human agent and on informal relations between organization’s members, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) being an important competitive advantage. Our study is a compared analysis of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior ...

  3. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jieqing Huang; Xinyu Xie; Jifa Zhang; Jinzhu Li; Wenjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, t...

  4. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindrila, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  5. Analysis of multifractal strengths in game behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study the multifractal structure and its property from the number of end stones, which means the number of stones on the board at the end of a game, in the Baduk game. We mainly estimate the generalized Hurst exponent, the Renyi exponent, and the singularity spectrum for the time-series data of the number of end stones via multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. For three segments, we mainly simulate and analyze the multifractal strength in Baduk games with four players. Particularly, the results obtained for games with four players are compared to each other and analyzed in detail.

  6. Prediction of anisotropic behavior of nano/micro composite based on damage mechanics with cell modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dock-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Moon-Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Liu, Wing Kam

    2011-01-01

    New advanced composite materials have recently been of great interest. Especially, many researchers have studied on nano/micro composites based on matrix filled with nano-particles, nano-tubes, nano-wires and so forth, which have outstanding characteristics on thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical properties. Therefore, the need of numerical approach for design and development of the advanced materials has been recognized. In this paper, finite element analysis based on multi-resolution continuum theory is carried out to predict the anisotropic behavior of nano/micro composites based on damage mechanics with a cell modeling. The cell modeling systematically evaluates constitutive relationships from microstructure of the composite material. Effects of plastic anisotropy on deformation behavior and damage evolution of nano/micro composite are investigated by using Hill's 48 yield function and also compared with those obtained from Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman isotropic damage model based on von Mises yield function.

  7. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  8. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  9. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapi

  10. Investigation of cancer cell behavior on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szot, Christopher S.; Buchanan, Cara F. [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rylander, Marissa Nichole [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Freeman, Joseph W., E-mail: jwfreeman@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering and the use of nanofibrous biomaterial scaffolds offer a unique perspective for studying cancer development in vitro. Current in vitro models of tumorigenesis are limited by the use of static, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture monolayers that lack the structural architecture necessary for cell-cell interaction and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are too simplistic for studying basic pathological mechanisms. In this study, two nanofibrous biomaterials that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen I, were investigated as potential 3D scaffolds for an in vitro cancer model. Multiple cancer cell lines were cultured on each scaffold material and monitored for cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, infiltration, and morphology. Both bacterial cellulose and electrospun PCL/collagen I, which have nano-scale structures on the order of 100-500 nm, have been used in many diverse tissue engineering applications. Cancer cell adhesion and growth were limited on bacterial cellulose, while all cellular processes were enhanced on the electrospun scaffolds. This initial analysis has demonstrated the potential of electrospun PCL/collagen I scaffolds toward the development of an improved 3D in vitro cancer model.

  11. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  13. Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…

  14. Remote controlled bio-stimulator and animal behavior analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Yuan, Kui; Han, Taizhen; Chai, Jie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a surveillance and stimulation system to study the animal locomotion behavior under electrical micro-stimulations in the brain nerve, which provides a new platform and methodology for behavior experiment in neural science. The system consists of two parts: 1) micro-control based multi-channel stimulator backed by animal; 2) Computer vision based animal behavior tracking system; The performance of the micro-stimulator is validated for sciatic nerve of frog and the results show that it is reliable, stabile, compact (25×35×10 mm), light (20g with cell). The tracking speed and accuracy is improved with our new hybrid tracking algorithm based on color table looking and moving predication, and compared with the manual recording. The preliminary results of rat tracking show that it works accurately and robustly in real-time even under interference condition.

  15. Cell behaviors on magnetic electrospun poly-D, L-lactide nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Long; Yang, Guang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, Jinrong; Ding, Shan [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhou, Shaobing, E-mail: shaobingzhou@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that magnetic fields have an influence on cell behaviors, but the effects are still not very clear since the magnetic field's type, intensity and exposure time are different. In this study, a static magnetic field (SMF) in moderate intensity (10 mT) was employed to investigate its effect on osteoblast and 3T3 fibroblast cell behaviors cultured respectively with magnetic polymer nanofiber mats. The magnetic mats composed of random oriented or aligned polymer nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning the mixed solution of poly-D, L-lactide (PLA) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The fiber morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the nanoparticle distribution in fiber matrix was measured with transmission electron microscope (TEM). Mechanical properties of nanofiber mats are studied by uniaxial tensile test. The results showed the nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic responsibility and biodegradability. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the osteoblast proliferation of all fiber mats stimulated with or without SMF was increased with the increase of the culturing days. Furthermore, in the horizontal SMFs, cell orientation tended to deviate from nanofiber orientation to field direction while the nanofiber orientation is perpendicular to the field direction, while the horizonal direction of SMFs could also direct the cell growth orientation. The magnetic nanofiber mats provide a potential platform to explore the cell behaviors under the stimulation of external magnetic field. - Highlights: • The random oriented and aligned magnetic electrospun nanofibers were prepared. • The nanofibers displayed excellent magnetic responsibility and biodegradability. • The horizonal direction of SMFs could also direct the cell growth orientation.

  16. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  17. A Mixture IRT Analysis of Risky Youth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes eFinch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N = 16,410 to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: 1 To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and 2 To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that 4 classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed.

  18. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  19. Management of specific and excessive posturing behavior in a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) by using applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Leigh Ann; Friedman, Susan G; Evans, Liz A

    2012-06-01

    Applied behavior analysis was used in a female hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) to reduce specific, excessive mating-type posturing that had become disruptive due to increased frequency, duration, and intensity. A functional assessment and intervention design worksheet was used to evaluate behavior-environment relations and to develop an individualized behavior-change plan. The functional assessment indicated that human attention was maintaining the behavior. The intervention, differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior, was implemented to increase attention for standing upright and to remove attention for posturing. Within 1 month, posturing decreased to acceptable levels and was replaced with an upright posture. Problem behaviors that appear "reproductive" may be responsive to behavior management alone. Applied behavior analysis and a functional assessment and intervention design are ideal tools to address problem behavior in avian patients.

  20. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  1. Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

  2. Empirical Analysis of Customer Behaviors in Chinese E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the burgeoning e-Business websites, E-Commerce in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. From the analysis of Chinese E-Commerce market, it is possible to discover customer purchasing patterns or behavior characteristics, which are indispensable knowledge for the expansion of Chinese E-Commerce market. This paper presents an empirical analysis on the sale transactions from the 360buy website based on the analysis of time interval distributions in perspectives of customers. Results reveal that in most situations the time intervals approximately obey the power-law distribution over two orders of magnitudes. Additionally, time interval on customer’s successive purchase can reflect how loyal a customer is to a specific product category. Moreover, we also find an interesting phenomenon about human behaviors that could be related to psychology of customers. In general, customers’ requirements in different product categories are similar. The investigation into individual behaviors may help researchers understand how customers’ group behaviors generated.

  3. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  4. Mitogenic activation of B cells in vitro: the properties of adherent accessory cells as revealed by partition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettman, J.R.; Soederberg, A.; Lefkovits, I.

    1986-08-15

    The requirement of B cells activated by mitogen (dextran sulfate plus lipopolysaccharide) for accessory cells was studied by partition analysis. Small numbers of splenic B cells were activated to clonal growth, as determined by visual inspection, and to immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis, as determined by release of Ig into the culture fluid. By placing irradiated adherent cells in the periphery of the microculture wells and forcing responding cells to different areas of the well (slant experiments), it was observed that no cell contact was necessary for B cell activation, and that promoted contact (Rock and Roll experiments) does not increase the efficiency of activation. Sequential microcultures suggest that only some irradiated adherent cells act as accessory cells, but they can perform this function to more than one B cell. Attempts to perform limiting dilution analysis by varying irradiated adherent cell input showed non-single-hit behavior. When the data were rearranged, taking into account the distribution of irradiated adherent cells, then single-hit behavior with about 1 to 5% of irradiated adherent cells acting as an accessory cells for B cell clonal activation was observed. The evidence suggests that an uncommon irradiated adherent cell releases a soluble factor necessary for B cell activation and/or clonal proliferation.

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of Transcription Dynamics from Brain Samples Following Behavioral Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turm, Hagit; Mukherjee, Diptendu; Haritan, Doron; Tahor, Maayan; Citri, Ami

    2014-01-01

    The encoding of experiences in the brain and the consolidation of long-term memories depend on gene transcription. Identifying the function of specific genes in encoding experience is one of the main objectives of molecular neuroscience. Furthermore, the functional association of defined genes with specific behaviors has implications for understanding the basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Induction of robust transcription programs has been observed in the brains of mice following various behavioral manipulations. While some genetic elements are utilized recurrently following different behavioral manipulations and in different brain nuclei, transcriptional programs are overall unique to the inducing stimuli and the structure in which they are studied1,2. In this publication, a protocol is described for robust and comprehensive transcriptional profiling from brain nuclei of mice in response to behavioral manipulation. The protocol is demonstrated in the context of analysis of gene expression dynamics in the nucleus accumbens following acute cocaine experience. Subsequent to a defined in vivo experience, the target neural tissue is dissected; followed by RNA purification, reverse transcription and utilization of microfluidic arrays for comprehensive qPCR analysis of multiple target genes. This protocol is geared towards comprehensive analysis (addressing 50-500 genes) of limiting quantities of starting material, such as small brain samples or even single cells. The protocol is most advantageous for parallel analysis of multiple samples (e.g. single cells, dynamic analysis following pharmaceutical, viral or behavioral perturbations). However, the protocol could also serve for the characterization and quality assurance of samples prior to whole-genome studies by microarrays or RNAseq, as well as validation of data obtained from whole-genome studies. PMID:25225819

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Bloggers Collective Behavior Powered by Emotions

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrović, Marija; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study emergence of the emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite network of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion-classifier developed for this type of texts. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and tempo...

  7. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, the new governing equation is solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the calculation results of this new method and other two methods are compared. It can be found that Gibson’s method may underestimate the excess pore water pressure during primary consolidation. The new method which takes the secondary consolidation behavior, the nonlinear compressibility, and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration can precisely estimate the settlement rate and the final settlement of Hangzhou soft clay sample.

  8. Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…

  9. Electrical Modeling and Impedance Analysis of Biological Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sree V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that the external electric field intensity has significant effects on the biological systems. The applied electric field intensity changes the electrical behavior of the cell systems. The impact of electric field intensity on the cell systems should be studied properly to optimize the electric field treatments of biological systems. Based on the cell dimensions and its dielectric properties, an electrical equivalent circuit for an endosperm cell in rice was developed and its total impedance and capacitance were verified with measurement results. The variations of impedance and conductance with respect to applied impulse voltage at different frequencies were plotted. This impedance analysis method can be used to determine the optimum voltage level for electric field treatment and also to determine the cell rupture due to electric field applications.

  10. GlioLab-a space system for Glioblastoma multiforme cells on orbit behavior study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Twiggs, Robert J.

    Microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation pose significant health risks for human life in space. This is a concern for future missions and also for future space tourism flights. Nev-ertheless, at the same time it is very interesting to study the effects of these conditions in unhealthy organism like biological samples affected by cancer. It is possible that space envi-ronment increases, decreases or doesn't have any effect on cancer cells. In any case the test results give important informations about cancer treatment or space tourism flight for people affected by cancer. GlioLab is a joint project between GAUSS-Group of Astrodynamics at the "Sapienza" University of Roma and the Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center in Kentucky. The main goal of this project is the design and manufacturing of an autonomous space system to investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on a human glioblastoma multiforme cell line derived from a 65-year-old male and on Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA). In particular the samples are Glioblastoma multiforme cancer cells because the radiotherapy using ionizing radiation is the only treatment after surgery that can give on ground an improvement on the survival rate for this very malignant cancer. During a mission on the ISS, GlioLab mission has to test the in orbit behavior of glioblastoma cancer cells and healthy neuronal cells, which are extremely fragile and require complex experimentation and testing. In this paper engineering solutions to design and manufacturing of an autonomous space system that can allow to keep alive these kind of cells are described. This autonomous system is characterized also by an optical device dedicated to cells behavior analysis and by microdosimeters for monitoring space radiation environment.

  11. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  12. Statistical analysis in the design of nuclear fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results of a statistical analysis carried out for the design of nuclear fuel cells. The analysis consists in verifying the behavior of a cell, related with the frequency of the pines used for its design. In this preliminary study was analyzed the behavior of infinite multiplication factor and the peak factor of local power. On the other hand, the mentioned analysis was carried out using a pines group of enriched uranium previously established, for which varies the pines frequency used in the design. To carry out the study, the CASMO-IV code was used. The obtained designs are for the different axial areas of a fuel assembly. A balance cycle of the unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde was used like reference. To obtain the result of the present work, systems that are already had and in which have already been implemented the heuristic techniques of ant colonies, neural networks and a hybrid between the dispersed search and the trajectories re-chaining. The results show that is possible to design nuclear fuel cells with a good performance, if is considered a statistical behavior in the frequency of the used pines, in a same way. (Author)

  13. Differences in CART expression and cell cycle behavior discriminate sympathetic neuroblast from chromaffin cell lineages in mouse sympathoadrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Hei; Gonsalvez, David G; Young, Heather M; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Cane, Kylie N; Anderson, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and peripheral sympathetic neurons originate from a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell. The timing and phenotypic changes that mark this lineage diversification are not fully understood. The present study investigated the expression patterns of phenotypic markers, and cell cycle dynamics, in the adrenal medulla and the neighboring suprarenal ganglion of embryonic mice. The noradrenergic marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was detected in both presumptive adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglion cells, but with significantly stronger immunostaining in the former. There was intense cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunostaining in most neuroblasts, whereas very few adrenal chromaffin cells showed detectable CART immunostaining. This phenotypic segregation appeared as early as E12.5, before anatomical segregation of the two cell types. Cell cycle dynamics were also examined. Initially, 88% of Sox10 positive (+) neural crest progenitors were proliferating at E10.5. Many SA progenitor cells withdrew from the cell cycle at E11.5 as they started to express TH. Whereas 70% of neuroblasts (TH+/CART+ cells) were back in the cell cycle at E12.5, only around 20% of chromaffin (CART negative) cells were in the cell cycle at E12.5 and subsequent days. Thus, chromaffin cell and neuroblast lineages showed differences in proliferative behavior from their earliest appearance. We conclude that the intensity of TH immunostaining and the expression of CART permit early discrimination of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neuroblasts, and that developing chromaffin cells exhibit significantly lower proliferative activity relative to sympathetic neuroblasts.

  14. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  15. Neuropeptides control the dynamic behavior of airway mucosal dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voedisch, Sabrina; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Veres, Tibor Z; Spies, Emma; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The airway mucosal epithelium is permanently exposed to airborne particles. A network of immune cells patrols at this interface to the environment. The interplay of immune cells is orchestrated by different mediators. In the current study we investigated the impact of neuronal signals on key functions of dendritic cells (DC). Using two-photon microscopic time-lapse analysis of living lung sections from CD11c-EYFP transgenic mice we studied the influence of neuropeptides on airway DC motility. Additionally, using a confocal microscopic approach, the phagocytotic capacity of CD11c(+) cells after neuropeptide stimulation was determined. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) leads to an unspecific release of neuropeptides from nerves. After EFS and treatment with the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), airway DC in living lung slices showed an altered motility. Furthermore, the EFS-mediated effect could partially be blocked by pre-treatment with the receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Additionally, the phagocytotic capacity of bone marrow-derived and whole lung CD11c(+) cells could be inhibited by neuropeptides CGRP, VIP, and Substance P. We then cross-linked these data with the in vivo situation by analyzing DC motility in two different OVA asthma models. Both in the acute and prolonged OVA asthma model altered neuropeptide amounts and DC motility in the airways could be measured. In summary, our data suggest that neuropeptides modulate key features motility and phagocytosis of mouse airway DC. Therefore altered neuropeptide levels in airways during allergic inflammation have impact on regulation of airway immune mechanisms and therefore might contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma.

  16. CORBA-Based Analysis of Multi Agent Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapan Bhattacharya; Anirban Banerjee; Shibdas Bandyopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    An agent is a computer software that is capable of taking independent action on behalf of its user or owner. It is an entity with goals, actions and domain knowledge, situated in an environment. Multiagent systems comprises of multiple autonomous, interacting computer software, or agents. These systems can successfully emulate the entities active in a distributed environment. The analysis of multiagent behavior has been studied in this paper based on a specific board game problem similar to the famous problem of GO. In this paper a framework is developed to define the states of the multiagent entities and measure the convergence metrics for this problem. An analysis of the changes of states leading to the goal state is also made. We support our study of multiagent behavior by simulations based on a CORBA framework in order to substantiate our findings.

  17. Behavioral analysis of the escape response in larval zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    The behavior of larval zebrafish is of great interest because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with its rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their swimming behavior while our lab has built a parameter-free model based on singular value decomposition analysis to characterize it. Our previous work has analyzed the free swimming of larval zebrafish and presented a different picture from the current classification of larval zebrafish locomotion. Now we are extending this work to the studies of their escape response to acoustic stimulus. Analysis has shown intrinsic difference in the locomotion between escape response and free swimming.

  18. Behavior of Explosives Under Pressure in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, M F

    2006-06-20

    Diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies can yield information about the pressure dependence of materials and reactions under conditions comparable to shock loading. The pressure gradient across the face of the diamonds is often deliberately minimized to create uniform pressure over much of the sample and a simplified data set. To reach very high pressures (30-40 GPa), however, it may be necessary to use ''softer'', high nitrogen content diamonds that are more susceptible to bending under pressure. The resulting enhanced pressure gradient then provides a view of high-pressure behavior under anisotropic conditions similar to those found at the burn front in a bulk sample. We discuss visual observations of pressure-induced changes relative to variations in burn rate of several explosives (Triaminotrinitrobenzene, Nitromethane, CL-20) in the DAC. The burn rate behavior of both Nitromethane (NM) and Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were previously reported for pressures up to {approx}40 GPa. Nitromethane showed a near monotonic increase in burn rate to a maximum at {approx}30 GPa after which the burn rate decreased, all without color change. At higher pressures, the TATB samples had shiny (metallic) polycrystalline zones or inclusions where the pressure was highest in the sample. Around the shiny zones was a gradation of color (red to yellow) that appeared to follow the pressure gradient. The color changes are believed related to disturbances in the resonance structure of this explosive as the intermolecular separations decrease with pressure. The color and type of residue found in unvented gaskets after the burn was complete also varied with pressure. The four polymorphs of CL-20 ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, {var_epsilon}-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, HNIW) did not change color up to the highest pressure applied ({approx}30 GPa), and each polymorph demonstrated a distinctly different burn rate signature. One polymorph {beta} was so sensitive to laser ignition

  19. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  20. The integrity of independent variables in behavior analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, L; Homer, A L; Wonderlich, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Establishing a functional relationship between the independent and the dependent variable is the primary focus of applied behavior analysis. Accurate and reliable description and observation of both the independent and dependent variables are necessary to achieve this goal. Although considerable attention has been focused on ensuring the integrity of the dependent variable in the operant literature, similar effort has not been directed at ensuring the integrity of the independent variable. In...

  1. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were performed.

  2. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Kayal; Maria-Alexandra Paun; Jean-Michel Sallese

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were perfor...

  3. The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Busch, Andrew M; Weeks, Cristal E; Landes, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicit...

  4. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. PMID:26093345

  5. Shear-Resistant Behavior Analysis of Light Composite Shear Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升才; 江见鲸; 于庆荣

    2002-01-01

    Shear test results for a composite wall panel in a light composite structure system are compared with test results for shear walls in Japan in this paper. The analysis results show that this kind of composite wall panel works very well, and can be regarded as a solid panel. The composite wall panel with a hidden frame is essential for bringing its effect on shear resistance into full play. Comprehensive analysis of the shear-resistant behavior of the composite wall panel suggests that the shear of the composite shear wall panel can be controlled by the cracking strength of the web shearing diagonal crack.

  6. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy; Das, Debdulal; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Chowdhury, Amit Roy

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. PMID:27127074

  7. Analysis of the resistive switching behaviors of vanadium oxide thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiao-Ying; Hu Ming; Zhang Kai-Liang; Wang Fang; Zhao Jin-Shi; Miao Yin-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the polarization of resistive switching for a Cu/VOx/Cu memory cell.The switching behaviors of Cu/VOx/Cu cell are tested by using a semiconductor device analyzer (Agilent B1500A),and the relative micro-analysis of I-V characteristics of VOx/Cu is characterized by using a conductive atomic force microscope (CAFM).The I-V test results indicate that both the forming and the reversible resistive switching between low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) can be observed under either positive or negative sweep.The CAFM images for LRS and HRS directly exhibit evidence for the formation and rupture of filaments based on positive or negative voltage.The Cu/VOx/Cu sandwiched structure exhibits reversible resistive switching behavior and shows potential applications in the next generation of nonvolatile memory.

  8. Globally visualizing the microtubule-dependent transport behaviors of influenza virus in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wu, Qiu-Mei; Sun, En-Ze; Shi, Yun-Bo; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the microtubule-dependent behaviors of viruses in live cells is very meaningful for revealing the mechanisms of virus infection and endocytosis. Herein, we used a quantum dots-based single-particle tracking technique to dynamically and globally visualize the microtubule-dependent transport behaviors of influenza virus in live cells. We found that the intersection configuration of microtubules can interfere with the transport behaviors of the virus in live cells, which lead to the changing and long-time pausing of the transport behavior of viruses. Our results revealed that most of the viruses moved along straight microtubules rapidly and unidirectionally from the cell periphery to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) near the bottom of the cell, and the viruses were confined in the grid of microtubules near the top of the cell and at the MTOC near the bottom of the cell. These results provided deep insights into the influence of entire microtubule geometry on the virus infection.

  9. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    everolimus (10-5 M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion

  10. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: steven.hsu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    expression was significantly decreased by everolimus (10{sup -5} M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  11. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior. PMID:27148349

  12. Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells: The future for behavior genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGerlai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  13. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  14. Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagodi, E. F.; Jackson, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Three strategic suggestions are offered to behavior analysts who are concerned with extending the interests of our discipline into domains traditionally assigned to the social sciences: (1) to expand our world-view perspectives beyond the boundaries commonly accepted by psychologists in general; (2) to build a cultural analytic framework upon the foundations we have developed for the study of individuals; and (3) to study the works of those social scientists whose views are generally compatible with, and complementary to, our own. Sociologist C. Wright Mills' distinction between troubles and issues and anthropologist Marvin Harris's principles of cultural materialism are related to topics raised by these three strategies. The pervasiveness of the “psychocentric” world view within psychology and the social sciences, and throughout our culture at large, is discussed from the points of view of Skinner, Mills, and Harris. It is suggested that a thorough commitment to radical behaviorism, and continuation of interaction between radical behaviorism and cultural materialism, are necessary for maintaining and extending an issues orientation within the discipline of behavior analysis and for guarding against dilutions and subversions of that orientation by “deviation-dampening” contingencies that exist in our profession and in our culture at large. PMID:22478014

  15. Numerical analysis of pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆志东; 刘力; 郑刚; 姜岩

    2008-01-01

    A finite difference numerical method was adopted to evaluate the pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment. A published case history was used to verify the proposed methodology. By simulating the case history, the determination of parameters needed were verified. Then three embankments constructed on different ground conditions with different soil-pile relative stiffnesses were analyzed to study pile lateral behaviors including pile deflection and bending moment. The results show that pile deflections and bending moments induced by soil lateral deformation and embankment vertical load are different for piles at different positions under the same embankment. The relative stiffness between pile and soil affected by the properties of different reinforcing piles such as concrete pile and deep mixing method pile exert important effects on the pile lateral behavior and the pile’s failure modes. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the different piles lateral behaviors and possible failure modes at different positions and the different piles proprieties with different reinforcing methods in the embankment stability analysis.

