WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellosolves

  1. Thermodynamics of solvation in propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental values of limiting activity coefficients in propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve are reported. • Gibbs free energy versus enthalpy of solvation plots show the presence of the solvophobic effects in studied solutions. • The solvophobic effect in propylene glycol is as strong as in methanol. • The solvophobic effect in methyl cellosolve is rather weak and can be compared to that in butanol. - Abstract: Limiting activity coefficients of low-polar substances: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, and halobenzenes in two solvents, propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve, were measured at temperature T = 298.15 K using gas chromatographic headspace analysis technique. The Gibbs free energies of solvation were calculated from these data and analyzed together with the enthalpies of solvation for the same systems. It was shown that the Gibbs free energies of solvation in propylene glycol are significantly lower than in its homologue ethylene glycol, and in methyl cellosolve they are lower than in propylene glycol. This difference is mainly due to the solvophobic effect, which strength is decreasing in the same order: ethylene glycol > propylene glycol > methyl cellosolve. The contribution of the solvophobic effect into the Gibbs free energies of solvation can be determined using a Gibbs free energy versus enthalpy of solvation plot. This contribution is shown to grow up linearly with the molecular volume of a solute in propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve, as well as in ethylene glycol and in monohydric alcohols

  2. Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper and lower critical consolute points

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Y; Dondos, A.; Picot, C.; Benoit, H.

    1981-01-01

    To further probe the hypothesis of universality of critical phenomena, the shear viscosity has been measured for a two-component critical liquid system, butyl cellosolve-water, in the region of both the entropy-driven lower (LCST) and the enthalpy-driven upper (UCST) critical solution temperature. The values of the critical exponents ϕn for the shear viscosity were obtained by analysing the results from the viewpoint of multiplicative renormalization of transport coefficients. We have obtaine...

  3. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  4. Industrial capability to chem-mill aluminum alloy 2219 in T-37 and T-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, C., Jr.; Chen, K. C. S.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and chemical baths were developed for chem-milling aluminum alloy 2219. Using a series of sample etchings, it was found that good etching results could be obtained by using 'white plastic for porcelain repair (toluol, xylol, and petroleum distillates)' on top of cellosolve acetate as resist coatings and ferric chloride as on etchant.

  5. Structuring and sedimentation stability of titanium phosphate nanoparticles in polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryupina, O Ya; Serebryakova, N V; Roldughin, V I

    2003-07-01

    The influence of dispersed phase nature on the sedimentation stability as well as coagulation structure of titanium phosphate (TP) nanoparticles in polymer suspensions has been investigated. Two systems are considered: (i). TP suspension in toluene/ethyl cellosolve mixed solution of ephoxy resin E-40 and (ii). multicomponent system, ferric oxide, talc and TP suspension in toluene/ethyl cellosolve solution of E-40, as a model of the practical varnish-paint systems. For the case of a polar solvent, a unique phenomenon, extremal dependence of the strength of model systems on the concentration TP, is detected and increase of sedimentation stability of TP organic suspensions with time of contact of TP with a solvent is observed. Data of FTIR-spectroscopy show that phenomena detected result from the formation adsorption shell possessing high structural viscosity on TP nanopaticles. PMID:12818497

  6. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  7. Comparison of photoresist shelf life in PGMEA and CA solvent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William C.

    1994-05-01

    Use of safer photoresist solvents such as propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA, PMA) has been steadily increasing as a positive photoresist casting solvent. This work compares the aging characteristics and shelf life of photoresist prepared with PGMEA versus cellosolve acetate (CA, 2-ethoxyethyl acetate). By comparing samples stored at elevated temperatures with those at room temperature, aging rates are evaluated on photosensitivity, contrast, thickness and absorbance. Using first order reaction kinetic assumptions, these aging rates are compared to product specification limits to estimate shelf life.

  8. PZT ferroelectric films obtained from metal alcoholates by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of different methods of Pb(CH3COO)2 · 3H2O dehydration shows, that interaction of Pb(CH3COO)2 · 3H2O with acetic anhydride is the optimal method for use in sol-gel process. It enables to perform dehydration most effectively under soft conditions, to avoid pyrolytic decomposition of lead acetate and to improve the stability of film-forming solutions in time. Electrochemical dissolution of titanium and zirconium in methyl cellosolve during their anode polarization is considered to be rather promising method, enabling to simplify sufficiently the technique of film-forming solution preparation. 14 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Real-time measurement of sub-PPM concentrations of airborne chemicals in semiconductor manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, M; Cohen, R

