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Sample records for cells behavior analysis

  1. Analysis of Vero cell growth behavior on microcarrier by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Manjun; Jiang, Lei; Cong, Wei; Ouyang, Fan

    2002-04-01

    By using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes of Vero cells attached to and grown on the microcarrier Cytodex-3 were observed, and their behavior of adhesion, spreading and proliferation was analyzed. The effect of exogenous fibronectin/ laminin on adhesion and spreading of MCC/Vero cell was studied. The images of ESEM showed that expansion of cell growth was directed toward vacancy space. The growth curve and cell concentration change during the whole culture process were obtained from the statistical counting method based on ESEM images and the crystal violet method. The growth rate of Vero cells increases with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation, that is, the specific growth rate increases quickly with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation. When serum concentration in medium #199 ranged from 5% to 10%, experimental results indicated that serum concentration is one of the important factors influencing cell growth, particularly in the cell adhesion and spreading stage. PMID:18763074

  2. Analysis of Vero cell growth behavior on microcarrier by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵曼君; 姜蕾; 丛威; 欧阳藩

    2002-01-01

    By using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes of Vero cells attached to and grown on the microcarrier Cytodex-3 were observed, and their behavior of adhesion, spreading and proliferation was analyzed. The effect of exogenous fibronectin/ laminin on adhesion and spreading of MCC/Vero cell was studied. The images of ESEM showed that expansion of cell growth was directed toward vacancy space. The growth curve and cell concentration change during the whole culture process were obtained from the statistical counting method based on ESEM images and the crystal violet method. The growth rate of Vero cells increases with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation, that is, the specific growth rate increases quickly with increasing the concentration of cell inoculation. When serum concentration in medium #199 ranged from 5% to 10%, experimental results indicated that serum concentration is one of the important factors influencing cell growth, particularly in the cell adhesion and spreading stage.

  3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD FIBER CELL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phichit Somboon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of the wood fiber cell wall under mechanical treatment in refining was simulated dynamically using a finite element method. The effect of the amplitude and frequency of impacts on the mechanical breakdown of the fiber wall structure was examined. The proposed model of the fiber cell wall was constructed from elementary microfibrils in various orientations embedded in isotropic lignin. The fatigue of the cell wall was simulated under normal refiner mechanical pulping conditions. A cyclic load was applied on the model fiber through a hemispherical grit proposed to be applied on the surface on refiner segments. Changes in the elastic modulus of the cell wall were analyzed to determine the potential for cell wall breakdown. An increase in the amplitude of applied forces and frequency of impacts was found to have a significant influence on the reduction of the elastic modulus of the wall structure. A high frequency of impacts increased the stiffness of the cell wall, but resulted in faster reduction of the elastic modulus. At a lower amplitude of impacts, efficient breakdown of the cell wall using grits was achieved with a high frequency of impacts or a high rotational speed of refiners.

  4. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952

  5. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  6. Contingency and behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more...

  7. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless—a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to Enlightenment and Samādhi. The concept of stimulus singularity is introduced to account for why, within Zen's frame of reference, its methods can be stu...

  8. Autistic behavior, behavior analysis, and the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Richard W

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the meaning of autism, the etiology of autistic behavior and values, the nature-nurture debate, contingencies vs. genes, and resistance to a behavioral analysis of autism. PMID:22477285

  9. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  11. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  12. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, J M; Foxx, Richard M; Jacobson, John W.; Green, Gina; Mulick, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We also consider the features of PBS that have facilitated its broad dissemination and how ABA might benefit from emulating certain practices of the P...

  13. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  14. Video Malware - Behavioral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeepsinh Dodia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed then the behavior of the malware is in the malware authors hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet USB drives sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The funny video named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials username amp password and send it to the remote host user called command amp control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.

  15. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed. PMID:18329187

  16. Patient-specific modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of individual sickle red blood cells under hypoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous morphology and abnormal dynamics under hypoxic conditions. We developed a time-dependent cell model that is able to simulate the dynamic processes of repeated sickling and unsickling of red blood cells (RBCs) under physiological conditions. By using the kinetic cell model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the dynamic behavior of individual sickle RBCs flowing in a microfluidic channel with multiple microgates. We investigate how individual sickle RBCs behave differently from healthy ones in channel flow, and analyze the alteration of cellular behavior and response to single-cell capillary obstruction induced by cell rheologic rigidification and morphological change due to cell sickling under hypoxic conditions. We also simulate the flow dynamics of sickle RBCs treated with hydroxyurea (HU) and quantify the relative enhancement of hemodynamic performance of HU. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant U01HL114476.

  17. Behavior analysis and linguistic productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    The greatest intellectual challenge to the field of behavior analysis may be understanding linguistic productivity (e.g., being able to correctly say and understand novel sentences). One of the main issues concerning linguistic productivity is whether behavioral productivity is, itself, a fundamental behavioral process, as claimed by the proponents of relational frame theory, or whether we can understand linguistic productivity in terms of more fundamental behavioral principles.

  18. Studying post-stroke functional impairment after treatment with neural progenitor cells – an analysis of behavioral tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten R. Doeppner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs in rodents reduces functional impairment after cerebral ischemia. In light of upcoming stroke trials regarding safety and feasibility of NPC transplantation, experimental studies have to successfully analyze the extent of NPC-induced neurorestoration on the functional level. However, appropriate behavioral tests for analysis of post-stroke motor coordination deficits and cognitive impairment after NPC grafting are not fully established. We therefore exposed male C57BL6 mice to either 45 min (mild or 90 min (severe of cerebral ischemia, using the thread occlusion model followed by intravenous injection of PBS or NPCs 6 h post-stroke with an observation period of three months. Post-stroke motor coordination was assessed by means of the rota rod, tight rope, corner turn, inclined plane, grip strength, foot fault, adhesive removal, pole test and balance beam test, whereas cognitive impairment was analyzed using the water maze, the open field and the passive avoidance test. Significant motor coordination differences after both mild and severe cerebral ischemia in favor of NPC-treated mice were observed for each motor coordination test except for the inclined plane and the grip strength test, which only showed significant differences after severe cerebral ischemia. Cognitive impairment after mild cerebral ischemia was successfully assessed using the water maze test, the open field and the passive avoidance test. On the contrary, the water maze test was not suitable in the severe cerebral ischemia paradigm, as it too much depends on motor coordination capabilities of test mice. In terms of both reliability and cost-effectiveness considerations, we thus recommend the corner turn, foot fault, balance beam, and open field test, which do not depend on durations of cerebral ischemia.

  19. Women in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Donahoe, Patricia; Swindell, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    The status of women in applied behavior analysis was examined by comparing the participation of women in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) to their participation in three similar journals. For all journals, the percentage of articles with at least one female author, the percentage of authors who are female, and the percentage of articles with a female first author increased from 1978 to 1997. Participation by women in JABA was equal to or greater than participation by women in t...

  20. Histopathological Analysis from Gallic Acid Administration on Hippocampal Cell Density, Depression, and Anxiety Related Behaviors in A Trimethyltin Intoxication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Moghadas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the effects of gallic acid (GA administration on trimethyltin chloride (TMT induced anxiety, depression, and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of TMT (8 mg/kg. The animals received either GA (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg or saline as the vehicle for 14 consecutive days. We measured depression and anxiety levels of the rats by conducting the behavioral tail suspension (TST, elevatedplusmaze (EPM, and novelty suppressed feeding (NSF tests. Histological analyses were then used to determine the cell densities of different hippocampal subdivisions. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: GA administration ameliorated anxiety and depression in the behavioral tests. The cell densities in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG hippocampal subdivisionsfrom GA-treated rats were higher than saline treated rats. Conclusion: GA treatment against TMT-induced hippocampal degeneration altered cellular loss in the hippocampus and ameliorated the depression-anxiety state in rats.

  1. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus;

    2015-01-01

    automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...... machine learning. The proposed classification approach employs a novel combination of features that achieves a high classification rate with a weighted average AUC value of 0.98 using Random Forests classifier. The approach has been extensively tested on a total of 42,000 malware samples. Based on the...

  2. Direct measurements of IPTG enable analysis of the induction behavior of E. coli in high cell density cultures

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    Fernández-Castané Alfred

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E. coli lac operon and its components have been studied for decades, and lac-derived systems are widely used for recombinant protein production. However, lac operon dynamics and induction behavior remain the paradigm of gene regulation. Recently, an HPLC-MS-based method to quantify IPTG in the medium and inside the biomass has been established, and this tool may be useful to uncover the lack of knowledge and allow optimization of biotechnological processes. Results The results obtained from the study of IPTG distribution profiles in fed-batch, high cell density cultures allowed discrimination between two different depletion patterns of an inducer from the medium to the biomass in E. coli-expressing rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA. Moreover, we could demonstrate that active transport mediates the uptake of this gratuitous inducer. Additionally, we could study the induction behaviors of this expression system by taking into account the biomass concentration at the induction time. Conclusions In the bistable range, partial induction occurred, which led to intermediate levels of RhuA activity. There was a direct relationship between the initial inducer concentrations and the initial inducer transport rate together with the specific activity. A majority of the inducer remains in the medium to reach equilibrium with the intracellular level. The intracellular inducer accumulation was a further evidence of bistability of the lac operon.

  3. Quantitative analysis of the effects of biofunctional and physical gradients on cell behavior in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turturro, Michael

    The continued enhancement of tissue engineered scaffolds relies on their ability to stimulate the formation of a stable microvascular network within the biomaterial. In vivo, the spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The overall goals of this thesis are to develop a technique for the generation of gradients of physical properties and incorporated biofunctionality within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) scaffolds and to investigate the effects of these gradients on 3D cell invasion and neovascularization. To this end, a novel photopolymerization technique for generating spatial variations in matrix properties and incorporated biofunctionality within synthetic PEGDA hydrogels, perfusion-based frontal polymerization (PBFP), was developed. This technique relies on the controlled perfusion of a photoinitiator to a reaction chamber containing a precursor solution and results in the propagation of a polymer reaction front that travels through the monomer solution creating a gradient in hydrogel crosslinking. Manipulation of the magnitude of the gradient can be achieved through alterations in the polymerization conditions. Scaffolds with embedded gradients were designed and optimized based on a range of properties shown to support 2D cell adhesion, proliferation, and 3D vascular cell invasion in bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with homogeneous properties. An in vitro model of neovascularization was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Sprout invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the

  4. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  5. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  6. Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Freeman, Kurt A.

    2000-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) is an approach to providing services to individuals who exhibit challenging behavior. Since its inception in the early 1990s, PBS has received increasing attention from the behavior-analytic community. Some behavior analysts have embraced this approach, but others have voiced questions and concerns. In this paper we describe the framework of PBS and show that it is consistent with the tenets of behavior analysis. Also, we illustrate how the framework of PBS mig...

  7. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that experienced consumers have higher but more specialized demand towards high-end products. The second essay investigates a consumer’s choice of considering a product before purchase. Because considera...

  8. Evaluating the function of applied behavior analysis a bibliometric analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of scholarly citations involving behavioral journals reveals that, consistent with its mission, applied behavior analysis research frequently references the basic behavioral literature but, as some have suspected, exerts narrow scholarly influence.

  9. The Analysis of Human Behavior in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2004-01-01

    Does the name of the special interest group, "The Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior," imply that those who analyze the behavior of human animals must organize themselves apart from those who analyze the behavior of nonhuman animals? Is the use of nonhumans in experiments really not relevant to the analysis of the behavior of humans? If so,…

  10. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  11. Autistic Behavior, Behavior Analysis, and the Gene—Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the negative behavior-analytic commentary on Drash and Tudor's behavior-analytic analysis of the etiology of autistic repertoires and values. This article also asks that, in our effort to scrub it clean, we not drown Drash and Tudor's beautiful, but fragile, new-born, behavior-analytic baby in hyper-methodological, hyper-scholarly bathwater.

  12. Improving Public Perception of Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David H

    2016-05-01

    The potential impact of behavior analysis is limited by the public's dim awareness of the field. The mass media rarely cover behavior analysis, other than to echo inaccurate negative stereotypes about control and punishment. The media instead play up appealing but less-evidence-based approaches to problems, a key example being the touting of dubious diets over behavioral approaches to losing excess weight. These sorts of claims distort or skirt scientific evidence, undercutting the fidelity of behavior analysis to scientific rigor. Strategies for better connecting behavior analysis with the public might include reframing the field's techniques and principles in friendlier, more resonant form; pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals in simple terms; and playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis. PMID:27606184

  13. Modeling cell behavior: moving beyond intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jolicoeur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the launching of this new journal, we propose a forum to the community of researchers interested and involved in, or even simply questioning the why, what, how, and when of modeling cell or cell culture behavior. To start the discussion, we review some of the usual questions we are routinely asked on the pertinence of modeling cell behavior, and on who might benefit from conducting such work. To draw a global portrait, throughout this text we refer the reader to handbooks introducing the basics of modeling a biosystem, as well as to selected works that can help visualize the broad fields of applications.

  14. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at cultu...

  15. Experimental and model analysis of the co-oxidative behavior of syngas feed in an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazzi, A.; Rahmanipour, M.; Maestri, M.; Groppi, G.; Bardini, L.; Pappacena, A.; Boaro, M.

    2016-02-01

    By means of model analysis, we show that, in the presence of syngas, the electro-oxidation of H2 and that of CO occur in parallel and contemporarily on Samaria-doped Ceria (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9, SDC) Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). The activation of a co-oxidative route is a most distinguishing feature of Ce-based cells, compared to traditional SOFCs. SDC electrolyte supported IT-SOFCs with Cu-Pd-CZ80 composite anodes and LSCF cathodes were tested under a wide range of operating conditions. Polarization and EIS measurements were collected at 600 °C and 650 °C with syngas mixtures (2.3-0.4H2/CO ratio), H2/N2 mixtures (from 97 to 30% H2 v/v) and CO/CO2 mixtures (from 97 to 50% CO v/v). A 1D, dynamic and heterogeneous model of the cell was applied to analyze the polarization and the EIS curves. The kinetics of the reactions of H2 electro-oxidation, CO electro-oxidation and O2 reduction were individually investigated and global power law rates were derived. The syngas experiments were simulated on a fully predictive basis and no parameter adjustment, confirming that the polarization behavior could be best reproduced exclusively by assuming the presence of the co-oxidative route. The IT-SOFCs were also exposed to biogas mixtures, revealing that the dry-reforming reaction was active.

  16. Identified nerve cells and insect behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, C M; Robertson, R M

    2001-03-01

    Studies of insect identified neurons over the past 25 years have provided some of the very best data on sensorimotor integration; tracing information flow from sensory to motor networks. General principles have emerged that have increased the sophistication with which we now understand both sensory processing and motor control. Two overarching themes have emerged from studies of identified sensory interneurons. First, within a species, there are profound differences in neuronal organization associated with both the sex and the social experience of the individual. Second, single neurons exhibit some surprisingly rich examples of computational sophistication in terms of (a) temporal dynamics (coding superimposed upon circadian and shorter-term rhythms), and also (b) what Kenneth Roeder called "neural parsimony": that optimal information can be encoded, and complex acts of sensorimotor coordination can be mediated, by small ensembles of cells. Insect motor systems have proven to be relatively complex, and so studies of their organization typically have not yielded completely defined circuits as are known from some other invertebrates. However, several important findings have emerged. Analysis of neuronal oscillators for rhythmic behavior have delineated a profound influence of sensory feedback on interneuronal circuits: they are not only modulated by feedback, but may be substantially reconfigured. Additionally, insect motor circuits provide potent examples of neuronal restructuring during an organism's lifetime, as well as insights on how circuits have been modified across evolutionary time. Several areas where future advances seem likely to occur include: molecular genetic analyses, neuroecological syntheses, and neuroinformatics--the use of digital resources to organize databases with information on identified nerve cells and behavior. PMID:11163685

  17. Cells behaviors and genotoxicity on topological surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, N.; Yang, M.K.; Bi, S.X. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Chen, L., E-mail: chenlis@tjpu.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhu, Z.Y.; Gao, Y.T.; Du, Z. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Tianjin Third Central Hospital, Tianjin, 300170 (China)

    2013-08-01

    To investigate different cells behaviors and genotoxicity, which were driven by specific microenvironments, three patterned surfaces (pillars, wide grooves and narrow grooves) and one smooth surface were prepared by template-based technique. Vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques and associates with cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions, which can promote cell adhesion and spreading. The immunofluorescence staining of vinculin revealed that the narrow grooves patterned substrate was favorable for L929 cell adhesion. For cell multiplication, the narrow grooves surface was fitted for the proliferation of L929, L02 and MSC cells, the pillars surface was only in favor of L929 cells to proliferate during 7 days of cell cultivation. Cell genetic toxicity was evaluated by cellular micronuclei test (MNT). The results indicated that topological surfaces were more suitable for L929 cells to proliferate and maintain the stability of genome. On the contrary, the narrow grooves surface induced higher micronuclei ratio of L02 and MSC cells than other surfaces. With the comprehensive results of cell multiplication and MNT, it was concluded that the wide grooves surface was best fitted for L02 cells to proliferate and have less DNA damages, and the smooth surface was optimum for the research of MSC cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Different cells behaviors on microstructure surfaces were discussed in this paper. • The expression of cell protein of Vinculin was studied in this research. • Cellular micronuclei test was applied to evaluate cells' genotoxicity. • Cell genotoxicity was first studied in the research field of topological surfaces.

  18. Cells behaviors and genotoxicity on topological surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate different cells behaviors and genotoxicity, which were driven by specific microenvironments, three patterned surfaces (pillars, wide grooves and narrow grooves) and one smooth surface were prepared by template-based technique. Vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques and associates with cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions, which can promote cell adhesion and spreading. The immunofluorescence staining of vinculin revealed that the narrow grooves patterned substrate was favorable for L929 cell adhesion. For cell multiplication, the narrow grooves surface was fitted for the proliferation of L929, L02 and MSC cells, the pillars surface was only in favor of L929 cells to proliferate during 7 days of cell cultivation. Cell genetic toxicity was evaluated by cellular micronuclei test (MNT). The results indicated that topological surfaces were more suitable for L929 cells to proliferate and maintain the stability of genome. On the contrary, the narrow grooves surface induced higher micronuclei ratio of L02 and MSC cells than other surfaces. With the comprehensive results of cell multiplication and MNT, it was concluded that the wide grooves surface was best fitted for L02 cells to proliferate and have less DNA damages, and the smooth surface was optimum for the research of MSC cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Different cells behaviors on microstructure surfaces were discussed in this paper. • The expression of cell protein of Vinculin was studied in this research. • Cellular micronuclei test was applied to evaluate cells' genotoxicity. • Cell genotoxicity was first studied in the research field of topological surfaces

  19. Behavior Analysis: A Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, William

    This paper provides students with a brief outline of behavioral principles and behavior change techniques, and describes various means of behavior change including operant conditioning. Methods discussed include reinforcement, extinction, punishment, response cost, time-out, overcorrection, training, and data collection for taking a baseline.…

  20. Analysis of South Carolina hydrogen and fuel cell workers views and opinion leadership behavior: A waiting opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besley, John C. [School of Journalism and Mass Communications, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29205 (United States); Baxter-Clemmons, Shannon [South Carolina Hydrogen Fuel Cell Alliance, P.O. Box 12302, Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The current study uses quantitative survey results to explore what a near census of hydrogen and fuel cell (HFC) workers in South Carolina (n = 70) say about their HFC experiences and the degree to which these workers can be expected to act as opinion leaders for the field. In general, these workers say they are positive about the environmental, national security, and economic potential of HFC technologies. They further see HFC technologies as having small and manageable levels of risk. A number of these workers exhibit characteristics associated with both issue-specific and general opinion leadership. Issue-specific leadership and positive views about HFC technology were associated with higher levels of self-reported technology-related interpersonal discussion. The study concludes that the existence of workers with positive HFC experiences and a demonstrated interest in telling others about their experiences may represent an opportunity for those charged with promoting HFC development and adoption. Future efforts should explore how HFC workers could be effectively integrated into such efforts as a means of reaching difficult to reach audiences. (author)

  1. The technical drift of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Steven C.; Rincover, Arnold; Solnick, Jay V.

    1980-01-01

    Four dimensions (applied, analytic, general, conceptual) were selected from Baer, Wolf, and Risley's (1968) seminal article on the nature of applied behavior analysis and were monitored throughout the first 10 volumes of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Each of the experimental articles in Volumes 1 through 6 and the first half of Volumes 7 through 10 was rated on each of these dimensions. The trends showed that applied behavior analysis is becoming a more purely technical effort, wi...

  2. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice.

  3. Behavioral Analysis and Identification of Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James A.; Dreger, Ralph Mason

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to use behavioral reports as a taxonomic tool, a discriminant analysis was planned to assess the capability of the Children's Behavioral Classification Project (CBCP) profiles to differentiate between gifted and normal samples of children. Results indicate that behavioral reports can be used to identify gifted children. (MP)

  4. The analysis of human behavior in context

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, Murray

    2004-01-01

    Does the name of the special interest group, “The Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior,” imply that those who analyze the behavior of human animals must organize themselves apart from those who analyze the behavior of nonhuman animals? Is the use of nonhumans in experiments really not relevant to the analysis of the behavior of humans? If so, then something must have changed. Many differences exist, of course, between the behavior of humans and nonhumans—humans, for example, cannot fly und...

  5. Multiscale Entropy Analysis on Human Operating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Junshan Pan; Hanping Hu; Xiang Liu; Yong Hu

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting the statistical analysis method, human dynamics provides new insights to the research of human behavior. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the computer operating behavior through a modified multiscale entropy algorithm with both the interval time series and the number series of individuals’ operating behavior been investigated. We also discuss the activity of individuals’ behavior from the three groups denoted as the retiree group, the student group and the worker...

  6. Current measurement in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Bonnie; Brown, Tom; Duncan, Philip K.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of behavior began with a form of data, rate of responding, which allowed for efficient study and for the description of the basic principles of behavior. Especially important were the facts that rate of responding was a direct reflection of fundamental properties of behavior, and that rate of responding was measured continuously within an experimental session. As behavior analysts moved from purely experimental to applied settings, discontinuous, time-based methods of measurement...

  7. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  8. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Ex...

  9. Toward the globalization of behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Maria E.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization could facilitate the long-term growth of behavior analysis, and although progress has been made, much yet needs to be done. Given the scarcity of resources, it is suggested that we draw from successes in the development of behavior analysis and establish behavioral programs around the world that embrace research, education, and practice as a focus of systematic globalization efforts. The strategy would require the implementation of cultural contingencies that support initiation ...

  10. Marketing Behavior Analysis Requires Different Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jon S.

    1991-01-01

    Technological talk in the field of applied behavior analysis creates distance between researchers and behavior analysis consumers. The field should focus on properly analyzing the needs of potential consumers, adapting technology to serve those needs, and packaging and marketing products in such a way that they are readily accepted and easily…

  11. Mechanical behavior of open cell aluminum foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jikou

    Open cell metallic foams are relatively new materials with increasingly applications due to their attractive combinations of physical, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. Since plastic deformation in the struts involves dislocation motion, dislocation slip bands are used to track the initiation/propagation and locations of plastic deformation in individual struts. We find that the onset of plastic deformation in struts is far beyond the observable strut/cell shape changes, and both plastic bending and buckling are strut deformation modes. To measure the strut mechanical properties, an existing micro-scale tensile tester was updated to test the individual struts extracted from foams using electro-discharged machining. The micro-tensile testing results show that the foam struts are typically more ductile and one time stronger than the corresponding fully dense alloy. To integrate the measured strut and foam properties, a four-strut structure unit is identified as a structural representative of the open cell foam structure. Based on the observed strut deformation modes, mechanics analysis is performed on the structure unit to predict the foam stiffness and strength. The predictions are in good agreement with the measured data, suggesting the significance of the studies on the foam strut properties and deformation. This model also predicts the bounds of the foam strengths. Under cyclic compression, foams fail due to damage accumulation in individual struts, in which surface cracks initiate and grow. At low stress levels, surface cracks are formed in multiple struts that are distributed across the foam block. This results in an abrupt strain jump due to the crush of foam block, upon foam failure. To meet applications requirements, open cell aluminum foams are usually annealed or strengthened. The studies are carried out in the foams in the as-fabricated (F), annealed (O) and T6-strengthed (T6) conditions. We find that annealing and T6 strengthening

  12. What happened to analysis in applied behavior analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank

    1980-01-01

    This paper addresses the current help-oriented focus of researchers in applied behavior analysis. Evidence from a recent volume of JABA suggests that analytic behavior is at low levels in applied analysis while cure-help behavior is at high strength. This low proportion of scientific behavior is apparantly related to cure-help contingencies set by institutions and agencies of help and the editorial policies of JABA itself. These contingencies have favored the flight to real people and a conce...

  13. Behavior analysis and training-a methodology for behavior engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombetti, M; Dorigo, M; Borghi, G

    1996-01-01

    We propose Behavior Engineering as a new technological area whose aim is to provide methodologies and tools for developing autonomous robots. Building robots is a very complex engineering enterprise that requires the exact definition and scheduling of the activities which a designer, or a team of designers, should follow. Behavior Engineering is, within the autonomous robotics realm, the equivalent of more established disciplines like Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. In this article we first give a detailed presentation of a Behavior Engineering methodology, which we call Behavior Analysis and Training (BAT), where we stress the role of learning and training. Then we illustrate the application of the BAT methodology to three cases involving different robots: two mobile robots and a manipulator. Results show the feasibility of the proposed approach. PMID:18263040

  14. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS BY GRAPH MINING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    KATSUTOSHI YADA; HIROSHI MOTODA; TAKASHI WASHIO; ASUKA MIYAWAKI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how graph mining system is applied to sales transaction data so as to understand consumer behavior. First, existing research of consumer behavior analysis for sequential purchase pattern is reviewed. Then we propose to represent the complicated customer purchase behavior by a directed graph retaining temporal information in a purchase sequence and apply a graph mining technique to analyze the frequent occurring patterns. In this paper, we demonstrate through the case...

  15. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  16. Self-Awareness: Behavior Analysis and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Travis

    2008-01-01

    "Self-awareness" is a specific type of autoclitic discriminative behavior and inferential generalization to similar performances exhibited by other people. Brain imaging findings take on special importance within behavior analysis when they indicate that dysfunctions in these areas are related to differential effects of our interventions, with…

  17. Procrastination, partial naivete, and behavioral welfare analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper has a dual purpose. First, I present a new modeling of partial naivete, and apply this to the analysis of procrastination. The decision maker is assumed to have stationary behavior and to be partially naive in the sense of perceiving that his current preferences may persist in the future. The behavioral implications of such partial naivete differ from those of related literature. Second, I suggest a general principle for welfare analysis in multi-self settings through a new applica...

  18. Quantifying cell behaviors during embryonic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, David; Ma, Xiaoyan; Crews, Sarah; Lynch, Holley; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-03-01

    During embryogenesis, internal forces induce motions in cells leading to widespread motion in tissues. We previously developed laser hole-drilling as a consistent, repeatable way to probe such epithelial mechanics. The initial recoil (less than 30s) gives information about physical properties (elasticity, force) of cells surrounding the wound, but the long-term healing process (tens of minutes) shows how cells adjust their behavior in response to stimuli. To study this biofeedback in many cells through time, we developed tools to quantify statistics of individual cells. By combining watershed segmentation with a powerful and efficient user interaction system, we overcome problems that arise in any automatic segmentation from poor image quality. We analyzed cell area, perimeter, aspect ratio, and orientation relative to wound for a wide variety of laser cuts in dorsal closure. We quantified statistics for different regions as well, i.e. cells near to and distant from the wound. Regional differences give a distribution of wound-induced changes, whose spatial localization provides clues into the physical/chemical signals that modulate the wound healing response. Supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGP0021/2007 C).

  19. Individual differences, intelligence, and behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  20. Multiscale Entropy Analysis on Human Operating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junshan Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By exploiting the statistical analysis method, human dynamics provides new insights to the research of human behavior. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the computer operating behavior through a modified multiscale entropy algorithm with both the interval time series and the number series of individuals’ operating behavior been investigated. We also discuss the activity of individuals’ behavior from the three groups denoted as the retiree group, the student group and the worker group based on the nature of their jobs. We find that the operating behavior of the retiree group exhibits more complex dynamics than the other two groups and further present a reasonable explanation for this phenomenon. Our findings offer new insights for the further understanding of individual behavior at different time scales.

  1. Mast cells behavior analysis: non mineralized wall of suprabony periodontal pockets submitted to low intensity laser radiation. (An in anima nobile study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this study 20 patients with periodontal disease were selected. The treatment required for all of then was the gingivectomy, a ressective periodontal surgery. This technique consists of removing the whole excess of gingival tissue with the intent of reestablishing the anatomy and the correct function. The gingival area was submitted to 2 different wavelengths and then histologically analysed to search for alterations, mainly concerning mast cells behavior, a blood cell responsible, among other things, for blood vases enlargement. During the surgical procedure each gingival area was submitted to infrared low intensity laser (λ = 785 nm) or to red laser (λ = 688 nm), both with 50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm2. A third area was analysed, the control area, in which no laser treatment was employed. The samples were fixated in formol, cut and stained by hematoxyline eosine and toluidine blue. Based on the result we can conclude: the 2 wavelengths used in this study led to the reduction in the number of mast cells present in the tissue as well as to the increase on the degranulation of the remaining mast cells, considered statistically significant taken the degranulation index and; there was no significant difference caused by the action of the two laser wavelengths λ=785 nm and λ=688 nm -50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm2-, over the degranulation of the mast cells; the length and width of the randomly chosen blood vases were not statistically different among the analysed groups. (author)

  2. Some proposed relations among the domains of behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J.; Cooper, John O.

    2003-01-01

    The present article examines the nature of and relations among the domains of behavior analysis. It first proposes a set of annotated, descriptive criteria to aid in distinguishing the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and service delivery. It then argues that the experimental analysis of behavior lies at one end of a continuum of behavior-analytic activity, with applied behavior analysis in the middle, service delivery at the other end, and the theoretical-philoso...

  3. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within eac...

  4. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194

  5. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Luo; Guangrong Tong; Yang Pan; Sha Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and prod...