  16. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  17. Practical strategies for modulating foam cell formation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; McCarty, Mark F; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-10-16

    Although high density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport is crucial to the prevention and reversal of atheroma, a recent meta-analysis makes evident that current pharmaceutical strategies for modulating HDL cholesterol levels lower cardiovascular risk only to the extent that they concurrently decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This corresponds well with findings of a recent Mendelian randomization analysis, in which genetic polymorphisms associated with HDL cholesterol but no other known cardiovascular risk factors failed to predict risk for myocardial infarction. Although it is still seems appropriate to search for therapies that could improve the efficiency with which HDL particles induce reverse cholesterol transport, targeting HDL cholesterol levels per se with current measures appears to be futile. It may therefore be more promising to promote reverse cholesterol transport with agents that directly target foam cells. Macrophage expression of the cholesterol transport proteins adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter A1, adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter G1, and scavenger receptor class B member 1 is transcriptionally up-regulated by activated liver X receptors (LXR), whereas nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB antagonizes their expression. Taurine, which inhibits atherogenesis in rodent studies, has just been discovered to act as a weak agonist for LXRalpha. Conversely, it may be possible to oppose NF-kappaB activation in macrophages with a range of measures. Induction of heme oxygenase-1, which can be attained with phase 2 inducer phytochemicals such as lipoic acid and green tea catechins, promotes reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages and inhibits atherogenesis in rodents, likely due to, in large part, NF-kappaB antagonism. Inhibition of macrophage nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity with the spirulina-derived bilirubin-mimetic phycocyanobilin may also oppose

  18. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  19. Construction of an allogenic chimeric mouse model for the study of the behaviors of donor stem cells in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mo-lin; YAN Jing-bin; XIAO Yan-ping; HUANG Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Background It is essential to establish an animal model for the elucidation of the biological behaviors of stem cells in vivo. We constructed a chimeric animal model by in utero transplantation for investigation of stem cell transplantation.Methods This chimerism was achieved by injecting the stem cells derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transgenic mice into fetal mice at 13.5 days of gestation. Several methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used for the observation of donor cells.Results Under a fluorescence microscope, we observed the GFP cells of donor-origin in a recipient. PCR, FACS analysis and FISH indicated chimerism at various intervals. Real-time PCR indicated that some donor cells existed in chimera for more than 6 months.Conclusions Allogenic stem cells may exist in recipients for a long time and this allogenic animal model provides a useful tool for studying the behavior of hematopoietic stem cells and also offers an effective model system for the study of stem cells.

  20. Quantitative characterization for dielectrophoretic behavior of biological cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Soo; Hee Park, Se; Woo Lee, Sang; Sung Yoon, Dae; Kim, Beop-Min

    2014-02-01

    We report a method to precisely quantify dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces and cutoff frequencies (fc) of viable and nonviable yeast cells. The method consists of a two-step process in which generated DEP forces act upon a cell through a micro-electrode device, followed by direct measurement of DEP forces using optical tweezers. DEP behaviors of viable and nonviable yeast cells are monitored as a function of AC frequency. We believe that the proposed method can be used as a powerful platform for cell-based assays to characterize the DEP behavior of various cell types including cancer and normal cells.

  1. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  2. Adsorption behavior of low concentration carbon monoxide on polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Mitsushima, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of CO on the anode around the concentration of 0.2 ppm allowed by ISO 14687-2 is investigated in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). CO and CO2 concentrations in the anode exhaust are measured during the operation of a JARI standard single cell at 60 °C cell temperature and 1000 mA cm-2 current density. CO coverage is estimated from the gas analysis and CO stripping voltammetry. The cell voltage decrease as a result of 0.2 ppm CO is 29 mV and the CO coverage is 0.6 at the steady state with 0.11 mg cm-2 of anode platinum loading. The CO coverage as a function of CO concentration approximately follows a Temkin-type isotherm. Oxygen permeated to the anode through a membrane is also measured during fuel cell operation. The exhaust velocity of oxygen from the anode was shown to be much higher than the CO supply velocity. Permeated oxygen should play an important role in CO oxidation under low CO concentration conditions.

  3. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  4. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can...... be analyzed statically. We present algorithms that derive worst-case bounds on the latency-inducing operations of the stack cache. Their results can be used by a static WCET tool. By breaking the analysis down into subproblems that solve intra-procedural data-flow analysis and path searches on the call......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  5. Behavioral health providers' perspectives of delivering behavioral health services in primary care: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beehler Gregory P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-located, collaborative care (CCC is one component of VA’s model of Integrated Primary Care that embeds behavioral health providers (BHPs into primary care clinics to treat commonly occurring mental health concerns among Veterans. Key features of the CCC model include time-limited, brief treatments (up to 6 encounters of 30 minutes each and emphasis on multi-dimensional functional assessment. Although CCC is a mandated model of care, the barriers and facilitators to implementing this approach as identified from the perspective of BHPs have not been previously identified. Methods This secondary data analysis used interview data captured as part of a quality improvement project in 2008. Fourteen BHPs (48% of providers in a regional VA network agreed to participate in a 30-minute, semi-structured phone interview. The interview included questions about their perceived role as a CCC provider, depiction of usual practice styles and behaviors, and perceptions of typical barriers and facilitators to providing behavioral healthcare to Veterans in CCC. Interviews were transcribed verbatim into a text database and analyzed using grounded theory. Results Six main categories emerged from the analysis: (a Working in the VA Context, (b Managing Access to Care on the Front Line, (c Assessing a Care Trajectory, (d Developing a Local Integrated Model, (e Working in Collaborative Teams, and (f Being a Behavioral Health Generalist. These categories pointed to system, clinic, and provider level factors that impacted BHP’s role and ability to implement CCC. Across categories, participants identified ways in which they provided Veteran-centered care within variable environments. Conclusions This study provided a contextualized account of the experiences of BHP’s in CCC. Results suggest that these providers play a multifaceted role in delivering clinical services to Veterans while also acting as an interdependent component of the larger VA

  6. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of cluster of differentiation 47 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatsugu Koshimizu

    Full Text Available Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα, a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS, such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice.

  7. Simulation and Analysis of Tethering Behavior of Neutrophils with Pseudopods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D Rocheleau

    Full Text Available P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 play important roles in mediating the inflammatory cascade. Selectin kinetics, together with neutrophil hydrodynamics, regulate the fundamental adhesion cascade of cell tethering and rolling on the endothelium. The current study uses the Multiscale Adhesive Dynamics computational model to simulate, for the first time, the tethering and rolling behavior of pseudopod-containing neutrophils as mediated by P-selectin/PSGL-1 bonds. This paper looks at the effect of including P-selectin/PSGL-1 adhesion kinetics. The parameters examined included the shear rate, adhesion on-rate, initial neutrophil position, and receptor number sensitivity. The outcomes analyzed included types of adhesive behavior observed, tether rolling distance and time, number of bonds formed during an adhesive event, contact area, and contact time. In contrast to the hydrodynamic model, P-selectin/PSGL-1 binding slows the neutrophil's translation in the direction of flow and causes the neutrophil to swing around perpendicular to flow. Several behaviors were observed during the simulations, including tethering without firm adhesion, tethering with downstream firm adhesion, and firm adhesion upon first contact with the endothelium. These behaviors were qualitatively consistent with in vivo data of murine neutrophils with pseudopods. In the simulations, increasing shear rate, receptor count, and bond formation rate increased the incidence of firm adhesion upon first contact with the endothelium. Tethering was conserved across a range of physiological shear rates and was resistant to fluctuations in the number of surface PSGL-1 molecules. In simulations where bonding occurred, interaction with the side of the pseudopod, rather than the tip, afforded more surface area and greater contact time with the endothelial wall.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;

    2012-01-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens...

  9. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  10. Nonchromosomal cytogenetic analysis of mammal somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalova O. А.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutational events that take place in mammalian somatic cells influenced with different endogenous and exogenous factors are presented in this review. The nonchromosomal method of research allows taking into account the complex cell characteristics without time-consuming analysis of the chromosomes as such. As a result, the information can be obtained about the mitotic (phases of mitosis, the number of nuclei per cell, micronuclei, pathology of mitosis and vital (mitotic index, apoptosis cell statuses, as well as about the state of chromosomal integrity (the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges, nucleus protrusions, chromosome fragmentation, micronuclei. Depending on the material studied (erythrocytes and lymphocytes of peripheral blood, buccal cells, permanent cell lines etc., a complex of cytogenetic characteristics can be selected for each case which is the most informative for determination of the mutational spectra in mammalian somatic cells.

  11. Histamine from Brain Resident MAST Cells Promotes Wakefulness and Modulates Behavioral States

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiko Chikahisa; Tohru Kodama; Atsushi Soya; Yohei Sagawa; Yuji Ishimaru; Hiroyoshi Séi; Seiji Nishino

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing espec...

  12. Molecular bioelectricity: how endogenous voltage potentials control cell behavior and instruct pattern regulation in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In addition to biochemical gradients and transcriptional networks, cell behavior is regulated by endogenous bioelectrical cues originating in the activity of ion channels and pumps, operating in a wide variety of cell types. Instructive signals mediated by changes in resting potential control proliferation, differentiation, cell shape, and apoptosis of stem, progenitor, and somatic cells. Of importance, however, cells are regulated not only by their own V mem but also by the V mem of their ne...

  13. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Multirobot Cooperative Hunting Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of multirobot cooperative hunting behavior. Multiple robots try to search for and surround a prey. When a robot detects a prey it forms a following team. When another “searching” robot detects the same prey, the robots form a new following team. Until four robots have detected the same prey, the prey disappears from the simulation and the robots return to searching for other prey. If a following team fails to be joined by another robot within a certain time limit the team is disbanded and the robots return to searching state. The mathematical model is formulated by a set of rate equations. The evolution of robot collective hunting behaviors represents the transition between different states of robots. The complex collective hunting behavior emerges through local interaction. The paper presents numerical solutions to normalized versions of the model equations and provides both a steady state and a collaboration ratio analysis. The value of the delay time is shown through mathematical modeling to be a strong factor in the performance of the system as well as the relative numbers of the searching robots and the prey.

  14. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  15. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  16. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, pcortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, pcortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  17. Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells are rod shaped, and they grow by tip elongation. Growth ceases during mitosis and cell division; therefore, the length of a septated cell is a direct measure of the timing of mitotic commitment, and the length of a wild-type cell is an indicator of its position in the cell cycle. A large number of documented stage-specific changes can be used as landmarks to characterize cell cycle progression under specific experimental conditions. Conditional mutations can permanently or transiently block the cell cycle at almost any stage. Large, synchronously dividing cell populations, essential for the biochemical analysis of cell cycle events, can be generated by induction synchrony (arrest-release of a cell cycle mutant) or selection synchrony (centrifugal elutriation or lactose-gradient centrifugation). Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle studies routinely combine particular markers, mutants, and synchronization procedures to manipulate the cycle. We describe these techniques and list key landmarks in the fission yeast mitotic cell division cycle. PMID:27587785

  18. Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Stem Cell Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guo-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Stress response is well appreciated to induce the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in the cell. Numerous studies have demonstrated that Hsps function as molecular chaperones in the stabilization of intracellular proteins, repairing damaged proteins, and assisting in protein translocation. Various kinds of stem cells (embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells) have to maintain their stemness and, under certain circumstances, undergo stress. Therefore, Hs...

  19. Creep behavior multi-scale analysis of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloys are used in the nuclear industry as fuel cladding tubes in order to prevent radionuclide leaks into primary loop. They are also used to ensure an efficient heat transfer between nuclear fuel and primary water. Under operating conditions, these alloys are subjected to intense thermal-mechanical and neutronic solicitations. The mechanical wear of fuel rods is a key element in nuclear reactor safety. During this work, TEM investigations have been carried out by coworkers in order to quantify driving plasticity mechanisms in investigated stress and temperature range. The main result of this study is that the prismatic glide of screw dislocations remains the main plasticity mechanism. It is frequently associated with a cross slip mechanism on pyramidal planes. These experimental observations have been implemented into a multi-scale approach, thus providing a better description of the phenomenon. The results of a characterization campaign of the multiaxial creep behavior at 400 C of recrystallised Zircaloy-4 are used in this work and a micromechanical interpretation is proposed. The Elasto-Visco-Plastic (EVP) behavior is also characterized with relaxation tests between 280 C and 43 C. Analysis of experimental results indicates macroscopic effects of dynamic strain ageing. At the same time, Finite Element computations on polycrystalline aggregates were undertaken and a procedure for the statistical estimation of intra-phase mean mechanical fields is proposed. For a sufficient number of statistical realizations, it is shown that this estimator allows the precise determination of the analytical solution provided by the self consistent model within the framework of anisotropic elasticity. Thus, this procedure was applied to an EVP medium. It seems that rule allow a good description of numerical observations. However, EVP flow of quasi-elastic crystallographic phases remains difficult to describe. The aim of this PhD is to develop models of EVP behavior of

  20. Working memory cells' behavior may be explained by cross-regional networks with synaptic facilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Verduzco-Flores

    Full Text Available Neurons in the cortex exhibit a number of patterns that correlate with working memory. Specifically, averaged across trials of working memory tasks, neurons exhibit different firing rate patterns during the delay of those tasks. These patterns include: 1 persistent fixed-frequency elevated rates above baseline, 2 elevated rates that decay throughout the tasks memory period, 3 rates that accelerate throughout the delay, and 4 patterns of inhibited firing (below baseline analogous to each of the preceding excitatory patterns. Persistent elevated rate patterns are believed to be the neural correlate of working memory retention and preparation for execution of behavioral/motor responses as required in working memory tasks. Models have proposed that such activity corresponds to stable attractors in cortical neural networks with fixed synaptic weights. However, the variability in patterned behavior and the firing statistics of real neurons across the entire range of those behaviors across and within trials of working memory tasks are typical not reproduced. Here we examine the effect of dynamic synapses and network architectures with multiple cortical areas on the states and dynamics of working memory networks. The analysis indicates that the multiple pattern types exhibited by cells in working memory networks are inherent in networks with dynamic synapses, and that the variability and firing statistics in such networks with distributed architectures agree with that observed in the cortex.

  1. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Model Seabed Behavior under Water Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis of the behavior of a model seabed subjected to water wave excitation is presented. The experiments were performed in the wave flume at the Danish Technological University in Lyngby. Such experiments are unique in engineering sciences and therefore provide unique empirical data for testing various models of the seabed. A controversial explanation of the experiments is presented in the literature. The goal of this research was to study pore pressure changes caused by water waves and the subsequent liquefaction of the seabed. The authors of the present contribution offer their own theoretical explanation of the wave flume experiments and discuss errors found in the literature cited. The analysis is based on the classical soil mechanics, including the Biot type approach

  3. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Susan D.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package on three middle school special education teachers' accurate implementation of trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) with their students with autism spectrum disorders or emotional and behavioral disorders in the…

  4. Behavior of osteoblastic cells cultured on titanium and structured zirconia surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesmann Hans-Peter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osseointegration is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants and depends on the tissue reaction at the tissue-implant interface. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility make zirconia a suitable material for dental implants, although surface processings are still problematic. The aim of the present study was to compare osteoblast behavior on structured zirconia and titanium surfaces under standardized conditions. Methods The surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In primary bovine osteoblasts attachment kinetics, proliferation rate and synthesis of bone-associated proteins were tested on different surfaces. Results The results demonstrated that the proliferation rate of cells was significantly higher on zirconia surfaces than on titanium surfaces (p t-test. In contrast, attachment and adhesion strength of the primary cells was significant higher on titanium surfaces (p U test. No significant differences were found in the synthesis of bone-specific proteins. Ultrastructural analysis revealed phenotypic features of osteoblast-like cells on both zirconia and titanium surfaces. Conclusion The study demonstrates distinct effects of the surface composition on osteoblasts in culture. Zirconia improves cell proliferation significantly during the first days of culture, but it does not improve attachment and adhesion strength. Both materials do not differ with respect to protein synthesis or ultrastructural appearance of osteoblasts. Zirconium oxide may therefore be a suitable material for dental implants.

  5. Single-Cell Memory Regulates a Neural Circuit for Sensory Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyogo Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unveiling the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying memory has been a challenge for the past few decades. Although synaptic plasticity is proven to be essential for memory formation, the significance of “single-cell memory” still remains elusive. Here, we exploited a primary culture system for the analysis of C. elegans neurons and show that a single thermosensory neuron has an ability to form, retain, and reset a temperature memory. Genetic and proteomic analyses found that the expression of the single-cell memory exhibits inter-individual variability, which is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved CaMKI/IV and Raf pathway. The variable responses of a sensory neuron influenced the neural activity of downstream interneurons, suggesting that modulation of the sensory neurons ultimately determines the behavioral output in C. elegans. Our results provide proof of single-cell memory and suggest that the individual differences in neural responses at the single-cell level can confer individuality.

  6. SALSA: A Novel Dataset for Multimodal Group Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda-Pineda, Xavier; Staiano, Jacopo; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Batrinca, Ligia; Ricci, Elisa; Lepri, Bruno; Lanz, Oswald; Sebe, Nicu

    2016-08-01

    Studying free-standing conversational groups (FCGs) in unstructured social settings (e.g., cocktail party ) is gratifying due to the wealth of information available at the group (mining social networks) and individual (recognizing native behavioral and personality traits) levels. However, analyzing social scenes involving FCGs is also highly challenging due to the difficulty in extracting behavioral cues such as target locations, their speaking activity and head/body pose due to crowdedness and presence of extreme occlusions. To this end, we propose SALSA, a novel dataset facilitating multimodal and Synergetic sociAL Scene Analysis, and make two main contributions to research on automated social interaction analysis: (1) SALSA records social interactions among 18 participants in a natural, indoor environment for over 60 minutes, under the poster presentation and cocktail party contexts presenting difficulties in the form of low-resolution images, lighting variations, numerous occlusions, reverberations and interfering sound sources; (2) To alleviate these problems we facilitate multimodal analysis by recording the social interplay using four static surveillance cameras and sociometric badges worn by each participant, comprising the microphone, accelerometer, bluetooth and infrared sensors. In addition to raw data, we also provide annotations concerning individuals' personality as well as their position, head, body orientation and F-formation information over the entire event duration. Through extensive experiments with state-of-the-art approaches, we show (a) the limitations of current methods and (b) how the recorded multiple cues synergetically aid automatic analysis of social interactions. SALSA is available at http://tev.fbk.eu/salsa. PMID:26540677

  7. Innovative Tools and Technology for Analysis of Single Cells and Cell-Cell Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konry, Tania; Sarkar, Saheli; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Cohen, Noa

    2016-07-11

    Heterogeneity in single-cell responses and intercellular interactions results from complex regulation of cell-intrinsic and environmental factors. Single-cell analysis allows not only detection of individual cellular characteristics but also correlation of genetic content with phenotypic traits in the same cell. Technological advances in micro- and nanofabrication have benefited single-cell analysis by allowing precise control of the localized microenvironment, cell manipulation, and sensitive detection capabilities. Additionally, microscale techniques permit rapid, high-throughput, multiparametric screening that has become essential for -omics research. This review highlights innovative applications of microscale platforms in genetic, proteomic, and metabolic detection in single cells; cell sorting strategies; and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. We discuss key design aspects of single-cell localization and isolation in microfluidic systems, dynamic and endpoint analyses, and approaches that integrate highly multiplexed detection of various intracellular species. PMID:26928209

  8. Innovative Tools and Technology for Analysis of Single Cells and Cell-Cell Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konry, Tania; Sarkar, Saheli; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Cohen, Noa

    2016-07-11

    Heterogeneity in single-cell responses and intercellular interactions results from complex regulation of cell-intrinsic and environmental factors. Single-cell analysis allows not only detection of individual cellular characteristics but also correlation of genetic content with phenotypic traits in the same cell. Technological advances in micro- and nanofabrication have benefited single-cell analysis by allowing precise control of the localized microenvironment, cell manipulation, and sensitive detection capabilities. Additionally, microscale techniques permit rapid, high-throughput, multiparametric screening that has become essential for -omics research. This review highlights innovative applications of microscale platforms in genetic, proteomic, and metabolic detection in single cells; cell sorting strategies; and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. We discuss key design aspects of single-cell localization and isolation in microfluidic systems, dynamic and endpoint analyses, and approaches that integrate highly multiplexed detection of various intracellular species.

  9. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  10. DNA analysis of epithelial cell suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; Johnson, N.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cell suspensions of skin were obtained by animals exposed by skin painting of several crude oils. DNA analysis of these cell suspensions labeled with mithramycin provide determination of percentages of cells in the G/sub 1/, S and G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle. Data acquired showed differences from control animals occurring as early as 7 days after treatment and persisting through 21 days afterwards. There was histological evidence of erythema and hyperplasia in shale oil-exposed skins. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in shale-oil-exposed skin cells showed an increased percentage of cycling cells plus evidence of aneuploidy. Similar data from simply abraded skin showed increased percentages of cycling cells, but no aneuploidy. The shale-oil-exposed group, when compared to a standard petroleum-exposed group, had significantly increased percentages of cycling cells. This early indication of differing response to different complex mixtures was also seen in long-term skin exposures to these compounds. Similar analytical techniques were applied to tracheal cell suspensions from ozone-exposed rats. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  11. Does Changing Behavioral Intentions Engender Behavior Change? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous theories in social and health psychology assume that intentions cause behaviors. However, most tests of the intention- behavior relation involve correlational studies that preclude causal inferences. In order to determine whether changes in behavioral intention engender behavior change, participants should be assigned randomly to a…

  12. Investigation of drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors with synchrotron radiation hard X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis is an advanced method of quantitative elemental analysis. It is a scientific platform for life science, material science, and environmental science. Purpose: In this present study, the drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors was investigated by using the method of Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis. Methods: The copper (Ⅱ) ions were loaded into acetyl-modified generation 5(G5) PAMAM dendrimers. We monitored and imaged the distribution of copper in A549 cell by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) to observe the cellular uptake of copper-dendrimers conjugates. Results: The results of hard X-ray fluorescence mapping showed a stronger fluorescence of Cu in the cells treated with G5-Ac-Cu than that of control. Conclusions: This investigation provided a method of using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to study the drug loading behavior of dendrimers. (authors)

  13. Probing the behaviors of gold nanorods in metastatic breast cancer cells based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqi Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work, behaviors of positively-charged AuNRs in a highly metastatic tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 are examined based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dark-field microscopic observation. It is found that characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks of AuNRs can be detected using spectroscopic method within living cells that have taken up AuNRs. The peak area of transverse SPR band is shown to be proportionally related to the amount of AuNRs in the cells determined with ICP-MS, which suggests a facile and real time quantification method for AuNRs in living cells. The shape of longitudinal SPR band in UV-vis-NIR spectrum reflects the aggregation state of AuNRs in the cells during the incubation period, which is proved by TEM and microscopic observations. Experimental results reveal that AuNRs are internalized by the cells rapidly; the accumulation, distribution and aggregation of AuNRs in the cells compartments are time and dose dependent. The established spectroscopic analysis method can not only monitor the behaviors of AuNRs in living cells but may also be helpful in choosing the optimum laser stimulation wavelength for anti-tumor thermotherapy.