    1993-01-01

    Real-time mass spectroscopy (ICAMS) can provide hourly or daily estimates of employee exposure. Field calibration of the unit indicated essentially linear response from 0.01 (Cellosolve Acetate) and 0.03 ppm (Diglyme) to 1 ppm in semiconductor cleanrooms. The instrument can be programmed for 4 minute readings on a single compound, or for rotation among several chemicals, each requiring 4 minute dwell times for analysis. In contrast to full shift personal sampling methods to measure exposure, ICAMS offers insights into the occurrence of peak exposures. In addition, in the occupational environment ICAMS results can be integrated to estimate full-shift within a zone exposures. Thus, the ICAMS extends measurement sensitivities below those currently available and offers a viable alternative to personal sampling in the semiconductor industry. PMID:9857292

  10. Effect of alcohols and selected solvents on serum osmolality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M E; Banner, W; Finley, P R; Burnham, L; Dye, J A

    1983-04-01

    The method by which serum osmolality is measured can significantly affect the result if certain volatiles or solvents are present in the specimen. Commonly available solvents and alcohols were added to aliquots of pooled human serum to produce toxicologically relevant concentrations. Increasing concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, mono-n-butyl ether (butyl cellosolve), 1, 1,1 trichloroethylene, toluene, and xylene did not change vapor pressure (VP) or freezing point depression (FPD) osmolality. Acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol in increasing concentrations produced a linear increase in FPD osmolality, but no change in VP osmolality. Only ethylene glycol produced a linear increase in VP and FPD osmolality across the range of concentrations studied. Despite the excellent correlation between osmolality and ethanol concentration in prepared serum samples, this relationship could not accurately predict patient ethanol concentrations from FPD osmolality. The osmolal gap, "delta" osmolality, (measured FPD minus calculated osmolality) did not correlate with the difference between measured FPD and VP osmolalities. Patient ethanol levels could not be predicted with accuracy using an equation based on the osmolal gap or "delta" osmolality. PMID:6887306

  11. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Victor; Garcia, Mario [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia De La Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. {yields} UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. {yields} For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. {yields} Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  12. Exposure to isophorone and other organic solvents in a screen printing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, B

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted in a screen printing plant to determine the exposure of workers to isophorone and other organic solvents. One hundred twenty-four charcoal tube samples were collected from both workers breathing zones and various workplace areas. Sampling times were 50-90 minutes. Maximum mean TWACs of isophorone and cyclohexanone were 23 +/- 5.4 ppm and 28 +/- 5 ppm, respectively, at the breathing zones of printing press workers. Exposure levels for other organic vapors such as cellosolve acetate, butyl acetate, xylenes, diacetone alchohol, and petroleum distillate are also presented. Mean TWACs of personal samples were generally higher than area samples due to proximity of the solvent evaporating surfaces to the workers breathing zones. Mean TWACs for the individual organic vapors did not exceed OSHA Limits. However, the sum of (TWAC/TLV) ratios of organic vapors with additive health effects exceeded unity at the breathing zones of workers handling inks and solvents. Actual 8-hour worker exposures were assumed to be lower because workers were exposed to lower concentrations (about 9/10 of the additive TLVs) in the plant's general atmosphere during non-active periods of the work shift. Recommendations for improvement of working conditions and reduction of exposure levels are made. PMID:7055084

  13. Diffusivity measurements in polymers: II. Residual casting solvent measurement by liquid scintillation counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Allen B.; Qin, Anwei; Henderson, Clifford L.; Pancholi, Sanju; Koros, William J.; Willson, C. Grant; Dammel, Ralph R.; Mack, Chris A.; Hinsberg, William D.

    1997-07-01

    Simulation of the microlithographic process plays an increasingly important role in the manufacturing of integrated circuitry. Unfortunately, most lithography simulations still lack fundamental relationships that link the resist chemistry and the final resist image. This study is directed towards generating the data necessary to quantify one of these relationships, the effect of residual casting solvent on the resist image. The amount of casting solvent was measured as a function of the post apply bake temperature and time for several casting solvents directly by using liquid scintillation counting. These measurements were carried out on four identical diazonaphthoquinone-novolac resist formulations cast with different radio-labeled casting solvents (ethyl cellosolve acetate, PGMEA, diglyme, and ethyl lactate). From these data we have estimated the diffusion coefficients for the solvents and the dependence of these coefficients on temperature. These data are then convolved with dissolution parameters and Dill parameters to isolate and establish the relationships between these parameters and the post apply bake process that controls the amount of residual casting solvent.

  14. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. → UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. → For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. → Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  15. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  16. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.