  6. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers. PMID:27540508

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  8. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  9. Analysis of Electrochemistry Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous work for SKB, an electrochemical cell was developed to measure pH, corrosion potential of steel and redox potential in artificial groundwater, in the presence of a mass of anaerobically corroding steel wires. Two cells were run for over 7,500 hours. At the end of the test period, the cells were dismantled and the solutions and specimens analysed, to provide a better understanding of the environment within the test cells and the reactions that had taken place on the surfaces of the test electrodes. A thorough visual examination of the electrodes and the cells was carried out and photographs were taken. The wires in the test cells were black, although the film formed in Cell 1 appeared to be thinner than in Cell 2. Some green slime was present in both cells, but not to the same extent. Microscopic examination indicated that the slime was microbial in origin. The solutions were analysed for silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, organic carbon and total inorganic carbon. Given the uncertainties in the analytical techniques, the analyses were within the range expected based on the weights added to make up the test solutions. The composition of the corrosion product on the steel wires was determined by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The corrosion product was shown to be predominantly magnetite (Fe3O4), but there was also an indication of goethite (FeOOH) on samples that were analysed while still wet. This supports the hypothesis of a dual layer oxide film being formed during the anaerobic corrosion of iron. The surfaces of the silver-silver chloride reference electrode and the gold redox electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. There was no evidence for loss of the porous chloride coating from the surface of the reference electrode. The potential of the silver-silver chloride electrode from Cell 1 was measured against a stored silver-silver chloride electrode to check the hypothesis that the silver chloride

  10. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data. PMID:26415154

  11. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  12. Saving the world by teaching behavior analysis: A behavioral systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.; Vunovich, Pamela L.; Boettcher, William; Groeger, Corina

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a behavioral systems approach to organizational design and applies that approach to the teaching of behavior analysis. This systems approach consists of three components: goal-directed systems design, behavioral systems engineering, and performance management. This systems approach is applied to the Education Board and Teaching Behavior Analysis Special Interest Group of the Association for Behavior Analysis, with a conclusion that we need to emphasize the recruitment of...

  13. Multi scale analysis of composite structures behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lachaud, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    This research activity report is mainly based on the last 14 years work for understanding and modeling the nonlinear mechanical behavior of aeronautical composite materials. Being initiated during my PhD, this work is an extent of it, oriented to the analysis of damage phenomena (initiation and propagation) under static or rapid dynamic loadings for a broad range of composite materials such as short fibers composites, unidirectional composites, and woven composites, with thermoplastic or t...

  14. Statistical Analysis of Player Behavior in Minecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, S; Kapadia, M; Frey, S.; Klinger, S.; Mann, RP; Solenthaler, B; Sumner, RW; Gross, M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactive Virtual Worlds offer new individual and social experiences in a huge variety of artificial realities. They also have enormous potential for the study of how people interact, and how societies function and evolve. Systematic collection and analysis of in-play behavioral data will be invaluable for enhancing player experiences, facilitating effective administration, and unlocking the scientific potential of online societies. This paper details the development of a framework to colle...

  15. A behavioral prescription for promoting applied behavior analysis within pediatrics.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, K D; Barone, V J; Kuhn, B R

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades, pediatric medicine has undergone a shift in focus from infectious diseases to the effects of behavior on the health and development of children. At the same time, behavior analysts have increasingly evaluated the direct application of their technology to the development and maintenance of child health behavior. Unfortunately, applied behavior analysts have developed their technology parallel to, rather than collaboratively with, pediatricians and, as a result, are not recog...

  16. Behavior Analysis: Thriving, But How About Its Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Fantino, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been thriving by continuing to make important theoretical and empirical contributions to a wide array of problems, as well as by contributing to interdisciplinary research. Applied research in behavior analysis is flourishing. Despite these positive signs there may be an erosion of support for basic research in animal learning and behavior, including behavior analysis. Increased attention by behavior analysts to fundamental problems in areas of cognition, including decis...

  17. Microstructure and effective behavior - analysis and computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material behavior is determined by features on a number of length scales between the atomistic and macroscopic scale. As full direct resolution of all scales is out of reach there is an intense research on analytical and computational tools that can bridge different scales and a number of different schemes have been proposed. One key issue is to identify which information on the finer scale is needed to determine the behavior on the coarser scale. To shed some light on this issue we will focus on number of case studies to understand the passage from macroscopic scales, where the material is described by a multi-well non-convex energy, to macroscopic behavior. Examples include shape-memory materials, new giant magnetostrictive materials and nematic elastomers. Similar ideas have been used by others and by us to understand dislocation arrangements, blistering of thin films and magnetic microstructures. We will discuss three algorithmic approaches to analyze effective behavior: purely analytical, hybrid analytical-computational and computation inspired by analysis. Refs. 5 (author)

  18. DNDO Analysis Cell Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagh, Richard T.; Dimmerling, Paul J.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Hoyt, Joel R.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Rohlfing, Kerrie S.; Schweppe, John E.; Sego, Landon H.; Shergur, Jason M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2014-03-12

    The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) has a mission of implementing rad/nuc interdiction capabilities for a managed and coordinated response to threats, integration of federal nuclear forensics programs, and coordinating the development of the global nuclear detection and reporting architecture. In the process of executing this mission, DNDO has generated substantial information, data, technical results, operational workflows and analytical tools. The effective utilization of these resources is an overarching goal of the organization. After nearly a decade of performing work, DNDO faces a challenge in capitalizing on the large amount of data, reports, processes, tools, and people. As new work is being planned, managers and researchers need to have an understating of what information has been collected, what tools are available, the collaborations which can be utilized to propel the work forward, processes to plan and execute, and how to present conclusions and results that can assist the government in making decisions. This type of challenge can be met through the use of a series of organized and connected elements which form a broader structure (cell) that promotes cross utilization of elements such that they can be tailored (analyzed) to fit the context of the problem to be solved. The development of an analysis cell for DNDO will address the challenges of utilizing existing elements, identifying gaps, annually reporting the performance of rad/nuc interdiction instrumentation, and planning the execution of future work.

  19. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  20. Participation by women in behavior analysis. II: 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Participation by women and men in (a) the editorial process and publication of three behavior analysis journals, (b) leadership in the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and (c) participation in the 1982 and 1991 conventions of the Association for Behavior Analysis are described. The data indicate that the relative involvement of women in all three areas is lower than the percentage of ABA members who are women (31%) and is consi...

  1. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W.; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van, C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van, D.F.; Mano, J.F

    2012-01-01

    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces is influenced by surface topography and polymer type. Biomimetic superhydrophobic rough surfaces of polystyrene and poly(l-lactic acid) with different micro/nanotopo...

  2. Platelet-mediated transformation of mtDNA-less human cells: Analysis of phenotypic variability among clones from normal individuals-and complementation behavior of the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation causing myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomyn, A.; Lai, S.T.; Shakeley, R.; Attardi, G. (California Instituteof Technology, Pasadena (United States)); Bresolin, N.; Scarlato, G. (Univ. of Milan (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    In the present work, the authors demonstrate the possibility of using human blood platelets as mitochondrial donors for the repopulation of mtDNA-less ([rho][sup o]) cells. The noninvasive nature of platelet isolation, combined with the prolonged viability of platelet mitochondria and the simplicity and efficiency of the mitochondria-transfer procedure, has substantially increased the applicability of the [rho][sup o] cell transformation approach for mitochondrial genetic analysis and for the study of mtDNA-linked diseases. This approach has been applied to platelets from several normal human individuals and one individual affected by the myoclonic-epilepsy-and-ragged-red-fibers (MERRF) encephalomyopathy. A certain variability in respiratory capacity was observed among the platelet-derived [rho][sup o] cell transformants from a given normal subject, and it was shown to be unrelated to their mtDNA content. The results of sequential transfer of mitochondria from selected transformants into a [rho][sup o] cell line different from the first [rho][sup o] acceptor strongly suggest that this variability reflected, at least in part, differences in nuclear gene content and/or activity among the original recipient cells. A much greater variability in respiratory capacity was observed among the transformants derived from the MERRF patient and was found to be related to the presence and amount of the mitochondrial tRNA[sup Lys] mutation associated with the MERRF syndrome. An analysis of the relationship between proportion of mtDNA carrying the MERRF mutation and degree of respiratory activity in various transformations derived from the MERRF patient revealed an unusual complementation behavior of the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation, possibly reflecting the distribution of mutant mtDNA among the platelet mitochondria. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A Survey on Video-based Vehicle Behavior Analysis Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Vehicle Behavior is mainly to analyze and identify the vehicles’ motion pattern, and describe it by the use of natural language. It is a considerable challenge to analyze and describe the vehicles’ behavior in a complex scene. This paper first hackles the development history of the intelligent transportation system and analysis of vehicles’ behavior, and then conducts an in-depth analysis of current situation of vehicle behavior analysis from the video processing, video analysis and video understanding, summarizes the achieved results and the key technical problems, and prospects the future development of vehicle behavior analysis.

  4. Autonomous behavior of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Akkerman, [No Value; Weersing, E; Ausema, A; Dontje, B; Van Zant, G; de Haan, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Mechanisms that affect the function of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with long-term proliferative potential remain largely unknown. Here we assessed whether properties of stem cells are cell-extrinsically or cell-autonomously regulated. Materials and Methods. We developed a model in

  5. Computational Analysis of Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ďurišová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available orrespondence: Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Phone + 42-1254775928; Fax +421254775928; E-mail: maria.durisova@savba.sk 84 RESEARCH ARTICLE The objective of this study was to perform a computational analysis of the pharmacokinetic behavior of ampicillin, using data from the literature. A method based on the theory of dynamic systems was used for modeling purposes. The method used has been introduced to pharmacokinetics with the aim to contribute to the knowledge base in pharmacokinetics by including the modeling method which enables researchers to develop mathematical models of various pharmacokinetic processes in an identical way, using identical model structures. A few examples of a successful use of the modeling method considered here in pharmacokinetics can be found in full texts articles available free of charge at the website of the author, and in the example given in the this study. The modeling method employed in this study can be used to develop a mathematical model of the pharmacokinetic behavior of any drug, under the condition that the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug under study can be at least partially approximated using linear models.

  6. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van A.A.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  7. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Green Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses empirical research methods, based on detailed analysis of the food transaction big data. It use descriptive statistical method to analyze the current situation of cognitive and behavioral characteristics of the green food and it conducted data mining of factors affecting consumer buying green food. Multiple linear regression analysis have shown that the price factor is an important factor affecting consumer buying green food, next are food quality and health awareness and product awareness is one of the small degree of influence. However, the convenience of purchase has no significant effect on buying green food. At last, this study aiming factors that affect consumer purchasing choice, proposed some suggestions to expand the eco-labeling of food consumption.

  8. The influence of Kantor's interbehavioral psychology on behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Bickel, Warren K.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions of J. R. Kantor and his system of interbehavioral psychology to the field of behavior analysis are examined. Two sources of information served to organize this investigation: (1) the historical record as described in the literature and (2) the results of a questionnaire survey sent to past and present editorial board members of the Journal for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Behaviorism. The outcome of this investigation s...

  9. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  10. Behavior of Cell on Vibrating Micro Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of micro ridges on cells cultured at a vibrating scaffold has been studied in vitro. Several parallel lines of micro ridges have been made on a disk of transparent polydimethylsiloxane for a scaffold. To apply the vibration on the cultured cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the scaffold. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by the sinusoidal alternating voltage (Vp-p < 16 V at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Four kinds of cells were used in the test: L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of C3H mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma, C2C12 (mouse myoblast, 3T3-L1 (mouse fat precursor cells. The cells were seeded on the micro pattern at the density of 2000 cells/cm2 in the medium containing 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/ streptomycin. After the adhesion of cells in several hours, the cells are exposed to the ultrasonic vibration for several hours. The cells were observed with a phase contrast microscope. The experimental results show that the cells adhere, deform and migrate on the scaffold with micro patterns regardless of the ultrasonic vibration. The effects of the vibration and the micro pattern depend on the kind of cells.

  11. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (review)

  12. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Chuen Wu, Ching-Li Tseng, Chi-Chang Wu, Feng-Chen Kao, Yuan-Kun Tu, Edmund C So and Yang-Kao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  13. Multicultural Alliance of Behavior Analysis Standards for Cultural Competence in Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth Hughes; Tanaka, Sakurako

    2013-01-01

    The United States Census bureau projects there will be significant increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades, in part due to international migration (Guarneri & Ortman, 2009). Due to the increase in culturally diverse populations working within the framework of behavior analysis, clinicians must ensure that they are…

  14. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. PMID:20152890

  15. Behavioral Parent Training as a Treatment for Externalizing Behaviors and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Denita R.; Christiansen, Elizabeth; Jenson, William R.; Olympia, Daniel; Clark, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for children and adolescents with externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders was conducted with 79 outcome studies conducted between 1966 and 2001. Separate analyses were conducted for studies employing between-subjects, within-subjects, and single-subject…

  16. A Quarter Century of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: An Analysis of Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Peterson, Sean P.; Peters, Anja C

    2009-01-01

    The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (TAVB) has been published since 1982, and during this time, interest in verbal behavior research appears to have increased substantially within behavior analysis. The purpose of the present analysis was to assess the influence of TAVB on the field by (a) counting citations of TAVB articles in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) from 1983 through 2007, (b) examining which other journals ...

  17. Modulation of human vascular endothelial cell behaviors by nanotopographic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliensiek, Sara J; Wood, Joshua A; Yong, Jiang; Auerbach, Robert; Nealey, Paul F; Murphy, Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    Basement membranes possess a complex three-dimensional topography in the nanoscale and submicron range which have been shown to profoundly modulate a large menu of fundamental cell behaviors. Using the topographic features found in native vascular endothelial basement membranes as a guide, polyurethane substrates were fabricated containing anisotropically ordered ridge and groove structures and isotropically ordered pores from 200 nm to 2000 nm in size. We investigated the impact of biomimetic length-scale topographic cues on orientation/elongation, proliferation and migration on four human vascular endothelial cell-types from large and small diameter vessels. We found that all cell-types exhibited orientation and alignment with the most pronounced response on anisotropically ordered ridges > or =800 nm. HUVEC cells were the only cell-type examined to demonstrate a decrease in proliferation in response to the smallest topographic features regardless of surface order. On anisotropically ordered surfaces all cell-types migrated preferentially parallel to the long axis of the ridges, with the greatest increase in cell migration being observed on the 1200 nm pitch. In contrast, cells did not exhibit any preference in direction or increase in migration speed on isotropically ordered surfaces. Overall, our data demonstrate that surface topographic features impact vascular endothelial cell behavior and that the impact of features varies with the cell behavior being considered, topographic feature scale, surface order, and the anatomic origin of the cell being investigated. PMID:20400175

  18. Collective Behavior of Brain Tumor Cells: the Role of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Katakowski, Mark; Hopkins, Scott; Szalad, Alexandra; Zheng, Xuguang; Jiang, Feng; Chopp, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We consider emergent collective behavior of a multicellular biological system. Specifically we investigate the role of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in migration of brain tumor cells. We performed two series of cell migration experiments. The first set of experiments was performed in a typical wound healing geometry: cells were placed on a substrate, and a scratch was done. In the second set of experiments, cell migration away from a tumor spheroid was investigated. Experiments show a controversy: cells under normal and hypoxic conditions have migrated the same distance in the ``spheroid'' experiment, while in the ``scratch'' experiment cells under normal conditions migrated much faster than under hypoxic conditions. To explain this paradox, we formulate a discrete stochastic model for cell dynamics. The theoretical model explains our experimental observations and suggests that hypoxia decreases both the motility of cells and the strength of cell-cell adhesion. The theoretical predictions were further verified in independent experiments.

  19. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  20. Participation by women in behavior analysis. II: 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, D L

    1993-01-01

    Participation by women and men in (a) the editorial process and publication of three behavior analysis journals, (b) leadership in the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and (c) participation in the 1982 and 1991 conventions of the Association for Behavior Analysis are described. The data indicate that the relative involvement of women in all three areas is lower than the percentage of ABA members who are women (31%) and is considerably lower than the percentage of women in society at large (51%). This underrepresentation of women in editorial and leadership roles in behavior analysis mirrors the reported phenomenon of a glass ceiling for women in leadership roles in business and industry. The men who control our institutions are asked to share power and responsibility by increasing the involvement of women in behavior analysis. PMID:22478136

  1. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Suicide Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Taylor, Katherine; Gooding, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Suicide behavior is a serious clinical problem worldwide, and understanding ways of reducing it is a priority. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate whether Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) would reduce suicide behavior. From 123 potential articles, 28 studies met the entry criteria. Overall, there was a highly…

  3. Certification, accreditation, and quality control in behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J.; Shook, G L

    2001-01-01

    Implementing quality control measures in the discipline and professional practice of behavior analysis is a challenging, but nevertheless important, step in the evolution of our field. The Association for Behavior Analysis currently seeks to ensure quality in behavior analysis by sponsoring an accreditation program for graduate academic programs and by promoting certification of individual practitioners. The accreditation reviews are conducted by ABA, whereas certification status is awarded b...

  4. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography

  5. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Fernanda V., E-mail: fernanda@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dias, Paulo F. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography.

  6. Primary intracranial germ-cell tumors. A retrospective analysis with special reference to long-term results of treatment and the behavior of rare types of tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N.; Yamada, H.; Andoh, T.; Hirata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Shinoda, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumors were reviewed with reference to the effect of treatment. Histologically, there were 23 pure germinomas, while the remaining tumors had more unusual histology; 3 of these were teratomas, and 4 germcell tumors with the admixture of yolk sac tumor (YST) or embryonal carcinoma (EMC). Three of these rare cases are presented. The performed surgery and radiotherapy, seemed adequate for pure germinomas, and all these cases lived tumor-free after an observation time of 13 to 139 months although 4 patients developed intellectual retardation or cerebral dullness after radiotherapy. Four cases with YST and EMC elements, indicated by the elevation of AFP and HCG values in serum, were resistant to radio- and chemotherapy and developed, despite surgically total removal of the tumor, intra- or extracranial metastases. A review of the literature is included.

  7. Metabolic behavior of cell surface biotinylated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turnover of proteins on the surface of cultured mammalian cells was measured by a new approach. Reactive free amino or sulfhydryl groups on surface-accessible proteins were derivatized with biotinyl reagents and the proteins solubilized from culture dishes with detergent. Solubilized, biotinylated proteins were then adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose, released with sodium dodecyl sulfate and mercaptoethanol, and separated on polyacrylamide gels. Biotin-epsilon-aminocaproic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BNHS) or N-biotinoyl-N'-(maleimidohexanoyl)hydrazine (BM) were the derivatizing agents. Only 10-12 bands were adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose from undervatized cells or from derivatized cells treated with free avidin at 4 degrees C. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis resolved greater than 100 BNHS-derivatized proteins and greater than 40 BM-derivatized proteins. There appeared to be little overlap between the two groups of derivatized proteins. Short-term pulse-chase studies showed an accumulation of label into both groups of biotinylated proteins up until 1-2 h of chase and a rapid decrease over the next 1-5 h. Delayed appearance of labeled protein at the cell surface was attributed to transit time from site of synthesis. The unexpected and unexplained rapid disappearance of pulse-labeled proteins from the cell surface was invariant for all two-dimensionally resolved proteins and was sensitive to temperature reduction to 18 degrees C. Long-term pulse-chase experiments beginning 4-8 h after the initiation of chase showed the disappearance of derivatized proteins to be a simple first-order process having a half-life of 115 h in the case of BNHS-derivatized proteins and 30 h in the case of BM-derivatized proteins

  8. The spread of behavior analysis to the applied fields 1

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of applied behavioral science as it exists in the various behavioral fields and considers the role of the Association for Behavior Analysis in serving those fields. The confounding effects of the traditions of psychology are discussed. Relevant issues are exemplified in the fields of law, communications, psychology, and education, but broader generalization is implied.

  9. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  10. On the relation between applied behavior analysis and positive behavioral support

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, James E.; Sidener, Tina M

    2002-01-01

    Anderson and Freeman (2000) recently defined positive behavioral support (PBS) as a systematic approach to the delivery of clinical and educational services that is rooted in behavior analysis. However, the recent literature contains varied definitions of PBS as well as discrepant notions regarding the relation between applied behavior analysis and PBS. After summarizing common definitional characteristics of PBS from the literature, we conclude that PBS is comprised almost exclusively of tec...

  11. 4D Tumorigenesis Model for Quantitating Coalescence, Directed Cell Motility and Chemotaxis, Identifying Unique Cell Behaviors, and Testing Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Spencer; Voss, Edward; Scherer, Amanda; Lusche, Daniel F; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R

    2016-01-01

    A 4D high-resolution computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system has been developed and applied to the long-term (14-30 days) analysis of cancer cells migrating and aggregating within a 3D matrix. 4D tumorigenesis models more closely approximate the tumor microenvironment than 2D substrates and, therefore, are improved tools for elucidating the interactions within the tumor microenvironment that promote growth and metastasis. The model we describe here can be used to analyze the growth of tumor cells, aggregate coalescence, directed cell motility and chemotaxis, matrix degradation, the effects of anticancer drugs, and the behavior of immune and endothelial cells mixed with cancer cells. The information given in this chapter is also intended to acquaint the reader with computer-assisted methods and algorithms that can be used for high-resolution 3D reconstruction and quantitative motion analysis. PMID:27271907

  12. Deformation behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the deformation and cell collapse behavior of open-cell stainless steel foams. 316L stainless-steel open-cell foams with two porosities (30 and 45 pores per inch, ppi) were produced with the pressureless powder metallurgical method, and tested in quasi-static compression. As a result of the manufacturing technique, 316L stainless steel open-cell foams have a high amount of microporosity. The deformation behavior was investigated on a macroscopic scale by digital image correlation (DIC) evaluation of light micrographs and on the microscopic scale by in situ loading of cells in the scanning electron microscope. The deformation behavior of the metal foams was highly affected by microstructural features, such as closed pores and their distribution throughout the foam specimen. Moreover, the closed pores made a contribution to the plateau stress of the foams through cell face stretching. Strut buckling and bending are the dominant mechanisms in cell collapse. Although there are edge defects on the struts, the struts have an enormous plastic deformation capability. The cell size of the steel foams had no significant effect on the mechanical properties. Due to the inhomogeneities in the microstructure, the measured plateau stresses of the foams showed about 20% scatter at the same relative density

  13. Behavioral pattern analysis and dopamine release in quinpirole-induced repetitive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Ria; Nijdam, Annelies; Westra, Tjalke A; Kas, Martien J H; Westenberg, Herman G M

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. People with OCD suffer from intrusive, unwanted and recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). The aim of this study is to quantify the dimensions of ritualistic 'compulsive-like' behavior in quinpirole-induced behavior in rats by using T-pattern behavioral analysis. In addition, we investigated whether the behavioral effects elicited by quinpirole sensitization remained after 2 weeks of cessation of treatment. Finally, to study the neurobiological underpinnings of this 'compulsive-like' behavior, we investigated the effect of quinpirole treatment on the extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Once established, 'compulsive-like' behavior is dependent upon quinpirole administration, as this behavior rapidly normalized after cessation of treatment. After a single dose of quinpirole the dopamine level decreased more in saline pre-treated animals as compared with animals given quinpirole treatment continuously. Furthermore, T-pattern analysis revealed that quinpirole-induced behavior consists, unlike OCD rituals, of a smaller behavioral repertoire. As seen in patients with OCD, quinpirole-treated animals performed these behaviors with a high rate of repetition. These findings suggest that quinpirole-induced behavior mimics only part of the compulsive behavior as shown in OCD patients. PMID:21148023

  14. Behavioral Research Data Analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuelin

    2012-01-01

    This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su

  15. On computational and behavioral evidence regarding Hebbian transcortical cell assemblies.

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, M. J.; Andrews, M. W.; Richardson, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Pulvermuller restricts himself to an unnecessarily narrow range of evidence to support his claims. Evidence from neural modeling and behavioral experiments provides further support for an account of words encoded as transcortical cell assemblies. A cognitive neuroscience of language must include a range of methodologies (e.g., neural, computational, and behavioral) and will need to focus on the on-line processes of real-time language processing in more natural contexts.

  16. Global behavior of gear system using mixed cell mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yunwen; LIU; Mengjun; DONG; Haijun

    2004-01-01

    In some mechanical nonlinear systems, the transient motion will be undergoing a very long process and the attractor-basin boundaries are so complicated that some difficulties occur in analyzing the system global behavior. To solve this problem a mixed cell mapping method based on the point mapping and the principle of simple cell mapping is developed. The algorithm of the mixed cell mapping is studied. A dynamic model of a gear pair is established with the backlash, damping, transmission error and the time-varying stiffness taken into consideration. The global behaviors of this system are analyzed. The coexistence of the system attractors and the respective attractor-basin of each attractor with different parameters are obtained, thus laying a theoretical basis for improvement of the dynamic behaviors of gear system.

  17. “Replacing” Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Tactical Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Johnston

    2006-01-01

    A number of textbooks and professional volumes in applied behavior analysis suggest that interventions designed primarily to decrease a problem behavior should routinely be accompanied by efforts to increase the frequency of at least one appropriate behavior. Some sources describe the objective of this tactic as “replacing” the problem behavior. This paper considers rationales that might underlie this advice, as well as reasons why a general rule to this effect is inappropriate. This review r...

  18. Methodology, the matching law, and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vyse, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical value of the quantitative analysis of behavior is limited by two methodological characteristics of this area of research: the use of (a) steady-state strategies and (b) relative vs. absolute response rates. Applied behavior analysts are concerned with both transition-state and steady-state behavior, and applied interventions are typically evaluated by their effects on absolute response rates. Quantitative analyses of behavior will have greater practical value when methods are de...

  19. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Chase, Philip N.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in th...

  20. Sequential Analysis of Rat Behavior in th Open Field

    OpenAIRE

    Pisula, Wojciech

    1994-01-01

    Fifty four rats were tested in an open field. Both Frequency and Sequence of behavioral acts were analyzed. Distribution of the behavioral index frequencies appeared to be far from normal. Cluster analysis based on sequential data revealed that rats employ two main behavioral patterns in the open field. The results are discussed in terms of individual differences. The procedure used here represents an improved approach to analyzing open-field behavior.

  1. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these area...

  2. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  3. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  4. Uncovering cancer cell behavioral phenotype in 3-D in vitro metastatic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Sun, Bo; Duclos, Guillaume; Kam, Yoonseok; Gatenby, Robert; Stone, Howard; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    One well-known fact is that cancer cell genetics determines cell metastatic potentials. However, from a physics point of view, genetics as cell properties cannot directly act on metastasis. An agent is needed to unscramble the genetics first before generating dynamics for metastasis. Exactly this agent is cell behavioral phenotype, which is rarely studied due to the difficulties of real-time cell tracking in in vivo tissue. Here we have successfully constructed a micro in vitro environment with collagen based Extracellular Matrix (ECM) structures for cell 3-D metastasis. With stable nutrition (glucose) gradient inside, breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 is able to invade inside the collagen from the nutrition poor site towards the nutrition rich site. Continuous confocal microscopy captures images of the cells every 12 hours and tracks their positions in 3-D space. The micro fluorescent beads pre-mixed inside the ECM demonstrate that invasive cells have altered the structures through mechanics. With the observation and the analysis of cell collective behaviors, we argue that game theory may exist between the pioneering cells and their followers in the metastatic cell group. The cell collaboration may explain the high efficiency of metastasis.

  5. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R P; Chase, P N; Scotti, J R

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in the three Clinical graduate programs; change of the graduate program in Experimental Psychology to a program in basic Behavior Analysis; development of nonclinical applied behavior analysis within the Behavior Analysis program; establishment of a joint graduate program with Educational Psychology; establishment of a Community/Systems graduate program; and organization of numerous conferences. Several factors are described that seem to assure a stable role for behavior analysis in the department: a stable and supportive "culture" within the department; American Psychological Association accreditation of the clinical training; a good reputation both within the university and in psychology; and a broader community of behavior analysts and behavior therapists. PMID:16795816

  6. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Gresham; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Beha...

  7. Behavior Analysis: Thriving, but How about Its Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been thriving by continuing to make important theoretical and empirical contributions to a wide array of problems, as well as by contributing to interdisciplinary research. Applied research in behavior analysis is flourishing. Despite these positive signs there may be an erosion of support for basic research in animal…

  8. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  9. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  10. Is behavior analysis undergoing selection by consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennypacker, H S

    1992-11-01

    The legacy of B. F. Skinner's life is a natural science of behavior. The generality of its basic functional relations has led, by induction, to the unifying principle of selection by consequences, which accounts for morphological, behavioral, and cultural evolution. This principle both predicts and explains the observation that the science itself is becoming the object of differential selection in our culture. Public policy is increasingly being framed in terms of the effects of consequences on behavior, as illustrated by examples from education, economics, and politics. Survival of our culture may depend on our skill in managing this process. PMID:1482009

  11. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  12. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  13. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  14. Hanford tank waste oxidative leach behavior analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper study develops a modeling assumption for oxidative leaching Hanford tank wastes based on observed behavior of a limited set of samples tested. Oxidative Leaching of solids from Hanford tank wastes can reduce chromium concentrations appreciably

  15. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease : answering basic questions regarding cell behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the re

  16. The Behavior Analyst Certification Board and the Profession of Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shook, Gerald L.; Favell, Judith E.

    2008-01-01

    As applied behavior analysis has matured as a field, matters regarding credentialing have followed. Such issues surround how to identify quality behavior analytic services and to ensure that they are delivered to consumers. The Behavior Analyst Certification Board was developed to address such concerns. In this paper, we discussed the current status and impact of the BACB, along with several challenges that are facing the profession. Suggested solutions for managing these challenges are provi...

  17. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocato Pamela; Hvitfeldt Forsberg Helena; von Thiele Schwarz Ulrica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial ph...

  18. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? S...

  20. Hair Mineral Analysis and Behavior: An Analysis of 51 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Bernard; Larson, Gerald E.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-one studies on the relationship between hair mineral levels and human behavior covered a variety of behavior, including learning disabilities, retardation, hyperactivity, autism, and behavior disorders. High levels of certain minerals (especially lead and cadmium) and low levels of other minerals (especially potassium and sodium) associated…

  1. Emerging Opportunities in Higher Education : Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ala í- Rosales, Shahla; Roll-Pettersson, Lise; Pinkelman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

      The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the recognized importance of evidence-based interventions has substantially increased the need for well-trained applied behavior analysts. Relative to public/consumer demand, there are very few higher education programs that are equipped to train behavior analysts specializing in autism. Worldwide, there are only a few programs accredited by Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), that have course sequences approved by...

  2. B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G; Altus, Deborah E

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew from his science for application, his descriptions of possible applications, and his own applications to nonhuman and human behavior. Second, we foun...

  3. Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1983-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis began when laboratory based principles were extended to humans inorder to change socially significant behavior. Recent laboratory findings may have applied relevance; however, the majority of basic researchers have not clearly communicated the practical implications of their work. The present paper samples some of the new findings and attempts to demonstrate their applied importance. Schedule-induced behavior which occurs as a by-product of contingencies of reinforce...