  14. A kinetic-metabolic model based on cell energetic state: study of CHO cell behavior under Na-butyrate stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbaniaghdam, Atefeh; Henry, Olivier; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-04-01

    A kinetic-metabolic model approach describing and simulating Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior is presented. The model includes glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, respiratory chain, redox state and energetic metabolism. Growth kinetic is defined as a function of the major precursors for the synthesis of cell building blocks. Michaelis-Menten type kinetic is used for metabolic intermediates as well as for regulatory functions from energy shuttles (ATP/ADP) and cofactors (NAD/H and NADP/H). Model structure and parameters were first calibrated using results from bioreactor cultures of CHO cells expressing recombinant t-PA. It is shown that the model can simulate experimental data for all available experimental data, such as extracellular glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium concentration time profiles, as well as cell energetic state. A sensitivity analysis allowed identifying the most sensitive parameters. The model was then shown to be readily adaptable for studying the effect of sodium butyrate on CHO cells metabolism, where it was applied to the cases with sodium butyrate addition either at mid-exponential growth phase (48 h) or at the early plateau phase (74 h). In both cases, a global optimization routine was used for the simultaneous estimation of the most sensitive parameters, while the insensitive parameters were considered as constants. Finally, confidence intervals for the estimated parameters were calculated. Results presented here further substantiate our previous findings that butyrate treatment at mid-exponential phase may cause a shift in cellular metabolism toward a sustained and increased efficiency of glucose utilization channeled through the TCA cycle. PMID:22976819

  15. Cancer cell differentiation heterogeneity and aggressive behavior in solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Jögi, Annika; Vaapil, Marica; Johansson, Martin; Påhlman, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The differentiation stage of tumors is a central aspect in the histopathological classification of solid malignancies. The differentiation stage is strongly associated with tumor behavior, and generally an immature tumor is more aggressive than the more differentiated counterpart. While this is common knowledge in surgical pathology, the contribution of differentiation-related gene expression and functions to tumor behavior is often overlooked in the experimental, tumor biological setting. Th...

  16. Improvement of Parkinsonian behavior with co-grafts of Schwann cells and neural stem cells in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia; Chengchuan Jiang; Zhongliang Ding; Yang Wang; Bin Xu; Linyin Feng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of autograft transplant rejection, Schwann cells (SCs) can promote the proliferation of embryonic stem cells and the induction of dopaminergic neurons. Mesencephalic stem cells can be induced to produce dopaminergic neurons. The therapeutic effects of co-grafts of SCs and neural stem cells (NSCs) deserves further study and verification in Parkinsonian animal models.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Schwann cells and mesencephalic NSC co-grafts in Parkinsonian animal models on animal behavior and histology.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Fudan University; Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences.MATERIALS: The following animals were obtained from the Experimental Animal Center, Shanghai Institute for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences: 5 Sprague-Dawley rats, embryonic day (E) 13–16; 16 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, postnatal day 1–3; and 18 adult SD rats of both genders. Animal experimentation met animal ethical approval.METHODS: The experiment was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Medical Center, Fudan University from September 2005 to January 2007. The mesencephalic NSCs were obtained from the brains of SD rats at E 13–16, and SCs were harvested from the sciatic nerves of neonatal rats at day 1–3. Hemiparkinsonian rats (n =18) were selected for transplantation after estimating rotational behavior in response to apomorphine and were randomly assigned to three groups: control group, NSC group, and co-graft group. There were 6 rats in each group. Either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), NSCs, or SCs plus NSCs were transplanted into the right neostriatum of Parkinsonian rats, respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Rotational behavior was induced by apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg, I.p.) 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after transplantation, and the number of rotations were counted. ② Differentiation and survival of dopaminergic neurons in the right

  17. A Case for Distributed Control of Local Stem Cell Behavior in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahni, Ramin; Efroni, Idan; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2016-09-26

    The root meristem has a centrally located group of mitotically quiescent cells, to which current models assign a stem cell organizer function. However, evidence is emerging for decentralized control of stem cell activity, whereby self-renewing behavior emerges from the lack of cell displacement at the border of opposing differentiation gradients. We term this a "stagnation" model due to its reliance on passive mechanics. The position of stem cells is established by two opposing axes that reciprocally control each other's differentiation. Such broad tissue organization programs would allow plants, like some animal systems, to rapidly reconstitute stem cells from non-stem-cell tissues. PMID:27676436

  18. Behavior of interdigitated back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L. J.; Leung, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data concerning operation mechanisms of two versions of interdigitated back-contact solar cells: the tandem junction cell and the front-surface field cell. It is shown that a photogenerated forward bias at the front junction of a tandem junction cell is a critical parameter for cell performance which not only causes photogenerated carriers to migrate to the back junction, but also eliminates the reduction in photoresponse over back p(+) metallization regions. However, no similar light effects are observed in the performance of front-surface field cells. Finally, a discussion on mechanisms concerning the performance of front-surface field and tandem junction cells along with their merits is given.

  19. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Biobehavioral influences on recovery following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Review of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and its potential “window of opportunity” during which interventions targeting stress-related behavioral factors can influence the survival, health, and well-being of recipients.

  20. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenberg Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.. A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Results We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a

  1. Analysis Components of the Digital Consumer Behavior in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bogdan Onete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is investigating the Romanian consumer behavior in the context of the evolution of the online shopping. Given that online stores are a profitable business model in the area of electronic commerce and because the relationship between consumer digital Romania and its decision to purchase products or services on the Internet has not been sufficiently explored, this study aims to identify specific features of the new type of consumer and to examine the level of online shopping in Romania. Therefore a documentary study was carried out with statistic data regarding the volume and the number of transactions of the online shopping in Romania during 2010-2014, the type of products and services that Romanians are searching the Internet for and demographics of these people. In addition, to study more closely the online consumer behavior, and to interpret the detailed secondary data provided, an exploratory research was performed as a structured questionnaire with five closed questions on the distribution of individuals according to the gender category they belong (male or female; decision to purchase products / services in the virtual environment in the past year; the source of the goods / services purchased (Romanian or foreign sites; factors that have determined the consumers to buy products from foreign sites; categories of products purchased through online transactions from foreign merchants. The questionnaire was distributed electronically via Facebook social network users and the data collected was processed directly in the Facebook official app to create and interpret responses to surveys. The results of this research correlated with the official data reveals the following characteristics of the digital consumer in Romania: atypical European consumer, interested more in online purchases from abroad, influenced by the quality and price of the purchase. This paper assumed a careful analysis of the online acquisitions phenomenon and also

  2. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm-Jan Westra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-environment interaction (GxE meta-analysis on data from 5,683 samples to infer the cell type specificity of whole blood cis-eQTLs. We demonstrate that this method is able to predict neutrophil and lymphocyte specific cis-eQTLs and replicate these predictions in independent cell-type specific datasets. Finally, we show that SNPs associated with Crohn's disease preferentially affect gene expression within neutrophils, including the archetypal NOD2 locus.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.;

    2016-01-01

    and a suboptimal optimization algorithm that nearly achieves the performance of the optimal Hungarian assignment. Moreover, an exhaustive sensitivity analysis with different network and traffic configurations is carried out in order to understand what conditions are more appropriate for the use of the proposed...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection....

  4. Single-cell analysis - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is certainly a timely volume in the Methods in molecular biology series: we already entered the synthetic biology era and thus we need to be aware of the new methodological advances able to fulfill the new and necessary needs for biologists, biotechnologists and nano-biotechnologists. Notably, among these, the possibility to perform single cell analysis allow researchers to capture single cell responses....

  5. Analysis of flow behavior in fractured lithophysal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianchun; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2002-09-01

    This study develops a mathematical model for the analysis of pressure behavior in fractured lithophysal reservoirs. The lithophysal rock is described as a tri-continuum medium, consisting of fractures, rock matrices, and cavities. In the conceptual model, fractures have homogeneous properties throughout and interact with rock matrices and cavities that have different permeabilities and porosities. Global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrices and cavities contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Interporosity flows between the triple media are described using a pseudosteady-state concept and the system is characterized by interporosity transmissivity ratios and storativity ratio of each continuum. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots, and the effects of the characteristic parameters. Typical pressure responses from fractures, matrices, and cavities are represented by three semilog straight lines; the transitions by two troughs below the stabilization lines in the derivative plots. The analytical solution to the proposed model is further verified using a numerical simulation. The analytical model has also been applied to a published field-buildup well test and is able to match the pressure buildup data.

  6. Using principal component analysis for selecting network behavioral anomaly metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent; Barsamian, Alex

    2010-04-01

    This work addresses new approaches to behavioral analysis of networks and hosts for the purposes of security monitoring and anomaly detection. Most commonly used approaches simply implement anomaly detectors for one, or a few, simple metrics and those metrics can exhibit unacceptable false alarm rates. For instance, the anomaly score of network communication is defined as the reciprocal of the likelihood that a given host uses a particular protocol (or destination);this definition may result in an unrealistically high threshold for alerting to avoid being flooded by false positives. We demonstrate that selecting and adapting the metrics and thresholds, on a host-by-host or protocol-by-protocol basis can be done by established multivariate analyses such as PCA. We will show how to determine one or more metrics, for each network host, that records the highest available amount of information regarding the baseline behavior, and shows relevant deviances reliably. We describe the methodology used to pick from a large selection of available metrics, and illustrate a method for comparing the resulting classifiers. Using our approach we are able to reduce the resources required to properly identify misbehaving hosts, protocols, or networks, by dedicating system resources to only those metrics that actually matter in detecting network deviations.

  7. [Genetic-metabolic model of cancer cell behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dil'man, V M; Blagosklonnyĭ, M V

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the transforming protein (type pp60) induce "insulinization" of the cell membrane. It is mostly due to this effect that the cell sensitivity to insulin and insulin-like factors of the body internal medium is enhanced, which in turn results in the increased glucosa transport into cell. The transforming protein is also supposed to increase the activity of the glycolysis key enzymes by phosphorylating them. The presence of these two effects seems to be sufficient enough to explain "the biochemical behaviour" of the cancerous cell. PMID:7385728

  8. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: A controlled analog analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, M.F.; Fragale, C.; Gainey, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Koch, H.; Shubert, J.; El Zein, F.; Longino, D.; Chung, M.; Xu, Z.W.; White, P.J.; Lang, R.; Davis, T.; Rispoli, M.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Healy, O.; Kagohara, D.; Meer, L. van der; Sigafoos, J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. individual partic

  9. Analysis of Vertical Architecture Photogalvanic Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    A new configuration of the photogalvanic cells (PGCs) is proposed that relaxes some of the hard to achieve requirements for efficient conventional photogalvanic cells. Instead of illuminating the device perpendicular to the electrode as was done classically, the vertical alignment of PGCs is suggested so that the light comes in from the gap between the two electrodes. This way, the electron generation extends to the depth of the device and therefore slower kinetics are allowed for deep cells. The depth can also be adjusted according to the concentration of the dyes, which solves the high solubility problem of the electrode-illuminated cells. The configuration is mathematically modeled and the advantages over the conventional cell are shown. A computer model is built for more detailed analysis.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.;

    2016-01-01

    and a suboptimal optimization algorithm that nearly achieves the performance of the optimal Hungarian assignment. Moreover, an exhaustive sensitivity analysis with different network and traffic configurations is carried out in order to understand what conditions are more appropriate for the use of the proposed...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection.......Centralized architectures with fronthauls can be used to deal with some of the problems inherently associated with dense small cell deployments. This study examines a joint cell assignment and scheduling solution for the downlink to increase the users’ data rates, based on cell switching...

  11. Regional Difference Analysis of Farmers’ Land Use Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin; HUANG; Chengwu; LIU; Guangping; DING

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data and statistical information on farmers,we conduct comparative analysis of land use behavior of farmers in the Jianghan Plain and the hilly areas of Xianning City in Hubei Province.We find that the utilization rate of agricultural land and level of agricultural labor output in the plain areas are higher than in the hilly areas;at the same time,the degree of mechanization of agricultural land utilization and farmers’land use scale are larger in the plain areas.But the crop type in the plain areas is single,and the decline rate of the growing area of food crops is higher in recent twenty years;meanwhile,the material input costs and opportunity cost of labor for the agricultural land utilization in the plain areas are greater than in the hilly areas.

  12. Applying Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior to persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-03-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may facilitate not only acquisition of language but also the ability to recall items or objects that may have appeared to be "forgotten." The present study examined the utility of having a series of adults in long-term care emit tacts, echoics, or intraverbals upon presentation of various visual stimuli. Compared to a no-verbal response condition, it appears that the incorporation of Skinner's verbal operants can in fact improve recall for this population. Implications for the retraining of lost language are presented. PMID:21292058

  13. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Sebastian; Dengjel, Jörn; Brummer, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is driven by the oncogenic fusion kinase Bcr-Abl, which organizes its own signaling network with various proteins. These proteins, their interactions, and their role in relevant signaling pathways can be analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) approaches in various models systems, e.g., in cell culture models. In this chapter, we describe in detail immunoprecipitations and quantitative proteomics analysis using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) of components of the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in the human CML cell line K562. PMID:27581145

  14. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  15. Medical Students' Knowledge, Familiarity, and Attitudes towards Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donation: Stem Cell Donation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Praveena; Wolanskyj, Alexandra; Ehlers, Shawna L; Litzow, Mark R; Patnaik, Mrinal S; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood disorders and genetic diseases. Approximately 70% of the HSCTs currently performed in the United States use stems cells from an unrelated donor who donated voluntarily. Medical students (MS) are a young, diverse, influential population whose willingness to engage in altruistic acts, such as donating stem cells, may be correlated with knowledge on the topic. A literature gap exists in MS perspectives towards HSCT and the bone marrow registry (BMR) and prior studies suggest that misconceptions about donation deter MS from participation on the BMR, which may decrease opportunities to educate other potential donors. We performed a cross-sectional survey among the 4-year cohort of MS at Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota. The questionnaire evaluated multiple areas including whether MS were current members of the BMR and/or prior blood donors, MS current knowledge on donor eligibility (DE) and the donation process (DP), MS familiarity with HSCT and the DP, and MS attitudes towards joining the BMR and towards donating stem cells. The responses were analyzed and assessed alongside a self-reported, standardized scale measuring students' altruistic behaviors. There were 99 out of 247 potential respondents (40%), with 45% (n = 44) of MS in preclinical years 1 or 2, 37% (n = 37) in clinical years 3 or 4, and 18% (n = 18) in research or alternative portions of their training, of which 43% (n = 41) in total were current BMR members. BMR status correlated positively with prior blood donation (P = .015) and female sex (P = .014). Respondents had a 57.7% and 63.7% average correct response rate regarding knowledge of DE and DP, respectively, with knowledge of DE not surprisingly higher in BMR members (P donating stem cells: lower concern with all evaluated aspects of HSCT-time, cost, pain, and side effects (for all subsections, P

  16. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver. PMID:26893346

  17. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver.

  18. Optimization of genetic analysis for single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hussein mouawia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO. This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal.

  19. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani

    2013-01-01

    practical study of a descriptive-analytic nature. The data is compiled based on library source and field survey. In the field survey the tool used is a researcher designed questionnaire containing two series of open and closed questions. The questionnaire consists of the two following measuring parts:A.General characteristics that include variables such as sex, age, driving license issuance date, hours driven per day, education, income, occupational status, residential sectionB.Driving behavior that includes variables such as conduct on local roads which contain 9 items measured by Likert scale. Sample size is estimated through Cochran formula, by which 322 drivers were randomly selected from the intra-city drivers in the vicinity of major connecting intersections like squares, circles, crosses. They were asked to stop when at a very low speed or almost unmoving. Data analysis, summarizing and categorization are processed through SPSS. The descriptive findings are illustrated through GIS Arc software, and Kruskal-Wallis test, Tavy - Kendall none and chi-square were run to analyze the data.Discussion of Results & ConclusionsThe findings indicate that be getting older drivers tend to observe traffic roles in the following ways: 1.Observing the standard distance from the vehicle in front 2.Observing the proper speed when the traffic is high3.Driving between the lines4.Not overtaking from right5.Allowing others to overtake6.Patience during driving7.Having proper speed when overtaking8.Watching the side mirrors and proper signaling before turningThere is no statistical significance between driver age and parking at "No Parking" zones. As the driving skills are advanced all the above variables are improved. However, there is no statistical significance between the skill record and parking at No Parking zones.As the duration of driving per day increases, parking in No parking zones, overtaking from right and impatience among the drivers increases too. There is no statistical

  20. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  1. Theoretical analysis on convergence behavior of rank filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Wanzhou

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically studies the convergence behavior of rank filters. The problem of convergence behavior of rank filters has been solved completely for bounded sequences. Moreover, some properties of its limiting sequences and recurrent sequences are obtained.

  2. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  3. Mechanical behavior analysis on electrostatically actuated rectangular microplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplates are widely used in various MEMS devices based on electrostatic actuation such as MEMS switches, micro pumps and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). Accurate predictions for the mechanical behavior of the microplate under electrostatic force are important not only for the design and optimization of these electrostatic devices but also for their operation. This paper presents a novel reduced-order model for electrostatically actuated rectangular and square microplates with a new method to treat the nonlinear electrostatic force. The model was developed using Galerkin method which turned the partial-differential equation governing the microplates into an ordinary equation system. Using this model and cosine-like deflection functions, explicit expressions were established for the deflection and pull-in voltage of the rectangular and square microplates. The theoretical results were well validated with the finite element method simulations and experimental data of literature. The expressions for the deflection analysis are able to predict the deflection up to the pull-in position with an error less than 5.0%. The expressions for the pull-in voltage analysis can determine the pull-in voltages with errors less than 1.0%. Additionally, the method to calculate the capacitance variation of the electrostatically actuated microplates was proposed. These theoretical analyses are helpful for design and optimization of electrostatically actuated microdevices. (paper)

  4. Conceptualization and Development of the Behavior Analysis Programs at the Florida Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, Jose A; Wilder, David A

    2016-05-01

    We describe the conceptualization and development of the Behavior Analysis programs at the Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech). From its beginnings as a small master's program in applied behavior analysis (ABA), the Behavior Analysis programs at Florida Tech have now grown to include three Master of Science programs across two campuses, a Ph.D. program in Behavior Analysis, an undergraduate degree (B.A.) in ABA, an online certificate program that has attracted students internationally, and a hybrid (live and online) Master of Arts in Professional Behavior Analysis program at several sites around the USA. These programs are now housed in the first ever School of Behavior Analysis at a Tier 1, nationally ranked private university. PMID:27606195

  5. On the coherent behavior of pancreatic beta cell clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppini, Alessandro, E-mail: a.loppini@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Capolupo, Antonio, E-mail: capolupo@sa.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 (Italy); Cherubini, Christian, E-mail: c.cherubini@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128, Rome (Italy); Gizzi, Alessio, E-mail: a.gizzi@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Bertolaso, Marta, E-mail: m.bertolaso@unicampus.it [Faculty of Engineering and Institute of Philosophy of Scientific and Technological Practice, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Filippi, Simonetta, E-mail: s.filippi@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128, Rome (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: vitiello@sa.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 (Italy)

    2014-09-12

    Beta cells in pancreas represent an example of coupled biological oscillators which via communication pathways, are able to synchronize their electrical activity, giving rise to pulsatile insulin release. In this work we numerically analyze scale free self-similarity features of membrane voltage signal power density spectrum, through a stochastic dynamical model for beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fine tuned on mouse experimental data. Adopting the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism, we show how coherent molecular domains can arise from proper functional conditions leading to a parallelism with “phase transition” phenomena of field theory. - Highlights: • Beta cells in pancreas are coupled oscillators able to synchronize their activity. • We analyze scale free self-similarity features for beta cells. • We adopt the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism. • We show that coherent molecular domains arise from functional conditions.

  6. On the coherent behavior of pancreatic beta cell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta cells in pancreas represent an example of coupled biological oscillators which via communication pathways, are able to synchronize their electrical activity, giving rise to pulsatile insulin release. In this work we numerically analyze scale free self-similarity features of membrane voltage signal power density spectrum, through a stochastic dynamical model for beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fine tuned on mouse experimental data. Adopting the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism, we show how coherent molecular domains can arise from proper functional conditions leading to a parallelism with “phase transition” phenomena of field theory. - Highlights: • Beta cells in pancreas are coupled oscillators able to synchronize their activity. • We analyze scale free self-similarity features for beta cells. • We adopt the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism. • We show that coherent molecular domains arise from functional conditions

  7. Effects of KAI1/CD82 on biological behavior of human colorectal carcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liu; De-Hua Wu; Zu-Guo Li; Guang-Zhi Yang; Yan-Qing Ding

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of KAI1/CD82 on biological behavior of colorectal carcinoma cells. METHODS: KAI1 cDNA was transfected into highly malignant colorectal carcinoma cell line, LoVo, which had low level of endogenous KAI1 expression, and established stable transfectant clones with high KAI1/CD82 expression.The cell-cell adhesion, cell aggregation, cell-matrix adhesion and cell invasion assay were performed to determine whether KAI1 transfectant could have an effect on proliferation,adhesion and tumor metastasis in comparison with the control transfectant cells. RESULTS: KAI1 expression did not alter in vitro cell proliferation. But the KAI1 transfectant cells exhibited significantly increased homotypic cell-cell adhesion and cell aggregation in comparison with the control transfectant cells (P<0.05). Furthermore, KAI1 expression significantly suppressed the cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and in vitro cell invasion in KAI1-transfected LoVo cells. The data indicated that KAI1 expression significantly suppressed the metastatic potential of KAI1-transfected LoVo cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that KAI1 might function as a negative regulator of colorectal carcinoma metastasis.

  8. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  9. An Ecological Analysis of Cognitions of Behavioral Deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Determined whether educators' judgments of problem behaviors are influenced by classroom contex (disruptive x nondisruptive) and teacher type (regular x special). After viewing videotaped behavioral segments presented within a disruptive or nondisruptive classroom setting, teachers rated behavioral severity, tolerance, manageability, and…

  10. Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Scott D.; Newchok, Debra K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) on problem behavior evoked by music in a 7-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. Following an auditory stimulus assessment, DNRO was used to reduce problem behavior to near-zero levels. Results are discussed in terms of…

  11. Predicting Turnover Intentions and Turnover Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relative influence of personal, attitudinal, and behavioral variables on behavioral intentions and voluntary turnover among nonsupervisory plant workers. Results show that personal variables have little direct effect on turnover; rather, their influence on turnover is channeled through their effects on behavioral intentions. (Author)

  12. A Documentary Analysis of the Government’s Circulars on Positive Behavior Enhancement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Mahzan Awang; Divya Jindal-Snape; Terry Barber

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the concept of positive behavior and strategies for promoting positive behavior in a country that has a centralized educational system, namely Malaysia. The analysis covers 91 circulars (official government documents) that were distributed to schools over a period of 40 years (from 1969 to 2011). The analysis uses a content analysis approach. The results suggest that the concept of positive behavior revolves around discipline and obedience. The term ‘good discipline’ is fr...

  13. Quantitative analysis of in vivo cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Heather A

    2006-11-01

    Injection and immunohistochemical detection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has become the standard method for studying the birth and survival of neurons, glia, and other cell types in the nervous system. BrdU, a thymidine analog, becomes stably incorporated into DNA during the S-phase of mitosis. Because DNA containing BrdU can be specifically recognized by antibodies, this method allows dividing cells to be marked at any given time and then identified at time points from a few minutes to several years later. BrdU immunohistochemistry is suitable for cell counting to examine the regulation of cell proliferation and cell fate. It can be combined with labeling by other antibodies, allowing confocal analysis of cell phenotype or expression of other proteins. The potential for nonspecific labeling and toxicity are discussed. Although BrdU immunohistochemistry has almost completely replaced tritiated thymidine autoradiography for labeling dividing cells, this method and situations in which it is still useful are also described. PMID:18428635

  14. Chitosan and polycaprolactone membranes patterned via electrospinning: effect of underlying chemistry and pattern characteristics on epithelial/fibroblastic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek, Murat; Capkın, Merve; Karakeçili, Ayşe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2012-12-01

    Electrospinning was used as an effective route to pattern chitosan (CS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes with submicron fibers having different chemical structure (PCL or PCL/collagen) and physical characteristics (size: between ≈200 and 550 nm; randomly oriented or aligned form). While the PCL fibers with diameters in the same range (≈200 nm) were patterned on both of CS and PCL membranes to evaluate the influence of the underlying membrane chemistry, only CS membranes were patterned with PCL fibers having different sizes simply by changing the electrospinning conditions to investigate the effects of pattern characteristics. Furthermore, collagen was added to the PCL fiber structure to change the chemical composition of the fibers in a cell-attractive way. Two cell lines with different morphologies, fibroblastic MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and epithelial Madine Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, were cultured on the patterned membranes. The observation of cellular behavior in terms of cell morphology and F-actin synthesis was realized by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy analysis during the first 12 h of culture period. The viability of cells was controlled by MTT assay through 96 h of cell culture. The cell culture studies indicated that the leading aspect for the morphology change on patterned membranes was the fiber orientation. The aligned topography controlled the morphology of cells both on CS and PCL membranes. In the presence of collagen in the fiber structure, F-actin filament synthesis increased for MC3T3-E1 and MDBK cell lines.

  15. Behavioral profile and dorsal hippocampal cells in carioca high-conditioned freezing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gisele Pereira; Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar do Nascimento; Silveira, Anna Claudia Domingos; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Gardino, Patrícia Franca

    2009-12-28

    Selection for contextual fear conditioning is an important behavioral paradigm for studying the role of genetic variables and their interaction with the surrounding environment in the etiology and development of anxiety disorders. Recently, a new line of animals selectively bred for high levels of freezing in response to contextual cues previously associated with footshock was developed from a Wistar population. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the emotional and cognitive aspects of this new line of animals, which has been named Carioca High-Freezing (CHF). For the characterization of anxious behavior, CHF and control animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the social interaction test. CHF animals were significantly more anxious than control rats in terms of both the number of entries into EPM open arms and the percentage of time spent in these arms. The time spent in social interaction behavior was also significantly decreased. No statistical differences were found in locomotor activity, as measured by both the number of entries into the closed arms of the EPM and the number of crossings into the social interaction test arena. No differences between CHF and control groups were found in the depression forced swimming test, suggesting that the anxiety trait selected in the CHF line did not interact with affective disorders traits such as those for depression. Cognitive aspects of the CHF rats were evaluated in the object recognition task. Results from this test indicated no difference between the two groups. The present study also encompassed histological analysis of the dorsal hippocampus from CHF and control animals. Results revealed an absence of qualitative and quantitative differences between these two groups of animals in cells located in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Therefore, future studies are required to further investigate the possible neural mechanisms involved in the origin and development of the anxious

  16. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  17. A new isotropic cell for studying the thermo-mechanical behavior of unsaturated expansive clays

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Barnel, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new suction-temperature controlled isotropic cell that can be used to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of unsaturated expansive clays. The vapor equilibrium technique is used to control the soil suction; the temperature of the cell is controlled using a thermostat bath. The isotropic pressure is applied using a volume/pressure controller that is also used to monitor the volume change of soil specimen. Preliminary experimental results showed good performance of the cell.

  18. Structural analysis and modeling of water reactor fuel rod behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactor is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system under normal and emergency operating conditions. To achieve these objectives and in order to provide a suitable computer code based on fundamental material properties for design and study of the thermal-mechanical behavior of water reactor fuel rods during their irradiation life and also to demonstrate the fuel rod design and modeling for students, The KIANA-1 computer program has been developed by the writer at Amir-Kabir university of technology with support of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. KIANA-1 is an integral one-dimensional computer program for the thermal and mechanical analysis in order to predict fuel rods performance and also parameter study of Zircaloy-clad UO2 fuel rod during steady state conditions. The code has been designed for the following main objectives: To give a solution for the steady state heat conduction equation for fuel as a heat source and clad by using finite difference, control volume and semi-analytical methods in order to predict the temperature profile in the fuel and cladding. To predict the inner gas pressures due to the filling gases and released gaseous fission products. To predict the fission gas production and release by using a simple diffusion model based on the Booth models and an empirical model. To calculate the fuel-clad gap conductance for cracked fuel with partial contact zones to a closed gap with strong contact. To predict the distribution of stress in three principal directions in the fuel and sheet by assuming one-dimensional plane strain and asymmetric idealization. To calculate the strain distribution in three principal directions and the corresponding deformation in the fuel and cladding. For this purpose the permanent strain such as creep or plasticity as well as the thermoelastic deformation and also the swelling, densification, cracking

  19. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering. PMID:23823664

  20. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  1. Discretization behavior analysis of a switching control system from a unified mathematical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghuo YU; Ling YANG; Guanrong CHEN

    2003-01-01

    A useful unified analysis framework is proposed for exploring the intriguing behaviors of a second-order switching control system. Complex discretization behaviors of the switching control system are explored in detail, and some intrinsic relationships between the system periodic behaviors and their associated symbolic sequences are studied.

  2. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Gallo, Glenna L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, Kara A.; Davey, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task…

  3. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  4. Examining the Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Interventions for Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey Lee

    2013-01-01

    Structural analysis (SA) is an assessment process developed to analyze hypothesized relationships between contextual variables and subsequent behaviors. In the present study, an alternating treatments design investigated the effectiveness of environmentally-based interventions to reduce disruptive behaviors and increase on-task behaviors of…

  5. Classification of human natural killer cells based on migration behavior and cytotoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanherberghen, Bruno; Olofsson, Per E; Forslund, Elin; Sternberg-Simon, Michal; Khorshidi, Mohammad Ali; Pacouret, Simon; Guldevall, Karolin; Enqvist, Monika; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Mehr, Ramit; Önfelt, Björn

    2013-02-21

    Despite intense scrutiny of the molecular interactions between natural killer (NK) and target cells, few studies have been devoted to dissection of the basic functional heterogeneity in individual NK cell behavior. Using a microchip-based, time-lapse imaging approach allowing the entire contact history of each NK cell to be recorded, in the present study, we were able to quantify how the cytotoxic response varied between individual NK cells. Strikingly, approximately half of the NK cells did not kill any target cells at all, whereas a minority of NK cells was responsible for a majority of the target cell deaths. These dynamic cytotoxicity data allowed categorization of NK cells into 5 distinct classes. A small but particularly active subclass of NK cells killed several target cells in a consecutive fashion. These "serial killers" delivered their lytic hits faster and induced faster target cell death than other NK cells. Fast, necrotic target cell death was correlated with the amount of perforin released by the NK cells. Our data are consistent with a model in which a small fraction of NK cells drives tumor elimination and inflammation.

  6. Coordinating cell and tissue behavior during zebrafish neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Claudio; Ward, Laura C; Girdler, Gemma C; Miranda, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    The development of a vertebrate neural epithelium with well-organized apico-basal polarity and a central lumen is essential for its proper function. However, how this polarity is established during embryonic development and the potential influence of surrounding signals and tissues on such organization has remained less understood. In recent years the combined superior transparency and genetics of the zebrafish embryo has allowed for in vivo visualization and quantification of the cellular and molecular dynamics that govern neural tube structure. Here, we discuss recent studies revealing how co-ordinated cell-cell interactions coupled with adjacent tissue dynamics are critical to regulate final neural tissue architecture. Furthermore, new findings show how the spatial regulation and timing of orientated cell division is key in defining precise lumen formation at the tissue midline. In addition, we compare zebrafish neurulation with that of amniotes and amphibians in an attempt to understand the conserved cellular mechanisms driving neurulation and resolve the apparent differences among animals. Zebrafish neurulation not only offers fundamental insights into early vertebrate brain development but also the opportunity to explore in vivo cell and tissue dynamics during complex three-dimensional animal morphogenesis.

  7. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Grin

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WFA is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects.

  8. Modeling the Behavior of Red Blood Cells within the Caudal Vein Plexus of Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana R.; Karthik, Swapna; Saveljic, Igor; Djonov, Valentin; Filipovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development. Numerical simulations were performed using a specific numerical model that combines fluid flow simulation, modeling of the interaction of individual RBCs immersed in blood plasma with the surrounding fluid and modeling the deformation of individual cells. The results of numerical simulations are in accordance with the in vivo observed region of interest within the caudal vein plexus of the zebrafish embryo. Good agreement of results demonstrates the capabilities of the developed numerical model to predict and analyze the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex geometries. The proposed model (methodology) will help to elucidate different rheological and hematological related pathologies and finally to design better treatment strategies. PMID:27774070

  9. Mathematical analysis of mis-estimation of cell subsets in flow cytometry: viability staining revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunkina, A M; Harrison, R A P

    2011-05-31

    Many research projects in cell biology now use flow cytometry for analysis or for isolation of specific cell types. In such studies, cell viability is obviously a crucial issue. However, many studies appear to rely upon light-scattering characteristics to identify and gate out non-viable cells, despite the fact that reliable identification of such cells can only be achieved through staining with impermeable fluorescent nuclear dyes such as propidium iodide or 7-amino actinomycin. In this paper we apply mathematical analysis to the theoretical problem of quantifying cell sub-populations labeled with two or more fluorescent markers, comparing situations in which dead cells have been identified with those in which cell viability has not been assessed. We demonstrate that in all cases in which dead cells are present within the population, percentages of live sub-populations in different subsets are mis-estimated. In cases where the pattern of marker expression differs greatly between live and dead cells, or where the proportion of dead cells is high, this mis-estimation will be aggravated; the subsets pattern will therefore be biased in a population selected only on the basis of light-scatter behavior. The importance of accurately detecting and gating out dead cells is illustrated by an experimental example accompanying the mathematical analysis. To conclude, identification of dead cells by means of viability stains should be an absolute routine in practical flow cytometry, so as to avoid mis-estimation in sorting or analysis.

  10. 认知行为治疗中的行为分析%Behavior Analysis of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴任钢

    2003-01-01

    @@ 行为分析(Behavior Analysis)做为一项心理治疗技术,被国外心理治疗师广泛应用,它通常不独立完成对心理问题的干预,而是在认知行为治疗的开始或治疗过程中经常体现到它的存在. 有学者把这一概念又称为行为功能分析(Behavior Functional Analysis).

  11. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  12. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  13. Analysis of nomofobic behaviors of adolescents regarding various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Mertkan Gezgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the developments in technology have made our lives and daily activities easier, it is believed that problematic and excessive use of technology could have some negative effects on people. One of these negative effects is the prevalence of nomophobia, which is considered as a new phobia in recent years. Nomophobia is defined as the fear and anxiety when an individual cannot access his or her mobile/smart phone or cannot have the chance to communicate online and offline via mobile devices. Nomophobic tendencies can change individuals’ daily habits. Negative emotions due to nomophobic tendencies like fear and anxiety especially in young people is thought to affect their school lives and academic achievements. The purpose of this research is to analyze the prevalence of nomophobia among high school students regarding various factors. The Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q, which was used in this study, was developed by Yildirim and Correia (2015, and adapted into Turkish by Yildirim, Sumuer, Adnan and Yildirim (2015. The study group consists of 475 high school students attending six different schools situated in diverse socio-economic areas in Izmir and Edirne in 2015-2016 education year. The study was conducted in survey model and descriptive statistics. T-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques were used at the analysis stage. According to the findings, mean scores obtained from the scale demonstrated that the levels of nomophobic behaviors of high school students were above the average. Besides, female students have higher nomophobia levels compared to male students in terms of gender variable and a significant difference was found in terms of the duration of mobile internet usage. A significant difference could not be found in terms of the variables such as grade, parents’ education levels, and the duration of smartphone usage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that high school students use their

  14. Behavioral Logistics - Analysis of behavioral routines and governance structures in the interorganizational maritime transport chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strong improvements in information and communication systems as well as better transshipment technologies provide the platform for more efficient transport within interorganizational transport chains. Nevertheless these technologies do not automatically optimize systems based on routines and behavioral patterns, established over the last decades. Logisticians - in theory and practice - have to consider the field of behavioral science to describe and analyse transport problems regarding to involved actors' strategic behavior and social embeddedness, too. The objective of this paper is to illustrate behavioral aspects of supposed technical problems in interorganizational transport chains. Therefore, this paper analyses behavioral routines and governance structures in the interorganizational maritime transport chain using a case study, dealing with the generation and circulation of transport information at the earliest point available, so called "estimated time of arrival" (ETA.

  15. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the “quiescent” and “proliferative” niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  16. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: balduino@uva.edu.br [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  17. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Raorane; R.V. Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply...

  18. “Decoding” Angiogenesis: New Facets Controlling Endothelial Cell Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewduth, Raj; Santoro, Massimo M.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a unique and crucial biological process occurring during both development and adulthood. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulates such process is mandatory to intervene in pathophysiological conditions. Here we highlight some recent argument on new players that are critical in endothelial cells, by summarizing novel discoveries that regulate notorious vascular pathways such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Notch and Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), and by discussing more recent findings that put metabolism, redox signaling and hemodynamic forces as novel unforeseen facets in angiogenesis. These new aspects, that critically regulate angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis in health and diseased, represent unforeseen new ground to develop anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:27493632

  19. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  20. Dynamic electrical behavior of halide perovskite based solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nemnes, George Alexandru; Besleaga, Cristina; Tomulescu, Andrei Gabriel; Pintilie, Ioana; Pintilie, Lucian; Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic electrical model is introduced to investigate the hysteretic effects in the I-V characteristics of perovskite based solar cells. By making a simple ansatz for the polarization relaxation, our model is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively detailed features of measured I-V characteristics. Pre-poling effects are discussed, pointing out the differences between initially over- and under-polarized samples. In particular, the presence of the current over-shoot observed in th...

  1. Endovascular trophoblast cell behavior in normal and abnormal pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Yasuhiro

    1995-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important disease during pregnancy and causes significant maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Despite intense research efforts, the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease remain largely unknown. Since placentas from preeclamptic patients are smaller than normal, and cytokine growth factors are suggested to be important in placental growth, the effects of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) on human trophoblast cells were examined. Wh...

  2. The Effects of Consequence Manipulation During Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Potoczak, Kathryn; Carr, James E; Michael, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct analytic methods have been used to identify the function of problem behavior. The antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) method (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) includes the delivery of consequences for problem behavior. The AB method (Carr & Durand, 1985) does not include consequence delivery, instead relying exclusively on antecedent conditions to evoke the behavior. The AB and ABC functional analysis methods were compared in this study with 4 children with ...

  3. Further remarks on the role of cognition in the comparative analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, Edward A.

    1982-01-01

    Recent interest in comparative psychology has stimulated much research and debate concerning cognitive processes in animal behavior. The present paper relates to this general area by treating particular issues in the analysis of comparative cognition: specifically, how cognition is inferred from animal behavior; whether the postulation of intervening cognitive processes furthers our understanding of behavior; and how rival approaches help advance the science of behavior.

  4. A method to investigate radial glia cell behavior using two-photon time-lapse microscopy in an ex vivo model of spinal cord development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M.P. Pakan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS develops from multipotent progenitor cells, which proliferate and differentiate into the various cell types of the brain and spinal cord. Despite the wealth of knowledge from progenitor cell culture studies, there is a significant lack of understanding regarding dynamic progenitor cell behavior over the course of development. This is in part due to shortcomings in the techniques available to study these processes in living tissues as they are occurring. In order to investigate cell behavior under physiologically relevant conditions we established an ex vivo model of the developing rat spinal cord. This method allows us to directly observe specific populations of cells ex vivo in real time and over extended developmental periods as they undergo proliferation, migration and differentiation in the CNS. Previous investigations of progenitor cell behavior have been limited in either spatial or temporal resolution (or both due to the necessity of preserving tissue viability and avoiding phototoxic effects of fluorescent imaging. The method described here overcomes these obstacles. Using two-photon and confocal microscopy and transfected organotypic spinal cord slice cultures we have undertaken detailed imaging of a unique population of neural progenitors, radial glial cells. This method uniquely enables analysis of large populations as well as individual cells; ultimately resulting in a 4D dataset of progenitor cell behavior for up to seven days during embryonic development. This approach can be adapted to study a variety of cell populations at different stages of development using appropriate promoter driven fluorescent protein expression. The ability to control the tissue micro-environment makes this ex vivo method a powerful tool to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating cell behavior during embryonic development.

  5. Temporal modulation of collective cell behavior controls vascular network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur, Esther; Kim, Jiha; Tata, Aleksandra; Comin, Cesar H; Harrington, Kyle I; Costa, Luciano da F; Bentley, Katie; Gu, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular network density determines the amount of oxygen and nutrients delivered to host tissues, but how the vast diversity of densities is generated is unknown. Reiterations of endothelial-tip-cell selection, sprout extension and anastomosis are the basis for vascular network generation, a process governed by the VEGF/Notch feedback loop. Here, we find that temporal regulation of this feedback loop, a previously unexplored dimension, is the key mechanism to determine vascular density. Iterating between computational modeling and in vivo live imaging, we demonstrate that the rate of tip-cell selection determines the length of linear sprout extension at the expense of branching, dictating network density. We provide the first example of a host tissue-derived signal (Semaphorin3E-Plexin-D1) that accelerates tip cell selection rate, yielding a dense network. We propose that temporal regulation of this critical, iterative aspect of network formation could be a general mechanism, and additional temporal regulators may exist to sculpt vascular topology.

  6. Micro and nanoplatforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper some of the technological platforms developed in our group for biological cell analysis will be highlighted. The paper first presents a short introduction pinpointing the advantages of using micro and nano technology in cellular studies. The issues of requiring transient analysis...... studies mimicking the in vivo situation is presented and an example of surface modification for cellular growth is described. Then novel electronic sensor platforms are discussed and an example of a nanosensor with electronic readout is given utilizing both micro- and nanotechnology. Finally an example...

  7. Stiffness and Adhesivity Control Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Behavior within Hyaluronic Acid Based Hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kapetanovic, Edi; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive and biodegradable hydrogels that mimic the extracellular matrix and regulate valve interstitial cells (VIC) behavior are of great interest as three dimensional (3D) model systems for understanding mechanisms of valvular heart disease pathogenesis in vitro and the basis for regenerative templates for tissue engineering. However, the role of stiffness and adhesivity of hydrogels in VIC behavior remains poorly understood. This study reports synthesis of oxidized and methacrylated hyalu...

  8. Breast cancer cell behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices derived from tumor cells at various malignant stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshiba, Takashi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaru, E-mail: tanaka@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Models mimicking ECM in tumor with different malignancy were prepared. •Cancer cell proliferation was suppressed on benign tumor ECM. •Benign tumor cell proliferation was suppressed on cancerous ECM. •Chemoresistance of cancer cell was enhanced on cancerous ECM. -- Abstract: Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been focused to understand tumor progression in addition to the genetic mutation of cancer cells. Here, we prepared “staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices” which mimic in vivo ECM in tumor tissue at each malignant stage to understand the roles of ECM in tumor progression. Breast tumor cells, MDA-MB-231 (invasive), MCF-7 (non-invasive), and MCF-10A (benign) cells, were cultured to form their own ECM beneath the cells and formed ECM was prepared as staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices by decellularization treatment. Cells showed weak attachment on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The proliferations of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 was promoted on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells whereas MCF-10A cell proliferation was not promoted. MCF-10A cell proliferation was promoted on the matrices derived from MCF-10A cells. Chemoresistance of MDA-MB-231 cells against 5-fluorouracil increased on only matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that the cells showed different behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices according to the malignancy of cell sources for ECM preparation. Therefore, staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices might be a useful in vitro ECM models to investigate the roles of ECM in tumor progression.

  9. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  10. A multi-step standard-cell placement algorithm of optimizing timing and congestion behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文婷; 洪先龙; 吴为民; 蔡懿慈

    2002-01-01

    The timing behavior and congestion behavior are two important goals in the performance-driven standard-cell placement. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between the timing and congestion behavior. We bring up a multi-step placement algorithm to reach the two goals. First, the timing-driven placement algorithm is used to find the global optimal solution. In the second step, the algorithm tries to decrease the maximum congestion while not deteriorating the timing behavior. We have implemented our algorithm and tested it with real circuits. The results show that the maximum delay can decrease by 30% in our timing-driven placement and in the second step the maximum congestion will decrease by 10% while the timing behavior is unchanged.

  11. Modeling Motivational Deficits in Mouse Models of Schizophrenia: Behavior Analysis as a Guide for Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan D Ward; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Balsam, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years it has become possible to develop animal models of psychiatric disease in genetically modified mice. While great strides have been made in the development of genetic and neurobiological tools with which to model psychiatric disease, elucidation of neural and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie behavioral phenotypes has been hindered by an inadequate analysis of behavior. This is unfortunate given the fact that the experimental analysis of behavior has created powerful met...

  12. Parental Behaviors and Adolescent Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.

    1996-01-01

    Used 4 waves of data on 347 seventh graders and their parents to examine relation of parental involvement and hostility to academic performance. Parental behavior affected later academic performance, when controlling for earlier performance. Setting and positively reinforcing appropriate behavioral standards increased academic performance, whereas…

  13. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  14. A Pavlovian Analysis of Goal-Directed Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes associative structures underlying goal-directed behavior using well-developed techniques for studying Pavlovian conditioning. Identifies the roles of the stimulus, response, and reinforcer in instrumental learning. A response and its reinforcer must be associated for acquisition and maintenance of instrumental behavior. (Author/LHW)

  15. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.

  16. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  17. A Theoretical Analysis of Cooperative Behavior in Multi-Agent Q-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA number of experimental studies have investigated whether cooperative behavior may emerge in multi-agent Q-learning. In some studies cooperative behavior did emerge, in others it did not. This report provides a theoretical analysis of this issue. The analysis focuses on multi-agent Q-le

  18. Clustering analysis of malware behavior using Self Organizing Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    For the time being, malware behavioral classification is performed by means of Anti-Virus (AV) generated labels. The paper investigates the inconsistencies associated with current practices by evaluating the identified differences between current vendors. In this paper we rely on Self Organizing ...... accurate results based on the clusters created by competitive and cooperative algorithms like Self Organizing Map that better describe the behavioral profile of malware.......For the time being, malware behavioral classification is performed by means of Anti-Virus (AV) generated labels. The paper investigates the inconsistencies associated with current practices by evaluating the identified differences between current vendors. In this paper we rely on Self Organizing...... Map, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, for generating clusters that capture the similarities between malware behavior. A data set of approximately 270,000 samples was used to generate the behavioral profile of malicious types in order to compare the outcome of the proposed clustering...

  19. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  20. Effects of Telomerase and Telomere Length on Epidermal Stem Cell Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ignacio; Cayuela, María L.; Blasco, María A.

    2005-08-01

    A key process in organ homeostasis is the mobilization of stem cells out of their niches. We show through analysis of mouse models that telomere length, as well as the catalytic component of telomerase, Tert, are critical determinants in the mobilization of epidermal stem cells. Telomere shortening inhibited mobilization of stem cells out of their niche, impaired hair growth, and resulted in suppression of stem cell proliferative capacity in vitro. In contrast, Tert overexpression in the absence of changes in telomere length promoted stem cell mobilization, hair growth, and stem cell proliferation in vitro. The effects of telomeres and telomerase on stem cell biology anticipate their role in cancer and aging.