  4. THE CONCEPT OF MEANING FROM BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS AND OTHER PERSPECTIVES.

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCA PATRICIA BALLESTEROS DE VALDERRAMA

    2005-01-01

    This article presents crucial points related to the concept of meaning trying to emphasize some convergences betweenbehavior analysis, other behavioral perspectives, like Staats’ and Ribes-Iñesta’s, and postures outside behaviorism,specially those made by J. Bruner and other representatives of constructivism and constructionism. DeGrandpre(2000) presented some ways how behaviorism can contribute to the “science of meaning” and the “psychology ofpractical significance”; his suggestions are com...

  5. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year. We analyze the data in an innovative and systematic way by developing and using a behavioral leadership coding scheme. The analysis indicates that highly effective CIOs are good listeners. They als...

  6. Recent reinforcement-schedule research and applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Neef, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinforcement schedules are considered in relation to applied behavior analysis by examining several recent laboratory experiments with humans and other animals. The experiments are drawn from three areas of contemporary schedule research: behavioral history effects on schedule performance, the role of instructions in schedule performance of humans, and dynamic schedules of reinforcement. All of the experiments are discussed in relation to the role of behavioral history in current schedule pe...

  7. ANIMAL RESEARCH IN THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say–do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by...

  8. Manometer Behavior Analysis using CATHENA, RELAP and GOTHIC Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Hoon; Han, Kee Soo; Moon, Bok Ja; Jang, Misuk [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this presentation, simple thermal hydraulic behavior is analyzed using three codes to show the possibility of using alternative codes. We established three models of simple u-tube manometer using three different codes. CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for Thermal hydraulic Network Analysis), RELAP (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program), GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal Hydraulic Information for Containments) are used for this analysis. CATHENA and RELAP are widely used codes for the analysis of system behavior of CANDU and PWR. And GOTHIC code also has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulic behavior in the containment system. In this paper, the internal behavior of u-tube manometer was analyzed using 3 codes, CATHENA, RELAP and GOTHIC. The general transient behavior is similar among 3 codes. However, the behavior simulated using GOTHIC shows some different trend compared with the results from the other 2 codes at the end of the transient. It would be resulted from the use of different physical model in GOTHIC, which is specialized for the multi-phase thermal hydraulic behavior analysis of containment system unlike the other two codes.

  9. Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a transcribed audio recording of the invited address the author gave to Sigrid Glenn on the relations between cultural materialism and radical behaviorism at the 12th annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on May 23rd, 1986. In his address, the author emphasizes that the necessity…

  10. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  11. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  12. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  13. Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or…

  14. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOR: ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Biryuk, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out the analysis of business communication focused at the aspects of communicative behavior. Business communication is considered to be fundamental in business, as a collaborative activity.We study personal features as the barriers to overcome the gaps of mutual understanding and the role of communicative behavior as an important element at every step in the business communication model.

  15. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  16. A renaissance in residential behavior analysis? A historical perspective and a better way to help people with challenging behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Holburn, Steve

    1997-01-01

    After a slow start, the popularity of applied behavior analysis for people with severe behavior problems peaked in the 1970s and was then battered down by the effects of methodological behaviorism, the aversives controversy, overregulation, and the inherent limitations of congregate living. Despite the ethical, technical, and conceptual advancements in behavior analysis, many people with challenging behavior live in futile environments in which the behavior analyst can only tinker. A radicall...

  17. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Stancu; Adrian Mitroi

    2007-01-01

    Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and prof...

  18. Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    There are a host of potentially risky behaviors in which youth engage, which have important implications for both their well being as youth and their life prospects. The past decade has seen dramatic shifts in the intensity with which youths pursue these risky activities: for example, youth homicide fell by 40%; teen births decline by 20%; youth smoking rose by 33%; and marijuana use among youth virtually doubled. This paper, and the volume it introduces, explores the determinants and implica...

  19. Local cell metrics: a novel method for analysis of cell-cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Chiang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of many cell functions is inherently linked to cell-cell contact interactions. However, effects of contact interactions among adherent cells can be difficult to detect with global summary statistics due to the localized nature and noise inherent to cell-cell interactions. The lack of informatics approaches specific for detecting cell-cell interactions is a limitation in the analysis of large sets of cell image data, including traditional and combinatorial or high-throughput studies. Here we introduce a novel histogram-based data analysis strategy, termed local cell metrics (LCMs, which addresses this shortcoming. Results The new LCM method is demonstrated via a study of contact inhibition of proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. We describe how LCMs can be used to quantify the local environment of cells and how LCMs are decomposed mathematically into metrics specific to each cell type in a culture, e.g., differently-labelled cells in fluorescence imaging. Using this approach, a quantitative, probabilistic description of the contact inhibition effects in MC3T3-E1 cultures has been achieved. We also show how LCMs are related to the naïve Bayes model. Namely, LCMs are Bayes class-conditional probability functions, suggesting their use for data mining and classification. Conclusion LCMs are successful in robust detection of cell contact inhibition in situations where conventional global statistics fail to do so. The noise due to the random features of cell behavior was suppressed significantly as a result of the focus on local distances, providing sensitive detection of cell-cell contact effects. The methodology can be extended to any quantifiable feature that can be obtained from imaging of cell cultures or tissue samples, including optical, fluorescent, and confocal microscopy. This approach may prove useful in interpreting culture and histological data in fields where cell-cell interactions play a critical

  20. Seismic behavior analysis of piled drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, low level radioactive waste is packed in drums and stored in a warehouse being piled vertically, or laid horizontally. To observe the behavior of piled drums during an earthquake, an experimental study was reported. The experimental study is limited by the vibrating platform capacity. To carry out these tests up to the supporting limit is not recommended, in view of the vibrating platform curing as well as the operators' security. It is very useful to develop the analytical method for simulating the behavior of the drums. In this report, a computer program of piled drum's dynamic motion is shown, and the analytical result is referred to the experimental result. From the result of experiment on piled drums, the sliding effect has been found to be very important for the stability of drum, and the rocking motion observed, showing a little acceleration is less than the static estimated value. Behavior of piled drums is a complex phenomena comprising of sliding, rocking and jumping

  1. Looking to the Future: Will Behavior Analysis Survive and Prosper?

    OpenAIRE

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Behavior analysis as a discipline currently is doing relatively well. How it will do in the future is unclear and depends on how the field, and the world at large, changes. Five current characteristics of the discipline that appear to reduce the probability that it will survive and prosper are discussed and suggestions for improvement are offered. The areas of concern are (a) the small size and limited power of the discipline, (b) the growing focus of applied behavior analysis on autism spect...

  2. Citation Analysis of Skinner's Verbal Behavior: 1984–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Dymond, Simon; O'Hora, Denis; Whelan, Robert; O'Donovan, Aoife

    2006-01-01

    The present study undertook an updated citation analysis of Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior. All articles that cited Verbal Behavior between 1984 and 2004 were recorded and content analyzed into one of five categories; four empirical and one nonempirical. Of the empirical categories, studies that employed a verbal operant from Skinner's analysis were assigned to either basic, applied, or observational categories. Empirical studies that did not employ a verbal operant were categorized as othe...

  3. Gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis: a critical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R S; McCaughey, R E

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing controversy surrounding gentle teaching. This paper explores the nature of this controversy with particular reference to the relationship between gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed, and it is suggested that gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis need not be regarded as mutually exclusive approaches to working with persons with mental retardation.

  4. Computer automated movement detection for the analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazani, Roseanna B.; Harish R Krishnan; BERGESON, SUSAN E.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, measuring ethanol behaviors in flies depends on expensive image analysis software or time intensive experimenter observation. We have designed an automated system for the collection and analysis of locomotor behavior data, using the IEEE 1394 acquisition program dvgrab, the image toolkit ImageMagick and the programming language Perl. In the proposed method, flies are placed in a clear container and a computer-controlled camera takes pictures at regular intervals. Digital subtractio...

  5. Solar cells based on GaAs: Thermal behavior study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli, Emmanuel; Martaj, Nadia; Bennacer, Rachid; Dollet, Alain; Perona, Arnaud; Pincemin, Sandrine; Cuminal, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    Current CPV electricity costs are still higher than those of conventional PV (thin films or silicon). This is due to additional components (tracker, Fresnel lens, optical guide…) required for CPV and to a lesser extent, to the very high price of III-V multi-junction solar cells. One way to lower CPV costs is to reduce the size of solar cells and operate at higher concentration [1]. One of the main potential limitations for the use of PV cells at very high solar concentration is cell overheating. The goal of this work is to study and better understand the thermal behavior of PV cells in high solar concentrations conditions (˜ 2000 suns). For that purpose, we have designed and prepared PV cells with platinum resistors included. Temperature measurements performed on these cells in real solar concentration conditions have allowed us to validate thermal simulations of our devices that could be used to optimize the thermal management of the cell under high concentration. At the request of the authors of the paper, an updated version of this article was published on 31 March 2016. In the original article supplied to AIP Publishing an author was omitted as well as a credit line on the last page. These errors have been corrected in the updated republished article.

  6. SYNTHETIC HYDROGELS AS SCAFFOLDS FOR MANIPULATING ENDOTHELIUM CELL BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-mei Chen; Jing-jing Yang; Yoshihito Osada; Jian Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic hydrogels can be used as scaffolds that not only favor endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation but also manipulate the behaviors and functions of the ECs. In this review paper, the effect of chemical structure, Young’s modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of synthetic hydrogel scaffolds on static cell behaviors, including cell morphology, proliferation,cytoskeleton structure and focal adhesion, and on dynamic cell behaviors, including migration velocity and morphology oscillation, as well as on EC function such as anti-platelet adhesion, are reported. It was found that negatively charged hydrogels, poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonie sodium) (PNaAMPS) and poly(sodium p-styrene sulphonate) (PNaSS), can directly promote cell proliferation, with no need of surface modification by any cell-adhesive proteins or peptides at the environment of serum-containing medium. In addition, the Young’s modulus (E) and zeta potential (ζ) of hydrogel scaffolds are quantitatively tuned by copolymer hydrogels, poly(NaAMPS-co-DMAAm) and poly(NaSS-co-DMAAm), in which the two kinds of negatively charged monomers NaAMPS and NaSS are copolymerized with neutral monomer, N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm). It was found that the critical zeta potential of hydrogels manipulating EC morphology, proliferation, and motility is ζcritical = -20.83 mV and ζcritical = -14.0 mV for poly(NaAMPS-co-DMAAm) and poly(NaSS-co-DMAAm), respectively. The above mentioned EC behaviors well correlate with the adsorption of fibronectin,a kind of cell-adhesive protein, on the hydrogel surfaces. Furthermore, adhered platelets on the EC monolayers cultured on the hydrogel scaffolds obviously decreases with an increase of the Young’s modulus (E) of the hydrogels, especially when E > 60 kPa. Glycocalyx assay and gene expression of ECs demonstrate that the anti-platelet adhesion well correlates with the EC-specific glycocalyx. The above investigation suggests that understanding the relationship

  7. Modulation of Human Vascular Endothelial Cell Behaviors by Nanotopographic Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Liliensiek, S.J.; Wood, J.A.; Yong, J.; Auerbach, R.; Nealey, P.F.; Murphy, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Basement membranes possess a complex three dimensional topography in the nanoscale and submicron range which have been shown to profoundly modulate a large menu of fundamental cell behaviors. Using the topographic features found in native vascular endothelial basement membranes as a guide, polyurethane substrates were fabricated containing anisotropically ordered ridge and groove structures and isotropically ordered pores from 200 nm to 2000 nm in size. We investigated the impact of biomimeti...

  8. Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip

  9. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  10. PEM fuel cell failure mode analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haijiang

    2011-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation. The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discus

  11. User Behavior and IM Topology Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Instant Messaging, or IM, has become widely adopted in private and corporate communication. They can provide instant, multi-directed and multi-types of communications which make the message spreading in IM different from those in WWW, Blog and email systems. Groups have great impacts on message spreading in IM. The research demonstrates the power law distribution of groups in MSN with parameter γ ranging from 0.76 to 1.22. Based on an online survey, IM user behavior is analyzed from the aspects of message sending/receiving and contacts maintaining. According to the results, degree distribution of users has a peak value and doesn't present power law character. This may indicate that social networks should be a prospective direction for the research on IM topology.

  12. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation, reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action and emotion (the judge of the course of action are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

  13. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  14. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors : a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, M.; Covey, J.; Rosenthal, H. E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Methods: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews,...

  15. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  16. The schism between experimental and applied behavior analysis: Is it real and who cares? 1

    OpenAIRE

    Poling, Alan; Picker, Mitchell; Grossett, Deborah; Hall-Johnson, Earl; Holbrook, Maurice

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. Citation data indicate that across time the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and other experimental sources, have been referenced increasingly infrequently in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Therapy, and Behavior Research and Therapy. Such sources are now rarely cited in these journals, and never have been regularly referenced in Behavior Modif...

  17. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targe...

  18. T cell behavior at the maternal-fetal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy, Patrice; Erlebacher, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the function of T cells at the maternal-fetal interface remains one of the most difficult problems in reproductive immunology. A great deal of work over the last two decades has led to the view that the T cells that populate the decidua have important roles in both normal and pathological pregnancies, but the exact nature of these roles has remained unclear. Indeed, the old assumption that decidual T cells are uniformly threatening to fetal survival because the placenta is fundamentally an 'allograft' has given way to the idea that different T cell subsets contribute in different ways to pregnancy success or failure. Accordingly, some T cells are thought to protect the placenta from immune rejection and facilitate embryo implantation, while others are thought to contribute to pregnancy pathologies such as preeclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Here, we review the current state of information on the behavior of decidual T cells with a focus on both mouse and human studies, and with an emphasis on the many unresolved areas within this overall emerging framework. PMID:25023685

  19. Trajectory Based Behavior Analysis for User Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Hsing-Kuo; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Fadlil, Junaidillah

    Many of our activities on computer need a verification step for authorized access. The goal of verification is to tell apart the true account owner from intruders. We propose a general approach for user verification based on user trajectory inputs. The approach is labor-free for users and is likely to avoid the possible copy or simulation from other non-authorized users or even automatic programs like bots. Our study focuses on finding the hidden patterns embedded in the trajectories produced by account users. We employ a Markov chain model with Gaussian distribution in its transitions to describe the behavior in the trajectory. To distinguish between two trajectories, we propose a novel dissimilarity measure combined with a manifold learnt tuning for catching the pairwise relationship. Based on the pairwise relationship, we plug-in any effective classification or clustering methods for the detection of unauthorized access. The method can also be applied for the task of recognition, predicting the trajectory type without pre-defined identity. Given a trajectory input, the results show that the proposed method can accurately verify the user identity, or suggest whom owns the trajectory if the input identity is not provided.

  20. Behavior and biochemical analysis of phencyclidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this research were: (1) to develop the radial maze as a tool for the study of phencyclidine (PCP) and related drugs; (2) to evaluate verapamil and colonidine, two proposed treatments for PCP intoxication, as potential antagonists of PCP in the radial maze; and (3) to evaluate the functionality of two distinct types of PCP binding sites as receptors by comparing, for a series of drugs, activity in competitive binding experiments with behavioral activity. The radial maze proved to be a useful tool for the study of PCP and related drugs. With training, rats became highly efficient at obtaining the 8 food pellets placed in the maze. However, PCP and related drugs disrupted this performance, causing numerous reentries into previously visited arms. Results of correlation analyses comparing rank-order affinities with rank-order potencies of (+)SKF-10,047 (the prototypical sigma-opioid agonist), PCP, and several PCP analogs support the involvement of [3H]-1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl piperidine binding sites (TCP sites) in mediating both the discriminative stimulus properties of PCP and disruption of performance in a 4-arm radial maze

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of honey bee behavioral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffiudin, Rika; Crozier, Ross H

    2007-05-01

    DNA sequences from three mitochondrial (rrnL, cox2, nad2) and one nuclear gene (itpr) from all 9 known honey bee species (Apis), a 10th possible species, Apis dorsata binghami, and three outgroup species (Bombus terrestris, Melipona bicolor and Trigona fimbriata) were used to infer Apis phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian analysis. The dwarf honey bees were confirmed as basal, and the giant and cavity-nesting species to be monophyletic. All nodes were strongly supported except that grouping Apis cerana with A. nigrocincta. Two thousand post-burnin trees from the phylogenetic analysis were used in a Bayesian comparative analysis to explore the evolution of dance type, nest structure, comb structure and dance sound within Apis. The ancestral honey bee species was inferred with high support to have nested in the open, and to have more likely than not had a silent vertical waggle dance and a single comb. The common ancestor of the giant and cavity-dwelling bees is strongly inferred to have had a buzzing vertical directional dance. All pairwise combinations of characters showed strong association, but the multiple comparisons problem reduces the ability to infer associations between states between characters. Nevertheless, a buzzing dance is significantly associated with cavity-nesting, several vertical combs, and dancing vertically, a horizontal dance is significantly associated with a nest with a single comb wrapped around the support, and open nesting with a single pendant comb and a silent waggle dance. PMID:17123837

  2. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  3. Setting events in applied behavior analysis: Toward a conceptual and methodological expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Wahler, Robert G.; Fox, James J.

    1981-01-01

    The contributions of applied behavior analysis as a natural science approach to the study of human behavior are acknowledged. However, it is also argued that applied behavior analysis has provided limited access to the full range of environmental events that influence socially significant behavior. Recent changes in applied behavior analysis to include analysis of side effects and social validation represent ways in which the traditional applied behavior analysis conceptual and methodological...

  4. Developing an interdisciplinary master's program in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lowenkron, Barry; Mitchell, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    At many universities, faculty interested in behavior analysis are spread across disciplines. This makes difficult the development of behavior-analytically oriented programs, and impedes regular contact among colleagues who share common interests. However, this separation by disciplines can be a source of strength if it is used to develop interdisciplinary programs. In this article we describe how a bottom-up strategy was used to develop two complementary interdisciplinary MS programs in appli...

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR COMPARED ANALYSIS AT ROMANIAN SMEs LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Mihaela POPESCU; Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2013-01-01

    Finding new solutions that point out existing human potential in SMEs is an important element in reviving the national economy. Featured by diminished personnel, high flexibility and the possibility of a fast answer to external factors development, SMEs are based on human agent and on informal relations between organization’s members, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) being an important competitive advantage. Our study is a compared analysis of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior ...

  6. Empirical Analysis of Customer Behaviors in Chinese E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Jinlong Wang; Ke Gao; Gang Li

    2010-01-01

    With the burgeoning e-Business websites, E-Commerce in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. From the analysis of Chinese E-Commerce market, it is possible to discover customer purchasing patterns or behavior characteristics, which are indispensable knowledge for the expansion of Chinese E-Commerce market. This paper presents an empirical analysis on the sale transactions from the 360buy website based on the analysis of time interval distributions in perspectives of customers. Re...

  7. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindrila, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  8. IDEIA and the Means to Change Behavior Should Be Enough: Growing Support for Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher; Axelrod, Saul

    2008-01-01

    With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, classrooms are now mandated to employ behavioral methods to address target behaviors. These relevant behavioral strategies have long been advanced and disseminated by the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Notwithstanding this capability, proponents of the…

  9. A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Reeshad S

    2005-11-01

    Job performance is increasingly being seen to encompass constructs such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). To clarify the OCB-CWB relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted. Results indicate a modest negative relationship (p = -0.32). The relationship strength did not increase appreciably when the target of the behavior (the organization vs. other employees) was the same. Moreover, OCB and CWB exhibited somewhat distinct patterns of relationships with antecedents. The OCB-CWB relationship was moderated by the source of the ratings, the presence of antithetical items, and the type of response options. An employee-centric perspective is proposed whereby both OCB and CWB are perceived as adaptive behavior. Implications for organizations are discussed. PMID:16316277

  10. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  11. Single cancer cell analysis on a chip

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yoonsun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells in blood may represent “a real time liquid biopsy” through the interrogation of single cancer cells thereby determining the outspread of their heterogeneity and guiding therapy. In this thesis, we focused on single cancer cell analysis downstream of the isolation of cancer cells from blood. We designed and developed various microfluidic devices for genetic and phenotypic characterization of single cancer cells. The limited DNA content in a single cell requires DNA amplification t...

  12. Cancer cell uptake behavior of Au nanoring and its localized surface plasmon resonance induced cell inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au nanorings (NRIs), which have the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength around 1058 nm, either with or without linked antibodies, are applied to SAS oral cancer cells for cell inactivation through the LSPR-induced photothermal effect when they are illuminated by a laser of 1065 nm in wavelength. Different incubation times of cells with Au NRIs are considered for observing the variations of cell uptake efficiency of Au NRI and the threshold laser intensity for cell inactivation. In each case of incubation time, the cell sample is washed for evaluating the total Au NRI number per cell adsorbed and internalized by the cells based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement. Also, the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane are etched with KI/I2 solution to evaluate the internalized Au NRI number per cell. The threshold laser intensities for cell inactivation before washout, after washout, and after KI/I2 etching are calibrated from the circular area sizes of inactivated cells around the illuminated laser spot center with various laser power levels. By using Au NRIs with antibodies, the internalized Au NRI number per cell increases monotonically with incubation time up to 24 h. However, the number of Au NRI remaining on cell membrane reaches a maximum at 12 h in incubation time. The cell uptake behavior of an Au NRI without antibodies is similar to that with antibodies except that the uptake NRI number is significantly smaller and the incubation time for the maximum NRI number remaining on cell membrane is delayed to 20 h. By comparing the threshold laser intensities before and after KI/I2 etching, it is found that the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane cause more effective cancer cell inactivation, when compared with the internalized Au NRIs. (paper)

  13. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  14. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapi

  15. Oscillatory recruitment of signaling proteins to cell tips promotes coordinated behavior during cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissner, André; Leeder, Abigail C; Roca, M Gabriela; Read, Nick D; Glass, N Louise

    2009-11-17

    Cell-cell communication is essential for coordinating physiological responses in multicellular organisms and is required for various developmental processes, including cell migration, differentiation, and fusion. To facilitate communication, functional differences are usually required between interacting cells, which can be established either genetically or developmentally. However, genetically identical cells in the same developmental state are also capable of communicating, but must avoid self-stimulation. We hypothesized that such cells must alternate their physiological state between signal sending and receiving to allow recognition and behavioral changes. To test this hypothesis, we studied cell communication in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, a simple and experimentally amenable model system. In N. crassa, germinating asexual spores (germlings) of identical genotype chemotropically sense others in close proximity, show attraction-mediated directed growth, and ultimately undergo cell fusion. Here, we report that two proteins required for cell fusion, a MAP kinase (MAK-2) and a protein of unknown molecular function (SO), exhibit rapid oscillatory recruitment to the plasma membranes of interacting germlings undergoing chemotropic interactions via directed growth. Using an inhibitable MAK-2 variant, we show that MAK-2 kinase activity is required both for chemotropic interactions and for oscillation of MAK-2 and SO to opposing cell tips. Thus, N. crassa germlings undergoing chemotropic interactions rapidly alternate between two different physiological states, associated with signal delivery and response. Such spatiotemporal coordination of signaling allows genetically identical and developmentally equivalent cells to avoid self-stimulation and to coordinate their behavior to achieve the beneficial physiological outcome of cell fusion. PMID:19884508

  16. What can behavior analysis learn from the aversives controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper argues that behavior analysis may have contributed to the aversives controversy in a number of ways. The role that the field has played and the lessons that may be learned are discussed in the areas of research, training, and politics.

  17. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  18. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy for Chronic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnow, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) was developed specifically for the chronically depressed patient. CBASP has been shown to be as efficacious as medication singly, and in combination with antidepressant medication is associated with notably high response rates in chronic depression. CBASP's core procedure, "situational…

  20. Circuitary analysis of non-linear behavior of photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, with the presentation a circuitry. Model for photomultiplier tubes we will analysis the nonlinear behavior of photomultiplier tubes and present the way. For reduce it. Finally, by using the previous part, results and PSPICE 8.0 program, we test these results particularly on the 8575 photomultiplier tubes and present the final results

  1. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  2. Investigation of cancer cell behavior on nanofibrous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering and the use of nanofibrous biomaterial scaffolds offer a unique perspective for studying cancer development in vitro. Current in vitro models of tumorigenesis are limited by the use of static, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture monolayers that lack the structural architecture necessary for cell-cell interaction and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are too simplistic for studying basic pathological mechanisms. In this study, two nanofibrous biomaterials that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen I, were investigated as potential 3D scaffolds for an in vitro cancer model. Multiple cancer cell lines were cultured on each scaffold material and monitored for cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, infiltration, and morphology. Both bacterial cellulose and electrospun PCL/collagen I, which have nano-scale structures on the order of 100-500 nm, have been used in many diverse tissue engineering applications. Cancer cell adhesion and growth were limited on bacterial cellulose, while all cellular processes were enhanced on the electrospun scaffolds. This initial analysis has demonstrated the potential of electrospun PCL/collagen I scaffolds toward the development of an improved 3D in vitro cancer model.

  3. Investigation of cancer cell behavior on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szot, Christopher S.; Buchanan, Cara F. [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rylander, Marissa Nichole [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Freeman, Joseph W., E-mail: jwfreeman@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering and the use of nanofibrous biomaterial scaffolds offer a unique perspective for studying cancer development in vitro. Current in vitro models of tumorigenesis are limited by the use of static, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture monolayers that lack the structural architecture necessary for cell-cell interaction and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are too simplistic for studying basic pathological mechanisms. In this study, two nanofibrous biomaterials that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen I, were investigated as potential 3D scaffolds for an in vitro cancer model. Multiple cancer cell lines were cultured on each scaffold material and monitored for cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, infiltration, and morphology. Both bacterial cellulose and electrospun PCL/collagen I, which have nano-scale structures on the order of 100-500 nm, have been used in many diverse tissue engineering applications. Cancer cell adhesion and growth were limited on bacterial cellulose, while all cellular processes were enhanced on the electrospun scaffolds. This initial analysis has demonstrated the potential of electrospun PCL/collagen I scaffolds toward the development of an improved 3D in vitro cancer model.

  4. Responses to Students Exhibiting Challenging Behavior: A Social-Cognitive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and academic interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities have been based primarily on behavior theory and principles of applied behavior analysis, with a recent emphasis on positive behavioral supports and the use of nonaversive interventions. Despite the wide acceptance of applied behavior analysis technology within…

  5. Mechanical behavior of alternative multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Teresa Orellana

    2013-05-22

    The usage of more inexpensive silicon feedstock for the crystallization of multicrystalline silicon blocks promises cost reduction for the photovoltaic industry. Less expensive substrates made out of metallurgical silicon (MG-Si) are used as a mechanical support for the epitaxial solar cell. Moreover, conventional inert solar cells can be produced from up-graded metallurgical silicon (UMG-Si). This feedstock has higher content of impurities which influences cell performance and mechanical strength of the wafers. Thus, it is of importance to know these effects in order to know which impurities should be preferentially removed or prevented during the crystallization process. Solar cell processing steps can also exert a change in the values of mechanical strength of processed multicrystalline silicon wafers until the fabrication of a solar cell. Bending tests, fracture toughness and dynamic elastic modulus measurements are performed in this work in order to research the mechanical behavior of multicrystalline silicon crystallized with different qualities of silicon feedstock. Bending tests and residual stress measurements allows the quantification of the mechanical strength of the wafers after every solar cell processing step. The experimental results are compared with theoretical models found in the classical literature about the mechanical properties of ceramics. The influence of second phase particles and thermal processes on the mechanical strength of silicon wafers can be predicted and analyzed with the theoretical models. Metals like Al and Cu can decrease the mechanical strength due to micro-cracking of the silicon matrix and introduction of high values of thermal residual stress. Additionally, amorphous silicon oxide particles (SiOx) lower the mechanical strength of multicrystalline silicon due to thermal residual stresses and elastic mismatch with silicon. Silicon nitride particles (Si3N4) reduce fracture toughness and cause failure by radial cracking in its

  6. A Mixture IRT Analysis of Risky Youth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes eFinch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N = 16,410 to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: 1 To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and 2 To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that 4 classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed.

  7. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  8. Empirical Analysis of Customer Behaviors in Chinese E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the burgeoning e-Business websites, E-Commerce in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. From the analysis of Chinese E-Commerce market, it is possible to discover customer purchasing patterns or behavior characteristics, which are indispensable knowledge for the expansion of Chinese E-Commerce market. This paper presents an empirical analysis on the sale transactions from the 360buy website based on the analysis of time interval distributions in perspectives of customers. Results reveal that in most situations the time intervals approximately obey the power-law distribution over two orders of magnitudes. Additionally, time interval on customer’s successive purchase can reflect how loyal a customer is to a specific product category. Moreover, we also find an interesting phenomenon about human behaviors that could be related to psychology of customers. In general, customers’ requirements in different product categories are similar. The investigation into individual behaviors may help researchers understand how customers’ group behaviors generated.

  9. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  10. Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of transcription dynamics from brain samples following behavioral experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turm, Hagit; Mukherjee, Diptendu; Haritan, Doron; Tahor, Maayan; Citri, Ami

    2014-01-01

    The encoding of experiences in the brain and the consolidation of long-term memories depend on gene transcription. Identifying the function of specific genes in encoding experience is one of the main objectives of molecular neuroscience. Furthermore, the functional association of defined genes with specific behaviors has implications for understanding the basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Induction of robust transcription programs has been observed in the brains of mice following various behavioral manipulations. While some genetic elements are utilized recurrently following different behavioral manipulations and in different brain nuclei, transcriptional programs are overall unique to the inducing stimuli and the structure in which they are studied(1,2). In this publication, a protocol is described for robust and comprehensive transcriptional profiling from brain nuclei of mice in response to behavioral manipulation. The protocol is demonstrated in the context of analysis of gene expression dynamics in the nucleus accumbens following acute cocaine experience. Subsequent to a defined in vivo experience, the target neural tissue is dissected; followed by RNA purification, reverse transcription and utilization of microfluidic arrays for comprehensive qPCR analysis of multiple target genes. This protocol is geared towards comprehensive analysis (addressing 50-500 genes) of limiting quantities of starting material, such as small brain samples or even single cells. The protocol is most advantageous for parallel analysis of multiple samples (e.g. single cells, dynamic analysis following pharmaceutical, viral or behavioral perturbations). However, the protocol could also serve for the characterization and quality assurance of samples prior to whole-genome studies by microarrays or RNAseq, as well as validation of data obtained from whole-genome studies. PMID:25225819

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of Transcription Dynamics from Brain Samples Following Behavioral Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turm, Hagit; Mukherjee, Diptendu; Haritan, Doron; Tahor, Maayan; Citri, Ami

    2014-01-01

    The encoding of experiences in the brain and the consolidation of long-term memories depend on gene transcription. Identifying the function of specific genes in encoding experience is one of the main objectives of molecular neuroscience. Furthermore, the functional association of defined genes with specific behaviors has implications for understanding the basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Induction of robust transcription programs has been observed in the brains of mice following various behavioral manipulations. While some genetic elements are utilized recurrently following different behavioral manipulations and in different brain nuclei, transcriptional programs are overall unique to the inducing stimuli and the structure in which they are studied1,2. In this publication, a protocol is described for robust and comprehensive transcriptional profiling from brain nuclei of mice in response to behavioral manipulation. The protocol is demonstrated in the context of analysis of gene expression dynamics in the nucleus accumbens following acute cocaine experience. Subsequent to a defined in vivo experience, the target neural tissue is dissected; followed by RNA purification, reverse transcription and utilization of microfluidic arrays for comprehensive qPCR analysis of multiple target genes. This protocol is geared towards comprehensive analysis (addressing 50-500 genes) of limiting quantities of starting material, such as small brain samples or even single cells. The protocol is most advantageous for parallel analysis of multiple samples (e.g. single cells, dynamic analysis following pharmaceutical, viral or behavioral perturbations). However, the protocol could also serve for the characterization and quality assurance of samples prior to whole-genome studies by microarrays or RNAseq, as well as validation of data obtained from whole-genome studies. PMID:25225819

  13. Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Rao, Jianyu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2007-12-01

    Change in cell stiffness is a new characteristic of cancer cells that affects the way they spread. Despite several studies on architectural changes in cultured cell lines, no ex vivo mechanical analyses of cancer cells obtained from patients have been reported. Using atomic force microscopy, we report the stiffness of live metastatic cancer cells taken from the body (pleural) fluids of patients with suspected lung, breast and pancreas cancer. Within the same sample, we find that the cell stiffness of metastatic cancer cells is more than 70% softer, with a standard deviation over five times narrower, than the benign cells that line the body cavity. Different cancer types were found to display a common stiffness. Our work shows that mechanical analysis can distinguish cancerous cells from normal ones even when they show similar shapes. These results show that nanomechanical analysis correlates well with immunohistochemical testing currently used for detecting cancer.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Bloggers Collective Behavior Powered by Emotions

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrović, Marija; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study emergence of the emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite network of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion-classifier developed for this type of texts. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and tempo...

  15. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, the new governing equation is solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the calculation results of this new method and other two methods are compared. It can be found that Gibson’s method may underestimate the excess pore water pressure during primary consolidation. The new method which takes the secondary consolidation behavior, the nonlinear compressibility, and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration can precisely estimate the settlement rate and the final settlement of Hangzhou soft clay sample.

  16. Review of The Principles and Applications of Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, Jack

    1988-01-01

    This review examines two important works in decision analysis: Howard and Matheson's The Principles and Applications of Decision Analysis, and Winterfeldt and Edwards's "Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research.

  17. Micro and nanoplatforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2010-01-01

    while working in a biological environment maintaining the cells viability and adding analyte are addressed and discussed. An example of a cell culturing chamber useful for both adherent and non-adherent cells, with the capability of adding analyte is given, a small discussion of in vitro cellular......In this paper some of the technological platforms developed in our group for biological cell analysis will be highlighted. The paper first presents a short introduction pinpointing the advantages of using micro and nano technology in cellular studies. The issues of requiring transient analysis...... sorting cells using dielectrophoresis will be given, aiming at early cancer detection....

  18. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  19. Electrical Modeling and Impedance Analysis of Biological Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sree V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that the external electric field intensity has significant effects on the biological systems. The applied electric field intensity changes the electrical behavior of the cell systems. The impact of electric field intensity on the cell systems should be studied properly to optimize the electric field treatments of biological systems. Based on the cell dimensions and its dielectric properties, an electrical equivalent circuit for an endosperm cell in rice was developed and its total impedance and capacitance were verified with measurement results. The variations of impedance and conductance with respect to applied impulse voltage at different frequencies were plotted. This impedance analysis method can be used to determine the optimum voltage level for electric field treatment and also to determine the cell rupture due to electric field applications.

  20. Statistical analysis in the design of nuclear fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results of a statistical analysis carried out for the design of nuclear fuel cells. The analysis consists in verifying the behavior of a cell, related with the frequency of the pines used for its design. In this preliminary study was analyzed the behavior of infinite multiplication factor and the peak factor of local power. On the other hand, the mentioned analysis was carried out using a pines group of enriched uranium previously established, for which varies the pines frequency used in the design. To carry out the study, the CASMO-IV code was used. The obtained designs are for the different axial areas of a fuel assembly. A balance cycle of the unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde was used like reference. To obtain the result of the present work, systems that are already had and in which have already been implemented the heuristic techniques of ant colonies, neural networks and a hybrid between the dispersed search and the trajectories re-chaining. The results show that is possible to design nuclear fuel cells with a good performance, if is considered a statistical behavior in the frequency of the used pines, in a same way. (Author)

  1. CORBA-Based Analysis of Multi Agent Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapan Bhattacharya; Anirban Banerjee; Shibdas Bandyopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    An agent is a computer software that is capable of taking independent action on behalf of its user or owner. It is an entity with goals, actions and domain knowledge, situated in an environment. Multiagent systems comprises of multiple autonomous, interacting computer software, or agents. These systems can successfully emulate the entities active in a distributed environment. The analysis of multiagent behavior has been studied in this paper based on a specific board game problem similar to the famous problem of GO. In this paper a framework is developed to define the states of the multiagent entities and measure the convergence metrics for this problem. An analysis of the changes of states leading to the goal state is also made. We support our study of multiagent behavior by simulations based on a CORBA framework in order to substantiate our findings.

  2. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  3. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  4. Hungarian consumer behavior analysis in terms of healthy nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lorinczi, Krisztian; Bacs, Zoltan; Nagy, Adrian Szilard

    2009-01-01

    Food marketing should pay special attention to emphasizing healthy nutrition and lifestyle as a result of the lifestyle trends and bad dietary habits. Regarding the close relationship between consumer behavior and lifestyle, the influence of healthy nutrition on purchase decisions should be an important factor in the consumer purchase decision analysis. Soft drinks have a major role in the intake of liquids and energy necessary for life. A certain level of soft drink consumption can be part o...

  5. The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Busch, Andrew M; Weeks, Cristal E; Landes, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicit...

  6. The integrity of independent variables in behavior analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, L; Homer, A L; Wonderlich, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Establishing a functional relationship between the independent and the dependent variable is the primary focus of applied behavior analysis. Accurate and reliable description and observation of both the independent and dependent variables are necessary to achieve this goal. Although considerable attention has been focused on ensuring the integrity of the dependent variable in the operant literature, similar effort has not been directed at ensuring the integrity of the independent variable. In...

  7. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were performed.

  8. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Kayal; Maria-Alexandra Paun; Jean-Michel Sallese

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were perfor...

  9. GlioLab-a space system for Glioblastoma multiforme cells on orbit behavior study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Twiggs, Robert J.

    Microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation pose significant health risks for human life in space. This is a concern for future missions and also for future space tourism flights. Nev-ertheless, at the same time it is very interesting to study the effects of these conditions in unhealthy organism like biological samples affected by cancer. It is possible that space envi-ronment increases, decreases or doesn't have any effect on cancer cells. In any case the test results give important informations about cancer treatment or space tourism flight for people affected by cancer. GlioLab is a joint project between GAUSS-Group of Astrodynamics at the "Sapienza" University of Roma and the Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center in Kentucky. The main goal of this project is the design and manufacturing of an autonomous space system to investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on a human glioblastoma multiforme cell line derived from a 65-year-old male and on Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA). In particular the samples are Glioblastoma multiforme cancer cells because the radiotherapy using ionizing radiation is the only treatment after surgery that can give on ground an improvement on the survival rate for this very malignant cancer. During a mission on the ISS, GlioLab mission has to test the in orbit behavior of glioblastoma cancer cells and healthy neuronal cells, which are extremely fragile and require complex experimentation and testing. In this paper engineering solutions to design and manufacturing of an autonomous space system that can allow to keep alive these kind of cells are described. This autonomous system is characterized also by an optical device dedicated to cells behavior analysis and by microdosimeters for monitoring space radiation environment.

  10. Shear-Resistant Behavior Analysis of Light Composite Shear Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升才; 江见鲸; 于庆荣

    2002-01-01

    Shear test results for a composite wall panel in a light composite structure system are compared with test results for shear walls in Japan in this paper. The analysis results show that this kind of composite wall panel works very well, and can be regarded as a solid panel. The composite wall panel with a hidden frame is essential for bringing its effect on shear resistance into full play. Comprehensive analysis of the shear-resistant behavior of the composite wall panel suggests that the shear of the composite shear wall panel can be controlled by the cracking strength of the web shearing diagonal crack.

  11. Advanced Behavioral Applications in Schools: A Review of R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies" is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include…

  12. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate ...

  13. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy; Das, Debdulal; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Chowdhury, Amit Roy

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. PMID:27127074

  14. Analysis of the resistive switching behaviors of vanadium oxide thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiao-Ying; Hu Ming; Zhang Kai-Liang; Wang Fang; Zhao Jin-Shi; Miao Yin-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the polarization of resistive switching for a Cu/VOx/Cu memory cell.The switching behaviors of Cu/VOx/Cu cell are tested by using a semiconductor device analyzer (Agilent B1500A),and the relative micro-analysis of I-V characteristics of VOx/Cu is characterized by using a conductive atomic force microscope (CAFM).The I-V test results indicate that both the forming and the reversible resistive switching between low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) can be observed under either positive or negative sweep.The CAFM images for LRS and HRS directly exhibit evidence for the formation and rupture of filaments based on positive or negative voltage.The Cu/VOx/Cu sandwiched structure exhibits reversible resistive switching behavior and shows potential applications in the next generation of nonvolatile memory.

  15. Multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis for SMART asymmetric behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the asymmetric flow/temperature distributions which are expected to occur in case of one main coolant pump(MCP) trip or steam generator(SG) one section isolation in SMART are analyzed using the best-estimate multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic system analysis code MARS/SMR. In both cases the assessment of thermal margin in the core is necessary to assure continuous reactor operation at 75% power level following the transient. In particular, SG one section isolation is useful for the leakage at secondary feedwater/steam pipes or steam generator tubes. In the case of one MCP trip, despite of reverse flow at the tripped pump, no asymmetric behavior at the downcomer annulus does appear due to well-mixing at the MCP discharge. In the case of SG one section isolation, the asymmetric behavior by nonhomogeneous heat transfer through the steam generator is predicted significant at the downocmer annulus but most of the asymmetric behavior is diminished by well-mixing at the core inlet. Therefore it is assured that the reactor operation at 75% power level is possible, since the effect of the asymmetric behavior on the core thermal margin is negligible

  16. Behavior of a methanol fuel cell in transitory regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.F.; Pilla, A.S.; Duarte, M.M.E.; Mayer, C.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion, Depto. de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The operation of a polymeric electrolyte methanol/air fuel cell connected to a storage tank with anolyte batch recycle is analyzed. When the cell is discharged at constant current, far below the anode reaction limiting current density, the concentration in the tank is found to decrease with time following a lineal variation. At zero time, a high CO{sub 2} concentration is detected in the air leaving the cathode compartment, which increased when higher methanol concentration is used in the anode compartment. This effect is associated to the crossover of methanol through the membrane. The amount of CO{sub 2} in the air outlet is important, and both this quantity and the crossover flux decrease when methanol concentration diminish in the anolyte. A model derived from electrochemical reactor analysis, that correlates methanol concentration changes in the storage tank, and methanol concentration at the anodic compartment exit with the amount consumed in the cell reaction and the flow through the membrane is developed. (author)

  17. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping....... Both devices were fabricated by injection moulding with a nickel master. CTC isolation was realised using PFF, which is a passive, size-based microfluidic technique. The focus was mainly on experimental work; however designs were based on flow calculations and analysed with numerical simulations to...

  18. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  19. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  20. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: steven.hsu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    expression was significantly decreased by everolimus (10{sup -5} M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  1. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    everolimus (10-5 M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion

  2. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  3. Effects of nanopillar array diameter and spacing on cancer cell capture and cell behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunqiang; Wan, Yuan; Liu, Yaling

    2014-10-01

    While substrates with nanopillars (NPs) have emerged as promising platforms for isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), the influence of diameter and spacing of NPs on CTC capture is still unclear. In this paper, CTC-capture yield and cell behaviors have been investigated by using antibody functionalized NPs of various diameters (120-1100 nm) and spacings (35-800 nm). The results show a linear relationship between the cell capture yield and effective contact area of NP substrates where a NP array of small diameter and reasonable spacing is preferred; however, spacing that is too small or too large adversely impairs the capture efficiency and specificity, respectively. In addition, the formation of pseudopodia between captured cells and the substrate is found to be dependent not only on cell adhesion status but also on elution strength and shear direction. These findings provide essential guidance in designing NP substrates for more efficient capture of CTCs and manipulation of cytomorphology in future.While substrates with nanopillars (NPs) have emerged as promising platforms for isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), the influence of diameter and spacing of NPs on CTC capture is still unclear. In this paper, CTC-capture yield and cell behaviors have been investigated by using antibody functionalized NPs of various diameters (120-1100 nm) and spacings (35-800 nm). The results show a linear relationship between the cell capture yield and effective contact area of NP substrates where a NP array of small diameter and reasonable spacing is preferred; however, spacing that is too small or too large adversely impairs the capture efficiency and specificity, respectively. In addition, the formation of pseudopodia between captured cells and the substrate is found to be dependent not only on cell adhesion status but also on elution strength and shear direction. These findings provide essential guidance in designing NP substrates for more efficient capture of CTCs

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of Fatigue Behavior of Induction Hardened Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study considers how the fatigue behavior and probabilistic properties of S.a.e. steel are related to its hardness level. S.a.e. steel was heat-treated using induction hardening. Five types of specimens were prepared (A: base material, B: through hardened material with HIV, C: through hardened material with HIV, D: through hardened material with HIV, and E: surface hardened material with HIV). Fatigue tests were performed under a stress ratio of R = -1 using a 4-point rotary bending fatigue tester. The fatigue behaviors were greatly influenced by the hardness, but the fatigue limit did not increase over a hardness of HIV. In addition, the effect of the hardness level on the failure mechanism was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. The probabilistic properties of the fatigue life were investigated using a probabilistic S-N approach, and the effect of the hardness level on these properties was evaluated using a residue analysis

  5. Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells: The future for behavior genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGerlai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  6. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior. PMID:27148349

  7. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  8. Partial involvement of NMDA receptors and glial cells in the nociceptive behaviors induced by intrathecally administered histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Komatsu, Takaaki; Iwata, Yoko; Watanabe, Chizuko; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Orito, Tohru; Katsuyama, Soh; Yonezawa, Akihiko; Onodera, Kenji; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2011-05-16

    The involvement of spinal glial cells in the nociceptive behaviors induced by 800 pmol of histamine was determined in mice. Histamine at 800 pmol injected intrathecally (i.t.) produced nociceptive behaviors, consisting of scratching, biting and licking. The nociceptive behaviors induced by histamine were significantly suppressed by i.t. co-administration with tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist CP99,994 or competitive antagonist for N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor d-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-APV). The i.t. pretreatment with the glial cell inhibitor dl-fluorocitric acid or minocycline failed to affect the nociceptive behaviors induced by histamine. However, in mice pretreated i.t. with dl-fluorocitric acid or minocycline, the nociceptive behaviors induced by histamine were significantly suppressed by i.t. co-administration with CP99,994 but not d-APV. In Western blot analysis using lumbar spinal cords, i.t. treatment with 800 pmol of histamine increased the phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors. The increased phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors by histamine was abolished by i.t. pretreatment with dl-fluorocitric acid or minocycline. The present results suggest that histamine at 800 pmol elicits nociceptive behaviors through activation of the neuronal NK(1) receptor and the NR1 subunit-containing NMDA receptors on glial cells in the spinal cord. PMID:21352890

  9. Construction of an allogenic chimeric mouse model for the study of the behaviors of donor stem cells in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mo-lin; YAN Jing-bin; XIAO Yan-ping; HUANG Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Background It is essential to establish an animal model for the elucidation of the biological behaviors of stem cells in vivo. We constructed a chimeric animal model by in utero transplantation for investigation of stem cell transplantation.Methods This chimerism was achieved by injecting the stem cells derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transgenic mice into fetal mice at 13.5 days of gestation. Several methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used for the observation of donor cells.Results Under a fluorescence microscope, we observed the GFP cells of donor-origin in a recipient. PCR, FACS analysis and FISH indicated chimerism at various intervals. Real-time PCR indicated that some donor cells existed in chimera for more than 6 months.Conclusions Allogenic stem cells may exist in recipients for a long time and this allogenic animal model provides a useful tool for studying the behavior of hematopoietic stem cells and also offers an effective model system for the study of stem cells.

  10. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  11. Quantitative characterization for dielectrophoretic behavior of biological cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Soo; Hee Park, Se; Woo Lee, Sang; Sung Yoon, Dae; Kim, Beop-Min

    2014-02-01

    We report a method to precisely quantify dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces and cutoff frequencies (fc) of viable and nonviable yeast cells. The method consists of a two-step process in which generated DEP forces act upon a cell through a micro-electrode device, followed by direct measurement of DEP forces using optical tweezers. DEP behaviors of viable and nonviable yeast cells are monitored as a function of AC frequency. We believe that the proposed method can be used as a powerful platform for cell-based assays to characterize the DEP behavior of various cell types including cancer and normal cells.

  12. Convergence analysis of neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling behavior of SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling (N–T coupling) calculations play an important role in core design and stability analysis. The traditional iterative method is not applicable for some new reactors (such as supercritical water-cooled reactor) which have intense N–T coupling behavior. In this paper, the mathematical model of N–T coupling based on fixed point theory is established firstly, with the convergent criterion, which can show the real-time convergence situation of iteration. Secondly, the self-adaptive relaxation factor and corresponding algorithm are proposed. Thirdly, the convergence analysis of the method of self-adaptive relaxation factor and common relaxation iteration has been performed, based on three calculation examples of SCWR fuel assembly. The results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently reduce the calculation time and be adapted to different coupling cases and different initial distribution. It is easy to program, providing convenience for reactor design and analysis. This research also provides the theoretical basis for further study of N–T coupling behavior of new reactors such as SCWR

  13. Adsorption behavior of low concentration carbon monoxide on polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Mitsushima, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of CO on the anode around the concentration of 0.2 ppm allowed by ISO 14687-2 is investigated in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). CO and CO2 concentrations in the anode exhaust are measured during the operation of a JARI standard single cell at 60 °C cell temperature and 1000 mA cm-2 current density. CO coverage is estimated from the gas analysis and CO stripping voltammetry. The cell voltage decrease as a result of 0.2 ppm CO is 29 mV and the CO coverage is 0.6 at the steady state with 0.11 mg cm-2 of anode platinum loading. The CO coverage as a function of CO concentration approximately follows a Temkin-type isotherm. Oxygen permeated to the anode through a membrane is also measured during fuel cell operation. The exhaust velocity of oxygen from the anode was shown to be much higher than the CO supply velocity. Permeated oxygen should play an important role in CO oxidation under low CO concentration conditions.

  14. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  15. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  16. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  17. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  18. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Multirobot Cooperative Hunting Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of multirobot cooperative hunting behavior. Multiple robots try to search for and surround a prey. When a robot detects a prey it forms a following team. When another “searching” robot detects the same prey, the robots form a new following team. Until four robots have detected the same prey, the prey disappears from the simulation and the robots return to searching for other prey. If a following team fails to be joined by another robot within a certain time limit the team is disbanded and the robots return to searching state. The mathematical model is formulated by a set of rate equations. The evolution of robot collective hunting behaviors represents the transition between different states of robots. The complex collective hunting behavior emerges through local interaction. The paper presents numerical solutions to normalized versions of the model equations and provides both a steady state and a collaboration ratio analysis. The value of the delay time is shown through mathematical modeling to be a strong factor in the performance of the system as well as the relative numbers of the searching robots and the prey.

  19. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, psuicide attempts; r=-.129, psuicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. PMID:26555430

  20. Creep behavior multi-scale analysis of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloys are used in the nuclear industry as fuel cladding tubes in order to prevent radionuclide leaks into primary loop. They are also used to ensure an efficient heat transfer between nuclear fuel and primary water. Under operating conditions, these alloys are subjected to intense thermal-mechanical and neutronic solicitations. The mechanical wear of fuel rods is a key element in nuclear reactor safety. During this work, TEM investigations have been carried out by coworkers in order to quantify driving plasticity mechanisms in investigated stress and temperature range. The main result of this study is that the prismatic glide of screw dislocations remains the main plasticity mechanism. It is frequently associated with a cross slip mechanism on pyramidal planes. These experimental observations have been implemented into a multi-scale approach, thus providing a better description of the phenomenon. The results of a characterization campaign of the multiaxial creep behavior at 400 C of recrystallised Zircaloy-4 are used in this work and a micromechanical interpretation is proposed. The Elasto-Visco-Plastic (EVP) behavior is also characterized with relaxation tests between 280 C and 43 C. Analysis of experimental results indicates macroscopic effects of dynamic strain ageing. At the same time, Finite Element computations on polycrystalline aggregates were undertaken and a procedure for the statistical estimation of intra-phase mean mechanical fields is proposed. For a sufficient number of statistical realizations, it is shown that this estimator allows the precise determination of the analytical solution provided by the self consistent model within the framework of anisotropic elasticity. Thus, this procedure was applied to an EVP medium. It seems that rule allow a good description of numerical observations. However, EVP flow of quasi-elastic crystallographic phases remains difficult to describe. The aim of this PhD is to develop models of EVP behavior of

  1. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungong Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Model Seabed Behavior under Water Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis of the behavior of a model seabed subjected to water wave excitation is presented. The experiments were performed in the wave flume at the Danish Technological University in Lyngby. Such experiments are unique in engineering sciences and therefore provide unique empirical data for testing various models of the seabed. A controversial explanation of the experiments is presented in the literature. The goal of this research was to study pore pressure changes caused by water waves and the subsequent liquefaction of the seabed. The authors of the present contribution offer their own theoretical explanation of the wave flume experiments and discuss errors found in the literature cited. The analysis is based on the classical soil mechanics, including the Biot type approach

  3. SALSA: A Novel Dataset for Multimodal Group Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda-Pineda, Xavier; Staiano, Jacopo; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Batrinca, Ligia; Ricci, Elisa; Lepri, Bruno; Lanz, Oswald; Sebe, Nicu

    2016-08-01

    Studying free-standing conversational groups (FCGs) in unstructured social settings (e.g., cocktail party ) is gratifying due to the wealth of information available at the group (mining social networks) and individual (recognizing native behavioral and personality traits) levels. However, analyzing social scenes involving FCGs is also highly challenging due to the difficulty in extracting behavioral cues such as target locations, their speaking activity and head/body pose due to crowdedness and presence of extreme occlusions. To this end, we propose SALSA, a novel dataset facilitating multimodal and Synergetic sociAL Scene Analysis, and make two main contributions to research on automated social interaction analysis: (1) SALSA records social interactions among 18 participants in a natural, indoor environment for over 60 minutes, under the poster presentation and cocktail party contexts presenting difficulties in the form of low-resolution images, lighting variations, numerous occlusions, reverberations and interfering sound sources; (2) To alleviate these problems we facilitate multimodal analysis by recording the social interplay using four static surveillance cameras and sociometric badges worn by each participant, comprising the microphone, accelerometer, bluetooth and infrared sensors. In addition to raw data, we also provide annotations concerning individuals' personality as well as their position, head, body orientation and F-formation information over the entire event duration. Through extensive experiments with state-of-the-art approaches, we show (a) the limitations of current methods and (b) how the recorded multiple cues synergetically aid automatic analysis of social interactions. SALSA is available at http://tev.fbk.eu/salsa. PMID:26540677

  4. Histamine from Brain Resident MAST Cells Promotes Wakefulness and Modulates Behavioral States

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiko Chikahisa; Tohru Kodama; Atsushi Soya; Yohei Sagawa; Yuji Ishimaru; Hiroyoshi Séi; Seiji Nishino

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing espec...

  5. A forgotten resource critical to the future of behavior analysis: Undergraduate psychology majors

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Gregory J.; Klatt, Kevin P.; Jewett, David C.; Morse, Larry A.

    2004-01-01

    The demand for board-certified applied behavior analysts is not being met, and there is a perception that fewer students are exposed to systematic courses in basic and applied behavior analysis than was true a generation ago. This article outlines how we have successfully implemented an undergraduate curriculum in behavior analysis within a traditional department of psychology. Certification credentials offered by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board facilitated the approval of this curr...

  6. Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Stem Cell Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guo-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Stress response is well appreciated to induce the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in the cell. Numerous studies have demonstrated that Hsps function as molecular chaperones in the stabilization of intracellular proteins, repairing damaged proteins, and assisting in protein translocation. Various kinds of stem cells (embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells) have to maintain their stemness and, under certain circumstances, undergo stress. Therefore, Hs...

  7. DNA analysis of epithelial cell suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; Johnson, N.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cell suspensions of skin were obtained by animals exposed by skin painting of several crude oils. DNA analysis of these cell suspensions labeled with mithramycin provide determination of percentages of cells in the G/sub 1/, S and G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle. Data acquired showed differences from control animals occurring as early as 7 days after treatment and persisting through 21 days afterwards. There was histological evidence of erythema and hyperplasia in shale oil-exposed skins. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in shale-oil-exposed skin cells showed an increased percentage of cycling cells plus evidence of aneuploidy. Similar data from simply abraded skin showed increased percentages of cycling cells, but no aneuploidy. The shale-oil-exposed group, when compared to a standard petroleum-exposed group, had significantly increased percentages of cycling cells. This early indication of differing response to different complex mixtures was also seen in long-term skin exposures to these compounds. Similar analytical techniques were applied to tracheal cell suspensions from ozone-exposed rats. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O’Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...... identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From...

  9. Does Changing Behavioral Intentions Engender Behavior Change? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous theories in social and health psychology assume that intentions cause behaviors. However, most tests of the intention- behavior relation involve correlational studies that preclude causal inferences. In order to determine whether changes in behavioral intention engender behavior change, participants should be assigned randomly to a…

  10. Evaluation of Tritium Behavior in the Epoxy Painted Concrete Wall of ITER Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium behavior released in the ITER hot cell has been investigated numerically using a combined analytical methods of a tritium transport analysis in the multi-layer wall (concrete and epoxy paint) with the one dimensional diffusion model and a tritium concentration analysis in the hot cell with the complete mixing model by the ventilation. As the results, it is revealed that tritium concentration decay and permeation issues are not serious problem in a viewpoint of safety, since it is expected that tritium concentration in the hot cell decrease rapidly within several days just after removing the tritium release source, and tritium permeation through the epoxy painted concrete wall will be negligible as long as the averaged realistic diffusion coefficient is ensured in the concrete wall. It is also revealed that the epoxy paint on the concrete wall prevents the tritium inventory increase in the concrete wall greatly (two orders of magnitudes), but still, the inventory in the wall is estimated to reach about 0.1 PBq for 20 years operation

  11. Investigation of drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors with synchrotron radiation hard X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis is an advanced method of quantitative elemental analysis. It is a scientific platform for life science, material science, and environmental science. Purpose: In this present study, the drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors was investigated by using the method of Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis. Methods: The copper (Ⅱ) ions were loaded into acetyl-modified generation 5(G5) PAMAM dendrimers. We monitored and imaged the distribution of copper in A549 cell by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) to observe the cellular uptake of copper-dendrimers conjugates. Results: The results of hard X-ray fluorescence mapping showed a stronger fluorescence of Cu in the cells treated with G5-Ac-Cu than that of control. Conclusions: This investigation provided a method of using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to study the drug loading behavior of dendrimers. (authors)

  12. Innovative Tools and Technology for Analysis of Single Cells and Cell-Cell Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konry, Tania; Sarkar, Saheli; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Cohen, Noa

    2016-07-11

    Heterogeneity in single-cell responses and intercellular interactions results from complex regulation of cell-intrinsic and environmental factors. Single-cell analysis allows not only detection of individual cellular characteristics but also correlation of genetic content with phenotypic traits in the same cell. Technological advances in micro- and nanofabrication have benefited single-cell analysis by allowing precise control of the localized microenvironment, cell manipulation, and sensitive detection capabilities. Additionally, microscale techniques permit rapid, high-throughput, multiparametric screening that has become essential for -omics research. This review highlights innovative applications of microscale platforms in genetic, proteomic, and metabolic detection in single cells; cell sorting strategies; and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. We discuss key design aspects of single-cell localization and isolation in microfluidic systems, dynamic and endpoint analyses, and approaches that integrate highly multiplexed detection of various intracellular species. PMID:26928209

  13. Single-Cell Memory Regulates a Neural Circuit for Sensory Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyogo Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unveiling the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying memory has been a challenge for the past few decades. Although synaptic plasticity is proven to be essential for memory formation, the significance of “single-cell memory” still remains elusive. Here, we exploited a primary culture system for the analysis of C. elegans neurons and show that a single thermosensory neuron has an ability to form, retain, and reset a temperature memory. Genetic and proteomic analyses found that the expression of the single-cell memory exhibits inter-individual variability, which is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved CaMKI/IV and Raf pathway. The variable responses of a sensory neuron influenced the neural activity of downstream interneurons, suggesting that modulation of the sensory neurons ultimately determines the behavioral output in C. elegans. Our results provide proof of single-cell memory and suggest that the individual differences in neural responses at the single-cell level can confer individuality.