  1. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: hjokano@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  2. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. ► ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. ► ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. ► ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  3. A systems analysis of psychobiology and behavior therapy. Implications for behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G E

    1981-01-01

    This article examines some basic principles of systems theory and applies them to the integration of psychobiology and behavior therapy in the evolution of behavioral medicine. Using the concepts of whole/part relationships, level and emergent property, and self-regulation and disregulation, it is proposed that all behavioral therapies involve psychobiological processes, and therefore, indirectly impinge on physical health. It is argued that the distinction between behavior and biology is one of level, and, therefore, behavioral therapies are ultimately biobehavioral therapies having biobehavioral consequences. It is proposed that contrary to traditional reductionistic logic, modern advances in biology are providing strong justification for the importance of including psychological methods in treating diseases manifested at the biological level. Various clinical examples are used to demonstrate how systems theory can be applied to differential diagnosis and treatment, computing cost/benefit ratios of different treatments, and conducting comprehensive clinical research and evaluation. Assessing the interaction of biological, psychological, and social treatment modalities becomes the hallmark of responsible patient care. Implications of the systems conception of behavioral medicine for collaboration among health care providers, the training of future clinicians in different disciplines, and policy decisions regarding the larger social consequences of health care are considered.

  4. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sub-Micron Traps for Single-Cell Analysis of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Kohlheyer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics has become an essential tool in single-cell analysis assays for gaining more accurate insights into cell behavior. Various microfluidics methods have been introduced facilitating single-cell analysis of a broad range of cell types. However, the study of prokaryotic cells such as Escherichia coli and others still faces the challenge of achieving proper single-cell immobilization simply due to their small size and often fast growth rates. Recently, new approaches were presented to investigate bacteria growing in monolayers and single-cell tracks under environmental control. This allows for high-resolution time-lapse observation of cell proliferation, cell morphology and fluorescence-coupled bioreporters. Inside microcolonies, interactions between nearby cells are likely and may cause interference during perturbation studies. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device containing hundred sub-micron sized trapping barrier structures for single E. coli cells. Descendant cells are rapidly washed away as well as components secreted by growing cells. Experiments show excellent growth rates, indicating high cell viability. Analyses of elongation and growth rates as well as morphology were successfully performed. This device will find application in prokaryotic single-cell studies under constant environment where by-product interference is undesired.

  5. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  6. DNA conformational behavior and compaction in biomimetic systems: Toward better understanding of DNA packaging in cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Anatoly

    2016-06-01

    In a living cell, long genomic DNA is strongly compacted and exists in the environment characterized by a dense macromolecular crowding, high concentrations of mono- and divalent cations, and confinement of ca. 10μm size surrounded by a phospholipid membrane. Experimental modelling of such complex biological system is challenging but important to understand spatiotemporal dynamics and functions of the DNA in cell. The accumulated knowledge about DNA condensation/compaction in conditions resembling those in the real cell can be eventually used to design and construct partly functional "artificial cells" having potential applications in drug delivery systems, gene therapy, and production of synthetic cells. In this review, I would like to overview the past progress in our understanding of the DNA conformational behavior and, in particular, DNA condensation/compaction phenomenon and its relation to the DNA biological activity. This understanding was gained by designing relevant experimental models mimicking DNA behavior in the environment of living cell. Starting with a brief summary of classic experimental systems to study DNA condensation/compaction, in later parts, I highlight recent experimental methodologies to address the effects of macromolecular crowding and nanoscale and microscale confinements on DNA conformation dynamics. All the studies are discussed in the light of their relevance to DNA behavior in living cells, and future prospects of the field are outlined. PMID:26976700

  7. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifoori, Sajjad, E-mail: sajjad.seifoori@vru.ac.ir

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation.

  8. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation

  9. One size does not fit all: developing a cell-specific niche for in vitro study of cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Milos; Block, Travis J; Rakian, Rubie; Li, Qihong; Wang, Exing; Reilly, Matthew A; Dean, David D; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    For more than 100years, cells and tissues have been studied in vitro using glass and plastic surfaces. Over the last 10-20years, a great body of research has shown that cells are acutely sensitive to their local environment (extracellular matrix, ECM) which contains both chemical and physical cues that influence cell behavior. These observations suggest that modern cell culture systems, using tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces, may fail to reproduce authentic cell behavior in vitro, resulting in "artificial outcomes." In the current study, we use bone marrow (BM)- and adipose (AD)-derived stromal cells to prepare BM-ECM and AD-ECM, which are decellularized after synthesis by the cells, to mimic the cellular niche for each of these tissues. Each ECM was characterized for its ability to affect BM- and AD-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation, as well as proliferation of three cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231), modulate cell spreading, and direct differentiation relative to standard TCP surfaces. We found that both ECMs promoted the proliferation of MSCs, but that this effect was enhanced when the tissue-origin of the cells matched that of the ECM (i.e. BM-ECM promoted the proliferation of BM-MSCs over AD-MSCs, and vice versa). Moreover, BM- and AD-ECM were shown to preferentially direct MSC differentiation towards either osteogenic or adipogenic lineage, respectively, suggesting that the effects of the ECM were tissue-specific. Further, each ECM influenced cell morphology (i.e. circularity), irrespective of the origin of the MSCs, lending more support to the idea that effects were tissue specific. Interestingly, unlike MSCs, these ECMs did not promote the proliferation of the cancer cells. In an effort to further understand how these three culture substrates influence cell behavior, we evaluated the chemical (protein composition) and physical properties (architecture and mechanical) of the two ECMs. While many structural proteins (e

  10. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  11. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR

  12. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2016-02-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared with those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of 2 rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. PMID:26479279

  13. PEM Fuel Cells from Single Cell to Stack - Fundamental, Modeling, Analysis, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Part III: Analysis Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell analysis. Chapter 8: PEM fuel cell stack desig...

  14. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Raorane, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improve conventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trusted customers using sales data in a super market industry

  15. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  16. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES: A SOURCE FOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Raorane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Datamining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, thedata mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages.Therefore, it is important to selectappropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, hispsychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improveconventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trustedcustomers using sales data in a super market industry

  17. An analysis of valve train behavior considering stiffness effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maintain the specific volumetric efficiency of a heavy-duty diesel engine, an understanding of the behavior of each part of the valve train system is very important. The stiffness of the valve train system has a strong influence on the behavior of the valve train than value clearance, heat-resistance, or the durability of parts. In this study, a geometrical cam design profile using a finite element model of the valve train system is suggested. The results of the valve behavior according to the change in stiffness is analyzed for further tuning of the valve train system

  18. Effects of laminin glycopeptides on metastasis—related behaviors of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGXINNONG; ROULIZHOU; 等

    1998-01-01

    Our previous reports have shown that lamininglycopeptides (LN-GPs),the total glycopeptides prepared from laminin (LN),can prevent the experimental lung metastasis and liver metastasis of mouse cancer cells.In order to explore the anti-metastatic mechanism of LN-GPs,we studied the effects of LN-GPs on metastasisrelated behaviors of cancer cells in vitro.LN-GPs did not affect cell survival.However,LN-GPs inhibited cell attachment and spreading of S180 cells on LN-and Matrigelsubstrate in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners.Moreover,inhibition of cell attachment and spreading on Matrigel substrates were much greater on Matrigel substrate than on LN substrate.In the gresence of LN-GPs,S180 cells on LN substrate changed from a flattened polygonal shape to a round one,the migration of S180 cells on LN substrate decreased,and the number of a highly invasive human pulmonary giant carcinoma PG cells invading Matrigel filter in a Boyden chamber was reduced.LN-GPs thus have multiple inhibitory effects on cancer metastasisrelated behaviors.

  19. A simple model of hysteresis behavior using spreadsheet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hysteresis loops occur in many scientific and technical problems, especially as field dependent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, but also as stress-strain-curves of materials measured by tensile tests including thermal effects, liquid-solid phase transitions, in cell biology or economics. While several mathematical models exist which aim to calculate hysteresis energies and other parameters, here we offer a simple model for a general hysteretic system, showing different hysteresis loops depending on the defined parameters. The calculation which is based on basic spreadsheet analysis plus an easy macro code can be used by students to understand how these systems work and how the parameters influence the reactions of the system on an external field. Importantly, in the step-by-step mode, each change of the system state, compared to the last step, becomes visible. The simple program can be developed further by several changes and additions, enabling the building of a tool which is capable of answering real physical questions in the broad field of magnetism as well as in other scientific areas, in which similar hysteresis loops occur

  20. Sonic hedgehog controls stem cell behavior in the postnatal and adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Veronica; Lim, D A; Dahmane, Nadia; Sanchez, Pilar; Brionne, T. C.; Herzberg, C. D.; Gitton, Yorick; Carleton, Alan; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Ruiz Altaba, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling controls many aspects of ontogeny, orchestrating congruent growth and patterning. During brain development, Shh regulates early ventral patterning while later on it is critical for the regulation of precursor proliferation in the dorsal brain, namely in the neocortex, tectum and cerebellum. We have recently shown that Shh also controls the behavior of cells with stem cell properties in the mouse embryonic neocortex, and additional studies have implicated it in t...

  1. Evidence that behavioral depression does not influence airway cell influx in allergic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos A. Varriano; Varriano, Ana A.; Fernanda Datti; Marcelo Datti; Edson Antunes; Nancy A. Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    This study was designated to evaluate the influence of behavioral depression on the airway leukocyte recruitment in allergic animals. To achieve this, total and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and depressed rats was evaluated. Inescapable electric footshock, applied on day 0, 7 and 13 after OVA sensitization, was used as a model to induce depression. In both non-depressed and depressed groups, the number of total and differential cells (eo...

  2. Structural analysis of behavioral networks from the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the Internet's phenomenal growth and social impact, many aspects of the collective communication behavior of its users are largely unknown. Understanding the structure and dynamics of the behavioral networks that connect users with each other and with services across the Internet is key to modeling the network and designing future applications. We present a characterization of the properties of the behavioral networks generated by several million users of the Abilene (Internet2) network. Structural features of these networks offer new insights into scaling properties of network activity and ways of distinguishing particular patterns of traffic. For example, we find that the structure of the behavioral network associated with Web activity is characterized by such extreme heterogeneity as to challenge any simple attempt to model Web server traffic

  3. Gamification: The Intersection between Behavior Analysis and Game Design Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Zachary H; Witts, Benjamin N; Killingsworth, Kenneth J; Alavosius, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Deterding et al. (Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, USA 15: 9-15, 2011) report a recent rise in popularity of video game inspired software designed to address issues in a variety of areas, including health, energy conservation, education, and business. These applications have been based on the concept of gamification, which involves a process by which nongame activities are designed to be more like a game. We provide examples of how gamification has been used to increase health-related behavior, energy consumption, academic performance, and other socially-significant behavior. We argue that behavior analytic research and practice stands to benefit from incorporating successful elements of game design. Lastly, we provide suggestions for behavior analysts regarding applied and basic research related to gamification. PMID:27274957

  4. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  5. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Kalašová; Zuzana Krchová

    2011-01-01

    With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road...

  6. Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, M. Jackson

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences—physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the ...

  7. Environmental analysis of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, P.

    Nowadays, for a new technology to be succesfully introduced, it should compete not only in terms of economy, but also in terms of ecology. Therefore, end-of-pipe treatments are no longer sufficient, but precautionary environmental protection is also necessary. The aim of the present work is an environmental analysis of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology using the 'Environmental Precaution Study'. Constituent materials, energy and emission flows are determined and evaluated throughout the entire life cycle. Cradle to grave considerations embrace the production of raw materials and technical equipment, respectively, operation and dismantling. A reference SOFC cell of the planar cell type, based on the current fuel cell programme of the Research Centre Jülich, has been compared with a conventional technology in the form of a 10 MW gas turbine. The latter has been chosen as the competitive conventional technology, because the power output is similar to the expected SOFC power output and the use of the same fuel, natural gas, facilitates the comparison.

  8. Cytometry-based single-cell analysis of intact epithelial signaling reveals MAPK activation divergent from TNF-α-induced apoptosis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Alan J; Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; Scurrah, Cherie' R; Herring, Charles A; Gewin, Leslie S; Masuzaki, Ryota; Karp, Seth J.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Gerdes, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan M.; Coffey, Robert J.; Lau, Ken S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding heterogeneous cellular behaviors in a complex tissue requires the evaluation of signaling networks at single-cell resolution. However, probing signaling in epithelial tissues using cytometry-based single-cell analysis has been confounded by the necessity of single-cell dissociation, where disrupting cell-to-cell connections inherently perturbs native cell signaling states. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy (Disaggregation for Intracellular Signaling in Single Epithelial Cell...

  9. Memristive behavior in a junctionless flash memory cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orak, Ikram [Vocational School of Health Services, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Ürel, Mustafa; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bakan, Gokhan [Faculty of Engineering, Antalya International University, 07190 Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-06-08

    We report charge storage based memristive operation of a junctionless thin film flash memory cell when it is operated as a two terminal device by grounding the gate. Unlike memristors based on nanoionics, the presented device mode, which we refer to as the flashristor mode, potentially allows greater control over the memristive properties, allowing rational design. The mode is demonstrated using a depletion type n-channel ZnO transistor grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with HfO{sub 2} as the tunnel dielectric, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the control dielectric, and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride as the charge storage layer. The device exhibits the pinched hysteresis of a memristor and in the unoptimized device, R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios of about 3 are presented with low operating voltages below 5 V. A simplified model predicts R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios can be improved significantly by adjusting the native threshold voltage of the devices. The repeatability of the resistive switching is excellent and devices exhibit 10{sup 6 }s retention time, which can, in principle, be improved by engineering the gate stack and storage layer properties. The flashristor mode can find use in analog information processing applications, such as neuromorphic computing, where well-behaving and highly repeatable memristive properties are desirable.

  10. Molecular-Level Tuning of Cellular Autonomy Controls the Collective Behaviors of Cell Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Théo; Youk, Hyun

    2015-11-25

    A rigorous understanding of how multicellular behaviors arise from the actions of single cells requires quantitative frameworks that bridge the gap between genetic circuits, the arrangement of cells in space, and population-level behaviors. Here, we provide such a framework for a ubiquitous class of multicellular systems-namely, "secrete-and-sense cells" that communicate by secreting and sensing a signaling molecule. By using formal, mathematical arguments and introducing the concept of a phenotype diagram, we show how these cells tune their degrees of autonomous and collective behavior to realize distinct single-cell and population-level phenotypes; these phenomena have biological analogs, such as quorum sensing or paracrine signaling. We also define the "entropy of population," a measurement of the number of arrangements that a population of cells can assume, and demonstrate how a decrease in the entropy of population accompanies the formation of ordered spatial patterns. Our conceptual framework ties together diverse systems, including tissues and microbes, with common principles. PMID:27136241

  11. Usage of a Responsible Gambling Tool: A Descriptive Analysis and Latent Class Analysis of User Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsström, David; Hesser, Hugo; Carlbring, Per

    2016-09-01

    Gambling is a common pastime around the world. Most gamblers can engage in gambling activities without negative consequences, but some run the risk of developing an excessive gambling pattern. Excessive gambling has severe negative economic and psychological consequences, which makes the development of responsible gambling strategies vital to protecting individuals from these risks. One such strategy is responsible gambling (RG) tools. These tools track an individual's gambling history and supplies personalized feedback and might be one way to decrease excessive gambling behavior. However, research is lacking in this area and little is known about the usage of these tools. The aim of this article is to describe user behavior and to investigate if there are different subclasses of users by conducting a latent class analysis. The user behaviour of 9528 online gamblers who voluntarily used a RG tool was analysed. Number of visits to the site, self-tests made, and advice used were the observed variables included in the latent class analysis. Descriptive statistics show that overall the functions of the tool had a high initial usage and a low repeated usage. Latent class analysis yielded five distinct classes of users: self-testers, multi-function users, advice users, site visitors, and non-users. Multinomial regression revealed that classes were associated with different risk levels of excessive gambling. The self-testers and multi-function users used the tool to a higher extent and were found to have a greater risk of excessive gambling than the other classes.

  12. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  13. Behavioral pattern analysis and dopamine release in quinpirole-induced repetitive behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ria; Nijdam, Annelies; Westra, Tjalke A; Kas, Martien J H; Westenberg, Herman G M

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. People with OCD suffer from intrusive, unwanted and recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). The aim of this study is to quantify the d

  14. Verbal Behavior Analysis: A Program of Research in the Induction and Expansion of Complex Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R. Douglas; Ross, Denise E.

    2004-01-01

    Both applied and conceptual experiments based on Skinner's theory of verbal behavior have led to significant benefits for: (a) persons with language disorders and delays, (b) students who need to bridge the achievement gap, (c) professionals who work with students, and (d) individuals who wish to design functional curricula and pedagogy to meet…

  15. A computer-assisted 3D model for analyzing the aggregation of tumorigenic cells reveals specialized behaviors and unique cell types that facilitate aggregate coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Scherer

    Full Text Available We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity, and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named "facilitators" and "probes." A third cell type, the "dervish", is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs.

  16. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  17. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds.

  18. Analysis of silt behavior induced by water waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Mian

    2001-01-01

    Karman, Th., Zur theorie der spanungszustnde in plastischen und sandartigen medion, Nachr. Gesellsch. Wissensch., Gttingen, 1909.[17]Szczepinski, W., Introduction to the Mechanics of Plastic Forming of Metals, Netherlands: Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979.[18]Chen, W. F., Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity, New York: Elsevier, 1975.[19]Yu, M. H., He, L. N., A new model and theory on yield and failure of materials under complex stress state, Mechanical Behaviors of Materials~6, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991, 3: 841—846.[20]Yu, M. H., New System of Strength Theory (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong Universitry Press, 1992.[21]Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Song, L. Y., Twin shear stress theory and its generalization, Scientia Sinica (Science in China), Series A, 1985, 28(11): 1174—1183.[22]Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y. et al., Unified elasto-plastic associated and non-associated constitutive model and its engineering applications, Computers and Structures, 1999, 71: 627—636.[23]Ma, G. W., Shoji, I., Plastic limit analysis of circular plates with respect to unified yield criterion, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1998, 40(10): 963.[24]Ma, G. W., Hao, H., Unified plastic limit analyses of circular plates under arbitrary load, Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, 1999, 66(2): 568.[25]Qiang, H. F., Lu, N., Liu, B. J., Unified solutions of crack tip plastic zone under small scale yielding, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 35(1): 34—38.[26]Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., Constitutive descriptions of multiphase poropus media, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(1):11—24.[27]Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., An elasto-plastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated geomaterials, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(2): 198—206.[28]Cheng, H. X., Li, J. J., Zhang, G. S. et al., Finite element analysis program system HAJIF(X), Chinese Journal of

  19. Effects of transforming growth interacting factor on biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Liang Hu; Ji-Fang Wen; De-Sheng Xiao; Hui Zhen; Chun-Yan Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM:Transforming growth interacting factor (TGIF) is an inhibitor of both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, the activation of MAPK pathway can prolong its half-life. However, its role in carcinogenesis is still unknown. Thus we attempted to investigate the effect of TGIF on biologic behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells.METHODS: Gastric carcinoma cell line, SGC-7901, was stably transfected with plasmid PcDNA3.1-TGIF. Western blotting and cell immunohistochemistry screening for the highly expressing clone of TGIF were employed. The growth of transfected cells was investigated by MTT and colonyformation assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy.Tumorigenicity of the transfectant cells was also analyzed.RESULTS: TGIF had no effect on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, but cellular organelles of cells transfected with TGIF were richer than those of vector control or parental cells. Its clones were smaller than the control ones in plate efficiency, and its tumor tissues also had no obvious necrosis compared with the vector control or parental cells. Moreover, TGIF could resist TGF-β mediated growth inhibition.CONCLUSION: TGIF may induce differentiation of stomach neoplastic cells. In addition, TGIF can counteract the growth inhibition induced by TGF-β.

  20. Analysis of network clustering behavior of the Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Mai, Yong; Li, Sai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and the decomposition of correlation matrix method are employed to analyze spatial structure of stocks interactions and collective behavior in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets in China. The result shows that there exists prominent sector structures, with subsectors including the Real Estate (RE), Commercial Banks (CB), Pharmaceuticals (PH), Distillers&Vintners (DV) and Steel (ST) industries. Furthermore, the RE and CB subsectors are mostly anti-correlated. We further study the temporal behavior of the dataset and find that while the sector structures are relatively stable from 2007 through 2013, the correlation between the real estate and commercial bank stocks shows large variations. By employing the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method, we show that this anti-correlation behavior is closely related to the monetary and austerity policies of the Chinese government during the period of study.

  1. BUYING BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN A SIMULATED EXPERIMENTAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Echeverry Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the consumption scenario(Foxall, 2007 and the level of informational reinforcement (Foxall, 2005 on theprobability of buying behavior. The study involved 56 people between 18 to 20years of age selected through intentional sampling. We designed a web applicationthat emulated conditions of purchase in a virtual store. Functional analysiswas performed using a logit model of LR (logistic regression to calculate individualand group effects of independient variables. Results indicate that there aresignificant differences in predictions performed with bivariate and multivariatelogit models of the effects of consumption scenario and informational reinforcementon the probability of buying behavior. These effects can be interpreted in thecontext of an operant perspective of symbolic behavior.

  2. Modeling of Magnetite Nanoparticles Behavior under Conditions of Microcirculation and Analysis of In Vivo Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, D A; Rudakovskaya, P G; Maltseva, D V; Trushkin, E V; Tonevitskaya, S A

    2016-05-01

    The behavior of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in the cell chip microcapillaries. No aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles under conditions of long-term circulation was noted. Biodistribution and toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles (14 nm) and aminated magnetite after their intragastric administration to mice were studied in vivo. According to mass spectrometry and microscopy data, accumulation of nanoparticles occurred mainly in the liver cells.

  3. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  4. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  5. Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green: Photochemical Behavior in Solution and in a Mammalian Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Blaikie, Frances Helen;

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and selective luminescent probes for reactive oxygen species, particularly for singlet molecular oxygen, is currently of great importance. In this study, the photochemical behavior of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® (SOSG), a commercially available fluorescent probe...... for singlet oxygen, was examined. Despite published claims to the contrary, the data presented herein indicate that SOSG can, in fact, be incorporated into a living mammalian cell. However, for a number of reasons, caution must be exercised when using SOSG. First, it is shown that the immediate product...... of the reaction between SOSG and singlet oxygen is, itself, an efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizer. Second, SOSG appears to efficiently bind to proteins which, in turn, can influence uptake by a cell as well as behavior in the cell. As such, incorrect use of SOSG can yield misleading data on yields...

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Inflammatory Regulators of Cell Behaviors in Vascular Formation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling contribute to pathogenesis of a number of disorders such as tumor, arthritis, atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, and neurodegeneration. During angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, behaviors of stem/progenitor cells, endothelial cells (ECs, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and its interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM play a critical role in the processes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, well-known inflammatory mediators are a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that degrade various components of ECM and non-ECM molecules mediating tissue remodeling in both physiological and pathological processes. MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MT1-MMP, are stimulated and activated by various stimuli in vascular tissues. Once activated, MMPs degrade ECM proteins or other related signal molecules to promote recruitment of stem/progenitor cells and facilitate migration and invasion of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis can also be regulated by MMPs via proteolytically cleaving and modulating bioactive molecules and relevant signaling pathways. Regarding the importance of vascular cells in abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, regulation of vascular cell behaviors through modulating expression and activation of MMPs shows therapeutic potential.