  14. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani

    2013-01-01

    practical study of a descriptive-analytic nature. The data is compiled based on library source and field survey. In the field survey the tool used is a researcher designed questionnaire containing two series of open and closed questions. The questionnaire consists of the two following measuring parts:A.General characteristics that include variables such as sex, age, driving license issuance date, hours driven per day, education, income, occupational status, residential sectionB.Driving behavior that includes variables such as conduct on local roads which contain 9 items measured by Likert scale. Sample size is estimated through Cochran formula, by which 322 drivers were randomly selected from the intra-city drivers in the vicinity of major connecting intersections like squares, circles, crosses. They were asked to stop when at a very low speed or almost unmoving. Data analysis, summarizing and categorization are processed through SPSS. The descriptive findings are illustrated through GIS Arc software, and Kruskal-Wallis test, Tavy - Kendall none and chi-square were run to analyze the data.Discussion of Results & ConclusionsThe findings indicate that be getting older drivers tend to observe traffic roles in the following ways: 1.Observing the standard distance from the vehicle in front 2.Observing the proper speed when the traffic is high3.Driving between the lines4.Not overtaking from right5.Allowing others to overtake6.Patience during driving7.Having proper speed when overtaking8.Watching the side mirrors and proper signaling before turningThere is no statistical significance between driver age and parking at "No Parking" zones. As the driving skills are advanced all the above variables are improved. However, there is no statistical significance between the skill record and parking at No Parking zones.As the duration of driving per day increases, parking in No parking zones, overtaking from right and impatience among the drivers increases too. There is no statistical

  15. Treatment moderators of cognitive behavior therapy to reduce aggressive behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Kirsten C; Leeijen, Anouk A M; van der Molen, Mariët J; Scheepers, Floor E; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2015-03-01

    Maladaptive aggression in adolescents is an increasing public health concern. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is one of the most common and promising treatments of aggression. However, there is a lack of information on predictors of treatment response regarding CBT. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed examining the role of predictors on treatment response of CBT. Twenty-five studies were evaluated (including 2,302 participants; 1,580 boys and 722 girls), and retrieved through searches on PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Effect sizes were calculated for studies that met inclusion criteria. Study population differences and specific CBT characteristics were examined for their explanatory power. There was substantial variation across studies in design and outcome variables. The meta-analysis showed a medium treatment effect for CBT to reduce aggression (Cohen'd = 0.50). No predictors of treatment response were found in the meta-analysis. Only two studies did examine whether proactive versus reactive aggression could be a moderator of treatment outcome, and no effect was found of this subtyping of aggression. These study results suggest that CBT is effective in reducing maladaptive aggression. Furthermore, treatment setting and duration did not seem to influence treatment effect, which shows the need for development of more cost-effective and less-invasive interventions. More research is needed on moderators of outcome of CBT, including proactive versus reactive aggression. This requires better standardization of design, predictors, and outcome measures across studies. PMID:25138144

  16. USING VIDEO TECHNOLOGY TO DISSEMINATE BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES: A REVIEW OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS: A GUIDE FOR UNDERSTANDING CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR (DVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, James E.; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysis has generated many highly effective behavior-change procedures, the procedures have not always been effectively disseminated. One solution to this problem is the use of video technology, which has been facilitated by the ready availability of video production equipment and software and multiple distribution methods (e.g., DVD, online streaming). We review a recent DVD that was produced to disseminate the successful experimental functional analysis procedure....

  17. Advanced behavioral applications in schools: A review of R. Douglas Greer's designing teaching strategies: An applied behavior analysis systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer1s Designing Teaching Strategies is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS®) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include its instruction in literacy, its use of graphing, and its flexibility in systematic organization. Although its readability could be improved, this book...

  18. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  19. Probing the behaviors of gold nanorods in metastatic breast cancer cells based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqi Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work, behaviors of positively-charged AuNRs in a highly metastatic tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 are examined based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dark-field microscopic observation. It is found that characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks of AuNRs can be detected using spectroscopic method within living cells that have taken up AuNRs. The peak area of transverse SPR band is shown to be proportionally related to the amount of AuNRs in the cells determined with ICP-MS, which suggests a facile and real time quantification method for AuNRs in living cells. The shape of longitudinal SPR band in UV-vis-NIR spectrum reflects the aggregation state of AuNRs in the cells during the incubation period, which is proved by TEM and microscopic observations. Experimental results reveal that AuNRs are internalized by the cells rapidly; the accumulation, distribution and aggregation of AuNRs in the cells compartments are time and dose dependent. The established spectroscopic analysis method can not only monitor the behaviors of AuNRs in living cells but may also be helpful in choosing the optimum laser stimulation wavelength for anti-tumor thermotherapy.

  20. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote…

  1. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  2. A kinetic-metabolic model based on cell energetic state: study of CHO cell behavior under Na-butyrate stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbaniaghdam, Atefeh; Henry, Olivier; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-04-01

    A kinetic-metabolic model approach describing and simulating Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior is presented. The model includes glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, respiratory chain, redox state and energetic metabolism. Growth kinetic is defined as a function of the major precursors for the synthesis of cell building blocks. Michaelis-Menten type kinetic is used for metabolic intermediates as well as for regulatory functions from energy shuttles (ATP/ADP) and cofactors (NAD/H and NADP/H). Model structure and parameters were first calibrated using results from bioreactor cultures of CHO cells expressing recombinant t-PA. It is shown that the model can simulate experimental data for all available experimental data, such as extracellular glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium concentration time profiles, as well as cell energetic state. A sensitivity analysis allowed identifying the most sensitive parameters. The model was then shown to be readily adaptable for studying the effect of sodium butyrate on CHO cells metabolism, where it was applied to the cases with sodium butyrate addition either at mid-exponential growth phase (48 h) or at the early plateau phase (74 h). In both cases, a global optimization routine was used for the simultaneous estimation of the most sensitive parameters, while the insensitive parameters were considered as constants. Finally, confidence intervals for the estimated parameters were calculated. Results presented here further substantiate our previous findings that butyrate treatment at mid-exponential phase may cause a shift in cellular metabolism toward a sustained and increased efficiency of glucose utilization channeled through the TCA cycle. PMID:22976819

  3. Analysis Components of the Digital Consumer Behavior in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bogdan Onete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is investigating the Romanian consumer behavior in the context of the evolution of the online shopping. Given that online stores are a profitable business model in the area of electronic commerce and because the relationship between consumer digital Romania and its decision to purchase products or services on the Internet has not been sufficiently explored, this study aims to identify specific features of the new type of consumer and to examine the level of online shopping in Romania. Therefore a documentary study was carried out with statistic data regarding the volume and the number of transactions of the online shopping in Romania during 2010-2014, the type of products and services that Romanians are searching the Internet for and demographics of these people. In addition, to study more closely the online consumer behavior, and to interpret the detailed secondary data provided, an exploratory research was performed as a structured questionnaire with five closed questions on the distribution of individuals according to the gender category they belong (male or female; decision to purchase products / services in the virtual environment in the past year; the source of the goods / services purchased (Romanian or foreign sites; factors that have determined the consumers to buy products from foreign sites; categories of products purchased through online transactions from foreign merchants. The questionnaire was distributed electronically via Facebook social network users and the data collected was processed directly in the Facebook official app to create and interpret responses to surveys. The results of this research correlated with the official data reveals the following characteristics of the digital consumer in Romania: atypical European consumer, interested more in online purchases from abroad, influenced by the quality and price of the purchase. This paper assumed a careful analysis of the online acquisitions phenomenon and also

  4. Improvement of Parkinsonian behavior with co-grafts of Schwann cells and neural stem cells in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia; Chengchuan Jiang; Zhongliang Ding; Yang Wang; Bin Xu; Linyin Feng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of autograft transplant rejection, Schwann cells (SCs) can promote the proliferation of embryonic stem cells and the induction of dopaminergic neurons. Mesencephalic stem cells can be induced to produce dopaminergic neurons. The therapeutic effects of co-grafts of SCs and neural stem cells (NSCs) deserves further study and verification in Parkinsonian animal models.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Schwann cells and mesencephalic NSC co-grafts in Parkinsonian animal models on animal behavior and histology.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Fudan University; Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences.MATERIALS: The following animals were obtained from the Experimental Animal Center, Shanghai Institute for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences: 5 Sprague-Dawley rats, embryonic day (E) 13–16; 16 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, postnatal day 1–3; and 18 adult SD rats of both genders. Animal experimentation met animal ethical approval.METHODS: The experiment was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Medical Center, Fudan University from September 2005 to January 2007. The mesencephalic NSCs were obtained from the brains of SD rats at E 13–16, and SCs were harvested from the sciatic nerves of neonatal rats at day 1–3. Hemiparkinsonian rats (n =18) were selected for transplantation after estimating rotational behavior in response to apomorphine and were randomly assigned to three groups: control group, NSC group, and co-graft group. There were 6 rats in each group. Either phosphate buffered saline (PBS), NSCs, or SCs plus NSCs were transplanted into the right neostriatum of Parkinsonian rats, respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Rotational behavior was induced by apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg, I.p.) 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after transplantation, and the number of rotations were counted. ② Differentiation and survival of dopaminergic neurons in the right

  5. Using principal component analysis for selecting network behavioral anomaly metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent; Barsamian, Alex

    2010-04-01

    This work addresses new approaches to behavioral analysis of networks and hosts for the purposes of security monitoring and anomaly detection. Most commonly used approaches simply implement anomaly detectors for one, or a few, simple metrics and those metrics can exhibit unacceptable false alarm rates. For instance, the anomaly score of network communication is defined as the reciprocal of the likelihood that a given host uses a particular protocol (or destination);this definition may result in an unrealistically high threshold for alerting to avoid being flooded by false positives. We demonstrate that selecting and adapting the metrics and thresholds, on a host-by-host or protocol-by-protocol basis can be done by established multivariate analyses such as PCA. We will show how to determine one or more metrics, for each network host, that records the highest available amount of information regarding the baseline behavior, and shows relevant deviances reliably. We describe the methodology used to pick from a large selection of available metrics, and illustrate a method for comparing the resulting classifiers. Using our approach we are able to reduce the resources required to properly identify misbehaving hosts, protocols, or networks, by dedicating system resources to only those metrics that actually matter in detecting network deviations.

  6. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenberg Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.. A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Results We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a

  7. Searching for simplicity in the analysis of neurons and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Greg J.; Osborne, Leslie C.; Bialek, William

    2011-01-01

    What fascinates us about animal behavior is its richness and complexity, but understanding behavior and its neural basis requires a simpler description. Traditionally, simplification has been imposed by training animals to engage in a limited set of behaviors, by hand scoring behaviors into discrete classes, or by limiting the sensory experience of the organism. An alternative is to ask whether we can search through the dynamics of natural behaviors to find explicit evidence that these behavi...

  8. Investigation of Eigenvalue Behavior in the Asymptotic Analysis of PCMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result, two eigenvalues, associated with the stress singularity at the contact edge, were produced. A finite element analysis technique to calculate the generalized stress intensity factors was also presented in these papers, which would be used as the calibration factors to evaluate the actual stresses when the pellet fragments expand the cladding in the PCMI. This analysis is further extended in this paper to accommodate a more realistic condition of the PCMI such as a frictional contact between two adjacent pellet fragments and a cladding tube. However, this yields a sophisticated behavior of the eigenvalues depending on the coefficient of friction (incorporating the direction of slipping of each fragment) as well as the angle of the pellet crack. Since the stress field of the cladding is directly determined from the eigenvalues, it is crucial to evalutae and investigate them to analyze the PCMI problem mechanistically, which is pursed in this paper. In the sequel to the previous work of an asymptotic analysis of a bonded contact between a wedge and a half plane (two bodies in contact), a frictional contact problem of three bodies mutually contacted is considered here to simulate a further actual contact configuration of a cracked pellet and a cladding tube in PCMI. The results are summarized as follows

  9. Analysis of the Navigation Behavior of the Users' using Grey Relational Pattern Analysis with Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    BINDU MADHURI .Ch,; DR. ANAND CHANDULAL.J

    2010-01-01

    Generally user page visits are sequential in nature. The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised navigational problems. Markov chains have been used to model user sequential navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW).The enormous growth in the number of documents in the WWW increases the need for improved link navigation and path analysis models. Link prediction and path analysis are important problems with a wide range of applications ranging from personalization to web...

  10. Regional Difference Analysis of Farmers’ Land Use Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin; HUANG; Chengwu; LIU; Guangping; DING

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data and statistical information on farmers,we conduct comparative analysis of land use behavior of farmers in the Jianghan Plain and the hilly areas of Xianning City in Hubei Province.We find that the utilization rate of agricultural land and level of agricultural labor output in the plain areas are higher than in the hilly areas;at the same time,the degree of mechanization of agricultural land utilization and farmers’land use scale are larger in the plain areas.But the crop type in the plain areas is single,and the decline rate of the growing area of food crops is higher in recent twenty years;meanwhile,the material input costs and opportunity cost of labor for the agricultural land utilization in the plain areas are greater than in the hilly areas.

  11. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.;

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  12. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Sebastian; Dengjel, Jörn; Brummer, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is driven by the oncogenic fusion kinase Bcr-Abl, which organizes its own signaling network with various proteins. These proteins, their interactions, and their role in relevant signaling pathways can be analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) approaches in various models systems, e.g., in cell culture models. In this chapter, we describe in detail immunoprecipitations and quantitative proteomics analysis using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) of components of the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in the human CML cell line K562. PMID:27581145

  13. Control of cell behavior on PTFE surface using ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface is smooth and biologically inert, so that cells cannot attach to it. Ion beam irradiation of the PTFE surface forms micropores and a melted layer, and the surface is finally covered with a large number of small protrusions. Recently, we found that cells could adhere to this irradiated PTFE surface and spread over the surface. Because of their peculiar attachment behavior, these surfaces can be used as biological tools. However, the factors regulating cell adhesion are still unclear, although some new functional groups formed by irradiation seem to contribute to this adhesion. To control cell behavior on PTFE surfaces, we must determine the effects of the outermost irradiated surface on cell adhesion. In this study, we removed the thin melted surface layer by postirradiation annealing and investigated cell behavior on the surface. On the surface irradiated with 3 x 1016 ions/cm2, cells spread only on the remaining parts of the melted layer. From these results, it is clear that the melted layer had a capacity for cell attachment. When the surface covered with protrusions was irradiated with a fluence of 1 x 1017 ions/cm2, the distribution of cells changed after the annealing process from 'sheet shaped' into multicellular aggregates with diameters of around 50 μm. These results indicate that we can control cell behavior on PTFE surfaces covered with protrusions using irradiation and subsequent annealing. Multicellular spheroids can be fabricated for tissue engineering using this surface.

  14. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  15. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote desirable forms of behavior and to prevent or ameliorate undesirable forms in clinical, educational, and other settings. Less obviously, there has also emer...

  16. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: Frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Erik K.; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E.

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  17. Mechanical behavior of alternative multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Pérez, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The usage of more inexpensive silicon feedstock for the crystallization of multicrystalline silicon blocks promises cost reduction for the photovoltaic industry. Less expensive substrates made out of metallurgical silicon (MG-Si) are used as a mechanical support for the epitaxial solar cell. Moreover, conventional inert solar cells can be produced from up-graded metallurgical silicon (UMG-Si). This feedstock has higher content of impurities which influences cell performance and mechanical str...

  18. [Genetic-metabolic model of cancer cell behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dil'man, V M; Blagosklonnyĭ, M V

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the transforming protein (type pp60) induce "insulinization" of the cell membrane. It is mostly due to this effect that the cell sensitivity to insulin and insulin-like factors of the body internal medium is enhanced, which in turn results in the increased glucosa transport into cell. The transforming protein is also supposed to increase the activity of the glycolysis key enzymes by phosphorylating them. The presence of these two effects seems to be sufficient enough to explain "the biochemical behaviour" of the cancerous cell. PMID:7385728

  19. Essential readings for graduate students in behavior analysis: A survey of the JEAB and JABA boards of editors

    OpenAIRE

    Saville, Bryan K; Beal, Scott A.; Buskist, William

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed the editorial boards of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in an attempt to construct an essential reading list for graduate students in behavior analysis. Respondents were asked to list up to 10 behavior-analytic journal articles, 10 behavior-analytic books, and 5 non-behavior-analytic books or journal articles that they felt were essential readings. Several behavior-analytic books were listed by members of both edito...

  20. A rapid estimation and sensitivity analysis of parameters describing the behavior of commercial Li-ion batteries including thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Model fitting and sensitivity analysis to account for commercial Li-ion batteries. • Rapid estimation of kinetic and transport parameters describing the multiphysics. • Prediction of phenomena determining the performance of high-capacity Li-ion batteries. • Thermal analysis to estimate the temperature rise on battery surface. - Abstract: In this work, a methodology based on rigorous model fitting and sensitivity analysis is presented to determine the parameters describing the physicochemical behavior of commercial pouch Li-ion batteries of high-capacity (16 A h), utilized in electric vehicles. It is intended for a rapid estimation of the kinetic and transport parameters, state of charge and health of a Li-ion battery when chemical information is not available, or for a brand new system. A pseudo 2-D model comprised of different contributions reported in the literature is utilized to describe the mass, charge and thermal balances of the cell and porous electrodes; and adapted to the battery chemistry under study. The sensitivity analysis of key model parameters is conducted to determine confidence intervals, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for non-linear models. Also individual multi-parametric sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of the model parameters on battery voltage. The battery is comprised of multiple cells in parallel containing carbon anodes and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) cathodes with maximum and cut-off voltages of 4.2 and 2.7 V, respectively. Mass and charge transfer limitations during the discharge/charge of the battery are discussed as a function of State of Charge (SOC). A thermal analysis is also conducted to estimate the temperature rise on the surface of the battery. This modeling methodology can be extended to the analysis of other chemistry types of Li-ion batteries, as well as the evaluation of other material phenomena including capacity fade

  1. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  2. Mechanical behavior analysis on electrostatically actuated rectangular microplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplates are widely used in various MEMS devices based on electrostatic actuation such as MEMS switches, micro pumps and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). Accurate predictions for the mechanical behavior of the microplate under electrostatic force are important not only for the design and optimization of these electrostatic devices but also for their operation. This paper presents a novel reduced-order model for electrostatically actuated rectangular and square microplates with a new method to treat the nonlinear electrostatic force. The model was developed using Galerkin method which turned the partial-differential equation governing the microplates into an ordinary equation system. Using this model and cosine-like deflection functions, explicit expressions were established for the deflection and pull-in voltage of the rectangular and square microplates. The theoretical results were well validated with the finite element method simulations and experimental data of literature. The expressions for the deflection analysis are able to predict the deflection up to the pull-in position with an error less than 5.0%. The expressions for the pull-in voltage analysis can determine the pull-in voltages with errors less than 1.0%. Additionally, the method to calculate the capacitance variation of the electrostatically actuated microplates was proposed. These theoretical analyses are helpful for design and optimization of electrostatically actuated microdevices. (paper)

  3. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  4. Theoretical analysis on convergence behavior of rank filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Wanzhou

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically studies the convergence behavior of rank filters. The problem of convergence behavior of rank filters has been solved completely for bounded sequences. Moreover, some properties of its limiting sequences and recurrent sequences are obtained.

  5. Medical Students' Knowledge, Familiarity, and Attitudes towards Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donation: Stem Cell Donation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Praveena; Wolanskyj, Alexandra; Ehlers, Shawna L; Litzow, Mark R; Patnaik, Mrinal S; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood disorders and genetic diseases. Approximately 70% of the HSCTs currently performed in the United States use stems cells from an unrelated donor who donated voluntarily. Medical students (MS) are a young, diverse, influential population whose willingness to engage in altruistic acts, such as donating stem cells, may be correlated with knowledge on the topic. A literature gap exists in MS perspectives towards HSCT and the bone marrow registry (BMR) and prior studies suggest that misconceptions about donation deter MS from participation on the BMR, which may decrease opportunities to educate other potential donors. We performed a cross-sectional survey among the 4-year cohort of MS at Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota. The questionnaire evaluated multiple areas including whether MS were current members of the BMR and/or prior blood donors, MS current knowledge on donor eligibility (DE) and the donation process (DP), MS familiarity with HSCT and the DP, and MS attitudes towards joining the BMR and towards donating stem cells. The responses were analyzed and assessed alongside a self-reported, standardized scale measuring students' altruistic behaviors. There were 99 out of 247 potential respondents (40%), with 45% (n = 44) of MS in preclinical years 1 or 2, 37% (n = 37) in clinical years 3 or 4, and 18% (n = 18) in research or alternative portions of their training, of which 43% (n = 41) in total were current BMR members. BMR status correlated positively with prior blood donation (P = .015) and female sex (P = .014). Respondents had a 57.7% and 63.7% average correct response rate regarding knowledge of DE and DP, respectively, with knowledge of DE not surprisingly higher in BMR members (P donating stem cells: lower concern with all evaluated aspects of HSCT-time, cost, pain, and side effects (for all subsections, P

  6. E-7 analysis of aerosol behavior under secondary sodium leak accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of aerosol behavior inside and outside of the building under conditions of secondary sodium leak accident was performed by simulation The calculated results were compared to the sampled values. For the aerosol behavior analysis in the building, the aerosol generation rate was assumed to be 25 g/sec (conversion Na) and the chemical composition to be Na2O. The lumped-parameter code was used for simulation of aerosol diffusion in the building corresponding to air ventilating conditions. Based on the results of 3-dimension calculation for the roof space of the building, 20% of the aerosol released from the sodium leak cell to the outside was assumed to re-circulate to air supply system. Based on the result of comparison of density values between calculation and sampling, the simulation was almost successful, although density values in cells far from sodium leak cell were underestimated, and the values in cells near the leak were overestimated. For aerosol diffusion out of building and off-site, the 3-dimensional calculation was performed assuming that the aerosol exhaust rate was 25 g/sec (conversion Na), the chemical composition the Na2CO3, aerosol mass density 0.3 g/cm3, wind velocity 11 m/sec and wind direction north north west. The aerosol concentration at the site boundary was calculated at 0.03 mg/m3 (conversion Na) considering aerosol settling. This value is sufficiently smaller than aerosol concentration criterion 2 mg/m3 (NaOH). (author)

  7. Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

  8. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver. PMID:26893346

  9. Single Cell Analysis of a Bacterial Sender-Receiver System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Tiago; Meyer, Andrea; Mückl, Andrea; Kapsner, Korbinian; Gerland, Ulrich; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring gene expression dynamics on the single cell level provides important information on cellular heterogeneity and stochasticity, and potentially allows for more accurate quantitation of gene expression processes. We here study bacterial senders and receivers genetically engineered with components of the quorum sensing system derived from Aliivibrio fischeri on the single cell level using microfluidics-based bacterial chemostats and fluorescence video microscopy. We track large numbers of bacteria over extended periods of time, which allows us to determine bacterial lineages and filter out subpopulations within a heterogeneous population. We quantitatively determine the dynamic gene expression response of receiver bacteria to varying amounts of the quorum sensing inducer N-3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (AHL). From this we construct AHL response curves and characterize gene expression dynamics of whole bacterial populations by investigating the statistical distribution of gene expression activity over time. The bacteria are found to display heterogeneous induction behavior within the population. We therefore also characterize gene expression in a homogeneous bacterial subpopulation by focusing on single cell trajectories derived only from bacteria with similar induction behavior. The response at the single cell level is found to be more cooperative than that obtained for the heterogeneous total population. For the analysis of systems containing both AHL senders and receiver cells, we utilize the receiver cells as 'bacterial sensors' for AHL. Based on a simple gene expression model and the response curves obtained in receiver-only experiments, the effective AHL concentration established by the senders and their 'sending power' is determined. PMID:26808777

  10. A Documentary Analysis of the Government’s Circulars on Positive Behavior Enhancement Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mahzan Awang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the concept of positive behavior and strategies for promoting positive behavior in a country that has a centralized educational system, namely Malaysia. The analysis covers 91 circulars (official government documents that were distributed to schools over a period of 40 years (from 1969 to 2011. The analysis uses a content analysis approach. The results suggest that the concept of positive behavior revolves around discipline and obedience. The term ‘good discipline’ is frequently used referring to the concept of positive behavior. Perpetration, aggressive and gang behavior are considered to be negative. The Government has tended to emphasize in promoting discipline and positive behavior: (1 strategies for bonding social capital and bridging social capital, and (2 discouraging negative behaviors using punitive approach, positive and negative reinforcement. This paper proposes the framework for promoting positive behavior and the implications for classroom management.

  11. Molar Functional Relations and Clinical Behavior Analysis: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Thomas J.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental analysis of behavior has identified several molar functional relations that are highly relevant to clinical behavior analysis. These include matching, discounting, momentum, and variability. Matching provides a broader analysis of how multiple sources of reinforcement influence how individuals choose to allocate their time and…

  12. Mechanical behavior and numerical analysis of corrugated wire mesh laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Ho; Shankar, Krishna; Tahtali, Murat [UNSW, ADFA, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    The objective is to show a possibility of corrugated wire mesh laminate (CWML) structure for bone application. CWML is a part of open-cell structures with low density and high strength built with bonded mesh layers. Specimens of CWML made of 316 stainless steel woven meshes with 0.22 mm wire diameter and 0.95 mm mesh aperture, bonded by transit liquid phase (TLP) at low temperatures, were fabricated and tested under quasi-static conditions to determine their compressive behavior with varying numbers of layers of the sample. The finite element software was used to model the CWML and studied their response to mechanical loading. Then, the numerical model was confirmed by the tested sample. Consequently, CWML specimens were reasonably matched with the human tibia bone ranged over apparent density from 0.05 to 0.08 g/cm{sup 3} in Young's modulus and from 0.05 to 0.11 g/cm{sup 3} in compressive yield strength. The CWML model can have the potential for bone application.

  13. Mechanical behavior and numerical analysis of corrugated wire mesh laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to show a possibility of corrugated wire mesh laminate (CWML) structure for bone application. CWML is a part of open-cell structures with low density and high strength built with bonded mesh layers. Specimens of CWML made of 316 stainless steel woven meshes with 0.22 mm wire diameter and 0.95 mm mesh aperture, bonded by transit liquid phase (TLP) at low temperatures, were fabricated and tested under quasi-static conditions to determine their compressive behavior with varying numbers of layers of the sample. The finite element software was used to model the CWML and studied their response to mechanical loading. Then, the numerical model was confirmed by the tested sample. Consequently, CWML specimens were reasonably matched with the human tibia bone ranged over apparent density from 0.05 to 0.08 g/cm3 in Young's modulus and from 0.05 to 0.11 g/cm3 in compressive yield strength. The CWML model can have the potential for bone application

  14. A Documentary Analysis of the Government’s Circulars on Positive Behavior Enhancement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Mahzan Awang; Divya Jindal-Snape; Terry Barber

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the concept of positive behavior and strategies for promoting positive behavior in a country that has a centralized educational system, namely Malaysia. The analysis covers 91 circulars (official government documents) that were distributed to schools over a period of 40 years (from 1969 to 2011). The analysis uses a content analysis approach. The results suggest that the concept of positive behavior revolves around discipline and obedience. The term ‘good discipline’ is fr...

  15. Quantitative analysis of in vivo cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Heather A

    2006-11-01

    Injection and immunohistochemical detection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has become the standard method for studying the birth and survival of neurons, glia, and other cell types in the nervous system. BrdU, a thymidine analog, becomes stably incorporated into DNA during the S-phase of mitosis. Because DNA containing BrdU can be specifically recognized by antibodies, this method allows dividing cells to be marked at any given time and then identified at time points from a few minutes to several years later. BrdU immunohistochemistry is suitable for cell counting to examine the regulation of cell proliferation and cell fate. It can be combined with labeling by other antibodies, allowing confocal analysis of cell phenotype or expression of other proteins. The potential for nonspecific labeling and toxicity are discussed. Although BrdU immunohistochemistry has almost completely replaced tritiated thymidine autoradiography for labeling dividing cells, this method and situations in which it is still useful are also described. PMID:18428635

  16. On the coherent behavior of pancreatic beta cell clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppini, Alessandro, E-mail: a.loppini@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Capolupo, Antonio, E-mail: capolupo@sa.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 (Italy); Cherubini, Christian, E-mail: c.cherubini@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128, Rome (Italy); Gizzi, Alessio, E-mail: a.gizzi@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Bertolaso, Marta, E-mail: m.bertolaso@unicampus.it [Faculty of Engineering and Institute of Philosophy of Scientific and Technological Practice, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Filippi, Simonetta, E-mail: s.filippi@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128, Rome (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: vitiello@sa.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 (Italy)

    2014-09-12

    Beta cells in pancreas represent an example of coupled biological oscillators which via communication pathways, are able to synchronize their electrical activity, giving rise to pulsatile insulin release. In this work we numerically analyze scale free self-similarity features of membrane voltage signal power density spectrum, through a stochastic dynamical model for beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fine tuned on mouse experimental data. Adopting the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism, we show how coherent molecular domains can arise from proper functional conditions leading to a parallelism with “phase transition” phenomena of field theory. - Highlights: • Beta cells in pancreas are coupled oscillators able to synchronize their activity. • We analyze scale free self-similarity features for beta cells. • We adopt the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism. • We show that coherent molecular domains arise from functional conditions.

  17. On the coherent behavior of pancreatic beta cell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta cells in pancreas represent an example of coupled biological oscillators which via communication pathways, are able to synchronize their electrical activity, giving rise to pulsatile insulin release. In this work we numerically analyze scale free self-similarity features of membrane voltage signal power density spectrum, through a stochastic dynamical model for beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fine tuned on mouse experimental data. Adopting the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism, we show how coherent molecular domains can arise from proper functional conditions leading to a parallelism with “phase transition” phenomena of field theory. - Highlights: • Beta cells in pancreas are coupled oscillators able to synchronize their activity. • We analyze scale free self-similarity features for beta cells. • We adopt the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism. • We show that coherent molecular domains arise from functional conditions

  18. Isolated cell behavior drives the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Dudley, Carmel; Vega, Nicole M.; Gore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is typically quantified by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth starting from a standard cell density. However, when antibiotic resistance is mediated by degradation, the collective inactivation of antibiotic by the bacterial population can cause the measured MIC to depend strongly on the initial cell density. In cases where this inoculum effect is strong, the rela...

  19. Structural analysis and modeling of water reactor fuel rod behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactor is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system under normal and emergency operating conditions. To achieve these objectives and in order to provide a suitable computer code based on fundamental material properties for design and study of the thermal-mechanical behavior of water reactor fuel rods during their irradiation life and also to demonstrate the fuel rod design and modeling for students, The KIANA-1 computer program has been developed by the writer at Amir-Kabir university of technology with support of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. KIANA-1 is an integral one-dimensional computer program for the thermal and mechanical analysis in order to predict fuel rods performance and also parameter study of Zircaloy-clad UO2 fuel rod during steady state conditions. The code has been designed for the following main objectives: To give a solution for the steady state heat conduction equation for fuel as a heat source and clad by using finite difference, control volume and semi-analytical methods in order to predict the temperature profile in the fuel and cladding. To predict the inner gas pressures due to the filling gases and released gaseous fission products. To predict the fission gas production and release by using a simple diffusion model based on the Booth models and an empirical model. To calculate the fuel-clad gap conductance for cracked fuel with partial contact zones to a closed gap with strong contact. To predict the distribution of stress in three principal directions in the fuel and sheet by assuming one-dimensional plane strain and asymmetric idealization. To calculate the strain distribution in three principal directions and the corresponding deformation in the fuel and cladding. For this purpose the permanent strain such as creep or plasticity as well as the thermoelastic deformation and also the swelling, densification, cracking

  20. Behavioral observations of adolescent Holstein heifers cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Amy F; Maull, John; Tian, X Cindy; Taneja, Maneesh; Katz, Larry; Darre, Michael; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-10-01

    Cloning using somatic cells offers many potential applications in biomedicine and basic research. The objective of this study was to test whether clones from the same genotype can be used as models to study the genetic influences of behavior. Specifically, several aspects of the behavior of four prepubertal heifers cloned from somatic cells of a 13-year-old Holstein cow along with age-matched control heifers were compared to determine whether juvenile clones from an aged adult behave similarly to their age-matched controls, and whether clones with identical genetic makeup exhibit any behavioral trends. Behavioral observations or behavior challenge tests were conducted to compare the following traits: vocalization, play behavior, movement frequencies, grooming, curiosity, and companion preference, as well as dominance and aggressiveness. From play behavior, movements and vocalization, we observed that these four juvenile clones of an aged genetic donor did not show behavioral indications of aging and were similar to their counterparts of comparable chronological age except that they tended to play less than controls. Behavioral trends were also observed in the clones that indicated that they exhibited higher levels of curiosity, more grooming activities and were more aggressive and dominant than controls. Furthermore, these four clones preferred each other or the donor as companions, which may indicate genetic kin recognition. PMID:12935849

  1. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  2. Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis" is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35 to 40 hours of…

  3. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Gallo, Glenna L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, Kara A.; Davey, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task…

  4. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF HUMAN-DIRECTED UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR EXHIBITED BY A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Allison L; BLOOMSMITH, MOLLIE A.; Kelley, Michael E; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further demonstrate the utility of function-based approaches to assess and treat behavior problems exhibited by captive animals.

  5. Discretization behavior analysis of a switching control system from a unified mathematical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghuo YU; Ling YANG; Guanrong CHEN

    2003-01-01

    A useful unified analysis framework is proposed for exploring the intriguing behaviors of a second-order switching control system. Complex discretization behaviors of the switching control system are explored in detail, and some intrinsic relationships between the system periodic behaviors and their associated symbolic sequences are studied.

  6. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  7. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  8. Analysis of nomofobic behaviors of adolescents regarding various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Mertkan Gezgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the developments in technology have made our lives and daily activities easier, it is believed that problematic and excessive use of technology could have some negative effects on people. One of these negative effects is the prevalence of nomophobia, which is considered as a new phobia in recent years. Nomophobia is defined as the fear and anxiety when an individual cannot access his or her mobile/smart phone or cannot have the chance to communicate online and offline via mobile devices. Nomophobic tendencies can change individuals’ daily habits. Negative emotions due to nomophobic tendencies like fear and anxiety especially in young people is thought to affect their school lives and academic achievements. The purpose of this research is to analyze the prevalence of nomophobia among high school students regarding various factors. The Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q, which was used in this study, was developed by Yildirim and Correia (2015, and adapted into Turkish by Yildirim, Sumuer, Adnan and Yildirim (2015. The study group consists of 475 high school students attending six different schools situated in diverse socio-economic areas in Izmir and Edirne in 2015-2016 education year. The study was conducted in survey model and descriptive statistics. T-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques were used at the analysis stage. According to the findings, mean scores obtained from the scale demonstrated that the levels of nomophobic behaviors of high school students were above the average. Besides, female students have higher nomophobia levels compared to male students in terms of gender variable and a significant difference was found in terms of the duration of mobile internet usage. A significant difference could not be found in terms of the variables such as grade, parents’ education levels, and the duration of smartphone usage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that high school students use their

  9. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  10. Microtubule cytoskeleton behavior in the initial steps of host cell invasion by Besnoitia besnoiti

    OpenAIRE

    REIS, Y; CORTES, H; VISEUMELO, L; FAZENDEIRO, I; Leitao, A.; SOARES, H

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule cytoskeleton behavior in the initial steps of host cell invasion by Besnoitia besnoiti Besnoitia besnoiti is a protozoan parasite responsible for bovine besnoitiosis. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that isolated B. besnoiti possesses a set of subpellicular microtubules, radiating from the apical end and extending for more than 2/3 of the cell body. Upon interaction with the host cell, B. besnoiti undergoes dramatic modifications of shape and surface, as revealed by atomic ...

  11. Behavioral Logistics - Analysis of behavioral routines and governance structures in the interorganizational maritime transport chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strong improvements in information and communication systems as well as better transshipment technologies provide the platform for more efficient transport within interorganizational transport chains. Nevertheless these technologies do not automatically optimize systems based on routines and behavioral patterns, established over the last decades. Logisticians - in theory and practice - have to consider the field of behavioral science to describe and analyse transport problems regarding to involved actors' strategic behavior and social embeddedness, too. The objective of this paper is to illustrate behavioral aspects of supposed technical problems in interorganizational transport chains. Therefore, this paper analyses behavioral routines and governance structures in the interorganizational maritime transport chain using a case study, dealing with the generation and circulation of transport information at the earliest point available, so called "estimated time of arrival" (ETA.

  12. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Raorane; R.V. Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply...

  13. A component analysis of "stereotypy as reinforcement" for alternative behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, G P; Iwata, B A; Thompson, R H; Lindberg, J S

    2000-01-01

    Results from several studies have suggested that the opportunity to engage in stereotypic behavior may function as reinforcement for alternative, more socially desirable behaviors. However, the procedural components of this intervention include several distinct operations whose effects have not been analyzed separately. While measuring the occurrence of stereotypy and an alternative behavior (manipulation of leisure materials), we exposed 3 participants to three or four components of a "stere...

  14. Analysis of Culture and Buyer Behavior in Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Luo

    2009-01-01

    Culture is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior. Country, like China, who has such a long history, has rich culture background. So it is very critical for international cooperates who want to do business in China to know about Chinese culture and how it works to buyers’ behavior. Starting from Chinese culture in Marketing context, this paper discusses how culture influence buyers’ behavior in Chinese Market.

  15. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering. PMID:23823664

  16. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  17. Further remarks on the role of cognition in the comparative analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, Edward A.

    1982-01-01

    Recent interest in comparative psychology has stimulated much research and debate concerning cognitive processes in animal behavior. The present paper relates to this general area by treating particular issues in the analysis of comparative cognition: specifically, how cognition is inferred from animal behavior; whether the postulation of intervening cognitive processes furthers our understanding of behavior; and how rival approaches help advance the science of behavior.

  18. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the “quiescent” and “proliferative” niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  19. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: balduino@uva.edu.br [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  20. Practical strategies for modulating foam cell formation and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; McCarty, Mark F; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    Although high density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport is crucial to the prevention and reversal of atheroma, a recent meta-analysis makes evident that current pharmaceutical strategies for modulating HDL cholesterol levels lower cardiovascular risk only to the extent that they concurrently decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This corresponds well with findings of a recent Mendelian randomization analysis, in which genetic polymorphisms associated with ...

  1. Parental Behaviors and Adolescent Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.

    1996-01-01

    Used 4 waves of data on 347 seventh graders and their parents to examine relation of parental involvement and hostility to academic performance. Parental behavior affected later academic performance, when controlling for earlier performance. Setting and positively reinforcing appropriate behavioral standards increased academic performance, whereas…

  2. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.

  3. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  4. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  5. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  6. Modeling Motivational Deficits in Mouse Models of Schizophrenia: Behavior Analysis as a Guide for Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan D Ward; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Balsam, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years it has become possible to develop animal models of psychiatric disease in genetically modified mice. While great strides have been made in the development of genetic and neurobiological tools with which to model psychiatric disease, elucidation of neural and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie behavioral phenotypes has been hindered by an inadequate analysis of behavior. This is unfortunate given the fact that the experimental analysis of behavior has created powerful met...

  7. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  8. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Böttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia. PMID:24394722

  9. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  10. A Theoretical Analysis of Cooperative Behavior in Multi-Agent Q-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA number of experimental studies have investigated whether cooperative behavior may emerge in multi-agent Q-learning. In some studies cooperative behavior did emerge, in others it did not. This report provides a theoretical analysis of this issue. The analysis focuses on multi-agent Q-le

  11. Dynamic electrical behavior of halide perovskite based solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nemnes, George Alexandru; Besleaga, Cristina; Tomulescu, Andrei Gabriel; Pintilie, Ioana; Pintilie, Lucian; Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic electrical model is introduced to investigate the hysteretic effects in the I-V characteristics of perovskite based solar cells. By making a simple ansatz for the polarization relaxation, our model is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively detailed features of measured I-V characteristics. Pre-poling effects are discussed, pointing out the differences between initially over- and under-polarized samples. In particular, the presence of the current over-shoot observed in th...

  12. Termination pattern of nanocrystalline diamond controls cell behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, A.; Ukraintsev, Egor; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Verdánová, M.; Ostrovská, L.; Sauerová, P.; Hubálek Kalbáčová, M.

    Praha : Czechoslovak microscopy society, 2014 - (Hozák, P.) ISBN 978-80-260-6720-7. [ International Microscopy Congress /18./. 07.09.2014-12.09.2014, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond films * patterned surface * surface termination * cell adhesion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Endovascular trophoblast cell behavior in normal and abnormal pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Yasuhiro

    1995-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important disease during pregnancy and causes significant maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Despite intense research efforts, the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease remain largely unknown. Since placentas from preeclamptic patients are smaller than normal, and cytokine growth factors are suggested to be important in placental growth, the effects of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) on human trophoblast cells were examined. Wh...

  14. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation

  15. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifoori, Sajjad, E-mail: sajjad.seifoori@vru.ac.ir

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation.

  16. Analysis of the Navigation Behavior of the Users' using Grey Relational Pattern Analysis with Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINDU MADHURI .Ch,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally user page visits are sequential in nature. The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised navigational problems. Markov chains have been used to model user sequential navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW.The enormous growth in the number of documents in the WWW increases the need for improved link navigation and path analysis models. Link prediction and path analysis are important problems with a wide range of applications ranging from personalization to websites. The complete size of the WWW coupled with the variation in users' navigation patterns makes this a very difficult sequence modeling problem. This paper generalizes the concept of grey relational analysis to develop a technique, called grey relational pattern analysis associated with Markov chains for sequential web data, for analyzing the similarity between given patterns. Based on this technique, a clustering algorithm” Grey Clustering algorithm for Sequential Data” is proposed to finding cluster of a given data set .The problem of determining the optimal number of clusters . We develop an evaluationframework in which the Sum of Squared Error (SSE is calculated to get the efficiency of proposed algorithm. The analyzed behavior of the users used in application areas for Web usage mining Personalization, System Improvement, Site Modification, Business Intelligence, and Usage Characterization.

  17. Stiffness and Adhesivity Control Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Behavior within Hyaluronic Acid Based Hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kapetanovic, Edi; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive and biodegradable hydrogels that mimic the extracellular matrix and regulate valve interstitial cells (VIC) behavior are of great interest as three dimensional (3D) model systems for understanding mechanisms of valvular heart disease pathogenesis in vitro and the basis for regenerative templates for tissue engineering. However, the role of stiffness and adhesivity of hydrogels in VIC behavior remains poorly understood. This study reports synthesis of oxidized and methacrylated hyalu...

  18. Breast cancer cell behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices derived from tumor cells at various malignant stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshiba, Takashi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaru, E-mail: tanaka@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Models mimicking ECM in tumor with different malignancy were prepared. •Cancer cell proliferation was suppressed on benign tumor ECM. •Benign tumor cell proliferation was suppressed on cancerous ECM. •Chemoresistance of cancer cell was enhanced on cancerous ECM. -- Abstract: Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been focused to understand tumor progression in addition to the genetic mutation of cancer cells. Here, we prepared “staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices” which mimic in vivo ECM in tumor tissue at each malignant stage to understand the roles of ECM in tumor progression. Breast tumor cells, MDA-MB-231 (invasive), MCF-7 (non-invasive), and MCF-10A (benign) cells, were cultured to form their own ECM beneath the cells and formed ECM was prepared as staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices by decellularization treatment. Cells showed weak attachment on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The proliferations of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 was promoted on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells whereas MCF-10A cell proliferation was not promoted. MCF-10A cell proliferation was promoted on the matrices derived from MCF-10A cells. Chemoresistance of MDA-MB-231 cells against 5-fluorouracil increased on only matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that the cells showed different behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices according to the malignancy of cell sources for ECM preparation. Therefore, staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices might be a useful in vitro ECM models to investigate the roles of ECM in tumor progression.

  19. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2016-02-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared with those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of 2 rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. PMID:26479279

  20. A multi-step standard-cell placement algorithm of optimizing timing and congestion behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文婷; 洪先龙; 吴为民; 蔡懿慈

    2002-01-01

    The timing behavior and congestion behavior are two important goals in the performance-driven standard-cell placement. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between the timing and congestion behavior. We bring up a multi-step placement algorithm to reach the two goals. First, the timing-driven placement algorithm is used to find the global optimal solution. In the second step, the algorithm tries to decrease the maximum congestion while not deteriorating the timing behavior. We have implemented our algorithm and tested it with real circuits. The results show that the maximum delay can decrease by 30% in our timing-driven placement and in the second step the maximum congestion will decrease by 10% while the timing behavior is unchanged.

  1. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Raorane, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improve conventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trusted customers using sales data in a super market industry

  2. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES: A SOURCE FOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Raorane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Datamining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, thedata mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages.Therefore, it is important to selectappropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, hispsychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improveconventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trustedcustomers using sales data in a super market industry

  3. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  4. An analysis of valve train behavior considering stiffness effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maintain the specific volumetric efficiency of a heavy-duty diesel engine, an understanding of the behavior of each part of the valve train system is very important. The stiffness of the valve train system has a strong influence on the behavior of the valve train than value clearance, heat-resistance, or the durability of parts. In this study, a geometrical cam design profile using a finite element model of the valve train system is suggested. The results of the valve behavior according to the change in stiffness is analyzed for further tuning of the valve train system

  5. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  6. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR

  7. Efficient decellularization of whole porcine kidneys improves reseeded cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Momtahan, Nima; Salehi, Amin S M; Scott, Daniel R; Fronk, Cory A; Roeder, Beverly L; Reynolds, Paul R; Bundy, Bradley C; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-01-01

    Combining patient-specific cells with the appropriate scaffold to create functional kidneys is a promising technology to provide immunocompatible kidneys for the 100 000+  patients on the organ waiting list. For proper recellularization to occur, the scaffold must possess the critical microstructure and an intact vascular network. Detergent perfusion through the vasculature of a kidney is the preferred method of decellularization; however, harsh detergents could be damaging to the microstructure of the renal tissue and may undesirably solubilize the endogenous growth and signaling factors. In this study, automated decellularization of whole porcine kidneys was performed using an improved method that combined physical and chemical steps to efficiently remove cellular materials while producing minimal damage to the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM). Freezing/thawing, incremental increases in flow rate under constant pressure, applying osmotic shock to the cellular membranes, and low concentrations of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were factors used to decrease SDS exposure time during the decellularization process from 36 to 5 h, which preserved the microstructure while still removing 99% of the DNA. The well-preserved glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen fibers enhanced cell-ECM interactions. Human renal cortical tubular epithelium (RCTE) cells grew more rapidly when cultured on the ECM obtained from the improved decellularization process and also demonstrated more in vivo-like gene expression patterns. The optimized, automated process that resulted from this work is now used routinely in our laboratory to rapidly decellularize porcine kidneys and could be adapted to other large organs (e.g. heart, liver, and lung). PMID:26963774

  8. Lithium iodide effect on the electrochemical behavior of agarose based polymer electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · Conduction behavior in agarose electrolyte system. · Charge recombination resistance is reduced with the increasing LiI concentration. · Charge transfer resistance is also reduced with the increasing LiI concentration. · Electron lifetime is shortened by increasing LiI concentrations. · LiI addition enhances the back reaction in DSSC. - Abstract: The effect of lithium iodide (LiI: 0-85 wt%) on the electrochemical behavior of agarose-based polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the interactions between polymer matrix and salt and the morphology of the agarose electrolytes, respectively. From the AC impedance spectra study, it was determined that the conduction behavior of the agarose-based polymer electrolyte matches the 'salt-in-polymer' like behavior of low LiI content (0-25 wt%) and 'polymer-in-salt' like behavior of high LiI content (25-85 wt%). Detailed analysis of characteristic electrochemical processes occurring in DSSC with these agarose electrolytes was also obtained by employing the EIS technique. The impedance spectra showed that the electron lifetime of DSSC was shortened with increasing LiI concentration, while the charge transfer resistance and charge recombination resistance were reduced when LiI concentration was increased.

  9. Effects of Telomerase and Telomere Length on Epidermal Stem Cell Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ignacio; Cayuela, María L.; Blasco, María A.

    2005-08-01

    A key process in organ homeostasis is the mobilization of stem cells out of their niches. We show through analysis of mouse models that telomere length, as well as the catalytic component of telomerase, Tert, are critical determinants in the mobilization of epidermal stem cells. Telomere shortening inhibited mobilization of stem cells out of their niche, impaired hair growth, and resulted in suppression of stem cell proliferative capacity in vitro. In contrast, Tert overexpression in the absence of changes in telomere length promoted stem cell mobilization, hair growth, and stem cell proliferation in vitro. The effects of telomeres and telomerase on stem cell biology anticipate their role in cancer and aging.

  10. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. ► ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. ► ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. ► ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  11. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: hjokano@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  12. A simple model of hysteresis behavior using spreadsheet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hysteresis loops occur in many scientific and technical problems, especially as field dependent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, but also as stress-strain-curves of materials measured by tensile tests including thermal effects, liquid-solid phase transitions, in cell biology or economics. While several mathematical models exist which aim to calculate hysteresis energies and other parameters, here we offer a simple model for a general hysteretic system, showing different hysteresis loops depending on the defined parameters. The calculation which is based on basic spreadsheet analysis plus an easy macro code can be used by students to understand how these systems work and how the parameters influence the reactions of the system on an external field. Importantly, in the step-by-step mode, each change of the system state, compared to the last step, becomes visible. The simple program can be developed further by several changes and additions, enabling the building of a tool which is capable of answering real physical questions in the broad field of magnetism as well as in other scientific areas, in which similar hysteresis loops occur

  13. Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green: Photochemical Behavior in Solution and in a Mammalian Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Blaikie, Frances Helen;

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and selective luminescent probes for reactive oxygen species, particularly for singlet molecular oxygen, is currently of great importance. In this study, the photochemical behavior of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® (SOSG), a commercially available fluorescent probe...... of the reaction between SOSG and singlet oxygen is, itself, an efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizer. Second, SOSG appears to efficiently bind to proteins which, in turn, can influence uptake by a cell as well as behavior in the cell. As such, incorrect use of SOSG can yield misleading data on yields...

  14. Age and Employee Green Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Brenton M.; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent economic and societal developments have led to an increasing emphasis on organizational environmental performance. At the same time, demographic trends are resulting in increasingly aging labor forces in many industrialized nations. Commonly held stereotypes suggest that older workers are less likely to be environmentally responsible than younger workers. To evaluate the degree to which such age differences are present, we meta-analyzed 132 independent correlations and 336 d-values based on 4676 professional workers from 22 samples in 11 countries. Contrary to popular stereotypes, age showed small positive relationships with pro-environmental behaviors, suggesting that older adults engaged in these workplace behaviors slightly more frequently. Relationships with age appeared to be linear for overall, Conserving, Avoiding Harm, and Taking Initiative pro-environmental behaviors, but non-linear trends were observed for Transforming and Influencing Others behaviors. PMID:26973550

  15. Structural analysis of behavioral networks from the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the Internet's phenomenal growth and social impact, many aspects of the collective communication behavior of its users are largely unknown. Understanding the structure and dynamics of the behavioral networks that connect users with each other and with services across the Internet is key to modeling the network and designing future applications. We present a characterization of the properties of the behavioral networks generated by several million users of the Abilene (Internet2) network. Structural features of these networks offer new insights into scaling properties of network activity and ways of distinguishing particular patterns of traffic. For example, we find that the structure of the behavioral network associated with Web activity is characterized by such extreme heterogeneity as to challenge any simple attempt to model Web server traffic

  16. Gamification: The Intersection between Behavior Analysis and Game Design Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Zachary H; Witts, Benjamin N; Killingsworth, Kenneth J; Alavosius, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Deterding et al. (Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, USA 15: 9-15, 2011) report a recent rise in popularity of video game inspired software designed to address issues in a variety of areas, including health, energy conservation, education, and business. These applications have been based on the concept of gamification, which involves a process by which nongame activities are designed to be more like a game. We provide examples of how gamification has been used to increase health-related behavior, energy consumption, academic performance, and other socially-significant behavior. We argue that behavior analytic research and practice stands to benefit from incorporating successful elements of game design. Lastly, we provide suggestions for behavior analysts regarding applied and basic research related to gamification. PMID:27274957

  17. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  18. Assessing Connections Between Behavior Change Theories Using Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gainforth, H. L.; West, R; Michie, S.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary scoping review identified 83 of behavior change theories, with many similarities and overlapping constructs. Investigating the derivation of these theories may provide further understanding of their contribution and intended application.

  19. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  20. PEM Fuel Cells from Single Cell to Stack - Fundamental, Modeling, Analysis, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Part III: Analysis Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell analysis. Chapter 8: PEM fuel cell stack desig...

  1. DNA conformational behavior and compaction in biomimetic systems: Toward better understanding of DNA packaging in cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Anatoly

    2016-06-01

    In a living cell, long genomic DNA is strongly compacted and exists in the environment characterized by a dense macromolecular crowding, high concentrations of mono- and divalent cations, and confinement of ca. 10μm size surrounded by a phospholipid membrane. Experimental modelling of such complex biological system is challenging but important to understand spatiotemporal dynamics and functions of the DNA in cell. The accumulated knowledge about DNA condensation/compaction in conditions resembling those in the real cell can be eventually used to design and construct partly functional "artificial cells" having potential applications in drug delivery systems, gene therapy, and production of synthetic cells. In this review, I would like to overview the past progress in our understanding of the DNA conformational behavior and, in particular, DNA condensation/compaction phenomenon and its relation to the DNA biological activity. This understanding was gained by designing relevant experimental models mimicking DNA behavior in the environment of living cell. Starting with a brief summary of classic experimental systems to study DNA condensation/compaction, in later parts, I highlight recent experimental methodologies to address the effects of macromolecular crowding and nanoscale and microscale confinements on DNA conformation dynamics. All the studies are discussed in the light of their relevance to DNA behavior in living cells, and future prospects of the field are outlined. PMID:26976700

  2. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Kalašová; Zuzana Krchová

    2011-01-01

    With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road...

  3. Clustering analysis of malware behavior using Self Organizing Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    For the time being, malware behavioral classification is performed by means of Anti-Virus (AV) generated labels. The paper investigates the inconsistencies associated with current practices by evaluating the identified differences between current vendors. In this paper we rely on Self Organizing...... accurate results based on the clusters created by competitive and cooperative algorithms like Self Organizing Map that better describe the behavioral profile of malware....

  4. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A mod...

  5. One size does not fit all: developing a cell-specific niche for in vitro study of cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Milos; Block, Travis J; Rakian, Rubie; Li, Qihong; Wang, Exing; Reilly, Matthew A; Dean, David D; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    For more than 100years, cells and tissues have been studied in vitro using glass and plastic surfaces. Over the last 10-20years, a great body of research has shown that cells are acutely sensitive to their local environment (extracellular matrix, ECM) which contains both chemical and physical cues that influence cell behavior. These observations suggest that modern cell culture systems, using tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces, may fail to reproduce authentic cell behavior in vitro, resulting in "artificial outcomes." In the current study, we use bone marrow (BM)- and adipose (AD)-derived stromal cells to prepare BM-ECM and AD-ECM, which are decellularized after synthesis by the cells, to mimic the cellular niche for each of these tissues. Each ECM was characterized for its ability to affect BM- and AD-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation, as well as proliferation of three cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231), modulate cell spreading, and direct differentiation relative to standard TCP surfaces. We found that both ECMs promoted the proliferation of MSCs, but that this effect was enhanced when the tissue-origin of the cells matched that of the ECM (i.e. BM-ECM promoted the proliferation of BM-MSCs over AD-MSCs, and vice versa). Moreover, BM- and AD-ECM were shown to preferentially direct MSC differentiation towards either osteogenic or adipogenic lineage, respectively, suggesting that the effects of the ECM were tissue-specific. Further, each ECM influenced cell morphology (i.e. circularity), irrespective of the origin of the MSCs, lending more support to the idea that effects were tissue specific. Interestingly, unlike MSCs, these ECMs did not promote the proliferation of the cancer cells. In an effort to further understand how these three culture substrates influence cell behavior, we evaluated the chemical (protein composition) and physical properties (architecture and mechanical) of the two ECMs. While many structural proteins (e

  6. The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K Reaves

    Full Text Available The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior.

  7. Cytometry-based single-cell analysis of intact epithelial signaling reveals MAPK activation divergent from TNF-α-induced apoptosis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Alan J; Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; Scurrah, Cherie' R; Herring, Charles A; Gewin, Leslie S; Masuzaki, Ryota; Karp, Seth J.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Gerdes, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan M.; Coffey, Robert J.; Lau, Ken S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding heterogeneous cellular behaviors in a complex tissue requires the evaluation of signaling networks at single-cell resolution. However, probing signaling in epithelial tissues using cytometry-based single-cell analysis has been confounded by the necessity of single-cell dissociation, where disrupting cell-to-cell connections inherently perturbs native cell signaling states. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy (Disaggregation for Intracellular Signaling in Single Epithelial Cell...

  8. Drivers' Visual Behavior When Using Hand-Held and Hands-Free Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Fitch, Gregory M.; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J.; Perez, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated driver distraction and how the use of handheld (HH), portable hands-free (PHF), and integrated hands-free (IHF) cell phones affected the visual behavior of motor vehicle drivers. Method A naturalistic driving study recorded 204 participating drivers using video cameras and vehicle sensors for an average of 31 days. A total of 1564 cell phone calls made and 844 text messages sent while driving were sampled and underwent a video review. Baselines were established by reco...

  9. Sonic hedgehog controls stem cell behavior in the postnatal and adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Veronica; Lim, D A; Dahmane, Nadia; Sanchez, Pilar; Brionne, T. C.; Herzberg, C. D.; Gitton, Yorick; Carleton, Alan; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Ruiz Altaba, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling controls many aspects of ontogeny, orchestrating congruent growth and patterning. During brain development, Shh regulates early ventral patterning while later on it is critical for the regulation of precursor proliferation in the dorsal brain, namely in the neocortex, tectum and cerebellum. We have recently shown that Shh also controls the behavior of cells with stem cell properties in the mouse embryonic neocortex, and additional studies have implicated it in t...

  10. Behavioral pattern analysis and dopamine release in quinpirole-induced repetitive behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ria; Nijdam, Annelies; Westra, Tjalke A; Kas, Martien J H; Westenberg, Herman G M

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. People with OCD suffer from intrusive, unwanted and recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). The aim of this study is to quantify the d

  11. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  12. Single cell analysis of signaling molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepárník, Karel; Luksch, Jaroslav; Adamová, Eva; Potáčová, Anna; Matalová, E.; Foret, František

    Grupo VLS Print Solution, 2014 - (Guzman, N.; Taveres, M.). s. 49-49 [International Symposium on Electro- and Liquid Phase-Separation Techniques /21./ and Latin-American Symposium on Biotechnology, Biomedical, Biopharmaceutical, and Industrial Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis and Microchip Technology /21./. 04.10.2014-08.10.2014, Natal] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : single cell analysis * signaling molecules * caspase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Memristive behavior in a junctionless flash memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report charge storage based memristive operation of a junctionless thin film flash memory cell when it is operated as a two terminal device by grounding the gate. Unlike memristors based on nanoionics, the presented device mode, which we refer to as the flashristor mode, potentially allows greater control over the memristive properties, allowing rational design. The mode is demonstrated using a depletion type n-channel ZnO transistor grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with HfO2 as the tunnel dielectric, Al2O3 as the control dielectric, and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride as the charge storage layer. The device exhibits the pinched hysteresis of a memristor and in the unoptimized device, Roff/Ron ratios of about 3 are presented with low operating voltages below 5 V. A simplified model predicts Roff/Ron ratios can be improved significantly by adjusting the native threshold voltage of the devices. The repeatability of the resistive switching is excellent and devices exhibit 106 s retention time, which can, in principle, be improved by engineering the gate stack and storage layer properties. The flashristor mode can find use in analog information processing applications, such as neuromorphic computing, where well-behaving and highly repeatable memristive properties are desirable

  14. Memristive behavior in a junctionless flash memory cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orak, Ikram [Vocational School of Health Services, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Bingöl University, 12000 Bingöl (Turkey); Ürel, Mustafa; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bakan, Gokhan [Faculty of Engineering, Antalya International University, 07190 Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-06-08

    We report charge storage based memristive operation of a junctionless thin film flash memory cell when it is operated as a two terminal device by grounding the gate. Unlike memristors based on nanoionics, the presented device mode, which we refer to as the flashristor mode, potentially allows greater control over the memristive properties, allowing rational design. The mode is demonstrated using a depletion type n-channel ZnO transistor grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with HfO{sub 2} as the tunnel dielectric, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the control dielectric, and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride as the charge storage layer. The device exhibits the pinched hysteresis of a memristor and in the unoptimized device, R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios of about 3 are presented with low operating voltages below 5 V. A simplified model predicts R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratios can be improved significantly by adjusting the native threshold voltage of the devices. The repeatability of the resistive switching is excellent and devices exhibit 10{sup 6 }s retention time, which can, in principle, be improved by engineering the gate stack and storage layer properties. The flashristor mode can find use in analog information processing applications, such as neuromorphic computing, where well-behaving and highly repeatable memristive properties are desirable.

  15. Analysis of silt behavior induced by water waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Mian

    2001-01-01

    Karman, Th., Zur theorie der spanungszustnde in plastischen und sandartigen medion, Nachr. Gesellsch. Wissensch., Gttingen, 1909.[17]Szczepinski, W., Introduction to the Mechanics of Plastic Forming of Metals, Netherlands: Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979.[18]Chen, W. F., Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity, New York: Elsevier, 1975.[19]Yu, M. H., He, L. N., A new model and theory on yield and failure of materials under complex stress state, Mechanical Behaviors of Materials~6, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991, 3: 841—846.[20]Yu, M. H., New System of Strength Theory (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong Universitry Press, 1992.[21]Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Song, L. Y., Twin shear stress theory and its generalization, Scientia Sinica (Science in China), Series A, 1985, 28(11): 1174—1183.[22]Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y. et al., Unified elasto-plastic associated and non-associated constitutive model and its engineering applications, Computers and Structures, 1999, 71: 627—636.[23]Ma, G. W., Shoji, I., Plastic limit analysis of circular plates with respect to unified yield criterion, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1998, 40(10): 963.[24]Ma, G. W., Hao, H., Unified plastic limit analyses of circular plates under arbitrary load, Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, 1999, 66(2): 568.[25]Qiang, H. F., Lu, N., Liu, B. J., Unified solutions of crack tip plastic zone under small scale yielding, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 35(1): 34—38.[26]Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., Constitutive descriptions of multiphase poropus media, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(1):11—24.[27]Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., An elasto-plastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated geomaterials, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(2): 198—206.[28]Cheng, H. X., Li, J. J., Zhang, G. S. et al., Finite element analysis program system HAJIF(X), Chinese Journal of

  16. Analysis of network clustering behavior of the Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Mai, Yong; Li, Sai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and the decomposition of correlation matrix method are employed to analyze spatial structure of stocks interactions and collective behavior in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets in China. The result shows that there exists prominent sector structures, with subsectors including the Real Estate (RE), Commercial Banks (CB), Pharmaceuticals (PH), Distillers&Vintners (DV) and Steel (ST) industries. Furthermore, the RE and CB subsectors are mostly anti-correlated. We further study the temporal behavior of the dataset and find that while the sector structures are relatively stable from 2007 through 2013, the correlation between the real estate and commercial bank stocks shows large variations. By employing the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method, we show that this anti-correlation behavior is closely related to the monetary and austerity policies of the Chinese government during the period of study.