  7. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  8. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell depletion modulates anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Stress has been shown to suppress immune function and increase susceptibility to inflammatory disease and psychiatric disease. CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T (Treg cells are prominent in immune regulation. This study was conducted to determine if anti-CD25 antibody (Ab mediated depletion of Treg cells in mice susceptibility to stress-induced development of depression-like behaviors, as well as immunological and neurochemical activity. To accomplish this, an elevated plus-maze test (EPM, tail suspension test (TST, and forced swim test (FST were used to examine depression-like behaviors upon chronic immobilization stress. Immune imbalance status was observed based on analysis of serum cytokines using a mouse cytometric bead array in conjunction with flow cytometry and changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT and dopamine (DA in the brain were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The time spent in the open arms of the EPM decreased significantly and the immobility time in the FST increased significantly in the anti-CD25 Ab-treated group when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. In addition, interlukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-á (TNF-á, interlukin-2 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interlukin-4 (IL-4 and interlukin-17A (IL-17A concentrations were significantly upregulated in the stressed anti-CD25 Ab-treated group when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. Furthermore, the non stressed anti-CD25 Ab-treated group displayed decreased 5-HT levels within the hippocampus when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. These results suggest that CD4(+CD25(+ Treg cell depletion modulated alterations in depressive behavior, cytokine and monoaminergic activity. Therefore, controlling CD4(+CD25(+ Treg cell function during stress may be a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of depression-like symptoms.

  9. A brief functional analysis of aggressive and alternative behavior in an outclinic setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Northup, J; Wacker, D; Sasso, G; Steege, M; Cigrand, K; Cook, J; DeRaad, A

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a brief functional analysis to identify maintaining variable for aggressive behavior and an alternative replacement response during a 90-min outpatient evaluation of 3 individuals with severe handicaps. During the initial analogue assessment, which focused on identifying maintaining contingencies for aggressive behavior, each participant displayed a substantially greater frequency of aggressive behavior during one condition than during any other. The contingency that produced the...

  10. Designing stable finite state machine behaviors using phase plane analysis and variable structure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.

    1998-03-10

    This paper discusses how phase plane analysis can be used to describe the overall behavior of single and multiple autonomous robotic vehicles with finite state machine rules. The importance of this result is that one can begin to design provably asymptotically stable group behaviors from a set of simple control laws and appropriate switching points with decentralized variable structure control. The ability to prove asymptotically stable group behavior is especially important for applications such as locating military targets or land mines.

  11. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...

  12. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  13. Behavioral Public Economics: Welfare and Policy Analysis with Non-Standard Decision-Makers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Antonio Rangel

    2005-01-01

    This paper has two goals. First, we discuss several emerging approaches to applied welfare analysis under non-standard (“behavioral”) assumptions concerning consumer choice. This provides a foundation for Behavioral Public Economics. Second, we illustrate applications of these approaches by surveying behavioral studies of policy problems involving saving, addiction, and public goods. We argue that the literature on behavioral public economics, though in its infancy, has already fundamentally ...

  14. Classroom-BasedFunctional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wright-Gallo, G. L.; Higbee, Thomas S; Reagon, K. A.; Davey, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task demands and access to attention. Based on this information, we implemented a DRA procedure in which participants could request either escape or atte...

  15. Mining human Behaviors: automated behavioral Analysis from small to big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    This research thesis aims to address complex problems in Human Behavior Understanding from a computational standpoint: to develop novel methods for enabling machines to capture not only what their sensors are perceiving but also how and why the situation they are presented with is evolving in a certain manner. Touching several fields, from Computer Vision to Social Psychology through Natural Language Processing and Data Mining, we will move from more to less constrained scenarios, descr...

  16. Microstructure analysis and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca implant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Evaluation of corrosion mechanism and solidification behavior of Mg-xCa. → Microstructure of Mg-xCa alloys were characterized by XRD, OM, SEM and EDS. → Thermal analysis of alloys was carried out by computer aided cooling curve analysis. → The addition of Ca content increase Mg2Ca lead to increasing corrosion rate. -- Abstract: The calcium content in binary Mg-xCa alloys affects the microstructure, corrosion and solidification behavior of the alloys. In this study, binary Mg-xCa alloys with various Ca contents from 0.5 to 10 wt.% were produced by casting process. Microstructural evolutions were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Solidification behavior was assessed via two thermocouple thermal analysis method. The corrosion resistance was examined in vitro by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion test in Kokubo solution at room temperature. The results revealed that the grain size and dendrite cell size decreased significantly with rising Ca content, whilst the content of Mg2Ca intermetallic phase in grain boundaries increased with increasing Ca content. Potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that corrosion rates of Mg-xCa alloy increased significantly with rising Ca content. Immersion tests in Kokubo solution also showed that dissolution rate of Mg-xCa alloy increased with increasing Mg2Ca content which lead to an increase in pH value. It was observed that corrosion damage in specimens with lower Ca content was more moderate and uniform than higher Ca content. Thermal analysis results showed that the fraction of primary α-Mg at dendrite coherency point (fαDCP) decreased with increasing Ca content but the liquid fraction fL increased causing the rise in eutectic Mg2Ca intermetallic phase in grain boundaries, thus increasing the corrosion rate. Our analyses showed that Mg-0.5Ca alloy is a promising alloy to be

  17. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  18. Formal modeling and analysis of cognitive agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, Alexei; Treur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    From an external perspective, cognitive agent behavior can be described by specifying (temporal) correlations of a certain complexity between stimuli (input states) and (re)actions (output states) of the agent. From an internal perspective the agent’s dynamics can be characterized by direct (causa

  19. Multimodal Surveillance: Behavior analysis for recognizing stress and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, camera systems are installed in military areas as well as in public spaces like schools, shopping malls, airports, and football stadiums. Human operators are monitoring the screens, looking for any signs of unwanted behavior and negative incidents. The task requires working personnel 24/7.

  20. Strikes, Arbitration, and Teacher Salaries: A Behavioral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, John Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Using a behavioral theory of bargaining, the authors examined data sets from Illinois and Iowa school districts and from a national sample of teachers. Results suggest that strike use and the availability of arbitration and the right to strike affect teacher salaries, while arbitration use does not. (Author/SK)

  1. Marketing Journal Coauthorships: An Empirical Analysis of Coauthor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher L.; Chan, Kam C.; Lai, Pikki

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to study the bargaining behavior of coauthors in multiauthored marketing papers. The literature argues that the order of author names sends a signal about their relative contribution to the article, and the signal is muted when the names are in alphabetical order. In addition, other things being the same, the…

  2. Job Demands, Productivity, and Type A Behavior: An Observational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmeyer, Sandra L.

    Previous research has shown that Type As appraise their jobs as more demanding than do Type Bs, yet few studies have measured actual job demands. This prospective, observational study of police radio dispatchers (N=72) examined Type A behavior as a predictor of source of work demands, volume of work activity, whether work begun was finished, and…

  3. Strategic Behavior Analysis of Small Business in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bent Hansen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, small businesses have been the target of public and private investment in Brazil due to the appreciation of their economic and social impact. The growth of small businesses in Brazil has stimulated a demand for greater knowledge and a broader understanding of their peculiarities. Hence, this paper aims to propose a framework for analyzing the strategic behavior for small businesses. To test the suitability of this analytical framework, qualitative research was conducted based on descriptive and exploratory case studies involving three small companies in the construction sector in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The results show that: (i based on the proposed analytical structure it was possible to identifythe idiosyncrasies and the conflicts between strategy, structure and processes in such firms; (ii the strategic behavior ofthe firms is not stable, since they demonstrate the ability to change the prevailing strategic behavior based on strategicdecisions that reinforce the strategic typologies studied and; (iii it is possible to identify opportunities to strengthen certainstrategic behavior of firms.

  4. Mitigating Consumptive Behavior: The Analysis of Learning Experiences of Housewives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of consumptive behavior by analyzing learning experiences of housewives as members of Family Welfare Movement (PKK) in Malang, East Java Indonesia. Financial literacy is defined as personal knowledge and capability in financial management. Sample of this study was 123 housewives and…

  5. Analysis of the behavior of institutional investors in the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafii IBENRISSOUL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The international financial systems knew important modifications during these last decades. The business of financial intermediation tips over more and more in the hands of new actors that are institutional investors. The rise of institutional investors is an indubitable fact that underlines very numerous researches. It can be analyzed as a deep modification of the capitalism and as a strengthening of the power of the shareholders whose behavior investor and owner is transformed. It is accompanied by the emergence of new finance professions whose the organization structures the practices of investment. The term of institutional investor includes all the financial intermediaries who collect funds to place either with the companies which wish to invest, or by buying securities on the secondary markets of stock exchanges. Institutional investors include banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies as well as organizations for collective investment in transferable securities. Several studies were interested to examine their behavior in financial markets. A first category of works adduces that institutional investors are real andquot;tradersandquot;. Their main objective is the maximization of the profitability of their short-term investments. Conversely, the second category of works suggests that the proportions of capital more and more important held by institutional investors imply the abandonment of a neutral attitude. Our theoretical investigation of the behavior of these actors has enabled us to highlight several behaviors delegation management, management style and the international diversification of their portfolio.

  6. Organizational Behavior Analysis Focusing on the University of Texas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bobby K.

    2011-01-01

    This project analyzes the organizational behavior of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas System is comprised of nine academic and six health institutions. The University of Texas System has over 85,000 employees; the student enrollment is 202,240 with a budget of $2.25 billion dollars. This project has a total of four parts and…

  7. Thermal behavior of polytriazole films: a thermal analysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, B.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal behavior of poly(1,3-phenyl-1,4-phenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole has been investigated using different scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Processes are studied for this thermally stable polymer that take place between 200 and 500°C. While the polycondensation reaction p

  8. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  9. The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, J. W.; Busch, A. M.; Weeks, C. E.; Landes, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream…

  10. Perturbation analysis on post-buckling behavior of pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear large deflection differential equation, based on the assumption that the subsoil coefficient is the 2nd root of the depth, was established by energy method. The perturbation parameter was introduced to transform the equation to a series of linear differential equations to be solved, and the deflection function according with the boundary condition was considered. Then,the nonlinear higher-order asymptotic solution of post-buckling behavior of a pile was obtained by parameter-substituting. The influencing factors such as bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile, slenderness ratio on the post-buckling behavior of a pile were analyzed. The results show that the pile is more unstable when the bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile increase,and although the buckling load increases with the stiffness of soil, the pile may ruin for its brittleness. Thus, in the region where buckling behavior of pile must be taken into account, the high grade concrete is supposed to be applied, and the dynamic buckling behavior of pile needs to be further studied.

  11. Effects of chitosan/collagen substrates on the behavior of rat neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord and brain injuries usually lead to cavity formation.The transplantation by combining stem cells and tissue engineering scaffolds has the potential to fill the cavities and replace the lost neural cells.Both chitosan and collagen have their unique characteristics.In this study,the effects of chitosan and collagen on the behavior of rat neural stem cells (at the neurosphere level) were tested in vitro in terms of cytotoxicity and supporting ability for stem cell survival,proliferation and differentiation.Under the serum-free condition,both chitosan membranes and collagen gels had low cytotoxicity to neurospheres.That is,cells migrated from neurospheres,and processes extended out from these neurospheres and the differentiated cells.Compared with the above two materials,chitosan-collagen membranes were more suitable for the co-culture with rat neural stem cells,because,except for low cytotoxicity and supporting ability for the cell survival,in this group,a large number of cells were observed to migrate out from neurospheres,and the differentiating percentage from neurospheres into neurons was significantly increased.Further modification of chitosan-collagen membranes may shed light on in vivo nerve regeneration by transplanting neural stem cells.

  12. Training Head Start Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Burke, Mack D.; Hatton, Heather; Ninci, Jennifer; Zaini, Samar; Sanchez, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) is a procedure for experimentally identifying the function of challenging behavior within applied settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a TBFA teacher-training package in the context of two Head Start centers implementing programwide positive behavior support (PWPBS). Four Head…

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  14. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Mulder, Hanna; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive functions (EF) have been found in school-age children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders. Present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether these EF impairments can also be found in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 4021…

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  16. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of College English Teacher ’ s Non-verbal Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes College English teacher’s non-verbal behaviors in multimedia classroom from the perspective of Multimodal Discourse Analysis, aiming to explore how the non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching can be applied in meaning-making process to facilitate teacher-students interaction and realize three metafunctions of language in class.

  17. Degradation behavior of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell using LNF cathode as function of current load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yoshiteru; Watanabe, Kimitaka; Chiba, Reiichi; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Orui, Himeko; Arai, Hajime [NTT Energy and Environment Systems Laboratories, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effect of current loading on the degradation behavior of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cell consisted of LaNi{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LNF), alumina-doped scandia stabilized zirconia (SASZ), and a Ni-SASZ cermet as the cathode, electrolyte, and anode, respectively. The test was carried out at 1073 K with constant loads of 0.3, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.3 A cm{sup -2}. The degradation rate, defined by the voltage loss during a fixed period (about 1000 h), was faster at higher current densities. From an impedance analysis, the degradation depended mainly on increases in the cathodic resistance, while the anodic and ohmic resistances contributed very little. The cathode microstructures were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (author)

  18. Dentinoameloblastoma with ghost cells: A rare case report with emphasis on its biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are regarded as a homogeneous group of neoplasms with locally invasive character. They generally do not show induction of dental hard tissue formation except in few cases. Biological behavior and histogenesis of these tumors is still unexplored as there is lack of relevant studies and long follow-up of these patients. So, we aimed to report this rare case of dentinoameloblastoma with unique presence of ghost cells in middle-aged female involving maxilla with emphasis on its biological behavior. We conclude that although histogenesis of this tumor is not clear but biological potential is similar to conventional ameloblastoma requiring wider excision.

  19. Transcriptional Analysis of T Cells Resident in Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Li; Moshe Olshansky; Carbone, Francis R.; Ma, Joel Z.

    2016-01-01

    Human skin contains various populations of memory T cells in permanent residence and in transit. Arguably, the best characterized of the skin subsets are the CD8(+) permanently resident memory T cells (TRM) expressing the integrin subunit, CD103. In order to investigate the remaining skin T cells, we isolated skin-tropic (CLA(+)) helper T cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8(+) CD103(-) T cells from skin and blood for RNA microarray analysis to compare the transcriptional profiles of these grou...

  20. Transplantation of Deprenyl-Induced Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Positive Cells Improves 6-OHDA-Lesion Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Hosseinpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is longstanding experimental and clinical evidence that supports the idea that replacement of dopaminergic (DAergic neurons can ameliorate functional disabilities of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy of transplantation of rat bone marrow stromal cell (BMSCs-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+ cells induced by deprenyl into 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rat models, using behavioral tests and immunohistochemical evaluations.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, undifferentiated BrdU-labeled BMSCs were incubated in serum-free medium that contained 10-8 M deprenyl for 24 hours. Afterwards, BMSCs were cultured for 48 hours in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS, then differentiated into TH+ neurons. We randomly divided 24 hemiparkinsonian rats as follows: group 1 (control received only medium, while groups 2 and 3 were injected with 2×105 BMSCs and deprenyl-treated cells in 4 μl medium. Injections were made into the injured strata of the rats. Rotational behavior in response to apomorphine was tested before transplantation and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-graft. Animals were then sacrificed, and the brains were extracted for immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies.Results: Apomorphine-induced rotation analysis indicated that animals with grafted cells in groups 2 and 3 exhibited significantly less rotational behavior than those in the control group at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that BrdU-labeled cells expressed specific neuronal markers, such as NF 200 and TH, at the implantation site. The presence of TH+ cells in conjunction with the reduction in rotation might show the capacity of grafted cells to release dopamine. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of immature neurons and astrocyte-like cells at the graft site.Conclusion: TH+ neurons induced by

  1. Gene set enrichment analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed I; Dębski, Konrad J; Dabrowski, Michał; Czarnecka, Anna M; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, genome-wide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool that offers a great opportunity to study and understand the key role of genes that contribute to carcinogenesis. Various microarray platforms and statistical approaches can be used to identify genes that might serve as prognostic biomarkers and be developed as antitumor therapies in the future. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a serious, life-threatening disease, and there are few treatment options for patients. In this study, we performed one-color microarray gene expression (4×44K) analysis of the mRCC cell line Caki-1 and the healthy kidney cell line ASE-5063. A total of 1,921 genes were differentially expressed in the Caki-1 cell line (1,023 upregulated and 898 downregulated). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approaches were used to analyze the differential-expression data. The objective of this research was to identify complex biological changes that occur during metastatic development using Caki-1 as a model mRCC cell line. Our data suggest that there are multiple deregulated pathways associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), including integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, IGF-I signaling, CXCR4 signaling, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. The IPA upstream analysis predicted top transcriptional regulators that are either activated or inhibited, such as estrogen receptors, TP53, KDM5B, SPDEF, and CDKN1A. The GSEA approach was used to further confirm enriched pathway data following IPA. PMID:27279483

  2. Gene set enrichment analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed I; Dębski, Konrad J; Dabrowski, Michał; Czarnecka, Anna M; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, genome-wide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool that offers a great opportunity to study and understand the key role of genes that contribute to carcinogenesis. Various microarray platforms and statistical approaches can be used to identify genes that might serve as prognostic biomarkers and be developed as antitumor therapies in the future. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a serious, life-threatening disease, and there are few treatment options for patients. In this study, we performed one-color microarray gene expression (4×44K) analysis of the mRCC cell line Caki-1 and the healthy kidney cell line ASE-5063. A total of 1,921 genes were differentially expressed in the Caki-1 cell line (1,023 upregulated and 898 downregulated). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approaches were used to analyze the differential-expression data. The objective of this research was to identify complex biological changes that occur during metastatic development using Caki-1 as a model mRCC cell line. Our data suggest that there are multiple deregulated pathways associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), including integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, IGF-I signaling, CXCR4 signaling, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. The IPA upstream analysis predicted top transcriptional regulators that are either activated or inhibited, such as estrogen receptors, TP53, KDM5B, SPDEF, and CDKN1A. The GSEA approach was used to further confirm enriched pathway data following IPA.

  3. Toward a theory of distinct types of "impulsive" behaviors: A meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Markon, Kristian E; Clark, Lee Anna

    2014-03-01

    Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity

  4. A full model for simulation of electrochemical cells including complex behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperilla, J.J.; Felez, J.; Romero, G.; Carretero, A. [ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-25

    This communication presents a model of electrochemical cells developed in order to simulate their electrical, chemical and thermal behavior showing the differences when thermal effects are or not considered in the charge-discharge process. The work presented here has been applied to the particular case of the Pb,PbSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (aq)PbO{sub 2},Pb cell, which forms the basis of the lead-acid batteries so widely used in the automotive industry and as traction batteries in electric or hybrid vehicles. Each half-cell is considered independently in the model. For each half-cell, in addition to the main electrode reaction, a secondary reaction is considered: the hydrogen evolution reaction in the negative electrode and the oxygen evolution reaction in the positive. The equilibrium potential is calculated with the Nernst equation, in which the activity coefficients are fitted to an exponential function using experimental data. On the other hand, the two main mechanisms that produce the overpotential are considered, that is the activation or charge transfer and the diffusion mechanisms. First, an isothermal model has been studied in order to show the behavior of the main phenomena. A more complex model has also been studied including thermal behavior. This model is very useful in the case of traction batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles where high current intensities appear. Some simulation results are also presented in order to show the accuracy of the proposed models. (author)

  5. A full model for simulation of electrochemical cells including complex behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperilla, J. J.; Félez, J.; Romero, G.; Carretero, A.

    This communication presents a model of electrochemical cells developed in order to simulate their electrical, chemical and thermal behavior showing the differences when thermal effects are or not considered in the charge-discharge process. The work presented here has been applied to the particular case of the Pb,PbSO 4|H 2SO 4 (aq)|PbO 2,Pb cell, which forms the basis of the lead-acid batteries so widely used in the automotive industry and as traction batteries in electric or hybrid vehicles. Each half-cell is considered independently in the model. For each half-cell, in addition to the main electrode reaction, a secondary reaction is considered: the hydrogen evolution reaction in the negative electrode and the oxygen evolution reaction in the positive. The equilibrium potential is calculated with the Nernst equation, in which the activity coefficients are fitted to an exponential function using experimental data. On the other hand, the two main mechanisms that produce the overpotential are considered, that is the activation or charge transfer and the diffusion mechanisms. First, an isothermal model has been studied in order to show the behavior of the main phenomena. A more complex model has also been studied including thermal behavior. This model is very useful in the case of traction batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles where high current intensities appear. Some simulation results are also presented in order to show the accuracy of the proposed models.

  6. "Tangible as tissue": Arnold Gesell, infant behavior, and film analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott

    2011-09-01

    From 1924 to 1948, developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell regularly used photographic and motion picture technologies to collect data on infant behavior. The film camera, he said, records behavior "in such coherent, authentic and measurable detail that ... the reaction patterns of infant and child become almost as tangible as tissue." This essay places his faith in the fidelity and tangibility of film, as well as his use of film as evidence, in the context of developmental psychology's professed need for legitimately scientific observational techniques. It also examines his use of these same films as educational material to promote his brand of scientific child rearing. But his analytic techniques - his methods of extracting data from the film frames - are the key to understanding the complex relationship between his theories of development and his chosen research technology.

  7. Analysis of Users Web Browsing Behavior Using Markov chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Shukla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In present days of growing information technology, many browsers available for surfing and web mining. A user has option to use any of them at a time to mine out the desired website. Every browser has pre-defined level of popularity and reputation in the market. This paper considers the setup of only two browsers in a computer system and a user prefers to any one, if fails, switches to the other one .The behavior of user is modeled through Markov chain procedure and transition probabilities are calculated. The quitting to browsing is treated as a parameter of variation over the popularity. Graphical study is performed to explain the inter relationship between user behavior parameters and browser market popularity parameters. If rate of a company is lowest in terms of browser failure and lowest in terms of quitting probability then company enjoys better popularity and larger user proportion

  8. Finite element analysis of notch tensile behavior of alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, A.; Srivathsa, B.

    2013-06-01

    Notch tensile behavior of alloy 718 is characterized in conventionally heat treated condition as a function of U and V notches at 25, 200 & 400 °C. The experimental results were then compared with the values obtained from simulation of notched geometries in ANSYS software using smooth specimen data. An excellent agreement is noticed between simulated and experimental true stress-true strain curves.

  9. Analysis of the behavior of institutional investors in the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nafii IBENRISSOUL

    2013-01-01

    The international financial systems knew important modifications during these last decades. The business of financial intermediation tips over more and more in the hands of new actors that are institutional investors. The rise of institutional investors is an indubitable fact that underlines very numerous researches. It can be analyzed as a deep modification of the capitalism and as a strengthening of the power of the shareholders whose behavior investor and owner is transformed. It is accomp...

  10. Hybrid pairwise likelihood analysis of animal behavior experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cattelan, Manuela; Varin, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    The study of the determinants of contests between animals is an important issue in understanding animal behavior. Tournament experiments among a set of animals are used by zoologists for this purpose. From a statistical point of view, the results of these tournament experiments are naturally analyzed by paired comparison models such as the Bradley-Terry and the Thurstone models. A major complication is the presence of dependence between the outcomes of couples of contests with an animal in co...