  17. Diffusion entropy analysis on the scaling behavior of financial markets

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, S M; Yang, C X; Yang, H J; Zhou, P L; Zhou, T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the diffusion entropy technique is applied to investigate the scaling behavior of financial markets. The scaling behaviors of four representative stock markets, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Standard&Poor 500, Heng Seng Index, and Shang Hai Stock Synthetic Index, are almost the same; with the scale-invariance exponents all in the interval $[0.92, 0.95]$. These results provide a strong evidence of the existence of long-rang correlation in financial time series, thus several variance-based methods are restricted for detecting the scale-invariance properties of financial markets. In addition, a parsimonious percolation model for stock markets is proposed, of which the scaling behavior agrees with the real-life markets well.

  18. BUYING BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN A SIMULATED EXPERIMENTAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Echeverry Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the consumption scenario(Foxall, 2007 and the level of informational reinforcement (Foxall, 2005 on theprobability of buying behavior. The study involved 56 people between 18 to 20years of age selected through intentional sampling. We designed a web applicationthat emulated conditions of purchase in a virtual store. Functional analysiswas performed using a logit model of LR (logistic regression to calculate individualand group effects of independient variables. Results indicate that there aresignificant differences in predictions performed with bivariate and multivariatelogit models of the effects of consumption scenario and informational reinforcementon the probability of buying behavior. These effects can be interpreted in thecontext of an operant perspective of symbolic behavior.

  19. Pedigree analysis of proliferation kinetics in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analysis of proliferation kinetics in cultured mammalian cells was given an outline by extremely low speed photography (pedigree method). Photographing method of this analysis, camera used in this analysis, cultivation method and apparatus for cultivation, and film analysis were explained. As to changes of generation time by this analysis, relationship of each stage of cell cycle to colony formation or to proliferation capacity were explained in non-irradiated cells and irradiated cells. On abnormal cell division in time of large dose irradiation, a condition from cell fusion to cell death via multipolar division was explained. Mechanisms of proliferation death and interphase death were explained by analysis of pedigree data on radiation injuries in time of division and by mentioning division probability. Some information about inhibition of cell proliferation by radiation and lethal effect of radiation was described. (Kanao, N.)

  20. Behavioral response and cell morphology changes of caenorhabditis elegans under high power millimeter wave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. elegans were exposed to high power millimeter waves (MMWs) with different mean power densities, to investigate their behavioral response and cell morphology changes under MMW irradiation. The time-course photomicrography system was used to record the behavioral changes of C. elegans. The behavioral response and cell morphology changes were further observed by stereoscopic microscopes. The results show that freely moving C. elegans will escape from the MMW irradiation region quickly. After the exposure to MMWs with output mean power of 10 W and 12 W, the bending speed of C. elegans increases significantly at first, while the movement gradually slows down until the bodies get rigid. However, exposed to 5 W MMW, C. elegans show a distinctive tolerant reaction because of the thermal effect. In addition, cell morphological observations show that the nuclear structure of the eggs are abnormal after abnormal after MMW irradiation. High power MMW significantly affects the behaviors and cell morphology of C. elegans, which suggests the C. elegans could be used as a typical model species to study the biological effects of MMW irradiation. (authors)

  1. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  2. A computer-assisted 3D model for analyzing the aggregation of tumorigenic cells reveals specialized behaviors and unique cell types that facilitate aggregate coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Scherer

    Full Text Available We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity, and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named "facilitators" and "probes." A third cell type, the "dervish", is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs.

  3. Behavior of Jatropha curcas L. seeds under osmotic stress: germination and cell cycle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Dantas de Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is an oil-rich Euphorbiaceae seed species renowned for its apparent tolerance to environmental stresses. It is considered a promising source of renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in the Brazilian semiarid region where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to proper seed and plant behavior under water restrictive conditions. This study describes physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds imbibed in water restriction conditions by means of osmotic stress or osmoconditioning. Seeds were characterized by size, weight, moisture content and dry mass, germinability, and cell cycle activation by means of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton accumulation. Osmoconditioning at -0.8 MPa did not induce priming effects as it did not improve the physiological quality of the seed lots. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis revealed an increasing accumulation of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton in seeds imbibed in water for 48h onwards, culminating in the onset of mitotic configurations after germination. Only cortical microtubules were observed during seed osmoconditioning, whereas mitotic microtubules only occurred after re-imbibition of osmoconditioned seeds in water and subsequent germination.

  4. Mining human Behaviors: automated behavioral Analysis from small to big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    This research thesis aims to address complex problems in Human Behavior Understanding from a computational standpoint: to develop novel methods for enabling machines to capture not only what their sensors are perceiving but also how and why the situation they are presented with is evolving in a certain manner. Touching several fields, from Computer Vision to Social Psychology through Natural Language Processing and Data Mining, we will move from more to less constrained scenarios, descr...

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of human somatic cell haploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, V; Ozen, S; Rechitsky, S; Kuliev, A; Verlinsky, Y

    2005-02-01

    Despite recent interest in the derivation of female and male gametes through somatic cell nuclear transfer, there is still insufficient data on chromosomal analysis of these gametes resulting from haploidization, especially involving a human nuclear donor and recipient oocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the fidelity of chromosomal separation during haploidization of human cumulus cells by in-vitro matured human enucleated MII oocytes. A total of 129 oocytes were tested 4-7, 8-14, or 15-21 h after nuclear transfer (NT) followed by electro-stimulation, resulting in 71.3% activation efficiency on average. Haploidization was documented by the formation of two separate groups of chromosomes, originating from either polar body/pronucleus (PB/PN), or only 2PN, which were tested by 5-colour FISH, or DNA analysis for copy number of chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22 and X. Two PN were formed more frequently than PB/PN, irrespective of incubation time. In agreement with recent reports on mouse oocytes, as many as 90.2% of the resulting haploid sets tested showed abnormal chromosome segregation, suggesting unsuitability of the resulting artificial gametes for practical application at the present time. PMID:15823223

  6. Modeling and Analysis for Obstacle Avoidance of a Behavior-Based Robot with Objected Oriented Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Object Modeling Technique is widely applied in the field of software engineering; and in this paper we applied this technique to model a mobile robot including its behaviors and interactions with environment. The paper first describes key background knowledge about object oriented analysis in software engineering, behavior based robotics and their similarities. Then, based on these similarities, the paper uses object oriented methods of software engineering, such as unified modeling language (UML, to analyze and model the architecture; and to design behaviors for a behavior-based robot, which is expected to wander with autonomous obstacle avoidance in unknown environment. Object oriented methods permit a translation from conceptual behavior models to computer programming representations, and separate concrete control algorithms from robot modeling. With this approach, the paper implements a fuzzy algorithm for obstacle avoidance behavior of the constructed behavior models in a physical robot, and made experiments in the given indoor environment.

  7. Strategic Behavior Analysis of Small Business in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bent Hansen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, small businesses have been the target of public and private investment in Brazil due to the appreciation of their economic and social impact. The growth of small businesses in Brazil has stimulated a demand for greater knowledge and a broader understanding of their peculiarities. Hence, this paper aims to propose a framework for analyzing the strategic behavior for small businesses. To test the suitability of this analytical framework, qualitative research was conducted based on descriptive and exploratory case studies involving three small companies in the construction sector in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The results show that: (i based on the proposed analytical structure it was possible to identifythe idiosyncrasies and the conflicts between strategy, structure and processes in such firms; (ii the strategic behavior ofthe firms is not stable, since they demonstrate the ability to change the prevailing strategic behavior based on strategicdecisions that reinforce the strategic typologies studied and; (iii it is possible to identify opportunities to strengthen certainstrategic behavior of firms.

  8. Organizational Behavior Analysis Focusing on the University of Texas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bobby K.

    2011-01-01

    This project analyzes the organizational behavior of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas System is comprised of nine academic and six health institutions. The University of Texas System has over 85,000 employees; the student enrollment is 202,240 with a budget of $2.25 billion dollars. This project has a total of four parts and…

  9. Perturbation analysis on post-buckling behavior of pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear large deflection differential equation, based on the assumption that the subsoil coefficient is the 2nd root of the depth, was established by energy method. The perturbation parameter was introduced to transform the equation to a series of linear differential equations to be solved, and the deflection function according with the boundary condition was considered. Then,the nonlinear higher-order asymptotic solution of post-buckling behavior of a pile was obtained by parameter-substituting. The influencing factors such as bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile, slenderness ratio on the post-buckling behavior of a pile were analyzed. The results show that the pile is more unstable when the bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile increase,and although the buckling load increases with the stiffness of soil, the pile may ruin for its brittleness. Thus, in the region where buckling behavior of pile must be taken into account, the high grade concrete is supposed to be applied, and the dynamic buckling behavior of pile needs to be further studied.

  10. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A model for the study of factors contributing to the solution of ecological/environmental problems is presented and examples of interdisciplinary research are described. The model implies a need for the examination of the effects of antecedent and consequent manipulation of a variety of variables including: behavioral, physiological, environmental, technical and legal conditions. It is concluded that while interdisciplinary research efforts between engineering technologists and behavioral analysts are necessary, they have not received sufficient attention in the literature nor have they focused on the comprehensive study of antecedents and consequences as they relate to ecological/environmental problems. Thus, an extended “family” of research efforts is important for the success of these efforts. PMID:22478473

  11. Mitigating Consumptive Behavior: The Analysis of Learning Experiences of Housewives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of consumptive behavior by analyzing learning experiences of housewives as members of Family Welfare Movement (PKK) in Malang, East Java Indonesia. Financial literacy is defined as personal knowledge and capability in financial management. Sample of this study was 123 housewives and…

  12. Multimodal Surveillance: Behavior analysis for recognizing stress and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, camera systems are installed in military areas as well as in public spaces like schools, shopping malls, airports, and football stadiums. Human operators are monitoring the screens, looking for any signs of unwanted behavior and negative incidents. The task requires working personnel 24/7.

  13. Managerial Attention Patterns: A Micro-Behavioral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee S.

    This paper describes a study of managerial behavior in educational organizations that focused on managerial attention as an organizational coupling mechanism. Structured observation was used to collect minute-by-minute time allocation protocols for five first-line education program managers over 20 working days, and these protocols were analyzed…

  14. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  15. Analysis of the behavior of institutional investors in the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafii IBENRISSOUL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The international financial systems knew important modifications during these last decades. The business of financial intermediation tips over more and more in the hands of new actors that are institutional investors. The rise of institutional investors is an indubitable fact that underlines very numerous researches. It can be analyzed as a deep modification of the capitalism and as a strengthening of the power of the shareholders whose behavior investor and owner is transformed. It is accompanied by the emergence of new finance professions whose the organization structures the practices of investment. The term of institutional investor includes all the financial intermediaries who collect funds to place either with the companies which wish to invest, or by buying securities on the secondary markets of stock exchanges. Institutional investors include banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies as well as organizations for collective investment in transferable securities. Several studies were interested to examine their behavior in financial markets. A first category of works adduces that institutional investors are real andquot;tradersandquot;. Their main objective is the maximization of the profitability of their short-term investments. Conversely, the second category of works suggests that the proportions of capital more and more important held by institutional investors imply the abandonment of a neutral attitude. Our theoretical investigation of the behavior of these actors has enabled us to highlight several behaviors delegation management, management style and the international diversification of their portfolio.

  16. The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, J. W.; Busch, A. M.; Weeks, C. E.; Landes, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream…

  17. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-elicited Craving for Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; O’Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A.; Murphy, James G.; Ray, Lara A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug’s value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. Method Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Findings Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (Omax), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized Pmax). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from .21 – .43. Conclusions These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving. PMID:20626376

  18. Strikes, Arbitration, and Teacher Salaries: A Behavioral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, John Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Using a behavioral theory of bargaining, the authors examined data sets from Illinois and Iowa school districts and from a national sample of teachers. Results suggest that strike use and the availability of arbitration and the right to strike affect teacher salaries, while arbitration use does not. (Author/SK)

  19. Marketing Journal Coauthorships: An Empirical Analysis of Coauthor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher L.; Chan, Kam C.; Lai, Pikki

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to study the bargaining behavior of coauthors in multiauthored marketing papers. The literature argues that the order of author names sends a signal about their relative contribution to the article, and the signal is muted when the names are in alphabetical order. In addition, other things being the same, the…

  20. Matching Training Procedures to Outcomes: A Behavioral and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Melissa L.; Hantula, Donald A.; Axelrod, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Students with mild-to-moderate mental retardation (N=3) were taught four independent tasks (making a bagged lunch, playing a matching game, ordering food, and social conversation) in order to analyze the effects of matching the prompting procedure used in training to the specific behavior chain to be taught. Discusses results of prompting methods.…

  1. Behavioral Public Economics: Welfare and Policy Analysis with Non-Standard Decision-Makers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Antonio Rangel

    2005-01-01

    This paper has two goals. First, we discuss several emerging approaches to applied welfare analysis under non-standard (“behavioral”) assumptions concerning consumer choice. This provides a foundation for Behavioral Public Economics. Second, we illustrate applications of these approaches by surveying behavioral studies of policy problems involving saving, addiction, and public goods. We argue that the literature on behavioral public economics, though in its infancy, has already fundamentally ...

  2. Classroom-BasedFunctional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wright-Gallo, G. L.; Higbee, Thomas S; Reagon, K. A.; Davey, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task demands and access to attention. Based on this information, we implemented a DRA procedure in which participants could request either escape or atte...

  3. A brief functional analysis of aggressive and alternative behavior in an outclinic setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Northup, J; Wacker, D; Sasso, G; Steege, M; Cigrand, K; Cook, J; DeRaad, A

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a brief functional analysis to identify maintaining variable for aggressive behavior and an alternative replacement response during a 90-min outpatient evaluation of 3 individuals with severe handicaps. During the initial analogue assessment, which focused on identifying maintaining contingencies for aggressive behavior, each participant displayed a substantially greater frequency of aggressive behavior during one condition than during any other. The contingency that produced the...

  4. Designing stable finite state machine behaviors using phase plane analysis and variable structure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.

    1998-03-10

    This paper discusses how phase plane analysis can be used to describe the overall behavior of single and multiple autonomous robotic vehicles with finite state machine rules. The importance of this result is that one can begin to design provably asymptotically stable group behaviors from a set of simple control laws and appropriate switching points with decentralized variable structure control. The ability to prove asymptotically stable group behavior is especially important for applications such as locating military targets or land mines.

  5. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  6. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...

  7. Microstructure analysis and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca implant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Evaluation of corrosion mechanism and solidification behavior of Mg-xCa. → Microstructure of Mg-xCa alloys were characterized by XRD, OM, SEM and EDS. → Thermal analysis of alloys was carried out by computer aided cooling curve analysis. → The addition of Ca content increase Mg2Ca lead to increasing corrosion rate. -- Abstract: The calcium content in binary Mg-xCa alloys affects the microstructure, corrosion and solidification behavior of the alloys. In this study, binary Mg-xCa alloys with various Ca contents from 0.5 to 10 wt.% were produced by casting process. Microstructural evolutions were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Solidification behavior was assessed via two thermocouple thermal analysis method. The corrosion resistance was examined in vitro by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion test in Kokubo solution at room temperature. The results revealed that the grain size and dendrite cell size decreased significantly with rising Ca content, whilst the content of Mg2Ca intermetallic phase in grain boundaries increased with increasing Ca content. Potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that corrosion rates of Mg-xCa alloy increased significantly with rising Ca content. Immersion tests in Kokubo solution also showed that dissolution rate of Mg-xCa alloy increased with increasing Mg2Ca content which lead to an increase in pH value. It was observed that corrosion damage in specimens with lower Ca content was more moderate and uniform than higher Ca content. Thermal analysis results showed that the fraction of primary α-Mg at dendrite coherency point (fαDCP) decreased with increasing Ca content but the liquid fraction fL increased causing the rise in eutectic Mg2Ca intermetallic phase in grain boundaries, thus increasing the corrosion rate. Our analyses showed that Mg-0.5Ca alloy is a promising alloy to be

  8. Effects of transforming growth interacting factor on biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Liang Hu; Ji-Fang Wen; De-Sheng Xiao; Hui Zhen; Chun-Yan Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM:Transforming growth interacting factor (TGIF) is an inhibitor of both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, the activation of MAPK pathway can prolong its half-life. However, its role in carcinogenesis is still unknown. Thus we attempted to investigate the effect of TGIF on biologic behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells.METHODS: Gastric carcinoma cell line, SGC-7901, was stably transfected with plasmid PcDNA3.1-TGIF. Western blotting and cell immunohistochemistry screening for the highly expressing clone of TGIF were employed. The growth of transfected cells was investigated by MTT and colonyformation assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy.Tumorigenicity of the transfectant cells was also analyzed.RESULTS: TGIF had no effect on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, but cellular organelles of cells transfected with TGIF were richer than those of vector control or parental cells. Its clones were smaller than the control ones in plate efficiency, and its tumor tissues also had no obvious necrosis compared with the vector control or parental cells. Moreover, TGIF could resist TGF-β mediated growth inhibition.CONCLUSION: TGIF may induce differentiation of stomach neoplastic cells. In addition, TGIF can counteract the growth inhibition induced by TGF-β.

  9. Image analysis of normal exfoliated gingival cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nuclear diameter (ND, cell diameter (CD and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (N:C and their variation with age and sex in normal gingival smears. Study Design: Gingival smears were collected from 320 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using standard papanicolaou laboratory procedure. The cell and nuclear diameters were measured using image analysis software (KS lite 2.0. Statistical analysis of the data was done using one-way ANOVA, Students ′t′ test and Tukey-HSD procedure. Results: The results showed an increase in ND from the 1-20 group to 21-40 age group in males. Above 40 years, there was a decrease in ND. In females, the ND was high in 21-40 age group; and then from 41 years, ND gradually decreased but the difference was not significant. The CD in males and females was low in the 1-20 age group and then it gradually increased. However, the difference was not significant between the ages 20 and 60 years. After 60, there was a decrease in CD. Similar changes are also seen in the ratio N:C in both males and females. The ND, CD and N:C irrespective of the age were high in females. The difference in CD was insignificant, except in the 0-20 age group, where females had significantly more cell diameters. Irrespective of the gender, the ND, CD and N:C increased from 0-20 age group to 20-40 age group. After 40, there is a steady decrease in ND, CD and N:C. Conclusion: Age-related and sex-related alterations are observed in gingival smears.

  10. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  11. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  12. Evolution of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Individuals With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolery, Mark; Barton, Erin E.; Hine, Jeffrey F.

    2005-01-01

    Two issues of each volume of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis were reviewed to identify research reports focusing on individuals with autism. The identified articles were analyzed to describe the ages of individuals with autism, the settings in which the research occurred, the nature of the behaviors targeted for intervention, and the…

  13. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Mulder, Hanna; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive functions (EF) have been found in school-age children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders. Present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether these EF impairments can also be found in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 4021…

  14. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of College English Teacher ’ s Non-verbal Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes College English teacher’s non-verbal behaviors in multimedia classroom from the perspective of Multimodal Discourse Analysis, aiming to explore how the non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching can be applied in meaning-making process to facilitate teacher-students interaction and realize three metafunctions of language in class.

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  17. Heat shock protein 60 affects behavioral improvement in a rat model of Parkinson's disease grafted with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived dopaminergic-like neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Can; Li, Hui; Zhao, Xian-Jing; Liu, Zheng-Xia; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Ying; Feng, Mei-Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in mesencephalic substantia nigra (SN). Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages, including DAergic neurons. Thus, hUC-MSCs could be a promising alternative to compensate for the loss of DAergic neurons in PD. In the current study, hUC-MSCs and hUC-MSCs-derived DAergic-like neurons were transplanted into the striatum and SN of a rat model of PD that is induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We evaluated their therapeutic effects on improving rotation behavior in the rat and on modulating the level of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) expression in the brain. After transplantation, an amelioration of rotation behavior was observed in rats that underwent cell grafting, and hUC-MSCs-derived DAergic-like neurons were superior to hUC-MSCs at inducing behavioral improvement. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis indicated significantly elevated levels of Hsp60 in cell-grafted rats compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned (PD) rats. These results demonstrate that hUC-MSCs-based cell transplantation is potential therapeutic treatment for PD, and hUC-MSCs-derived DAergic-like neurons appear to be favorable candidates for cell replacement therapy in PD. Finally, Hsp60 could be involved in a mechanism of behavioral recovery. PMID:26758268

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Inflammatory Regulators of Cell Behaviors in Vascular Formation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling contribute to pathogenesis of a number of disorders such as tumor, arthritis, atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, and neurodegeneration. During angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, behaviors of stem/progenitor cells, endothelial cells (ECs, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and its interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM play a critical role in the processes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, well-known inflammatory mediators are a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that degrade various components of ECM and non-ECM molecules mediating tissue remodeling in both physiological and pathological processes. MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MT1-MMP, are stimulated and activated by various stimuli in vascular tissues. Once activated, MMPs degrade ECM proteins or other related signal molecules to promote recruitment of stem/progenitor cells and facilitate migration and invasion of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis can also be regulated by MMPs via proteolytically cleaving and modulating bioactive molecules and relevant signaling pathways. Regarding the importance of vascular cells in abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, regulation of vascular cell behaviors through modulating expression and activation of MMPs shows therapeutic potential.

  19. Behavioral Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism Engaged in Applied Behavior Analysis Early Intervention Programs: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral adjustment was explored in 78 siblings of children with autism in applied behavior analysis programs. There were no reported increases in behavioral adjustment problems. Siblings in families with children with less severe autism had fewer adjustment problems when more formal social support was also available to the family. (Contains…

  20. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell depletion modulates anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Stress has been shown to suppress immune function and increase susceptibility to inflammatory disease and psychiatric disease. CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T (Treg cells are prominent in immune regulation. This study was conducted to determine if anti-CD25 antibody (Ab mediated depletion of Treg cells in mice susceptibility to stress-induced development of depression-like behaviors, as well as immunological and neurochemical activity. To accomplish this, an elevated plus-maze test (EPM, tail suspension test (TST, and forced swim test (FST were used to examine depression-like behaviors upon chronic immobilization stress. Immune imbalance status was observed based on analysis of serum cytokines using a mouse cytometric bead array in conjunction with flow cytometry and changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT and dopamine (DA in the brain were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The time spent in the open arms of the EPM decreased significantly and the immobility time in the FST increased significantly in the anti-CD25 Ab-treated group when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. In addition, interlukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-á (TNF-á, interlukin-2 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interlukin-4 (IL-4 and interlukin-17A (IL-17A concentrations were significantly upregulated in the stressed anti-CD25 Ab-treated group when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. Furthermore, the non stressed anti-CD25 Ab-treated group displayed decreased 5-HT levels within the hippocampus when compared with the non stressed wild-type group. These results suggest that CD4(+CD25(+ Treg cell depletion modulated alterations in depressive behavior, cytokine and monoaminergic activity. Therefore, controlling CD4(+CD25(+ Treg cell function during stress may be a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of depression-like symptoms.

  1. Analysis of Users Web Browsing Behavior Using Markov chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Shukla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In present days of growing information technology, many browsers available for surfing and web mining. A user has option to use any of them at a time to mine out the desired website. Every browser has pre-defined level of popularity and reputation in the market. This paper considers the setup of only two browsers in a computer system and a user prefers to any one, if fails, switches to the other one .The behavior of user is modeled through Markov chain procedure and transition probabilities are calculated. The quitting to browsing is treated as a parameter of variation over the popularity. Graphical study is performed to explain the inter relationship between user behavior parameters and browser market popularity parameters. If rate of a company is lowest in terms of browser failure and lowest in terms of quitting probability then company enjoys better popularity and larger user proportion

  2. Transcriptional Analysis of T Cells Resident in Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Li; Moshe Olshansky; Carbone, Francis R.; Ma, Joel Z.

    2016-01-01

    Human skin contains various populations of memory T cells in permanent residence and in transit. Arguably, the best characterized of the skin subsets are the CD8(+) permanently resident memory T cells (TRM) expressing the integrin subunit, CD103. In order to investigate the remaining skin T cells, we isolated skin-tropic (CLA(+)) helper T cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8(+) CD103(-) T cells from skin and blood for RNA microarray analysis to compare the transcriptional profiles of these grou...

  3. Toward a theory of distinct types of "impulsive" behaviors: A meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Markon, Kristian E; Clark, Lee Anna

    2014-03-01

    Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity

  4. Effects of chitosan/collagen substrates on the behavior of rat neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord and brain injuries usually lead to cavity formation.The transplantation by combining stem cells and tissue engineering scaffolds has the potential to fill the cavities and replace the lost neural cells.Both chitosan and collagen have their unique characteristics.In this study,the effects of chitosan and collagen on the behavior of rat neural stem cells (at the neurosphere level) were tested in vitro in terms of cytotoxicity and supporting ability for stem cell survival,proliferation and differentiation.Under the serum-free condition,both chitosan membranes and collagen gels had low cytotoxicity to neurospheres.That is,cells migrated from neurospheres,and processes extended out from these neurospheres and the differentiated cells.Compared with the above two materials,chitosan-collagen membranes were more suitable for the co-culture with rat neural stem cells,because,except for low cytotoxicity and supporting ability for the cell survival,in this group,a large number of cells were observed to migrate out from neurospheres,and the differentiating percentage from neurospheres into neurons was significantly increased.Further modification of chitosan-collagen membranes may shed light on in vivo nerve regeneration by transplanting neural stem cells.

  5. Naming, the formation of stimulus classes, and applied behavior analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stromer, R; Mackay, H A; Remington, B.

    1996-01-01

    The methods used in Sidman's original studies on equivalence classes provide a framework for analyzing functional verbal behavior. Sidman and others have shown how teaching receptive, name-referent matching may produce rudimentary oral reading and word comprehension skills. Eikeseth and Smith (1992) have extended these findings by showing that children with autism may acquire equivalence classes after learning to supply a common oral name to each stimulus in a potential class. A stimulus clas...

  6. Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Alcohol Reduction Apps: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Objective Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alco...

  7. Analysis of the relation between intelligence and criminal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Jovanovic; Milan Novakovic; Aleksandra Salamadić; Novica Petrovic; Sanja Maric

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One of the cognitive aspects of personality is intelligence. A large number of previous studies have shown that the intelligence within the criminal population is decreased, particularly in its verbal aspect.The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a link between intelligence and criminal behavior and how it is manifested.Methods: The research involved criminal inmates of the Correctional institutes of Republic of Srpska and Court Department of Psychiatry Clinic So...

  8. Analysis of the behavior of institutional investors in the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nafii IBENRISSOUL

    2013-01-01

    The international financial systems knew important modifications during these last decades. The business of financial intermediation tips over more and more in the hands of new actors that are institutional investors. The rise of institutional investors is an indubitable fact that underlines very numerous researches. It can be analyzed as a deep modification of the capitalism and as a strengthening of the power of the shareholders whose behavior investor and owner is transformed. It is accomp...

  9. Hybrid pairwise likelihood analysis of animal behavior experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cattelan, Manuela; Varin, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    The study of the determinants of contests between animals is an important issue in understanding animal behavior. Tournament experiments among a set of animals are used by zoologists for this purpose. From a statistical point of view, the results of these tournament experiments are naturally analyzed by paired comparison models such as the Bradley-Terry and the Thurstone models. A major complication is the presence of dependence between the outcomes of couples of contests with an animal in co...

  10. No Genetic Influence for Childhood Behavior Problems From DNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Twin studies of behavior problems in childhood point to substantial genetic influence. It is now possible to estimate genetic influence using DNA alone in samples of unrelated individuals, not relying on family-based designs such as twins. A linear mixed model, which incorporates DNA microarray data, has confirmed twin results by showing substantial genetic influence for diverse traits in adults. Here we present direct comparisons between twin and DNA heritability estimates for chil...

  11. BUYING BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN A SIMULATED EXPERIMENTAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Echeverry Gómez; Marithza Sandoval Escobar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the consumption scenario(Foxall, 2007) and the level of informational reinforcement (Foxall, 2005) on theprobability of buying behavior. The study involved 56 people between 18 to 20years of age selected through intentional sampling. We designed a web applicationthat emulated conditions of purchase in a virtual store. Functional analysiswas performed using a logit model of LR (logistic regression) to calculate individualand group effects of...

  12. An analysis and reduction of disruptive behavior on school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B F; Bailey, J S; Barber, F

    1981-01-01

    Thousands of children are injured or killed each year in school bus accidents. A significant number of these tragic incidents is precipitated by disruptive child behavior that distracts the drivers from their difficult task. Two experiments were conducted which addressed this problem. For both experiments an automated sound recording device (referred to as a Noise Guard) selectively responsive to frequencies above 500 Hz (i.e., unresponsive to bus drone) recorded both the duration and frequency of noise outbursts above a tolerable threshold. Additionally, an observer made in situ measurements of other disruptions including roughhousing and getting-out-of-seat. In the first experiment, following baseline measurements of these behaviors, middle-school students received feedback for noise outbursts. That is, when "Noise Guard" was activated, it in turn operated one of several lights on a panel visible to all passengers. Each day students were allowed to listen to high-appeal taped music while riding the bus and to participate in a raffle for prizes, provided the number of outbursts on the preceding day remained below a specified criterion indicated on the light panel. This intervention resulted in drastic reductions of noise outbursts with a concomitant reduction in other disruptive behaviors. Comparable results were obtained in the second experiment which eliminated the raffle from the intervention. PMID:7287600

  13. Gene set enrichment analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed I; Dębski, Konrad J; Dabrowski, Michał; Czarnecka, Anna M; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, genome-wide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool that offers a great opportunity to study and understand the key role of genes that contribute to carcinogenesis. Various microarray platforms and statistical approaches can be used to identify genes that might serve as prognostic biomarkers and be developed as antitumor therapies in the future. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a serious, life-threatening disease, and there are few treatment options for patients. In this study, we performed one-color microarray gene expression (4×44K) analysis of the mRCC cell line Caki-1 and the healthy kidney cell line ASE-5063. A total of 1,921 genes were differentially expressed in the Caki-1 cell line (1,023 upregulated and 898 downregulated). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approaches were used to analyze the differential-expression data. The objective of this research was to identify complex biological changes that occur during metastatic development using Caki-1 as a model mRCC cell line. Our data suggest that there are multiple deregulated pathways associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), including integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, IGF-I signaling, CXCR4 signaling, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. The IPA upstream analysis predicted top transcriptional regulators that are either activated or inhibited, such as estrogen receptors, TP53, KDM5B, SPDEF, and CDKN1A. The GSEA approach was used to further confirm enriched pathway data following IPA. PMID:27279483

  14. Degradation behavior of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell using LNF cathode as function of current load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yoshiteru; Watanabe, Kimitaka; Chiba, Reiichi; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Orui, Himeko; Arai, Hajime [NTT Energy and Environment Systems Laboratories, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effect of current loading on the degradation behavior of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cell consisted of LaNi{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LNF), alumina-doped scandia stabilized zirconia (SASZ), and a Ni-SASZ cermet as the cathode, electrolyte, and anode, respectively. The test was carried out at 1073 K with constant loads of 0.3, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.3 A cm{sup -2}. The degradation rate, defined by the voltage loss during a fixed period (about 1000 h), was faster at higher current densities. From an impedance analysis, the degradation depended mainly on increases in the cathodic resistance, while the anodic and ohmic resistances contributed very little. The cathode microstructures were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (author)

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans male sensory-motor neurons and dopaminergic support cells couple ejaculation and post-ejaculatory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; García, L René

    2014-01-01

    The circuit structure and function underlying post-coital male behaviors remain poorly understood. Using mutant analysis, laser ablation, optogenetics, and Ca2+ imaging, we observed that following C. elegans male copulation, the duration of post-coital lethargy is coupled to cellular events involved in ejaculation. We show that the SPV and SPD spicule-associated sensory neurons and the spicule socket neuronal support cells function with intromission circuit components, including the cholinergic SPC and PCB and the glutamatergic PCA sensory-motor neurons, to coordinate sex muscle contractions with initiation and continuation of sperm movement. Our observations suggest that the SPV and SPD and their associated dopamine-containing socket cells sense the intrauterine environment through cellular endings exposed at the spicule tips and regulate both sperm release into the hermaphrodite and the recovery from post-coital lethargy. PMID:24915976

  16. Some reflections on 25 years of the association for behavior analysis: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.; Baer, Donald M.; Favell, Judith E; Sigrid S. Glenn; Hineline, Philip N.; Malott, Maria E.; Michael, Jack

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers some reflections on the discipline and profession of behavior analysis, as well as on the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA), on the occasion of the association's 25th anniversary. It is based on a panel session conducted at the 1999 convention that included six past presidents of ABA (Donald M. Baer, Judith E. Favell, Sigrid S. Glenn, Philip N. Hineline, Jack Michael, and Edward K. Morris) and its current Executive Director and Secretary-Treasurer (Maria E. Malott). Am...

  17. The Effects of Methylphenidate on A Functional Analysis of Disruptive Behavior: A Replication and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    DiCesare, Anthony; McAdam, David B; Toner, Amy; Varrell, James

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, a functional analysis of the disruptive behavior of a 18-year-old man who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and moderate mental retardation was conducted, both when he was taking methylphenidate and when he was not taking the medication. The results of this functional analysis demonstrated that the participant's disruptive behaviors were reinforced by access to attention only when he was not taking methylphenidate.

  18. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  19. Don't Wag the Dog: Extending the Reach of Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Matthew P.; Kohn, Carolynn S

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the field of behavior analysis would be best served if behavior analysts worked to extend the reach of behavioral services into a more diverse range of settings and with more varied populations, with an emphasis on the establishment of new career opportunities for graduating students. This is not a new proposal, but it is a tall order; it is not difficult to see why many would choose a surer route to gainful employment. Currently, the most fruitful career path for behavior analy...

  20. Inclusive Elementary Classroom Teacher Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Use of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…

  1. Error analysis of nuclear power plant operator cognitive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators

  2. Dentinoameloblastoma with ghost cells: A rare case report with emphasis on its biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are regarded as a homogeneous group of neoplasms with locally invasive character. They generally do not show induction of dental hard tissue formation except in few cases. Biological behavior and histogenesis of these tumors is still unexplored as there is lack of relevant studies and long follow-up of these patients. So, we aimed to report this rare case of dentinoameloblastoma with unique presence of ghost cells in middle-aged female involving maxilla with emphasis on its biological behavior. We conclude that although histogenesis of this tumor is not clear but biological potential is similar to conventional ameloblastoma requiring wider excision.

  3. Micro and nano-platforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some technological platforms developed for biological cell analysis will be presented and compared to existing systems. In brief, we present a novel micro cell culture chamber based on diffusion feeding of cells, into which cells can be introduced and extracted after culturing using...

  4. Transplantation of Deprenyl-Induced Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Positive Cells Improves 6-OHDA-Lesion Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Hosseinpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is longstanding experimental and clinical evidence that supports the idea that replacement of dopaminergic (DAergic neurons can ameliorate functional disabilities of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy of transplantation of rat bone marrow stromal cell (BMSCs-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+ cells induced by deprenyl into 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rat models, using behavioral tests and immunohistochemical evaluations.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, undifferentiated BrdU-labeled BMSCs were incubated in serum-free medium that contained 10-8 M deprenyl for 24 hours. Afterwards, BMSCs were cultured for 48 hours in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS, then differentiated into TH+ neurons. We randomly divided 24 hemiparkinsonian rats as follows: group 1 (control received only medium, while groups 2 and 3 were injected with 2×105 BMSCs and deprenyl-treated cells in 4 μl medium. Injections were made into the injured strata of the rats. Rotational behavior in response to apomorphine was tested before transplantation and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-graft. Animals were then sacrificed, and the brains were extracted for immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies.Results: Apomorphine-induced rotation analysis indicated that animals with grafted cells in groups 2 and 3 exhibited significantly less rotational behavior than those in the control group at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that BrdU-labeled cells expressed specific neuronal markers, such as NF 200 and TH, at the implantation site. The presence of TH+ cells in conjunction with the reduction in rotation might show the capacity of grafted cells to release dopamine. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of immature neurons and astrocyte-like cells at the graft site.Conclusion: TH+ neurons induced by

  5. Sample preparation for single cell analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Eva; Basova, E. Y.; Potáčová, Anna; Foret, František; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel

    Brno: Institute of Analytical Chemistry AS CR, 2014 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.), s. 118-121 ISBN 978-80-904959-2-0. [CECE 2014. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /11./. Brno (CZ), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * micromanipulation * bioluminiscence Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2014/CECE%202014%20proceedings_full.pdf

  6. Sample preparation for single cell analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Eva; Basova, E. Y.; Potáčová, Anna; Foret, František; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel

    Brno : Institute of Analytical Chemistry AS CR, 2014 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.), s. 118-121 ISBN 978-80-904959-2-0. [CECE 2014. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /11./. Brno (CZ), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * micromanipulation * bioluminiscence Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2014/CECE%202014%20proceedings_full.pdf

  7. Analysis of cell death inducing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Pedersen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn;

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers for early detection of toxicity hold the promise of improving the failure rates in drug development. In the present study, gene expression levels were measured using full-genome RAE230 version 2 Affymetrix GeneChips on rat liver tissue 48 h after administration of six different compounds......), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and Cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase) (Cyp2C29). RT-PCR for these three genes was performed and four additional compounds were included for validation. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the findings based on the microarray data and using the...... three genes a classification rate of 55 of 57 samples was achieved for the classification of not toxic versus toxic. The single most promising biomarker (OAT) alone resulted in a surprisingly 100% correctly classified samples. OAT has not previously been linked to toxicity and cell death in the...

  8. Development of microfluidic tools for cell analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavek, Tomáš; Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    Brno: Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2015 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Klepárník, K.), s. 209-211 ISBN 978-80-904959-3-7. [CECE 2015. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /12./. Brno (CZ), 21.09.2015-23.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : microfluidic device * 3D- printing * single cell analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2015/CECE%202015%20proceedings_full.pdf

  9. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice. PMID:26737401

  10. A novel circular invasion assay mimics in vivo invasive behavior of cancer cell lines and distinguishes single-cell motility in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical in vitro wound-healing assays and other techniques designed to study cell migration and invasion have been used for many years to elucidate the various mechanisms associated with metastasis. However, many of these methods are limited in their ability to achieve reproducible, quantitative results that translate well in vivo. Such techniques are also commonly unable to elucidate single-cell motility mechanisms, an important factor to be considered when studying dissemination. Therefore, we developed and applied a novel in vitro circular invasion assay (CIA) in order to bridge the translational gap between in vitro and in vivo findings, and to distinguish between different modes of invasion. Our method is a modified version of a standard circular wound-healing assay with an added matrix barrier component (Matrigel™), which better mimics those physiological conditions present in vivo. We examined 3 cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SCOV-3, and MDA-MB-231), each with a different established degree of aggressiveness, to test our assay's ability to detect diverse levels of invasiveness. Percent wound closure (or invasion) was measured using time-lapse microscopy and advanced image analysis techniques. We also applied the CIA technique to DLD-1 cells in the presence of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid that was recently shown to stimulate cancer cell colony dispersal into single migratory cells, in order to validate our method's ability to detect collective and individual motility. CIA method was found to be highly reproducible, with negligible levels of variance measured. It successfully detected the anticipated low, moderate, and high levels of invasion that correspond to in vivo findings for cell lines tested. It also captured that DLD-1 cells exhibit individual migration upon LPA stimulation, and collective behavior in its absence. Given its ability to both determine pseudo-realistic invasive cell behavior in vitro and capture subtle

  11. A full model for simulation of electrochemical cells including complex behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperilla, J.J.; Felez, J.; Romero, G.; Carretero, A. [ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-25

    This communication presents a model of electrochemical cells developed in order to simulate their electrical, chemical and thermal behavior showing the differences when thermal effects are or not considered in the charge-discharge process. The work presented here has been applied to the particular case of the Pb,PbSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (aq)PbO{sub 2},Pb cell, which forms the basis of the lead-acid batteries so widely used in the automotive industry and as traction batteries in electric or hybrid vehicles. Each half-cell is considered independently in the model. For each half-cell, in addition to the main electrode reaction, a secondary reaction is considered: the hydrogen evolution reaction in the negative electrode and the oxygen evolution reaction in the positive. The equilibrium potential is calculated with the Nernst equation, in which the activity coefficients are fitted to an exponential function using experimental data. On the other hand, the two main mechanisms that produce the overpotential are considered, that is the activation or charge transfer and the diffusion mechanisms. First, an isothermal model has been studied in order to show the behavior of the main phenomena. A more complex model has also been studied including thermal behavior. This model is very useful in the case of traction batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles where high current intensities appear. Some simulation results are also presented in order to show the accuracy of the proposed models. (author)

  12. Micro-PIXE for single cell analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STIM analysis provides high spatial resolution imaging (< 200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (< 0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for sub-cellular imaging of trace elements in various fields of interest will be presented: in patho-physiology of trace elements involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, and in toxicology of metals such as cobalt. (author)

  13. A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Pelham, William E; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2009-03-01

    There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that were appropriate for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes varied by study design but not generally by other study characteristics, such as the demographic variables of the participants in the studies. Overall unweighted effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicated that behavioral treatments are highly effective. Based on these results, there is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD. PMID:19131150

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palm Megan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of egg-laying onset using deformable template matching and other morphological image analysis techniques. Some behavioral changes surrounding egg-laying events are also studied. The results demonstrate that the computer vision tools and the algorithm developed here can be effectively used to study C. elegans egg-laying behaviors. The algorithm developed is an essential part of a machine-vision system for C. elegans tracking and behavioral analysis.

  15. Behavior of mammalian cells on magnesium substituted bare and hydroxyapatite deposited (Ti,Mg)N coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Sakip; Calikoglu-Koyuncu, Ayse Ceren; Kazmanli, Kursat; Urgen, Mustafa; Torun Kose, Gamze; Kok, Fatma Nese

    2015-12-25

    TiN and (Ti,Mg)N thin film coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (arc-PVD) technique with magnesium contents of 0, 4.24 at% (low Mg) and 10.42 at% (high Mg). The presence of magnesium on both normal (hFOB) and cancer (SaOS-2) osteoblast cell behavior was investigated in (Ti,Mg)N surfaces with or without prior hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition (in simulated body fluid, SBF). Mg incorporation on TiN films was found to have no apparent effect on the cell proliferation in bare surfaces but cell spreading was better on low Mg content surface for hFOB cells. SaOS-2 cells, on the other hand, showed an increased extra cellular matrix (ECM) deposition on low Mg surfaces but ECM deposition almost disappeared when Mg content was increased above 10 at%. HA deposited surfaces with high Mg content was shown to cause a significant decrease in cell viability. While the cells were flattened, elongated and spread over the surface in contact with each other via cellular extensions on unmodified and low Mg doped surfaces, unhealthy morphologies of cells with round shape with a limited number of extended arms was visualized on high Mg containing samples. In summary, Mg incorporation into the TiN coatings by arc-PVD technique and successive HA deposition led to promising cell responses on low Mg content surfaces for a better osteointegration performance. PMID:25556119

  16. Relationships between psychological safety climate facets and safety behavior in the rail industry: a dominance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Stephanie L; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Dove-Steinkamp, Megan L; Walker, Curtis T; Marmet, Matthew; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2010-09-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. PMID:20538102

  17. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  18. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  19. Effect of TRAF6 Downregulation on Malignant Biological Behavior of
Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 was a commonly amplified oncogene in lung cancer. However, the precise role of TRAF6 protein in lung cancer has not been extensively investigated. This study analyzed the effects of TRAF6 on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion capability of lung cancer cell lines, as well as the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods To address the expression of TRAF6 in lung cancer cells, four lung cancer cell lines (A549, H1650, SPC-A-1 and Calu-3 were assayed to determine the expression of TRAF6 protein by Western blot and TRAF6 mRNA via qRT-PCR. Moreover, siRNA targeting TRAF6 was introduced into SPC-A-1 and Calu-3 cells. Nuclear factor-қB (NF-қB DNA-binding activity, apoptosis rates, cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, flow cytometry, MTS assay, flow cytometry, scratch test, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was also performed to evaluate the expression of the following proteins through K63-ubiquitination: P65, CD24 and CXCR4. Whole-genome sequencing analysis was conducted using a second-generation sequencer in SPC-A-1 cells. Results TRAF6 was highly up-expressed in SPC-A-1 and Calu-3 cell lines than the other two cells, which also showed K63-ubiquitinization in TRAF6. However, constitutive activation of NF-қB was observed only in SPC-A-1 lung cancer cells. Downregulation of TRAF6 suppressed the NF-κB activation, cell migration, and invasion but promoted the cell apoptosis of SPC-A-1 cells. Markedly decreased expression of CD24 and CXCR4 was observed in SPC-A-1 cells transfected by TRAF6 siRNA. Nevertheless, TRAF6 downregulation did not affect the proliferation and cell cycle of SPC-A-1 cells. Additionally, TRAF6 regulation did not affect the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion

  20. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of $\\mathbb{R}^2$, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an $S^2$ of constant radius $\\mathcal{R}$. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in t...

  1. Dynamical behavior and Jacobi stability analysis of wound strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Matthew J.; Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-06-01

    We numerically solve the equations of motion (EOM) for two models of circular cosmic string loops with windings in a simply connected internal space. Since the windings cannot be topologically stabilized, stability must be achieved (if at all) dynamically. As toy models for realistic compactifications, we consider windings on a small section of mathbb {R}^2, which is valid as an approximation to any simply connected internal manifold if the winding radius is sufficiently small, and windings on an S^2 of constant radius mathcal {R}. We then use Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory to analyze the Jacobi stability of the string equations and determine bounds on the physical parameters that ensure dynamical stability of the windings. We find that, for the same initial conditions, the curvature and topology of the internal space have nontrivial effects on the microscopic behavior of the string in the higher dimensions, but that the macroscopic behavior is remarkably insensitive to the details of the motion in the compact space. This suggests that higher-dimensional signatures may be extremely difficult to detect in the effective (3+1)-dimensional dynamics of strings compactified on an internal space, even if configurations with nontrivial windings persist over long time periods.

  2. Fuel behavior model development: FRAPCON-2 uncertainty analysis option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated uncertainty analysis option has been added to the FRAPCON Computer Code. The option allows the user to obtain estimates of the uncertainty in computer output variables of the code as a function of known uncertainties in input variables. The method of uncertainty analysis used is the Response Surface Method (RSM). Results of the uncertainty analysis option include estimates of the mean and variance of the output variables plus fractional contributions to that variance due to each of the input variables. An example application of the method to FRAPCON standard problem number one is presented

  3. Helquat dye for staining dead cells, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and cell cycle analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joshi, Vishwas; Kužmová, Erika; Kozák, Jaroslav; Bednárová, Lucie; Císařová, I.; Hájek, Miroslav; Teplý, Filip

    Praha: Czech Chemical Society, 2015. s. 86. [Liblice 2015. Advances in Organic , Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /50./. 06.11.2015-08.11.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19213S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : helquat dye * FACS * cell cycle analysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. Development of mechanical coupled analysis technique for the long term behavior of the near field (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In evaluating the long term mechanical behavior of the near field containing Engineered Barrier System (EBS), it is essential to take into consideration the behaviors which affect the stress and deformation of the buffer material. The 3-D mechanical coupled analysis technique for the long term mechanical behavior of near field is developed. The object of analysis is extended to the disposal gallery and the near field rock, in addition to the buffer material and the overpack for previous one. The analysis model is developed with a degradation model of concrete support and modeling of the near field rock with the valuable- compliance-type constitutive equation. The remaining problems of current study are related to; 1) mechanical property and modeling of backfill material, 2) adopting a degradation model of concrete support in the prototype model, 3) examining the effect of analytical model mesh and time step for the 3-D mechanical coupled analysis. We conducted the one-dimensional consolidation test for the backfill material. The backfill material shows a similar behavior to that of buffer material. And the prototype model is developed adopting a degradation model for a concrete support and examining the effect of the model mesh and time step. The result shows that a degradation of concrete support affects the mechanical behavior of the near field. It is concluded this analysis technique is promising for evaluation of the long term mechanical behavior of the near field. (author)

  5. Behavioral outcome measures used for human neural stem cell transplantation in rat stroke models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Jensen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, leading to the development of various stroke models to test new treatments, most commonly in the rat. Human stroke trials focus on disability, related primarily to neurological deficits. To better model the clinical application of these treatments, many behavioral tests have been developed using the rat stroke model. We performed a systematic review of all the behavioral outcome measures used in published studies of human neural stem cell transplantation in rat stroke models. The reviewed tests include motor, sensory, cognitive, activity, and combination tests. For each test, we give a brief description, trace the origin of the test, and discuss test performance in the reviewed studies. We conclude that while many behavioral tests are available for this purpose, there does not appear to be consensus on an optimal testing strategy.

  6. Protocol: optimised electrophyiological analysis of intact guard cells from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhong-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic resources available for Arabidopsis thaliana make this species particularly attractive as a model for molecular genetic studies of guard cell homeostasis, transport and signalling, but this facility is not matched by accessible tools for quantitative analysis of transport in the intact cell. We have developed a reliable set of procedures for voltage clamp analysis of guard cells from Arabidopsis leaves. These procedures greatly simplify electrophysiological recordings, extending the duration of measurements and scope for analysis of the predominant K+ and anion channels of intact stomatal guard cells to that achieved previously in work with Vicia and tobacco guard cells.

  7. Development of a hot cell for post-irradiation analysis of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post irradiation examinations of nuclear fuels are performed in order to verify their in-service behavior. Examinations are conducted in compact structures called hot cells, designed to attend the different types of tests and analysis for fuel's characterization. The characterization of fuel microstructure is an activity performed in hot cells. Usually, hot cells for microstructural fuel analysis are designed to allow the metallographic and ceramographic samples preparation and after that, microscopical analysis of the fuel's microstructure. Due to the complexity of the foreseen operations, the severe limitations imposed by the available space into the hot cells, the capabilities of the remote manipulation devices, the procedures of radiological protection and the needs to obtain samples with an adequate surface quality for microscopic analysis, the design of a hot cell for fuel samples preparation presents a high level of complexity. In this paper, the methodology used to develop a hot cell facility for nuclear fuel's metallographic and ceramographic samples preparation is presented. Equipment, devices and systems used in conventional sample preparation processes were evaluated during bench tests. After the necessary adjustments and processes adaptations, they were assembled in a mock-up of the respective hot cell, where they were tested in conditions as realistic as possible, in order to improve the operations and processes to be performed at the real hot cells. (author)

  8. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.

  9. Study on in vitro Cultural Behaviors of Spermatogonium Stem Cells of New Born Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinyou; HU Pengfei; HUANG Zhijun; LV Zhonghua; ZHANG Guixue

    2008-01-01

    Three methods were adopted in culture spermatogoniums of newly born calf in vitro, such as enzymatic digestion and percoll density gradient centrifugation(Method I ), tubular fragments culture(Method Ⅱ ) and tissue culture(Method Ⅲ), and cultural behaviors of cells were observed. The results showed that typical spermatogonium colonies appeard at 144 h of culture by enzymatic digestion-percoll density gradient centrifugation method and tubular fragments culture method, 2.5% FBS kept the characteristics of spermatogonium stem cell better than others, produced more mass clones, and FBS of more than 2.5% concentration benefited spermatogonium differentiation and the number of colonies was significantly affected by FBS concentration. After 1 week of culture in method Ⅲ, the diameter of lumens and quantity of sertoli's cells in tubal wall increased obviously, lumen of seminiferous tubules appeared. Sertoli's cells kept constant and the number of spermatogoniums decreased obviously after 2 weeks of culture.

  10. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Lauren; Kang, Yunqing; Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W.; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotyp...

  11. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  12. Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors,etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular usedR-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

  13. The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: a motivational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, S M; Penner, L A

    2001-12-01

    This study addressed the role of motives in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Three motives were identified through factor analyses: prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management. Scales that measured these motives and other variables known to covary with OCB were administered to 141 municipal employees and were correlated with self-, peer, and supervisor ratings of 5 aspects of OCB. Relative to the other motives, prosocial values motives were most strongly associated with OCB directed at individuals, and organizational concern motives were most strongly associated with OCB directed toward the organization. Each of the motives accounted for unique amounts of variance in OCB. The results suggest that motives may play an important role in OCB. PMID:11768072

  14. Negative reactions to depressive behaviors: a communication theories analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, C; Abramson, L Y

    1994-11-01

    Interpersonal aspects of depression have received considerable research attention in the past 2 decades. This work often has been guided by J. C. Coyne's (1976b) interactional model of depression or P. M. Lewinsohn's (1974) social skill deficit theory of depression. A review of this research indicates that depressed people reliably experience rejection from those in their social environment and that depression generally is associated with impairments in social behavior. However, this research does not explain exactly what depressed people do to elicit rejection, or exactly why others react negatively to them. Research derived from communication theories on responsiveness, politeness, and expectations for nonverbal involvement illuminates the interpersonal cycle in depression. The role of these impairments in the cause, symptoms, course, subtypes, and therapy of depression is discussed. PMID:7822566

  15. Behavioral impact of sickle cell disease in young children with repeated hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bakri, Mohamed H.; Ismail, Eman A.; Elsedfy, Ghada O.; Mostafa A Amr; Ahmed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) in children with a history of repeated hospitalization is distressing for children as well as their parents leading to anxiety and has negative effects on the psychological state of children and their families. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of SCD on the behavior of young children age 1½ to 5 years old who had repeated history of hospitalization, compared to a control group of healthy children attended a vaccination c...

  16. Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias migration and offshore behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J Jorgensen

    Full Text Available Elucidating how mobile ocean predators utilize the pelagic environment is vital to understanding the dynamics of oceanic species and ecosystems. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT tags have emerged as an important tool to describe animal migrations in oceanic environments where direct observation is not feasible. Available PAT tag data, however, are for the most part limited to geographic position, swimming depth and environmental temperature, making effective behavioral observation challenging. However, novel analysis approaches have the potential to extend the interpretive power of these limited observations. Here we developed an approach based on clustering analysis of PAT daily time-at-depth histogram records to distinguish behavioral modes in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias. We found four dominant and distinctive behavioral clusters matching previously described behavioral patterns, including two distinctive offshore diving modes. Once validated, we mapped behavior mode occurrence in space and time. Our results demonstrate spatial, temporal and sex-based structure in the diving behavior of white sharks in the northeastern Pacific previously unrecognized including behavioral and migratory patterns resembling those of species with lek mating systems. We discuss our findings, in combination with available life history and environmental data, and propose specific testable hypotheses to distinguish between mating and foraging in northeastern Pacific white sharks that can provide a framework for future work. Our methodology can be applied to similar datasets from other species to further define behaviors during unobservable phases.

  17. Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) migration and offshore behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Salvador J; Arnoldi, Natalie S; Estess, Ethan E; Chapple, Taylor K; Rückert, Martin; Anderson, Scot D; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating how mobile ocean predators utilize the pelagic environment is vital to understanding the dynamics of oceanic species and ecosystems. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags have emerged as an important tool to describe animal migrations in oceanic environments where direct observation is not feasible. Available PAT tag data, however, are for the most part limited to geographic position, swimming depth and environmental temperature, making effective behavioral observation challenging. However, novel analysis approaches have the potential to extend the interpretive power of these limited observations. Here we developed an approach based on clustering analysis of PAT daily time-at-depth histogram records to distinguish behavioral modes in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). We found four dominant and distinctive behavioral clusters matching previously described behavioral patterns, including two distinctive offshore diving modes. Once validated, we mapped behavior mode occurrence in space and time. Our results demonstrate spatial, temporal and sex-based structure in the diving behavior of white sharks in the northeastern Pacific previously unrecognized including behavioral and migratory patterns resembling those of species with lek mating systems. We discuss our findings, in combination with available life history and environmental data, and propose specific testable hypotheses to distinguish between mating and foraging in northeastern Pacific white sharks that can provide a framework for future work. Our methodology can be applied to similar datasets from other species to further define behaviors during unobservable phases. PMID:23144707

  18. Functional microarray analysis suggests repressed cell-cell signaling and cell survival-related modules inhibit progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer shows a great diversity in its clinical behavior which cannot be easily predicted using the currently available clinical or pathological markers. The identification of pathways associated with lymph node metastasis (N+ and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC may increase our understanding of the complex biology of this disease. Methods Tumor samples were obtained from untreated HNSCC patients undergoing surgery. Patients were classified according to pathologic lymph node status (positive or negative or tumor recurrence (recurrent or non-recurrent tumor after treatment (surgery with neck dissection followed by radiotherapy. Using microarray gene expression, we screened tumor samples according to modules comprised by genes in the same pathway or functional category. Results The most frequent alterations were the repression of modules in negative lymph node (N0 and in non-recurrent tumors rather than induction of modules in N+ or in recurrent tumors. N0 tumors showed repression of modules that contain cell survival genes and in non-recurrent tumors cell-cell signaling and extracellular region modules were repressed. Conclusions The repression of modules that contain cell survival genes in N0 tumors reinforces the important role that apoptosis plays in the regulation of metastasis. In addition, because tumor samples used here were not microdissected, tumor gene expression data are represented together with the stroma, which may reveal signaling between the microenvironment and tumor cells. For instance, in non-recurrent tumors, extracellular region module was repressed, indicating that the stroma and tumor cells may have fewer interactions, which disable metastasis development. Finally, the genes highlighted in our analysis can be implicated in more than one pathway or characteristic, suggesting that therapeutic approaches to prevent tumor progression should target more than one gene or pathway

  19. Radiation biology of Caenorhabditis elegans. Germ cell response, aging and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radiation effect in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans has been carried out over three decades and now allow for understanding at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. This review describes the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation with a scope of the germ line, aging and behavior. In germ cells, ionizing radiation induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Lots of molecules involved in these responses and functions have been identified in C. elegans, which are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Radiosensitivity and the effect of heavy-ion microbeam irradiation on germ cells with relationship between initiation of meiotic recombination and DNA lesions are discussed. In addition to DNA damage, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, and the free radical theory is the most popular aging theory. A first signal transduction pathway of aging has been discovered in C. elegans, and radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress is recently noted for an inducible factor of hormetic response and genetic instability. The hormetic response in C. elegans exposed to oxidative stress is discussed with genetic pathways of aging. Moreover, C. elegans is well known as a model organism for behavior. The recent work reported the radiation effects via specific neurons on learning behavior, and radiation and hydrogen peroxide affect the locomotory rate similarly. These findings are discussed in relation to the evidence obtained with other organisms. Altogether, C. elegans may be a good 'in vivo' model system in the field of radiation biology. (author)

  20. Integrative analysis of T cell motility from multi-channel microscopy data using TIAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayya, Viveka; Neiswanger, Willie; Medina, Ricardo; Wiggins, Chris H; Dustin, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Integrative analytical approaches are needed to study and understand T cell motility as it is a highly coordinated and complex process. Several computational algorithms and tools are available to track motile cells in time-lapse microscopy images. In contrast, there has only been limited effort towards the development of tools that take advantage of multi-channel microscopy data and facilitate integrative analysis of cell-motility. We have implemented algorithms for detecting, tracking, and analyzing cell motility from multi-channel time-lapse microscopy data. We have integrated these into a MATLAB-based toolset we call TIAM (Tool for Integrative Analysis of Motility). The cells are detected by a hybrid approach involving edge detection and Hough transforms from transmitted light images. Cells are tracked using a modified nearest-neighbor association followed by an optimization routine to join shorter segments. Cell positions are used to perform local segmentation for extracting features from transmitted light, reflection and fluorescence channels and associating them with cells and cell-tracks to facilitate integrative analysis. We found that TIAM accurately captures the motility behavior of T cells and performed better than DYNAMIK, Icy, Imaris, and Volocity in detecting and tracking motile T cells. Extraction of cell-associated features from reflection and fluorescence channels was also accurate with less than 10% median error in measurements. Finally, we obtained novel insights into T cell motility that were critically dependent on the unique capabilities of TIAM. We found that 1) the CD45RO subset of human CD8 T cells moved faster and exhibited an increased propensity to attach to the substratum during CCL21-driven chemokinesis when compared to the CD45RA subset; and 2) attachment area and arrest coefficient during antigen-induced motility of the CD45A subset is correlated with surface density of integrin LFA1 at the contact. PMID:25445324