  11. No Genetic Influence for Childhood Behavior Problems From DNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Twin studies of behavior problems in childhood point to substantial genetic influence. It is now possible to estimate genetic influence using DNA alone in samples of unrelated individuals, not relying on family-based designs such as twins. A linear mixed model, which incorporates DNA microarray data, has confirmed twin results by showing substantial genetic influence for diverse traits in adults. Here we present direct comparisons between twin and DNA heritability estimates for chil...

  12. BUYING BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN A SIMULATED EXPERIMENTAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Echeverry Gómez; Marithza Sandoval Escobar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the consumption scenario(Foxall, 2007) and the level of informational reinforcement (Foxall, 2005) on theprobability of buying behavior. The study involved 56 people between 18 to 20years of age selected through intentional sampling. We designed a web applicationthat emulated conditions of purchase in a virtual store. Functional analysiswas performed using a logit model of LR (logistic regression) to calculate individualand group effects of...

  13. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  14. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  15. Some reflections on 25 years of the association for behavior analysis: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.; Baer, Donald M.; Favell, Judith E; Sigrid S. Glenn; Hineline, Philip N.; Malott, Maria E.; Michael, Jack

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers some reflections on the discipline and profession of behavior analysis, as well as on the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA), on the occasion of the association's 25th anniversary. It is based on a panel session conducted at the 1999 convention that included six past presidents of ABA (Donald M. Baer, Judith E. Favell, Sigrid S. Glenn, Philip N. Hineline, Jack Michael, and Edward K. Morris) and its current Executive Director and Secretary-Treasurer (Maria E. Malott). Am...

  16. Reward bias and lateralization in gambling behavior: behavioral activation system and alpha band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia; Messina, Rossella

    2014-11-30

    The present research explored the main factors that can influence subjects' choices in the case of decisions. In order to elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making their strategies more or less advantageous, we tested the effect of a reward sensitivity in the behavioral activation system (BAS-Reward) constructed on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Secondly, the lateralization effect, related to increased activation of the left (BAS-related) hemisphere, was explored. Thirty-one subjects were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task, and the BAS-Reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS groups. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options) and alpha-band modulation were considered. It was found that high-BAS group increased their tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) rather than the long-term option (win strategy). Secondly, high-BAS subjects showed an increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with low-BAS subjects. A "reward bias" effect was supposed to explain both the bad strategy and the unbalanced hemispheric activation for high-BAS and more risk-taking subjects.

  17. Treatment Analysis in a Cancer Stem Cell Context Using a Tumor Growth Model Based on Cellular Automata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.

  18. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  19. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Kodama, Tohru; Soya, Atsushi; Sagawa, Yohei; Ishimaru, Yuji; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Nishino, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v)) mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v) mice and their wild-type littermates (WT), although W/W(v) mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v) mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine) significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v) mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v) mice. W/W(v) mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  20. Inclusive Elementary Classroom Teacher Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Use of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…

  1. Analysis of cell death inducing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Pedersen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn;

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers for early detection of toxicity hold the promise of improving the failure rates in drug development. In the present study, gene expression levels were measured using full-genome RAE230 version 2 Affymetrix GeneChips on rat liver tissue 48 h after administration of six different compounds......), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and Cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase) (Cyp2C29). RT-PCR for these three genes was performed and four additional compounds were included for validation. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the findings based on the microarray data and using the...... three genes a classification rate of 55 of 57 samples was achieved for the classification of not toxic versus toxic. The single most promising biomarker (OAT) alone resulted in a surprisingly 100% correctly classified samples. OAT has not previously been linked to toxicity and cell death in the...

  2. Error analysis of nuclear power plant operator cognitive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators

  3. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice. PMID:26737401

  4. Effect of TRAF6 Downregulation on Malignant Biological Behavior of
Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 was a commonly amplified oncogene in lung cancer. However, the precise role of TRAF6 protein in lung cancer has not been extensively investigated. This study analyzed the effects of TRAF6 on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion capability of lung cancer cell lines, as well as the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods To address the expression of TRAF6 in lung cancer cells, four lung cancer cell lines (A549, H1650, SPC-A-1 and Calu-3 were assayed to determine the expression of TRAF6 protein by Western blot and TRAF6 mRNA via qRT-PCR. Moreover, siRNA targeting TRAF6 was introduced into SPC-A-1 and Calu-3 cells. Nuclear factor-қB (NF-қB DNA-binding activity, apoptosis rates, cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, flow cytometry, MTS assay, flow cytometry, scratch test, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was also performed to evaluate the expression of the following proteins through K63-ubiquitination: P65, CD24 and CXCR4. Whole-genome sequencing analysis was conducted using a second-generation sequencer in SPC-A-1 cells. Results TRAF6 was highly up-expressed in SPC-A-1 and Calu-3 cell lines than the other two cells, which also showed K63-ubiquitinization in TRAF6. However, constitutive activation of NF-қB was observed only in SPC-A-1 lung cancer cells. Downregulation of TRAF6 suppressed the NF-κB activation, cell migration, and invasion but promoted the cell apoptosis of SPC-A-1 cells. Markedly decreased expression of CD24 and CXCR4 was observed in SPC-A-1 cells transfected by TRAF6 siRNA. Nevertheless, TRAF6 downregulation did not affect the proliferation and cell cycle of SPC-A-1 cells. Additionally, TRAF6 regulation did not affect the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion

  5. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  6. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'.

  7. Behavioral outcome measures used for human neural stem cell transplantation in rat stroke models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Jensen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, leading to the development of various stroke models to test new treatments, most commonly in the rat. Human stroke trials focus on disability, related primarily to neurological deficits. To better model the clinical application of these treatments, many behavioral tests have been developed using the rat stroke model. We performed a systematic review of all the behavioral outcome measures used in published studies of human neural stem cell transplantation in rat stroke models. The reviewed tests include motor, sensory, cognitive, activity, and combination tests. For each test, we give a brief description, trace the origin of the test, and discuss test performance in the reviewed studies. We conclude that while many behavioral tests are available for this purpose, there does not appear to be consensus on an optimal testing strategy.

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palm Megan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of egg-laying onset using deformable template matching and other morphological image analysis techniques. Some behavioral changes surrounding egg-laying events are also studied. The results demonstrate that the computer vision tools and the algorithm developed here can be effectively used to study C. elegans egg-laying behaviors. The algorithm developed is an essential part of a machine-vision system for C. elegans tracking and behavioral analysis.

  9. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with antisocial behavior place a great physical and economic burden on society. Deficits in emotional processing have been recognized as a fundamental cause of antisocial behavior. Emerging evidence also highlights a significant contribution of attention allocation deficits to such behavior. A comprehensive literature search identified 12 studies that were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, which compared 291 individuals with antisocial problems and 247 controls. Signed Differential Mapping revealed that compared with controls, gray matter volume (GMV) in subjects with antisocial behavior was reduced in the right lentiform nucleus (P antisocial behavior. Previous studies have suggested an FPC role in attention allocation during emotional processing. Therefore, GMV deviations in this area may constitute a neural basis of deficits in attention allocation linked with antisocial behavior.

  10. Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SEM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Topa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Topa, Juan Antonio MorianoDepartment of Social and Organizational Psychology, UNED, Madrid, SpainAbstract: To examine if the theory of planned behavior (TPB predicts smoking behavior, 35 data sets (N = 267,977 have been synthesized, containing 219 effect sizes between the model variables, using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach (MASEM. Consistent with the TPB's predictions, 1 smoking behavior was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = 0.30, 2 intentions were based on attitudes (weighted mean r = 0.16, and subjective norms (weighted mean r = 0.20. Consistent with TPB's hypotheses, perceived behavioral control was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = -0.24 and behaviors (weighted mean r = -0.20 and it contributes significantly to cigarette consumption. The strength of the associations, however, was influenced by the characteristics of the studies and participants.Keywords: theory of planned behavior, smoking, meta-analysis, structural equation modeling

  11. Study on in vitro Cultural Behaviors of Spermatogonium Stem Cells of New Born Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinyou; HU Pengfei; HUANG Zhijun; LV Zhonghua; ZHANG Guixue

    2008-01-01

    Three methods were adopted in culture spermatogoniums of newly born calf in vitro, such as enzymatic digestion and percoll density gradient centrifugation(Method I ), tubular fragments culture(Method Ⅱ ) and tissue culture(Method Ⅲ), and cultural behaviors of cells were observed. The results showed that typical spermatogonium colonies appeard at 144 h of culture by enzymatic digestion-percoll density gradient centrifugation method and tubular fragments culture method, 2.5% FBS kept the characteristics of spermatogonium stem cell better than others, produced more mass clones, and FBS of more than 2.5% concentration benefited spermatogonium differentiation and the number of colonies was significantly affected by FBS concentration. After 1 week of culture in method Ⅲ, the diameter of lumens and quantity of sertoli's cells in tubal wall increased obviously, lumen of seminiferous tubules appeared. Sertoli's cells kept constant and the number of spermatogoniums decreased obviously after 2 weeks of culture.

  12. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  13. CD44 Influences Fibroblast Behaviors Via Modulation of Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Interactions, Affecting Survivin and Hippo Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Madri, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    CD44 has been studied in a wide variety of cell types, in a diverse array of cell behaviors and in a diverse range of signaling pathways. We now document a role for CD44 in mediating fibroblast behaviors via regulation of N-cadherin, extracellular matrix expression, Survivin and the Hippo pathway. Here, we report our findings on the roles of CD44 in modulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of murine wild-type (WT-FB) and CD44 knockout dermal fibroblasts (CD44KO-FB). As we have documented in microvascular endothelial cells lacking CD44, we found persistent increased proliferation, reduced activation of cleaved caspase 3, increased initial attachment, but decreased strength of cell attachment in high cell density, post confluent CD44KO-FB cultures. Additionally, we found that siRNA knock-down of CD44 mimicked the behaviors of CD44KO-FB, restoring the decreases in N-cadherin, collagen type I, fibronectin, Survivin, nuclear fractions of YAP and phospho-YAP and decreased levels of cleaved caspase 3 to the levels observed in CD44KO-FB. Interestingly, plating CD44KO-FB on collagen type I or fibronectin resulted in significant decreases in secondary proliferation rates compared to plating cells on non-coated dishes, consistent with increased cell adhesion compared to their effects on WT-FB. Lastly, siRNA knockdown of CD44 in WT-FB resulted in increased fibroblast migration compared to WT-FB, albeit at reduced rates compared to CD44KO-FB. These results are consistent with CD44's pivotal role in modulating several diverse behaviors important for adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion during development, growth, repair, maintenance and regression of a wide variety of mesenchymal tissues.

  14. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  15. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.

  16. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Matthew J.; Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-06-01

    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of mathbb {R}^2, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an S^2 of constant radius mathcal {R}. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in the compact space. This suggests that higher-dimensional signatures may be extremely difficult to detect in the effective (3+1)-dimensional dynamics of strings compactified on an internal space, even if configurations with nontrivial windings persist over long time periods.

  17. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of $\\mathbb{R}^2$, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an $S^2$ of constant radius $\\mathcal{R}$. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in t...

  18. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of R{sup 2}, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an S{sup 2} of constant radius R. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in the compact space. This suggests that higher-dimensional signatures may be extremely difficult to detect in the effective (3+1)-dimensional dynamics of strings compactified on an internal space, even if configurations with nontrivial windings persist over long time periods. (orig.)

  19. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  20. Numerical Analysis on Behavior of Droplet in Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W. Y.; Lee, D. Y.; Bang, Y. S. [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    At throat, the velocity of the gas would be at maximum and the pressure would be the lowest. Due to pressure difference between inside and outside of the throat, the liquid submerging the venture scrubber would be sucked and atomized. As the gas flow through the diffuser, the pressure would be recovered and the dust in the gas mixture would be captured by the atomized liquid droplets. In this process of dust removal in venture scrubber, atomization (i.e. breakup of liquid droplet in the venturi scrubber) is crucial for filtering efficiency. In order to maintain the high efficiency, the injected liquid should be atomized into fine droplets and well spread. Because of its importance, the experimental study has been conducted by many researchers. However, numerical study has not been conducted extensively. As a preliminary study for estimating filtration efficiency of venturi scrubber by numerical tools, the behavior of droplet inside the venturi scrubber is simulated. Due to the pressure difference inside and outside of the throat, the liquid would be sucked and injected through the holes. The behavior that the liquid is injected through the holes, accelerated by the gas flow and atomized into small sized particles has been observed.

  1. Radiation biology of Caenorhabditis elegans. Germ cell response, aging and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radiation effect in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans has been carried out over three decades and now allow for understanding at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. This review describes the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation with a scope of the germ line, aging and behavior. In germ cells, ionizing radiation induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Lots of molecules involved in these responses and functions have been identified in C. elegans, which are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Radiosensitivity and the effect of heavy-ion microbeam irradiation on germ cells with relationship between initiation of meiotic recombination and DNA lesions are discussed. In addition to DNA damage, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, and the free radical theory is the most popular aging theory. A first signal transduction pathway of aging has been discovered in C. elegans, and radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress is recently noted for an inducible factor of hormetic response and genetic instability. The hormetic response in C. elegans exposed to oxidative stress is discussed with genetic pathways of aging. Moreover, C. elegans is well known as a model organism for behavior. The recent work reported the radiation effects via specific neurons on learning behavior, and radiation and hydrogen peroxide affect the locomotory rate similarly. These findings are discussed in relation to the evidence obtained with other organisms. Altogether, C. elegans may be a good 'in vivo' model system in the field of radiation biology. (author)

  2. Electrical properties and degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous Si alloys for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, W.; Kusian, W.; Karg, F.; Pfleiderer, H.

    1986-12-01

    The electrical properties and the degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys (a-Si1- x A x : H, with A=C, Ge, B, P) in designs of pin, pip, nin, and MOS structures are investigated by measuring the dark and light I(V) characteristics and the spectral response as well as the space-charge-limited current (SCLC), the time of flight (TOF) of carriers and the field effect (FE). These investigations give an overview of our recent work combined with new results emphasizing the physics of the a-Si:H pin solar cells. We discuss the stabilizing influence on the degradation behavior achieved by profiling the i layers of the pin solar cells with P and B. Two kinds of pin solar cells, namely glass/SnO2/p(C)in/metal and glass/metal/pin/ITO, are investigated and an explanation of their different spectral response behavior is given. SCLC measurements lead to the conclusion that trapping is also involved in the degradation mechanism, as is recombination. TOF experiments on a-Si1- x Ge x : H pin diodes indicate that the incorporation of Ge widens the tail-state distribution below the conduction band. FE measurements showed densities of gap states of about 5×l016cm-3eV-1.

  3. β-III tubulin modulates the behavior of Snail overexpressed during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Ciszewski, Wojciech M; Sacewicz-Hofman, Izabela; Wawro, Marta E; Wiktorska, Magdalena; Boncela, Joanna; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Kwasniak, Pawel; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S; Niewiarowska, Jolanta

    2016-09-01

    Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a marker of drug resistance expressed in a variety of solid tumors. Originally, it was described as an important element of chemoresistance to taxanes. Recent studies have revealed that TUBB3 is also involved in an adaptive response to a microenvironmental stressor, e.g. low oxygen levels and poor nutrient supply in some solid tumors, independently of the microtubule targeting agent. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that TUBB3 is a marker of biological aggressiveness associated with modulation of metastatic abilities in colon cancer. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a basic cellular process by which epithelial cells lose their epithelial behavior and become invasive cells involved in cancer metastasis. Snail is a zinc-finger transcription factor which is able to induce EMT through the repression of E-cadherin expression. In the presented studies we focused on the analysis of the TUBB3 role in EMT-induced colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HT-29 and LS180. We observed a positive correlation between Snail presence and TUBB3 upregulation in tested adenocarcinoma cell lines. The cellular and behavioral analysis revealed for the first time that elevated TUBB3 level is functionally linked to increased cell migration and invasive capability of EMT induced cells. Additionally, the post-transcriptional modifications (phosphorylation, glycosylation) appear to regulate the cellular localization of TUBB3 and its phosphorylation, observed in cytoskeleton, is probably involved in cell motility modulation.

  4. Nitric oxide regulates cell behavior on an interactive cell-derived extracellular matrix scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qi; Zhang, Lijun; Redman, Travis; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2015-12-01

    During tissue injury and wound healing process, there are dynamic reciprocal interactions among cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediating molecules which are crucial for functional tissue repair. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key mediating molecules that can positively regulate various biological activities involved in wound healing. Various ECM components serve as binding sites for cells and mediating molecules, and the interactions further stimulate cellular activities. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can migrate to the wound site and contribute to tissue regeneration through differentiation and paracrine signaling. The objective of this work was to investigate the regulatory effect of NO on hMSCs in an interactive ECM-rich microenvironment. In order to mimic the in vivo stromal environment in wound site, a cell-derived ECM scaffold that was able to release NO within the range of in vivo wound fluid NO level was fabricated. Results showed that the micro-molar level of NO released from the ECM scaffold had an inhibitory effect on cellular activities of hMSCs. The NO impaired cell growth, altered cell morphology, disrupted the F-actin organization, also decreased the expression of focal adhesion related molecules integrin α5 and paxillin. These results may contribute to the elucidation of how NO acts on hMSCs in wound healing process.

  5. Functional microarray analysis suggests repressed cell-cell signaling and cell survival-related modules inhibit progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer shows a great diversity in its clinical behavior which cannot be easily predicted using the currently available clinical or pathological markers. The identification of pathways associated with lymph node metastasis (N+ and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC may increase our understanding of the complex biology of this disease. Methods Tumor samples were obtained from untreated HNSCC patients undergoing surgery. Patients were classified according to pathologic lymph node status (positive or negative or tumor recurrence (recurrent or non-recurrent tumor after treatment (surgery with neck dissection followed by radiotherapy. Using microarray gene expression, we screened tumor samples according to modules comprised by genes in the same pathway or functional category. Results The most frequent alterations were the repression of modules in negative lymph node (N0 and in non-recurrent tumors rather than induction of modules in N+ or in recurrent tumors. N0 tumors showed repression of modules that contain cell survival genes and in non-recurrent tumors cell-cell signaling and extracellular region modules were repressed. Conclusions The repression of modules that contain cell survival genes in N0 tumors reinforces the important role that apoptosis plays in the regulation of metastasis. In addition, because tumor samples used here were not microdissected, tumor gene expression data are represented together with the stroma, which may reveal signaling between the microenvironment and tumor cells. For instance, in non-recurrent tumors, extracellular region module was repressed, indicating that the stroma and tumor cells may have fewer interactions, which disable metastasis development. Finally, the genes highlighted in our analysis can be implicated in more than one pathway or characteristic, suggesting that therapeutic approaches to prevent tumor progression should target more than one gene or pathway

  6. Behavioral impact of sickle cell disease in young children with repeated hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H Bakri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD in children with a history of repeated hospitalization is distressing for children as well as their parents leading to anxiety and has negative effects on the psychological state of children and their families. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of SCD on the behavior of young children age 1½ to 5 years old who had repeated history of hospitalization, compared to a control group of healthy children attended a vaccination clinic. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five children of age 1½ to 5 years who have SCD and repeated history of hospitalization were recruited from pediatric clinic as the study group and matched with same number of healthy children who attended vaccination clinic, as a control group. Both groups were administered the child behavior checklist (CBCL 1½ to 5 years and diagnostic and statistical (DSM-oriented scale. Behavior data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Children who have SCD had statistically significant behavioral changes on CBCL compared to the control group: Anxiety/depression (65.2 vs. 55.1; P < 0.001, somatic complaint (66.7 vs. 54.4; P < 0.001 withdrawn (63.4 vs. 53.2; P < 0.001, aggressive behavior (60.4 vs. 56; P=0.04, and internalizing symptoms (64.7 vs. 51.5; P < 0.001, respectively. The DSM scale showed that children with SCD scored significantly higher in pervasive developmental disorder compared to the control group (60.9 vs. 53.9; P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusion: Children with SCD who had history of repeated hospitalization are at an increased risk of developing behavioral problems. Psychological counseling, social support, and proper pain management could minimize these behavioral consequences.

  7. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  8. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Monica R P; Lee, Rafael J; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  9. Harmonizing HeLa cell cytoskeleton behavior by multi-Ti oxide phased nanostructure synthesized through ultrashort pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakkannu Vijayakumar, Chandramouli; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge about cancer cell behavior on heterogeneous nanostructures is relevant for developing a distinct biomaterial that can actuate cancer cells. In this manuscript, we have demonstrated a harmonized approach of forming multi Ti-oxide phases in a nanostructure (MTOP nanostructure) for its unique cancer cell controlling behavior.Conventionally, single phases of TiO2 are used for targeted therapy and as drug carrier systems.In this research, we have shown a biomaterial that can control HeLa cells diligently using a combination of TiO, Ti3O and TiO2 phases when compared to fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells.MTOP-nanostructures are generated by varying the ionization energy in the vapor plume of the ultrashort pulse laser; this interaction with the material allows accurate tuning and composition of phases within the nanostructure. In addition, the lattice spacing of MTOP-nanostructures was analyzed as shown by HR-TEM investigations. An FESEM investigation of MTOP-nanostructures revealed a greater reduction of HeLa cells relative to fibroblast cells. Altered cell adhesion was followed by modulation of HeLa cell architecture with a significant reduction of actin stress fibers.The intricate combination of MTOP-nanostructures renders a biomaterial that can precisely alter HeLa cell but not fibroblast cell behavior, filling a void in the research for a biomaterial to modulate cancer cell behavior.

  10. Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) migration and offshore behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Salvador J; Arnoldi, Natalie S; Estess, Ethan E; Chapple, Taylor K; Rückert, Martin; Anderson, Scot D; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating how mobile ocean predators utilize the pelagic environment is vital to understanding the dynamics of oceanic species and ecosystems. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags have emerged as an important tool to describe animal migrations in oceanic environments where direct observation is not feasible. Available PAT tag data, however, are for the most part limited to geographic position, swimming depth and environmental temperature, making effective behavioral observation challenging. However, novel analysis approaches have the potential to extend the interpretive power of these limited observations. Here we developed an approach based on clustering analysis of PAT daily time-at-depth histogram records to distinguish behavioral modes in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). We found four dominant and distinctive behavioral clusters matching previously described behavioral patterns, including two distinctive offshore diving modes. Once validated, we mapped behavior mode occurrence in space and time. Our results demonstrate spatial, temporal and sex-based structure in the diving behavior of white sharks in the northeastern Pacific previously unrecognized including behavioral and migratory patterns resembling those of species with lek mating systems. We discuss our findings, in combination with available life history and environmental data, and propose specific testable hypotheses to distinguish between mating and foraging in northeastern Pacific white sharks that can provide a framework for future work. Our methodology can be applied to similar datasets from other species to further define behaviors during unobservable phases. PMID:23144707

  11. Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias migration and offshore behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J Jorgensen

    Full Text Available Elucidating how mobile ocean predators utilize the pelagic environment is vital to understanding the dynamics of oceanic species and ecosystems. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT tags have emerged as an important tool to describe animal migrations in oceanic environments where direct observation is not feasible. Available PAT tag data, however, are for the most part limited to geographic position, swimming depth and environmental temperature, making effective behavioral observation challenging. However, novel analysis approaches have the potential to extend the interpretive power of these limited observations. Here we developed an approach based on clustering analysis of PAT daily time-at-depth histogram records to distinguish behavioral modes in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias. We found four dominant and distinctive behavioral clusters matching previously described behavioral patterns, including two distinctive offshore diving modes. Once validated, we mapped behavior mode occurrence in space and time. Our results demonstrate spatial, temporal and sex-based structure in the diving behavior of white sharks in the northeastern Pacific previously unrecognized including behavioral and migratory patterns resembling those of species with lek mating systems. We discuss our findings, in combination with available life history and environmental data, and propose specific testable hypotheses to distinguish between mating and foraging in northeastern Pacific white sharks that can provide a framework for future work. Our methodology can be applied to similar datasets from other species to further define behaviors during unobservable phases.

  12. Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors,etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular usedR-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

  13. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  14. Negative reactions to depressive behaviors: a communication theories analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, C; Abramson, L Y

    1994-11-01

    Interpersonal aspects of depression have received considerable research attention in the past 2 decades. This work often has been guided by J. C. Coyne's (1976b) interactional model of depression or P. M. Lewinsohn's (1974) social skill deficit theory of depression. A review of this research indicates that depressed people reliably experience rejection from those in their social environment and that depression generally is associated with impairments in social behavior. However, this research does not explain exactly what depressed people do to elicit rejection, or exactly why others react negatively to them. Research derived from communication theories on responsiveness, politeness, and expectations for nonverbal involvement illuminates the interpersonal cycle in depression. The role of these impairments in the cause, symptoms, course, subtypes, and therapy of depression is discussed. PMID:7822566

  15. Effect of antisense human telomerase RNA on malignant behaviors of gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-liang; FANG Dian-chun; YANG Shi-ming; LUO Yuan-hui; LUO Kun-lun; LU Rong; LIU Wei-wen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of antisense human telomerase RNA (ahTR) transfection on the malignant behaviors of gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 and its potential role in gene therapy for tumor. Methods: An antisense hTR eukaryotic expression vector containing the sequence of template region of telomere repeats was transfected into gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with liposome DOTAP. The expressions of hTR RNA and antisense hTR RNA were observed with RT-PCR, telomerase activity with PCR-ELISA. Telomere length was measured with Southern blot. Cell morphology and cellular proliferation capacity were studied with MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic state were observed with flow cytometry. Efficiency of clone formation in soft agar and tumorigencity in nude mice were examined and evaluated in ahTR-transfected 7901 cells, and plasmid pCL-neo transfected 7901 cells and parental 7901 cells served as control. Results: An antisense hTR eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into 7901 cells successfully. The telomerase activity in ahTR-transfected 7901 cells was decreased from 100% to about 25%, and telomere length in the cells shortened from 4.08 kb to 3.35 kb at 60 population doublings (PDs). Compared with parental 7901 and pCL-neo transfected 7901 cells, ahTR-transfected 7901 cells displayed some morphological changes, including decreased cell atypia and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio under light microscope. Furthermore, ahTR-transfected 7901 cells displayed growth inhibition, decreased invasive capacity in Borden's chamber invasive model, increased G0/G1 phase rate and apoptotic rate, and restored contact inhibition and density inhibition. Surprisingly, ahTR-transfected 7901 cells lost their capacity of clone formation in soft agar and carcinogensis in nude mice. Conclusion: Antisense hTR transfection can induce 7901 cell differentiation and reverse its malignant phenotype. This study provides an exciting approach for cancer therapy through the

  16. Histopathological and Behavioral Assessment of Toxin-Produced Cerebellar Lesion: A Potent Model for Cell Transplantation Studies in The Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available cognition, learning and memory functions. This study presents a permanent model of a toxin produced cerebellar lesion characterized according to contemporary motor and cognitive abnormalities. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, slow administration of quinolinic acid (QA, 5 μl of 200 μmol, 1 μl/minute in the right cerebellar hemisphere (lobule VI caused noticeable motor and cognitive disturbances along with cellular degeneration in all treated animals. We assessed behavioral and histopathological studies over ten weeks after QA treatment. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and the student’s t test. Results: The QA treated group showed marked motor learning deficits on the rotating rod test (p≤0.0001, locomotor asymmetry on the cylinder test (p≤0.0001, dysmetria on the beam balance test (p≤0.0001, abnormalities in neuromuscular strength on the hang wire test (p≤0.0001, spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze (MWM, p≤0.001 and fear conditioned memory on the passive avoidance test (p≤0.01 over a ten-week period compared with the control animals. Histopathological analysis showed loss of Purkinje cells (p≤0.001 and granular cell density (p≤0.0001 in the lesioned hemisphere of the cerebellum. Conclusion: Results of the present study show that QA can remove numerous cells which respond to this toxin in hemispheric lobule VI and thus provide a potential model for functional and cell-based studies.

  17. Engineered Microenvironments to Direct Epidermal Stem Cell Behavior at Single-Cell Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Fiona M

    2016-09-26

    Mammalian epidermis is maintained through proliferation of stem cells and differentiation of their progeny. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by a variety of interacting intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Although the nature of these interactions is complex, they can be modeled in a reductionist fashion by capturing single epidermal stem cells on micropatterned substrates and exposing them to individual stimuli, alone or in combination, over defined time points. These studies have shown that different extrinsic stimuli trigger a common outcome-initiation of terminal differentiation-by activating different signaling pathways and eliciting different transcriptional responses. PMID:27676433

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Free-Standing Fuel Cell Electrodes on Water Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanwi; Kim, Jae-Han; Oh, Jong-Gil; Jang, Kyung-Lim; Jeong, Byeong-Heon; Hong, Bo Ki; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2016-06-22

    Fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes as free-standing materials is essential to develop mechanically robust fuel cells. However, this has been a significant challenge due to critical difficulties, such as separating the pristine electrode from the substrate without damage and precisely measuring the mechanical properties of the very fragile and thin electrodes. We report the mechanical behavior of free-standing fuel cell electrodes on the water surface through adopting an innovative ice-assisted separation method to separate the electrode from decal transfer film. It is found that doubling the ionomer content in electrodes increases not only the tensile stress at the break and the Young's modulus (E) of the electrodes by approximately 2.1-3.5 and 1.7-2.4 times, respectively, but also the elongation at the break by approximately 1.5-1.7 times, which indicates that stronger, stiffer, and tougher electrodes are attained with increasing ionomer content, which have been of significant interest in materials research fields. The scaling law relationship between Young's modulus and density (ρ) has been unveiled as E ∼ ρ(1.6), and it is compared with other materials. These findings can be used to develop mechanically robust electrodes for fuel cell applications. PMID:27183314

  19. Molecular behavior of DNA in a cell-sized compartment coated by lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tsutomu; Fujimoto, Rie; Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F.; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    The behavior of long DNA molecules in a cell-sized confined space was investigated. We prepared water-in-oil droplets covered by phospholipids, which mimic the inner space of a cell, following the encapsulation of DNA molecules with unfolded coil and folded globule conformations. Microscopic observation revealed that the adsorption of coiled DNA onto the membrane surface depended on the size of the vesicular space. Globular DNA showed a cell-size-dependent unfolding transition after adsorption on the membrane. Furthermore, when DNA interacted with a two-phase membrane surface, DNA selectively adsorbed on the membrane phase, such as an ordered or disordered phase, depending on its conformation. We discuss the mechanism of these trends by considering the free energy of DNA together with a polyamine in the solution. The free energy of our model was consistent with the present experimental data. The cooperative interaction of DNA and polyamines with a membrane surface leads to the size-dependent behavior of molecular systems in a small space. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the physical mechanism of molecular events and reactions inside a cell.

  20. Understanding the dilation and dilation relaxation behavior of graphite-based lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marius; Wachtler, Mario; Stöwe, Hendrik; Persson, Jon V.; Danzer, Michael A.

    2016-06-01

    The dilation of lithium-ion cells is sensitive towards swelling phenomena caused by both graphite staging processes and lithium plating on graphite anodes. In this work, the dilation behavior of graphite/NMC pouch cells is studied with a focus on relaxation phenomena occurring after current pulses. In order to prevent misleading interpretations due to thermal effects, thermal expansion is quantified and a method for the thermal compensation of dilation data is developed. Dilation data are recorded for quasi-equilibrium cycling as well as for current pulses at high rates. In the quasi-equilibrium case, the staging behavior is characterized based on dilation and voltage data. By comparison with a graphite half-cell measurement, the major effects in full cell dilation are confirmed to be anode related. In the high rate case, the dilation responses to the actual pulse and the subsequent relaxation phases are recorded systematically. Positive and negative relaxation phenomena are observed depending on the SOC. They are ascribed to both graphite staging and lithium plating processes. A model is presented explaining the unexpected relaxation effects by a temporary coexistence of three or more staging compounds during high rate lithiation and delithiation. Our data thereby confirm the shrinking annuli model introduced by Heβ and Novák.

  1. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  2. Degradation behavior of oxygen-contaminated a-Si:H solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusian, W.; Günzel, E.; Krühler, W.; Pfleiderer, H.; Plätttner, R.; Bullemer, B.

    1987-06-01

    The degradation behavior of pin solar cells from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) having uncontaminated i-layers and that of solar cells in whih the i-layer is intentionally contaminated with oxygen or water vapour, was studied using a voltage-biased spectral response measurement method. The light-soaked solar cells are characterized by a reduction of the transition voltage UT which separates the primary and the secondary photocurrent, by an enhancement of the secondary photocurrent, by a reduction of the μτ products of the charge carriers and by a kink of the collection efficiency curve in the blue part of the spectrum. A contamination of the i-layer with impurities like O and H2O amplifies this degradation behavior of the cells. The kink is removable by a bias light as well as by a reverse bias voltage. The shape of the measured collection efficiency curves ar explained in detail by the electric field distribution in the i-layer.

  3. Loss of MLCK leads to disruption of cell-cell adhesion and invasive behavior of breast epithelial cells via increased expression of EGFR and ERK/JNK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D Y; Helfman, D M

    2016-08-25

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression is downregulated in breast cancer, including invasive ductal carcinoma compared with ductal breast carcinoma in situ and metastatic breast tumors. However, little is known about how loss of MLCK expression contributes to tumor progression. MLCK is a component of the actin cytoskeleton and its known role is the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II. To gain insights into the role of MLCK in breast cancer, we perturbed its function using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or pharmacological inhibition in untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). Loss of MLCK by siRNAs led to increased cell migration and invasion, disruption of cell-cell adhesions and enhanced formation of focal adhesions at the leading edge of migratory cells. In addition, downregulation of MLCK cooperated with HER2 in MCF10A cells to promote cell migration and invasion and low levels of MLCK is associated with a poor prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Associated with these altered migratory behaviors were increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways in MLCK downregulated MCF10A cells. By contrast, inhibition of the kinase function of MLCK using pharmacological agents inhibited cell migration and invasion, and did not affect cellular adhesions. Our results show that loss of MLCK contributes to the migratory properties of epithelial cells resulting from changes in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions, and increased epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These findings suggest that decreased expression of MLCK may have a critical role during tumor progression by facilitating the metastatic potential of tumor cells. PMID:26876209

  4. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  5. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  6. Hair Mineral Analysis and Disruptive Behavior in Clinically Normal Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struempler, Richard E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Forty young navy recruits were selected for hair mineral analysis on the basis of three criteria: mental test scores, demerits during training, and premature discharge from the navy. Statistical analysis revealed several significant relationships between behavioral criteria and mineral measures. Findings confirmed, in a nonclinical sample, hair…

  7. Application of Economic Analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Bruce A.; Harbaugh, William T.; Singell, Larry D.; Horner, Robert H.; Irvin, Larry K.; Smolkowski, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating…

  8. Modulating the vascular behavior of metastatic breast cancer cells by curcumin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa ePalange

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of tumor cells to secondary sites (tumor metastasis is a complex process that involves multiple, sequential steps. Vascular adhesion and extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs is one, critical step. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from Curcuma longa, is known to have anti-tumoral, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory properties and affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules, mostly by targeting the NF-κB transcription factor. Here, upon treatment with Curcumin, the vascular behavior of three different estrogen receptor negative (ER– breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 is analyzed using a microfluidic system. First, the dose response to curcumin is characterized at 24, 48 and 72h using a XTT assay. For all three cell lines, an IC50 larger than 20 µM is observed at 72 h; whereas no significant reduction in cell viability is detected for curcumin concentrations up to 10 µM. Upon 24 h treatment at 10 µM of curcumin, SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells show a decrease in adhesion propensity of 40% (p = 0.02 and 47% (p = 0.001, respectively. No significant change is documented for the less metastatic MDA-MB-468 cells. All three treated cell lines show a 20% increase in rolling velocity from 48.3 to 58.7 µm/s in SK-BR-3, from 64.1 to 73.77 µm/s in MDA-MB-231 and from 57.5 to 74.4 µm/s in MDA-MB-468. Collectively, these results suggest that mild curcumin treatments could limit the metastatic potential of these adenocarcinoma cell lines, possibly by altering the expression of adhesion molecules, and the organization and stiffness of the cell cytoskeleton. Future studies will elucidate the biophysical mechanisms regulating this curcumin-induced behavior and further explore the clinical relevance of these findings.

  9. Physical and chemical analysis of lithium-ion battery cell-to-cell failure events inside custom fire chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Field, Christopher R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Williams, Bradley A.; Myers, Kristina M.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-04-01

    A 5-cubic meter decompression chamber was re-purposed as a fire test chamber to conduct failure and abuse experiments on lithium-ion batteries. Various modifications were performed to enable remote control and monitoring of chamber functions, along with collection of data from instrumentation during tests including high speed and infrared cameras, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, real-time gas analyzers, and compact reconfigurable input and output devices. Single- and multi-cell packages of LiCoO2 chemistry 18650 lithium-ion batteries were constructed and data was obtained and analyzed for abuse and failure tests. Surrogate 18650 cells were designed and fabricated for multi-cell packages that mimicked the thermal behavior of real cells without using any active components, enabling internal temperature monitoring of cells adjacent to the active cell undergoing failure. Heat propagation and video recordings before, during, and after energetic failure events revealed a high degree of heterogeneity; some batteries exhibited short burst of sparks while others experienced a longer, sustained flame during failure. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were detected via gas analysis, and the presence of these species was consistent throughout all failure events. These results highlight the inherent danger in large format lithium-ion battery packs with regards to cell-to-cell failure, and illustrate the need for effective safety features.

  10. A Multilevel Analysis of Parental Discipline and Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, Jim

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate graphical and analytical methods for multilevel (2- and 3-level) models using the analysis of observed microsocial interaction between parent-child dyads as an example. We also present multilevel path diagrams and argue that while not as compact as equations, path diagrams may communicate results better to a wider audience. The…

  11. Spectroscopic analysis of carbonization behavior of wood, cellulose and lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Meier, Dietrich; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The surface and bulk chemistry of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica), cotton cellulose and lignin samples carbonized at 500-1,000 degrees C was investigated by elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectrometry.

  12. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Harm-Jan; Arends, Danny; Esko, Tonu; Peters, Marjolein J.; Schurmann, Claudia; Schramm, Katharina; Kettunen, Johannes; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Li, Yang; Fu, Jingyuan; Karjalainen, Juha; Platteel, Mathieu; Visschedijk, Marijn; Weersma, Rinse K.; Kasela, Silva; Milani, Lili; Tserel, Liina; Peterson, Part; Reinmaa, Eva; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Homuth, Georg; Petersmann, Astrid; Lorbeer, Roberto; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Wood, Andrew R.; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Knight, Julian C.; Melchiotti, Rossella; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Wang, De Yun; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Veldink, Jan H.; Rotzschke, Olaf; Makino, Seiko; Salomaa, Veikko; Strauch, Konstantin; Voelker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Metspalu, Andres; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Franke, Lude

    2015-01-01

    The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-envir

  13. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); D. Arends (Danny); T. Esko (Tõnu); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Schramm (Katharina); J. Kettunen (Johannes); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); B.P. Fairfax (Benjamin); A.K. Andiappan (Anand Kumar); Y. Li (Yang); J. Fu (Jingyuan); J. Karjalainen (Juha); I. Platteel (Inge); M. Visschedijk (Marijn); R.K. Weersma (Rinse K.); S. Kasela (Silva); L. Milani (Lili); L. Tserel (Liina); P. Peterson (Pärt); E. Reinmaa (Eva); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G. Homuth (Georg); A. Petersmann (Astrid); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); H. Prokisch (Holger); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Herder (Christian); M. Roden (Michael); H. Grallert (Harald); S. Ripatti (Samuli); M. Perola (Markus); A.R. Wood (Andrew); D. Melzer (David); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); J.C. Knight (Julian); R. Melchiotti (Rossella); B. Lee (Bernett); M. Poidinger (Michael); F. Zolezzi (Francesca); A. Larbi (Anis); D.Y. Wang (De Yun); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); J.H. Veldink (Jan); O. Rotzschke (Olaf); S. Makino (Seiko); V. Salomaa (Veikko); K. Strauch (Konstantin); U. Völker (Uwe); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. Metspalu (Andres); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); R.C. Jansen (Ritsert); L. Franke (Lude)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a

  14. Analysis of pulse and relaxation behavior in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Dawn M.; Go, Joo-Young

    A mathematical model of a lithium-ion cell is used to analyze pulse and relaxation behavior in cells designed for hybrid-electric-vehicle propulsion. Predictions of cell voltage show good agreement with experimental results. Model results indicate the ohmic voltage loss in the positive electrode is the dominant contributor to cell overvoltage in the first instances of a pulse. The concentration overvoltage associated with the reduced lithium in the solid phase of the positive is of secondary importance through pulse duration, but dominates after current interruption. Effects of anisotropy in the particle diffusion coefficient are also studied. Heaviside mollification functions are utilized to describe the thermodynamic open-circuit voltage of lithiated graphite, and the "pleated-layer model" is extended to realize the phase behavior of primary-particle aggregates during cell operation. The negative electrode contributes little to the cell overvoltage, and two-phase behavior results in a reaction front within the electrode. No voltage relaxation is associated with the negative electrode, and after full relaxation, a stable composition gradient of lithium exists throughout the solid phase. Internal galvanic coupling removes the composition gradients in the positive electrode during relaxation.

  15. Analysis of cell death inducing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicker, Jeppe S; Pedersen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren

    2007-11-01

    Biomarkers for early detection of toxicity hold the promise of improving the failure rates in drug development. In the present study, gene expression levels were measured using full-genome RAE230 version 2 Affymetrix GeneChips on rat liver tissue 48 h after administration of six different compounds, three toxins (ANIT, DMN and NMF) and three non-toxins (Caeruelein, Dinitrophenol and Rosiglitazone). We identified three gene transcripts with exceptional predictive performance towards liver toxicity and/or changes in histopathology. The three genes were: glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and Cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase) (Cyp2C29). RT-PCR for these three genes was performed and four additional compounds were included for validation. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the findings based on the microarray data and using the three genes a classification rate of 55 of 57 samples was achieved for the classification of not toxic versus toxic. The single most promising biomarker (OAT) alone resulted in a surprisingly 100% correctly classified samples. OAT has not previously been linked to toxicity and cell death in the literature and the novel finding represents a putative hepatotoxicity biomarker. PMID:17503021

  16. Longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of children aged 0 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Frederico Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "When" and "how" the dentist intervenes have repercussions on children's physical and emotional patterns. The objective of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of babies aged 0 to 3 years. A total of 216 patients seen at the Baby Clinic of the School of Dentistry at Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, were selected. The selection criterion was attendance at ten dental care sessions at bimonthly intervals for routine procedures such as clinical examination and oral hygiene. There was a predominance of cooperative behavior compared to uncooperative behavior when each visit was analyzed separately. The behavior of the patients must have been directly influenced by their psychomotor development. Constant attendance and exposure of the baby to non-stressful dental stimuli are factors that favor a cooperative behavior.

  17. MATSAP: An automated analysis of stretch-attend posture in rodent behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Kevin S; Orndorff, Casey O; Murray, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    Stretch-attend posture (SAP) occurs during risk assessment and is prevalent in common rodent behavioral tests. Measuring this behavior can enhance behavioral tests. For example, stretch-attend posture is a more sensitive measure of the effects of anxiolytics than traditional spatiotemporal indices. However, quantifying stretch-attend posture using human observers is time consuming, somewhat subjective, and prone to errors. We have developed MATLAB-based software, MATSAP, which is a quick, consistent, and open source program that provides objective automated analysis of stretch-attend posture in rodent behavioral experiments. Unlike human observers, MATSAP is not susceptible to fatigue or subjectivity. We assessed MATSAP performance with videos of male Swiss mice moving in an open field box and in an elevated plus maze. MATSAP reliably detected stretch-attend posture on par with human observers. This freely-available program can be broadly used by biologists and psychologists to accelerate neurological, pharmacological, and behavioral studies. PMID:27503239

  18. Structural and functional analysis of single neurons to correlate synaptic connectivity with grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Ibrahim; Cvetkovska, Vedrana; Chen, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol to image the complex axonal branching structure of identified mechanosensory neurons in Drosophila, combined with a behavioral assay to evaluate the functional output of the neuron. The stimulation of identified mechanosensory neurons in live animals produces a stereotyped grooming reflex. The mechanosensory axonal arbor within the CNS is subsequently labeled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The behavioral output can therefore be correlated to the axonal morphology of the stimulated neuron in the same animal. Combining this protocol with genetic analysis provides a powerful tool for identifying the roles of molecules involved in different aspects of hard-wired neural circuit formation underlying an innate behavior. From behavioral analysis to axonal imaging, the protocol takes 4 d.

  19. Disc size regulation in the brood cell building behavior of leaf-cutter bee, Megachile tsurugensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Yoon

    2007-12-01

    The leaf-cutter bee, Megachile tsurugensis, builds a brood cell in a preexisting tunnel with leaf discs that she cuts in decreasing sizes and assembles them like a Russian matryoshka doll. By experimentally manipulating the brood cell, it was investigated how she regulates the size of leaf discs that fit in the brood cell’s internal volume. When the internal volume was artificially increased by removing a bulk of leaf discs, she decreased the leaf disc size, although increasing it would have made the leaf disc more fitting in the increased internal volume. As a reverse manipulation, when the internal volume was decreased by inserting a group of inner layers of preassembled leaf discs to a brood cell, she decreased the leaf disc size, so that the leaf disc could fit in the decreased internal volume. These results suggest that she uses at least two different mechanisms to regulate the disc size: the use of some internal memory about the degree of building work accomplished in the first and of sensory feedback of dimensional information at the construction site in the second manipulation, respectively. It was concluded that a stigmergic mechanism, an immediate sensory feedback from the brood cell changed by the building work, alone cannot explain the details of the bee’s behavior particularly with respect to her initial response to the first manipulation. For a more complete explanation of the behavior exhibited by the solitary bee, two additional behavioral elements, reinforcement of building activity and processing of dimensional information, were discussed along with stigmergy.

  20. Novel Approach for Electromagnetic Actuators Analysis in Transient Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIRBU, I. G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new model of the actuator is proposed in this paper. It considers the nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena in the ferromagnetic core, as well as the influence of the mechanical load during the plunger movement. According to our approach, the entire system that includes the magnetic circuit, the electric circuit and the mechanical parts is mathematically modeled through a differential algebraic equation system (DAE. Therefore, a corresponding analog nonlinear electric circuit described by a similar mathematical model is conceived and implemented in an electric circuit simulation program capable to analyze its behavior in steady state or dynamic regimes. The SPICE simulator has been chosen as implementation platform and a case study has been performed to prove the feasibility and efficiency of our approach. The simulation result contains electromagnetic and mechanical quantities that were represented as time-domain functions. The method is remarkable through an extremely short computation time when compared with the classical methods based on the discretization of the domain.